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  • 1.
    Abbas, Jaser
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Varför höll man auktion? En undersökning av auktioner i Södermanlands län år 1860 - 18972012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 2.
    Abdul Kader, Hale
    et al.
    Centre for Risk and Insurance Studies, University of Nottingham, Nottingham,.
    Adams, Michael
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The determinants of reinsurance in the Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar years, 1919–392010In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 268-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing a framework from agency theory, we use a panel data design to examine the factors motivating the level of demand for reinsurance in the rapidly developing Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar period 1919–39. We find that as hypothesised, reinsurance enabled Swedish fire insurers to mitigate underwriting and solvency risks and thus increased their capacity to underwrite new business in uncertain economic times. This in turn helped to increase the supply of indemnity coverage for property (buildings) fire risks in the Swedish insurance market. We also find that as expected, investment earnings are inversely related to reinsurance purchases. However, contrary to what was hypothesised, reinsurance appears to be positively related to liquidity levels, suggesting that over our period of analysis, fire insurers could have been reinsuring to ‘protect’ earnings and accumulated cash reserves therefore enabling investment opportunities to be realised. Analysis of the sub-period 1919–28 further supports this contention, while our results for the economic depression years after 1929 show that reinsurance helped mitigate underwriting and insolvency risks, suggesting that the reinsurance decision of fire insurance companies could be motivated by macroeconomic factors.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Filippa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Montrealprotokollets framgång: Industriella intressen och kapitalets strukturella makt2023Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Ludvig
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Försäljning av statliga bolag. En jämförande studie av inställning till statligt ägande under två perioder.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats undersöks hur inställningen till statligt ägande förändrats från början av 1990-talet till mitten av 2000-talet. Genom att undersöka den borgerliga regeringens proposition om minskat statligt ägande från 1991/92 med den borgerliga regeringens proposition om minskat statligt ägande från 2006/07 skapas en förståelse om hur de båda förslagen liknar varandra och hur de skiljer sig åt. Till de båda propositionerna lägger oppositionspartierna fram sina åsikter i motioner. Motionerna undersöks och bidrar till att skapa en bredare förståelse för den ekonomiska och politiska förändring som analyseras.

    För att sätta undersökningen i en historisk kontext presenteras en historisk bakgrund. I den historiska bakgrunden diskuteras Sveriges ekonomiska och politiska förändring under 1980-talet fram till alliansregeringens tillträde 2006. Fokus ligger här på de nya ekonomiska idéer som växer fram och hur dessa idéer påverkar det politiska klimatet.

    Genomgånge av de två olika förslagen som undersökningen bygger på visar att det finns likheter men också vissa skillnader mellan de båda förslagen. Regeringen 1991/92 vill sälja av statliga företag för att skapa en mer dynamisk och effektiv marknad. Regeringen 2006/07 vill sälja av statliga företag för att skapa en mer dynamisk och effektiv marknad för att på så sätt skapa fler jobb och bryta utanförskapet.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att det finns skillnader i hur de två undersökta regeringarna förhåller sig till statligt ägande. De har olika mål med att sälja ut statliga bolag, den övergripande visionen är annorlunda. Anledningen till detta kan bero på flera olika faktorer. Beroende på hur resultatet tolkas i relation till den historiska kontexten kan flera olika förklaringar konstateras.

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  • 5.
    Abrha, Seble
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Kvinnor och idrott i idrottsföreningen Thor.2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Istanbul Kemerburgaz University.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Convergence of CO2 emissions and economic growth in the OECD countries: did the type of fuel matter?2017In: Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, ISSN 1556-7249, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 618-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes convergence in CO2 emissions in the OECD countries with respect to the source of emissions (oil versus coal). The investigated period 1973-2010 is divided into two sub-periods, 1973-1991 and 1992-2010. The first period covers the OPEC oil price shocks, where the OECD oil policy was to a high extent governed by energy security concerns and cold war strategic considerations. The second period corresponds to the end of the cold war and the rise of climate policy in several OECD countries. Due to such contextual differences, oil and coal behave differently in the two sub-periods. The generally stronger convergence with respect to oil-related emissions until 1991 conditional on GDP per capita is compatible with a situation where the rising oil prices led to a strong transformation in the countries of interest. Besides, we evidence decoupling of economic growth from oil-related emissions in the post-cold war period.

  • 7.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Department of Economics, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Periods of converging carbon dioxide emissions from oil combustion: Evidence from a global sample and OECD countries2015In: International Journal of Disability, Community & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1054-853X, E-ISSN 2405-5352, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 685-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by oil combustion for a panel of 86 countries considering the importance of analyzing sub-periods separately. The investigation also points at the necessity of choosing a restricted global sample, which takes into account, for instance, that Eastern Bloc countries reacted differently to increasing world crude oil prices than the rest of the world. The analysis builds on examining the β-convergence hypothesis in a neoclassical growth model setting with additional control variables such as emissions from combustion of solid fuels. The results reveal evidence in support of unconditional β-convergence of CO2 emissions intensity due to oil combustion in the restricted sample for the sub-periods 1973–1979 and 1979–1991, while no evidence for convergence was found for the post-1991, pre-Kyoto period. We could not find support for coal substituting for oil, which suggests that the two types of fuels were related to different basic technologies.

  • 8. Adams, M.
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Veprauskaite, E.
    Competing models of organizational form: Risk management strategies and underwriting profitability in the Swedish fire insurance market between 1903 and 19392012In: Journal of Economic History, ISSN 0022-0507, E-ISSN 1471-6372, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 990-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual and stock insurers have coexisted and competed against each other in insurance markets for centuries. In this article, we examine the risk management strategies and underwriting profitability of the different organizational forms in Sweden's property fire insurance market between 1903 and 1939. We demonstrate that stock insurers acted as intermediaries between policyholders and reinsurers to operate effectively in the potentially high-risk segments of the fire insurance market. In contrast, nationwide mutual insurers kept larger reserves to balance fluctuations in claims experiences, while local insurance pools relied on social obligation and trust to mobilize capital after adverse fire events.

  • 9.
    Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Norway.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Commercial banking, insurance and economic growth in Sweden between 1830 and 19982009In: Accounting Business and Financial History, ISSN 0958-5206, E-ISSN 1466-4275, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 21-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine empirically the dynamic historical relation between commercial bank lending, insurance and economic (income) growth in Sweden using time-series data from 1830 to 1998 and performing tests for Granger causality. Because of the non-stationary nature of the time series examined the procedure of Toda andYamamoto (1995) is used. Our results, which have accounted for possible regime changes due to different exchange rate mechanisms over time, indicate that insurance has Granger-caused economic growth and bank lending. Therefore, we conclude that insurance is an important prerequisite for stimulating economic growth and that this could have important implications for contemporary developing economies.

  • 10. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Veprauskaite, Elena
    Managing policy lapse risk in Sweden's life insurance market between 1915 and 19472020In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 222-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the challenges that Swedish life insurers faced in managing the lapse risk of policies written on the lives of the industrial urban working class between 1915 and 1947. We observe that with the threat of State socialisation of insurance in the 1930s, industrial life insurers modified their business practices to better control policy lapses. Using firm-level data, we also analyse the effect of socio-economic changes, such as rising real wages, interest rate fluctuations and unemployment on life insurance policy lapses. Our results support contemporary tests of the emergency fund and interest rate explanations for the voluntary premature termination of life insurance policies.

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  • 11. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Yihui Jia, Joy
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Mutuality as a control for information asymmetry: a historical analysis of the claims experience of mutual and stock fire insur ance companies in Sweden, 1889 to 19392011In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 1074-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We test two competing arguments regarding the influence of organisational form onunderwritingperformance usingdatafromtheSwedish fireinsuranceindustry for the years 1889 to 1939 – a period of both economic growth and stagnation. Since mutuality is a response to information asymmetry problems, mutual insurers are expected to report lower annual claims relative to premiums than stock insurance companies. However, an alternative view is that stock insurers seek to reduce information asymmetry problems by issuing non-participatory rights insurance contracts with high deductibles that induce risk-sharing between the insurer’s shareholders and policyholders. This implies that stock insurers are likely to report lower annual claims than mutual insurers. Our results show that organisational form is an important determinant of the claims experience of Swedish fire insurers, suggesting that mutuality acts as an effective control for information asymmetries in the market.

  • 12. Adamson, Rolf
    Kamerala källor rörande sysselsättning och bosättning1983In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, E-ISSN 2002-3812, no 5, p. 54-62Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 13. Adamson, Rolf
    Tankar kring svensk industrihistorisk forskning under 1900-talet1998In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, E-ISSN 2002-3812, no 36, p. 9-20Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 14.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Scocco, Sandra
    Regional labour market effects of immigration on low-skilled workers: the case of Sweden 1990–20032021In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 456-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of immigration on the labour market outcomes of low-educated natives (i.e. residents without a university diploma). Using the labour market competition theory, which argues that the labour market effects of natives depend on the skill set of immigrants, the paper addresses whether immigrants are complementary to or substitutes for native workers.

    Design/methodology/approach: Longitudinal matched employer–employee data on Sweden are used to estimate how low-educated natives, in regions experiencing the greatest influx of refugees from the Balkan wars, responded to this supply shock with regard to real wages, employment and job mobility between 1990 and 2003.

    Findings: First, the analysis shows that low-educated native workers respond to the arrival of immigrants with an increase in real wages. Second, although employment prospects in general worsened for low-skilled workers in most regions, this is not attributable to the regions experiencing the largest supply shock. Third, there are indications that low-skilled natives in immigration-rich regions are more likely to change workplace, particularly in combination with moving upwards in the wage distribution.

    Originality/value: Rather than seeing an emergence of the commonly perceived displacement mechanism when an economy is subject to a supply shock, the regional findings suggest that high inflows of immigrants tend to induce a mechanism that pulls native workers upwards in the wage distribution. This is important, as the proportion of immigrants is seldom evenly distributed within a nation.

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  • 15.
    Adlercreutz, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Rum och möblering på en mindre svensk herrgård under första delen av 1800-talet: en fallstudie över Stjärnhovs säteri, Södermanland 1820-1864.2002Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Adler-Karlsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Western economic warfare 1947-1967: a case study in foreign economic policy1968Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Agerkvist, Louise
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Arbetslagstiftningen under senare hälften av 1800-talet. Tre reformer: 1881 års barnarbetsförordning, 1889 års skyddslag och 1901 års arbetarförsäkring1996Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 18.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    A Science of Unique Events2009In: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, W.W. Norton & Company, New York , 2009, p. 155-179Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Ahlander, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ekonomi och politik under strukturell omvandling: Godstrafiken och de fackliga organisationerna 1922–19722021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis studies the Swedish government policy of freight transports during a period ofstructural change since the 1920s. The focus is on the 1963 Transport Act, which introduced amore market-oriented approach. The views of the trade unions during this process areanalysed in more detail. Frequent financial problems of the railways were the main driverbehind different policy decisions in the Swedish Parliament, such as the nationalisation in1939, tightened quantity control of road freight transports, as well as the liberalisation in 1963and its abrupt cancellation 5 years later. No policy change was implemented without thesupport of Statens Järnvägar, the state-owned railway. Unions were sceptical to theliberalisation programme and preferred varying degrees of regulation and planning, althoughstated in general terms. They also agreed on the need for quantity control for most of theperiod, but for different reasons. After supporting Transport workers resistance toliberalisation of quantity control in the late 1940s, LO, the peak organisation, became morepositive in the 1960s, which created a split between the unions. As the problems for therailways deepened later, LO joined the Railway workers in support for rigorous transportplanning, which was fiercely resisted by the Transport Workers, which further increased therift.  

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  • 20.
    Ahlander, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Samspelet mellan korta kriser och långa cykler: En analys av svensk BNP 1800–20192020Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 21. Ahlbäck, Anders
    et al.
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Introduction2014In: Gender, war and peace: breaking up the borderlines / [ed] Anders Ahlbäck & Fia Sundevall, Joensuu: University Press of Eastern Finland , 2014, p. 6-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ahlbäck, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Värnplikt, rösträtt och kön: värnpliktsstrecket i debatt och praktik2021In: Allmän rösträtt?: Rösträttens begränsningar i Sverige efter 1921 / [ed] Annika Berg, Martin Ericsson, Stockholm: Makadam Förlag, 2021, p. 41-63Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 23.
    Ahlbäck, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Värnpliktsstrecket - en självklarhet som vändes till sin motsats?2019In: Arbetarhistoria : Meddelande från Arbetarrörelsens Arkiv och Bibliotek, ISSN 0281-7446, no 170-171, p. 30-35Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Completed military service as a condition for suffrage – a matter of course that was reversed?

    As a condition for male suffrage in Sweden between 1909 and 1922 citizens were required to have completed military service. This article investigates how this restriction on voting rights, introduced more orless unanimously, was abolished equally unanimously and with little debate only 13 years later. Two main reasons are pointed out. Firstly, since women were given suffrage in 1921, this restriction affected men only and was therefore suddenly perceived to be an unjust discrimination against the latter. Secondly, this restriction was closely linked to the particular political situation in Sweden around the turn of the twentieth century. For decades the twin issues of military and suffrage reform had been interlinked and thus blocked each other until they were resolved in 1901 and 1909 respectively. Once they had been resolved, the political connection between them rapidly became redundant, as did the symbolic and practical expression of this connection, namely completed military service as a condition for suffrage.

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  • 24.
    Ahlbäck, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Hjertquist, Johanna
    A Nordic model of gender and military work? Labour demand, gender equality and women’s integration in the armed forces of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden2024In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 49-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article traces the political process towards full formal integration of women in the military professions in Scandinavia and Finland, investigating the shifting roles played by military labour demands and politics of gender equality. It provides the first comparative overview of these developments in the Nordic region. The analysis demonstrates the importance of historical continuity in women’s military participation. Due to military labour demands, women were throughout the post-war decades recruited into a range of auxiliary, voluntary and hybrid capacities in the Scandinavian armed forces. The reforms opening the military professions to women in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in the 1970s were the outcome of a double crisis, as military needs for the regulation of these women’s organisational status coincided with new political demands for gender equality in the labour market. Corresponding reforms in Finland were delayed by the country’s lack of continuity in women’s military participation as well as its sufficient supply of male military personnel. A common Nordic model of gender and military work nonetheless emerged in the 1990s, marked by equal rights to military participation for women on a voluntary basis, combined with mandatory military conscription for men.

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  • 25.
    Ahlenius, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Finansiering av medicinsk forskning genom stiftelsen Therese och Johan Anderssons minne, 1931-19642016Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the first half of the 20th century, the researchers in the medical sciences in Sweden were dependent on funding from private foundations. Earlier research has shown that the foundation Stiftelsen Therese och Johan Anderssons Minne was a financier of great importance especially for the 1920s until the 1950s. This paper is written with the purpose of examining how the financing has changed over time, by analyzing the foundations yearly accounts from 1931 until 1963. I will show that physiologists and chemists took a dominant position in the fight for funds. In conclusion, it seems that the fact that the colleague of teachers at Karolinska had the power to decide who to fund were an important factor for the foundations activity. The characteristics of the medical research exercised by the researchers applying for funds were not the sole factor which affected the outcome.

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  • 26.
    Ahlgren, Levina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ideal i annonser: Kvinnlighet i två veckotidningar mellan 1950-19702019Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökningen handlar om kvinnlighet. Kvinnligheten som ideal undersöks i denna studie med annonser som material. De undersökta annonserna kom från veckotidningarna Hemmets Journal och Husmodern var tidningar som riktade sig till kvinnor. De undersökta åren är mellan 1950-1970 med nedslag på åren 1950, 1960 och 1970. Två nummer från respektive år undersöktes.De kvinnliga idealen som framställdes i annonserna avtog under undersökningen i antal men även i andelar, främst mellan åren 1960-1970. Metoden som användes var dels kvantitativ men också kvalitativ. Den kvalitativa metoden, semiotisk bildanalys, inbegrepp indexikala tecken. Indexikala tecken är ting i en bild som talar för något utanför bilden. I detta fall användes detta för att tolka kvinnliga ideal. I annonserna avtog dessa över tid. Samtidigt kunde även populärpressens utveckling ses på så sätt att konkurrensen från andra media blev synligt i antalet annonser.

  • 27.
    Ahllström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Hurra, hurra vad det är roligt i Moskva: Dagens Nyheter och näringslivet inför ”Ryssavtalen”2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 28.
    Ahlsén, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Herrgårdspigor på vallonbruk år 1851-1880. En studie över de pigor som blev städslade på Lövstabruks och Österbybruks herrgårdar år 1851-1880.2011Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 29.
    Ahlsén, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Herrgårdspigor på vallonbruk år 1851-1880: En studie över de pigor som blev städslade på Lövstabruks och Österbybruks herrgårdar år 1851-18802011Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 30.
    Ahlén, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    P & U: aktiemarknadens reaktion på fusionen mellan Pharmacia och Upjohn.1997Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Ahmed Farah, Yasin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Ezzaher, Sami
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The impact of international trade on economic growth in Sub-Saharan African countries: An empirical study examination of the correlation between economic growth and international trade2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research study is to examine the relationship between international trade and economic growth and the effect that international trade has on economic growth in sub-Saharan African countries (Sub-Saharan Africa). The majority of previous studies and research in this area claim that there is a positive correlation between these two variables, yet there are still some who question how much these two variables actually have influenced each other and if that effect is really significant enough to be considered significant as well as important. The information and data used in this study are taken from the World Bank Group, Human Development Reports and Fraser Institute. The study's theoretical framework uses growth theories, which consisted of the Solow model and endogenous growth theory, and trade theories, which consisted of the Ricardian model, the Heckscher-Ohlin model, and institutional theory to better explain the concept of economic growth and how international trade can affect the process of achieving economic growth. Within this research, a panel dataset study was carried out with the support of a regression analysis in order to measure the correlation between international trade and economic growth. The dependent variable for this research study was economic growth in the form of annual GDP per capita growth, while the independent variables included international trade, education, capital, population growth, labor force, corruption and economic freedom. Additionally, the study includes thirty-six out of a total of forty-eight possible countries in sub-Saharan Africa and is limited to a ten-year period between 2009-2019. The final result of this study's research shows that there is a significant positive correlation between economic growth and international trade and concludes that international trade actually has a very important effect/impact and is essential to achieving economic growth.

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  • 32.
    Ahmed, Ishtiaq
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Looking backwards into the future: A Critique of Islamic Modernism2002In: Journal of Futures Studies, ISSN 1027-6084, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 75-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Financialization in Swedish Capitalism: Debt, inequality and crisis in Sweden, 1900-20132017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation adresses financialization – the increasing role of financial activities in the overall economy – in Sweden in 1900-2013. The focus is on the long run relationships between private debt, asset markets, inequality and financial crisis during this period. In line with established scholarship, the present study finds that changes in bank debt had a positive impact on the probability of financial crisis in Sweden. Functional income distribution between profits and wages was an underlying factor influencing the formation of bank debt levels through its impact on collateral in stock markets. Expenses related to the Swedish welfare state – the size of the public sector, government investment and housing construction – had a long run relationship with the wage share. The welfare state has been an effective counter-measure not just against a high profit share, but also against financialization. Moreover, the dissertation shows that the recent era of financialization in Swedish capitalism is not unique in kind. Rather, recent financialization is very similar to the macroeconomic situation during the early decades of the 20th Century. These findings are consistent with much of heterodox economic theory, in particular the Neo-Marxist approach. 

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  • 34.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Inequality and bank debt in Sweden in 1919–20122018In: European Review of Economic History, ISSN 1361-4916, E-ISSN 1474-0044, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 161-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates a long-run relationship between inequality and the bank debt to GDP ratio in Sweden in 1919–2012. The findings suggest that much of the impact of the top income share on the debt ratio comes from changes in the profit share. Earlier research claims that the rich, via the banks, have lent their savings to the poor as a substitute for wage gains, but this description seems ill-suited for Sweden. An alternative explanation is that banks consider profits to be an indicator of the safety of a loan. This is more in line with the study’s findings.

  • 35.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Inequality, asset markets and bank debt in Sweden, 1900-2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation concerns the nexus between inequality, asset markets, and private debt, in the case of Sweden in 1900-2013. The evidence of the study suggests that financial wealth in stocks relative to GDP is an intermediary variable between the profit share and bank debt to GDP ratio. Though the study finds that there is a positive long run relationship between the profit share and the bank debt ratio in the case at hand, the inclusion of the stock market wealth ratio changes the sign of the profit share coefficient. Even so, there is also a positive long run relationship between the profit share and stock market wealth relative to GDP. This means that changes in the profit share may still have a positive impact on credit formation, though indirectly via the stock market. The study finds some evidence that collateral in the form of housing wealth is another determinant of the debt level.

  • 36.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Monthly credit from and deposits in Swedish commercial banks, 1875-20202023In: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 29-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the global financial crisis in 2008, there has been an elevated interest in private debt and as a macroeconomic variable. In light of the lack of high-frequency data, this study presents a unique monthly time series dataset on credit from and deposits in Swedish commercial banks from 1875 to 2020, covering 1,752 monthly observations and most of Swedish commercial banking history. In a first application, the study examines to what extent money in Sweden has been exogenous, created independently of demand by the central bank, or endogenous, created in response to demand by commercial banks, during different institutional settings. The results, derived via cointegration and impulse-response functions, show that though the relationship between deposits and credit has changed over time, both theories often hold validity simultaneously. While changes in deposits often have had significant impact on credit, the opposite has also been true. There are, however, differences between different regulatory regimes, as well as for different groups of banks.

  • 37.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Private debt in Sweden in 1900–2013 and the risk of financial crisis2015In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 302-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents new time series data for private debt in Sweden in 1900–2013, including credit from banks, mortgage institutes and credit companies. The reconstruction of the data is a scientific task by itself, and is complicated by changed definitions, breaks in the series, and the need for occasional interpolation and cross-reference of sources. The obtained data reveal both qualitative and quantitative changes in the structure of private debt in Sweden during the period. One finding is a pattern where the era starting with the deregulation of the credit market in 1985 resembles the era preceding World War Two. Both periods experienced a high level of private debt-to-GDP ratio as well as severe financial crises. In a first application of the data, the hypothesis of rising private debt in the years before a financial crisis is explored through logit regression. The findings are in line with international research, and suggest that higher lending, especially from banks, might aggravate the risk of financial crisis.

  • 38.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Survey article on Nordic financialisation in the long run2023In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 247-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Financialisation has become a new buzz word in social sciences, but, although some of the earliest usages of the concept can be found with economic historians, the recent fad has largely been ignored by economic history. This is true also for the Nordic region. This survey article highlights a handful of studies on financialisation in the Nordic countries in general and within Nordic economic history, in particular, but more importantly, it relates Nordic economic history with a long wave approach to a corresponding stance in financialisation scholarship. It concludes that Nordic economic history is in an advantageous position to both shed light on contemporary financialisation with the help of historical examples. Moreover, it is also able to, through the lens of history, problematise some of the assumptions made within financialisation theory. In this, the Nordic region can provide apt case studies as varieties of financialisation over time and space. All in all, Nordic economic history has barely scratched the surface of this potential. 

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  • 39.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Sveriges Riksbank, Sweden.
    Swedish Banks and Credit Institutions since 18702022In: Banking, bonds, national wealth, and Stockholm house prices, 1420-2020 / [ed] Rodney Edvinsson; Tor Jacobson; Daniel Waldenström, Stockholm: Ekelids , 2022, p. 100-196Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    The wage share and government job creation in Sweden, 1900–20162020In: Labor history, ISSN 0023-656X, E-ISSN 1469-9702, Vol. 61, no 3-4, p. 228-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation explores the long-run relationship between the wage share in the non-construction private sector and government efforts to create jobs in public services and construction of infrastructure and houses, in Sweden in 1900 to 2016. In the present article, it is argued that the creation of employment with generous wages by the Swedish government has increased the bargaining power of workers outside of these sectors, thus raising the wage share, up to about 1980. Correspondingly, retrenchment from such policy has been detrimental for the wage share in recent decades. This argument is supported by the results of cointegration tests, estimation of long-run and short-run, speed of adjustment, coefficients, as well as by Impulse-response functions. While government consumption is often found to be an important determinant for the wage share, earlier research has neglected the full labor market effect of government job creation associated with an expansion of the welfare state. Sweden is an ideal case for studying the impact of welfare policy on the wage share, since it has been one of the most extensive welfare states and simultaneously has been one of the most egalitarian countries in the world.

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  • 41.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The wage share and the welfare state in Sweden, 1900-2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the long run relationship between the wage share in the private sector and the extent of the Swedish welfare state in 1900-2013. It uses a novel approach where government intervention in the economy is broken down into three different aspects: Government consumption, government investment and residential construction. The construction of dwellings may seem questionable at first glance, since it to a large degree has been carried out by private interests. The fact that housing policy has been an important part of welfare policy through several channels motivates inclusion of the variable however. Government investment, mainly in infrastructure, and house construction as factors influencing the functional income distribution has been neglected in previous research. Through the use of single-equation cointegration technique, the study finds a positive and robust long run relationship between the private wage share and all three welfare variables.

  • 42.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Tides of financialization: Long-run changes in private debt levels, investment and the profit share in advanced capitalism2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Financialization is generally described as a trend occurring in the World economy since the late 1970s/early 1980s, but several scholars note that financialization is a historically recurrent phenomenon. Phases of financialization can be described as tides influenced by laissez-faire policy and collective intervention, most often via governments. By looking at three variables central to financialization – private debt levels, inequality and investment – this study finds that the finance-dominated capitalism in advanced economies between the Long depression, ending in the 1890s, and the Great depression in the early 1930s was similar to the current era of financialization: Rising inequality bred a higher debt-to-GDP ratio during both periods of financialization, mostly via larger collaterals and larger loanable funds. But whereas recent financialization, indicated by a rising debt-to-GDP ratio, has been associated with a declining investment-to-GDP ratio, financialization in the early 20th Century was positively associated with investment, manifest in the Second industrial revolution. During the “de-financialized” period after World War Two, inequality was neither associated with investment nor with private debt levels. Rather, macroeconomic policy reorientation and government management of financial markets led to a positive association between investment and private credit. The present study considers advanced capitalism as a totality rather than each country individually, since global capital flows play a crucial role during eras of financialization. A special focus is on institutional changes in the leading capitalist countries – The United States, Great Britain, Germany, France and Japan. The study also considers the special status of China in the World capitalist system. The coverage of advanced capitalist country GDP is about 75 per cent for the first era of financialization in 1896–1931, close to 90 per cent for the de-financialized era in 1946–1973, and almost 100 per cent for the recent period of financialization in 1983–2016. The dating of the three periods is based on available data and on established periodization by scholars in the fields of financialization, regulation theory and macroeconomic policy regimes. The conclusions are supported by cointegration tests, vector error correction models and impulse-response functions.

  • 43.
    Ahnland, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ögren, Anders
    Finansiella marknader och pengar: om resursallokering, kriser och betalningsmedel2020In: Vad är ekonomisk historia? / [ed] Lena Andersson-Skog, Oskar Broberg, Rodney Edvinson, Kerstin Enflo, Kristina Lilja, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, p. 307-331Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Ainegren, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Stråkinstrumentmakare. En presentation av en hantverksgrupps ekonomiska villkor i Stockholm 1756-1816.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 45.
    Aissi, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Threat formation processes and cooperation in a changing artic.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how the outside world´s growing interest in the Arctic, which has emerged due to the opportunities implied by the Arctic‟s retreating sea ice, is affecting theArctic Ocean littoral states‟ relations with each other. It does so by utilizing the Copenhagen Schools‟ theory of securitization in a case study of Canadian and RussianArctic discourse between the years 2007 and 2012. The main findings are that bothRussia and Canada have securitized the Arctic and designated non-Arctic actors as anexistential threat. Through that process their willingness to cooperate with each other hasincreased.

  • 46.
    Akhan, Fatma
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Poverty in the World 1978-2003.2003Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47.
    Al Fakir, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    ‘Rise up and walk!’ The Church of Sweden and the ‘problem of vagrancy’ in the early twentieth century2022In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, ISSN 0346-8755, Vol. 47, p. 156-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article examines how people within the Church of Sweden’s leadership tried to solve ‘the problem of vagrancy’ in Sweden in the early twentieth century. In focus are the priest John Melander and the deacon Josef Flinth, who advocated and realized various activities for categories of poor and mobile men in the population. These interventions, defined as help-to-self-help, differentiated between the ‘worthy’ and the ‘unworthy’ needy. In publications and lectures, Melander and Flinth presented arguments to transfer ‘unworthy’ categories to the ‘worthy’, thereby expanding the community of value. This expansion was conditioned, however, by boundaries drawn regarding ideas on belonging and ethnicity. Working in the borderlands of the community as part of a Christian calling, Melander and Flinth contributed to the expansion of social work in the early twentieth century.

  • 48.
    Al Fakir, Ida
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    ‘Rise up and walk!’ The Church of Sweden and the ‘problem of vagrancy’ in the early twentieth century2022In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 47, p. 156-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article examines how people within the Church of Sweden’s leadership tried to solve ‘the problem of vagrancy’ in Sweden in the early twentieth century. In focus are the priest John Melander and the deacon Josef Flinth, who advocated and realized various activities for categories of poor and mobile men in the population. These interventions, defined as help-to-self-help, differentiated between the ‘worthy’ and the ‘unworthy’ needy. In publications and lectures, Melander and Flinth presented arguments to transfer ‘unworthy’ categories to the ‘worthy’, thereby expanding the community of value. This expansion was conditioned, however, by boundaries drawn regarding ideas on belonging and ethnicity. Working in the borderlands of the community as part of a Christian calling, Melander and Flinth contributed to the expansion of social work in the early twentieth century.

  • 49.
    Alacevska, Zorica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Pausgympa på arbetstid: För Vårdadministratörer/medicinska sekreterare2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 50.
    Alami, Ilias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Copley, Jack
    Moraitis, Alexis
    The ‘wicked trinity’ of late capitalism: Governing in an era of stagnation, surplus humanity, and environmental breakdown2024In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 153, article id 103691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars within the fields of political ecology, environmental political theory, and international political economy tend to evaluate the prospects of state-led environmental transitions in general terms – enquiring as to the capitalist state’s inherent properties and their environmental implications. Less attention has been paid to how the state’s green capacities are conditioned by contemporary evolutions in the form and pace of capital accumulation. Capitalism’s directional pattern of historical development poses unique challenges for green state projects. Its drive to raise labour productivity metabolises nature on a growing scale, while generating conditions of overproduction and rendering a progressively larger portion of the population superfluous to the production process. Thus, the question is not simply whether the state can rise to the challenge of climate change, but rather how states are scrambling to govern the intersecting crises of climate catastrophe, economic stagnation, and surplus humanity. This ‘wicked trinity’ compounds the tensions at the heart of the capitalist state, resulting in an increasing inability to perform its role while sustaining its liberal form. This governance trilemma is illustrated by the case of the solar photovoltaic boom, where the spectacular increase in the productivity and scale of solar panel manufacturing have generated oversupply and falling profitability. States have reacted by indefinitely providing subsidies, financing automation technologies that exacerbate labour superfluity, and relocating solar panel manufacturing to places with authoritarian labour regimes. The case of photovoltaics is a microcosm of the general predicament faced by states as they struggle to govern capitalism’s secular developmental tendencies.

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