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  • 1. Abbasi, Umar Aftab
    et al.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nissanka, Sarath Premalal
    Ali, Arshad
    Species α-diversity promotes but β-diversity restricts aboveground biomass in tropical forests, depending on stand structure and environmental factors2022In: Journal of Forestry Research, ISSN 1007-662X, E-ISSN 1993-0607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest plays a vital role in the global biogeochemical cycles through a high rate of carbon sequestration and harboring biodiversity. However, local species diversity is declining while also becoming increasingly homogenized across communities. Although effects of local biotic processes (e.g., species α-diversity and stand structural heterogeneity) and environmental factors on aboveground biomass (AGB) have been widely tested, there is a huge knowledge gap for the effect of regional biotic processes (i.e., taxonomic and functional β-diversity) in forests. Here, we hypothesized that regional and local environmental factors along with biotic processes jointly regulate AGB through species shifts in tropical forests.

    Using piecewise structural equation modeling (pSEM), we linked climatic water availability, soil fertility, stand structural heterogeneity (either tree DBH inequality, height inequality, or stand density), species α-diversity, taxonomic or functional β-diversity (and its two components; β-turnover and β-richness), and AGB across 189 inventory plots in tropical forests of Sri Lanka. Soil fertility and climatic water availability shaped local and regional biotic processes. Stand structural heterogeneity promoted species α-diversity but declined β-diversity (but increased β-taxonomic turnover). Species α-diversity and stand structural heterogeneity promoted AGB whereas taxonomic and functional β-diversity declined (but β-taxonomic turnover increased) AGB.

    The relationships of AGB with species α-diversity and β-diversity varied from significant to nonsignificant positive depending on the specific combinations of stand structural heterogeneity metrics used. This study shows that local biotic processes could increase AGB due to the local and regional niche complementarity effect whereas the regional biotic processes could restrict AGB due to the regional selection or functional redundancy effect under favorable environmental conditions. We argue that biotic homogenization, as well as drought conditions, may have strong divergent impacts on forest functions and that the impacts of tree diversity loss may greatly reduce carbon sequestration.

  • 2.
    Ablieieva, Iryna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center. Sumy State University, Ukraine.
    Chernysh, Yelizaveta
    Sumy State University, Ukraine; Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Chubur, Viktoriia
    Sumy State University, Ukraine; Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Skvortsova, Polina
    Sumy State University, Ukraine.
    Roubik, Hynek
    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Biopotential of Agricultural Waste: Production of Biofertilizers and Biofuels2022In: 22nd International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference: Energy and Clean Technologies, SGEM 2022, Vienna, 6 December 2022 - 8 December 2022 / [ed] Trofymchuk O., Rivza B., Vienna, 2022, Vol. 22, 4.2, p. 39-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is focused on performing a SWOT analysis of agricultural waste management methods. This approach can be applied in the biogas technology strategic planning process in Ukraine, which can solve the issue of implementation of environmental guidelines for the development of biofuels and biofertilizers. The main factors that determine how digestate is used are its quality, local conditions, regulations, and documents. Fertilizing fields with digestate provides many advantages, for example: reduced demand for plant protection products, reduction of unpleasant odor, and destruction of possible pathogens. The strengths and weaknesses of the implementation of biogas plants in Ukraine have been identified, and opportunities and threats have been considered. In general, the introduction of biogas technology is a very promising solution for the agricultural sector. Taking into account that a biogas plant is considered a potentially hazardous object for workers, it is necessary to constantly monitor the parameters of reactor operation in order to ensure the technological and environmental safety of the engineering facilities. For Ukraine, there is a shortage of specialists to set up an effective operation of biogas equipment and bring it to the industrial scale. It is necessary to consult with medium and small farms interested in the feasibility study and implementation of biogas technologies. 

  • 3.
    Abolhosseini, Shahrouz
    et al.
    College of Engineering, TEMEP, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The main support mechanisms to finance renewable energy development2014In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 40, p. 876-885Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering that the major part of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide, there is a global concern aimed at reducing carbon emissions. In addition, major consumer countries are looking for alternative sources of energy to avoid the impact of higher fossil fuel prices and political instability in the major energy supplying countries. In this regard, different policies could be applied to reduce carbon emissions, such as enhancing renewable energy deployment and encouraging technological innovation and the creation of green jobs. This study compares three main support mechanisms employed by governments to finance renewable energy development programs: feed-in-tariffs, tax incentives, and tradable green certificates. Considering that many of the promising technologies to deploy renewable energy require investment in small-scale energy production systems, these mechanisms could be used to enhance renewable energy development at the desired scale. Employing a carbon emission tax or emission trading mechanism could be considered ideal policies to mitigate emissions at the lowest cost. The comparison of feed-in-tariffs and renewable portfolio standard policies showed that the former is good when a policy to develop renewable energy sources with a low level of risk for investors is considered. However, the latter is an appropriate policy when a market view policy is applied by the government. Finally, considering technological progress and the cost reduction for power generation by renewable energy sources, we suggest that support mechanism policies should be reconsidered from the financial point of view. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, Isaac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impacts of pesticides on human health and environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya2014In: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences, ISSN 2348-0521, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 1-14Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the River Nyando catchment largely relies on rain fed agriculture for their subsistence.

    Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background information was collected through questionnaire and interviews of farmers to determine knowledge and safe use of pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were identified as commonly used of which four are toxic to bees and five to birds. The farmers identified declines in the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorthynchus) and wild bird’s fatalities. The general knowledge among farmers about chemicals risks, safety, and chronic illnesses was low. Activities that increases environmental awareness and safety of pesticides should be initiated by the agrochemical firms and government.

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    River Nyando catchment 1
  • 5.
    Abu Hatab, Assem
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Africa’s Food Security under the Shadow of the Russia-Ukraine Conflict2022In: The Strategic Review for Southern Africa, ISSN 1013-1108, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 has emerged as an exogenous shock to global food supply chains, which foreshadows worrying impacts on Africa’s food security and nutrition, and threaten to derail national and global efforts to end hunger and poverty and to achieve sustainable development goals on the continent. This article provides an early assessment of the implications of the invasion for Africa’s food supply chains and food security. Two particularly aggravating factors, which explain the current and likely future impact of the invasion on Africa’s food security are discussed: the timing of the invasion and the two parties involved in the conflict. The article underlines four major channels by which the invasion disrupts African food supply chains: energy markets and shipping routes, availability and prices of agricultural production inputs, domestic food price inflation, and trade sanctions and other financial measures. In addition, the article considers the risk of social and political unrest that disruption to food supply chains and spikes in domestic food prices may inflame. Finally, the paper briefly discusses options for short- and long-term responses by African governments and their development partners to mitigate the repercussions of the conflict on food supply chains, boost food and nutrition security, and build resilience of Africa’s food systems

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  • 6.
    Abu Hatab, Assem
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Russia's invasion of Ukraine jeopardizes food security in Africa: shocks to global food supply chains could lead to social and political unrest2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Apart from being a humanitarian tragedy, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has also emerged as an exogenous shock to global food supply chains, with severe consequences for many African countries in particular. Four months into the invasion, we can see three main threats to food security in Africa: a disruption to energy markets and shipping routes; a shortage of fertilizers; and the negative ‘third-party’ effects of sanctions imposed on and by Russia.

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  • 7.
    Abu Hatab, Assem
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boqvist, Sofia
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lagerkvist, Carl-Johan
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Editorial: Livestock Systems in Urbanizing Environments: Impacts and Implications for Food Security in Developing Countries2022In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, E-ISSN 2297-1769, Vol. 9, article id 966044Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 8. Abu Hatab, Assem
    et al.
    Krautscheid, Lena
    Elsayied, Mohamed
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    COVID-19 risk perception and food security in the MENA region: evidence from a multi-wave household survey2024In: Food Security, ISSN 1876-4517, E-ISSN 1876-4525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The COVID-19 pandemic had disruptive consequences for MENA countries’ agri-food value chains that exacerbated poverty and jeopardized food security. This study examines the relationship between individuals’ perception of contracting COVID-19 and their experience of food insecurity, using longitudinal data from the Combined COVID-19 MENA Monitor Household survey. It also investigates the underlying mechanisms of COVID-19 concerns and explores coping strategies employed by households to identify vulnerabilities in food security. The results provide compelling evidence of a strong association between individuals’ concern about the virus and various dimensions of food security, particularly reduced purchasing power and decreased meal frequency. Notably, this association follows an inverted U-shaped curve, with food insecurity initially increasing as worry grows, but declining after individuals contract the virus. High levels of concern were also linked to significant income decreases and worsening economic conditions. Moreover, individuals with higher concerns were more likely to rely on specific coping strategies, particularly spending savings and obtaining funds from relatives or friends. These findings underscore the need for government interventions during disease outbreaks and economic downturns to focus on alleviating individuals’ worry and fear to facilitate informed decision-making that minimizes food insecurity consequences. Additionally, the findings emphasize the need to strengthen social protection systems during public health and economic challenges to ensure food security for vulnerable populations. 

  • 9.
    Abu Hatab, Assem
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Owusu-Sekyere, Enok
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension & Rural Development, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Agricultural Economics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
    Esmat, Abou-Rehab
    Department of Agricultural Economics, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt.
    Lagerkvist, Carl-Johan
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic: Perceived risks, management strategies and emerging opportunities for small and medium agri-food enterprises in a developing country2023In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, article id 104045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Covid-19 pandemic has posed unprecedented challenges to small and medium agri-food enterprises (SMAEs) in developing countries. However, research investigating what risks Covid-19 posed to these firms, how they responded, and what business opportunities emerged to SMAEs from the pandemic remains scanty. Drawing on a sample of 166 specialist SMAEs in Egypt, this study addressed these entwined questions by using multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) and mediation analysis. Our results point out that the Covid-19 pandemic exposed Egyptian SMAEs to complex and multidimensional risks, and caused profound effects on both upstream and downstream stages of their supply chains. In general, Egyptian SMAEs adopted a ‘wait-and-see’ approach to cope with such Covid-19 risks and impacts, which was attributed to their lack of sufficient financial resources to develop risk management strategies and formalize structures to deal with unexpected events. Interestingly, the results showed that several business opportunities emerged from pandemic; but SMAEs' resource disadvantages constrained their capacity to seize and exploit these opportunities. Moreover, we found that mitigation strategies adopted by SMAEs present a mediating factor between perceived Covid-19 risks and perceived business opportunities. Overall, our findings call for a paradigm shift in relation to enterprise risk management in developing countries' SMAEs toward more holistic frameworks to enhance their preparedness to future shocks, make mature operational and strategic management decisions, and exploit strategic opportunities.

  • 10.
    Abu Hatab, Assem
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Economics & Rural Development, Arish University, Al-Arish, Egypt.
    Ravula, Padmaja
    Nedumaran, Swamikannu
    Lagerkvist, Carl-Johan
    Perceptions of the impacts of urban sprawl among urban and peri-urban dwellers of Hyderabad, India: a Latent class clustering analysis2022In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 24, no 11, p. 12787-12812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like many other developing countries, urban sprawl is a growing phenomenon in India, which poses socio-economic and environmental challenges that worryingly affect urban sustainability. In this study, a latent class clustering approach was used to investigate perceptions of urban sprawl among 622 urban and peri-urban dwellers in Hyderabad. The empirical results clustered the respondents into three distinct classes based on their perceptions of urban sprawl impacts: ‘undecided respondents’, ‘negative perceivers’, and ‘opportunity perceivers’. The majority of respondents were undecided with no strong views towards the impacts of urban sprawl, which may increase their vulnerability and hinder effective adaptation to the adverse economic, social and environmental effects of urban sprawl. This also provokes concerns about the effectiveness of government interventions to build public awareness of urban development and its impacts on the city. With regard to the role of demographic and socio-economic characteristics in shaping the perception of the respondents, the results revealed that social caste plays a determining role in forming dwellers’ perception. In particular, members of marginalised social castes were more likely to form positive perceptions of the impacts of urban sprawl as urban expansion generates better and stable income that improve their social status. In addition, individuals with higher levels of education were more likely to form negative or positive perceptions, implying that efforts to raise social capital could be a useful means for mitigating the impacts of urban sprawl. Finally, membership in community development organisations was a key factor in dictating membership of the negative perceivers’ class. Overall, our findings suggest that an appropriate policy framework and specific programmes are needed for enhancing dwellers’ perception towards the impacts of urban sprawl, which can enhance the design, acceptance, and implementation of a more sustainable governance of urbanisation and contribute to achieving urban sustainability in developing countries.

  • 11.
    Abu Hatab, Assem
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Department of Economics and Rural Development, Arish University, AlArish, Egypt.
    Surry, Yves
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    An econometric investigation of EU's import demand for fresh potato: a source differentiated analysis focusing on Egypt2022In: Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, ISSN 2044-0839, E-ISSN 2044-0847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – A better understanding of the determinants of demand through accurate estimates of the elasticityof import demand can help policymakers and exporters improve their market access and competitiveness. This study analyzed the EU’s demand for imported potato from major suppliers between 1994 and 2018, with the aim to evaluate the competitiveness of Egyptian potato.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study adopted an import-differentiated framework to investigatedemand relationships among the major potato suppliers to the EU’s. To evaluate the competitiveness of Egyptian potato on the EU market, expenditure and price demand elasticities for various suppliers werecalculated and compared.

    Findings – The empirical results indicated that as income allocation of fresh potatoes increases, theinvestigated EU markets import more potatoes from other suppliers compared to imports from Egypt. The results show that EU importers may switch to potato imports from other suppliers as the import price ofEgyptian potatoes increases, which enter the EU markets before domestically produced potatoes are harvested.

    Research limitations/implications – Due to data unavailability, the present study relied on yearly data onquantities and prices of EU potato imports. A higher frequency of observations should allow for consideringseasonal effects, and thereby providing a more transparent picture of market dynamics and demand behaviorof EU countries with respect to potato import from various sources of origin.

    Originality/value – The study used a system-wide and source differentiated approach to analyze importdemand. In particular, the empirical approach allowed for comparing different demand models (AIDS,Rotterdam, NBR and CBS) to filter out the superior and most suitable model for that data because the suitabilityand performance of a demand model depends rather on data than on universal criteria.

  • 12. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Borjesson, G.
    Mattsson, L.
    Identification and quantification of organic phosphorus forms in soils from fertility experiments2013In: Soil use and management, ISSN 0266-0032, E-ISSN 1475-2743, Vol. 29, p. 24-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of soil type, crop rotation, fertilizer type and application rate on the composition of organic phosphorus (P) compounds in soils from four sites in a Swedish long-term fertilizer experiment were investigated with 31P-NMR. Soil textures investigated were loamy sand, sandy loam, silty clay loam and clay. Phosphorus has been added to the soils since the 1950s and 1960s at four different rates in the form of either mineral fertilizer or a combination of manure and mineral fertilizer. Results show that in soils receiving no P addition, most of the soil P was present in the form of phosphate monoesters (6070%, depending on soil type). However, a P addition equivalent to the amount of P removed annually by harvest altered this relationship so that the soils were dominated by orthophosphate instead. This trend became more obvious with increasing P addition. At the greatest P application rate, orthophosphate comprised 70% or more of the total extracted P in all the soils. These changes in the soil were due entirely to increase in orthophosphate, because the amounts of monoesters did not change with increasing P additions. This was true both for mineral fertilizer and the combination of manure and mineral fertilizer P. Soil type and crop rotation did not influence the results. The results indicate that there is no apparent build-up of organic P in the soils, but that P addition mainly affects the orthophosphate amounts in the soils regardless of form or amount of fertilizer.

  • 13. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Wallin, Mats
    Barium as a Potential Indicator of Phosphorus in Agricultural Runoff2012In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 208-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many catchments, anthropogenic input of contaminants, and in particular phosphorus (P), into surface water is a mixture of agricultural and sewage runoff. Knowledge about the relative contribution from each of these sources is vital for mitigation of major environmental problems such as eutrophication. In this study, we investigated whether the distribution of trace elements in surface waters can be used to trace the contamination source. Water from three groups of streams was investigated: streams influenced only by agricultural runoff, streams influenced mainly by sewage runoff, and reference streams. Samples were collected at different flow regimes and times of year and analyzed for 62 elements using ICP-MS. Our results show that there are significant differences between the anthropogenic sources affecting the streams in terms of total element composition and individual elements, indicating that the method has the potential to trace anthropogenic impact on surface waters. The elements that show significant differences between sources are strontium (p < 0.001), calcium (p < 0.004), potassium (p < 0.001), magnesium (p < 0.001), boron (p < 0.001), rhodium (p = 0.001), and barium (p < 0.001). According to this study, barium shows the greatest potential as a tracer for an individual source of anthropogenic input to surface waters. We observed a strong relationship between barium and total P in the investigated samples (R-2 = 0.78), which could potentially be used to apportion anthropogenic sources of P and thereby facilitate targeting of mitigation practices.

  • 14. Ahlgren, S.
    et al.
    Röös, E.
    Di Lucia, L.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Hansson, P. -A
    EU sustainability criteria for biofuels: Uncertainties in GHG emissions from cultivation2012In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 399-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cultivation of raw material represents a large proportion of biofuelś GHG emissions. The EU renewable energy directive 2009/28/EC specifies a GHG emission default value for cultivation of biofuel raw material (23 g CO2-e/MJ ethanol for wheat). The aim of this study was to quantify the uncertainty in GHG emissions for wheat cultivation in Sweden, considering uncertainty and variability in data at farm level. Results: Two levels of data collection at farm level were analyzed; simple (only yield and amount of N) and advanced (also including amounts and types of energy). The 2.5-97.5 percentile uncertainty for Swedish winter wheat was 20-27 g CO 2-e/MJ, which can be considered large in the context of the Directives threshold of 23 g (to two significant figures). Conclusion: It is concluded that quantifying GHG emissions in order to regulate biofuels is a difficult task, especially emissions from cultivation, since these are biological systems with large variability.

  • 15.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Behaderovic, Danira
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Edman, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Wallman, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Berglund, Maria
    Hushållningssällskapet Halland, Sweden.
    Laurentz, Martin
    Lantmännen, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Susanne
    Agronod, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anton
    Agronod, Sweden.
    Description of the Agrosfär model – a tool for climate impact assessment of crop and animal production systems in Sweden: Version 1: Crops, milk and beef2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The agricultural sector in Sweden needs to cut GHG emissions and contribute to the climate goal of net-zero emissions by 2045. The GHG reduction goal for agricultural emissions is not quantified, but the Swedish climate policy framework states that ‘the Swedish food production shall increase as much as possible with as little climate impact as possible’ and multiple key actors within the sector of food and agriculture have developed roadmaps or industry specific goals for reducing GHG emissions from the sector. Consequently, requirements of transparent GHG accounting and reporting are increasing within the agricultural sector, both at national and international level. The purpose of the Agrosfär tool is to establish an automatic data driven climate calculator used to calculate GHG emissions from agricultural products and on farm enterprise level. The automation and automatic data collection will save time, increase accuracy of the calculations, and simplify updates of the tool to keep it aligned with the most recent climate data and climate reporting methodology. It will make it possible to continuously carry out follow-ups on climate performance indicators and measure improvements from climate measures taken. A working group consisting of Swedish agricultural life cycle assessment experts have developed the framework of the tool, e.g. setting system boundaries, selecting methodologies and input data. A technical team has developed algorithms, a digital interface and coupled the tool to other existing agricultural databases providing farm specific information on crop and animal production data, soil characteristics, carbon footprints and amounts of purchased inputs etc. The tool and user interface have been developed based on input from farmers through prototyping and in-depth interviews. For general guidelines on methodology the calculation model follows the Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules (PEFCR), the International Dairy Federation (IDF)’s approach for carbon footprint for the dairy sector and FAO Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance guidelines (FAO LEAP). Where standards have diverged or where assumptions have been required the working group has made expert judgements on which method/guideline to follow or what assumptions to make. A first version of the tool, a so called minimal viable product (MVP) has been developed which will be the basis for further development. The MVP contains an animal and crop module and can calculate the carbon footprint of crops, milk and beef. Future development possibilities of the tool and calculation model is described in chapter 7, such as enabling climate calculations on enterprise level, develop modules for more animal production types, deepen the integration between the crop and animal modules, expand sources for automatic data collection, develop a carbon sequestration module and other technical and methodological improvements to ensure alignment with important climate reporting standards. The report will be repeatedly updated as the tool develops, and new versions of the tool are released.

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  • 16.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Morell, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Mapping of biodiversity impacts and hotspot products in Nordic food consumption2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate impact of food production has been lively debated over the last decades. It is e.g. well known that some products have a higher climate impact in comparison to other food products. The biodiversity impact of different food products is however less known. To steer the food production in a positive direction as well as to enable consumers, restaurants, public kitchens, and the food industry to make well-informed decisions, we need to address and measure this impact. The aim of this study has been to examine the biodiversity impact of Nordic and European food consumption. In this report we present (1) a brief summary of biodiversity indicators linked to food production and consumption, (2) different methods to evaluate biodiversity impact of food products and (3) a literature review of studies that assess biodiversity impacts of food products and diets. Based on the literature review, we identify food products suggested to have a higher respectively lower negative impact on biodiversity and discuss what changes that could promote a Nordic diet with lower negative impact on biodiversity. Finally, we highlight knowledge gaps and possibilities for future work. There are different methods to examine the biodiversity impact on food products, such as life cycle assessment, input-output-model, and mapping tools. Biodiversity footprints are often based on the land use (area and intensity) in combination with parameters linked to where the production takes place and thus what biodiversity values can be affected. The consumed amount of food is also often considered – a product with a low impact per kg can get a high impact when consumed to a high degree and vice versa. Our literature review shows a variety of food products with high negative biodiversity impact. Particularly, products that are known drivers of deforestation in tropical regions, such as palm oil, coffee, and cacao – as well as meat and/or animal products that have been fed with soybeans derived from tropical regions have a high negative impact on biodiversity. On the other hand, consumption of foods as vegetables, starchy roots, and pulses – ideally with domestic origin – are examples of foods indicated to have lower biodiversity impact which would be beneficial to eat more of in the Nordic diet. There are also examples of agricultural systems where human interference is crucial for maintaining a high level of biodiversity, for example keeping grazing animals on high-naturevalue-grasslands. If these lands are abandoned or planted with forest, numerous of species will be extinct. Thus, meat linked to these grasslands can also support biodiversity, especially in the Nordic countries where there are relatively many of these landscapes left (in comparison to the rest of Europe). As the studies reviewed varied in their scope, methods, and results, they are difficult to compare. More research is needed to confirm our conclusions. Furthermore, none of the methods are flawless and there are obvious difficulties with finding a transferable and scalable unit – like CO2-equivalents – since biodiversity impacts are highly dynamic and sitespecific. Additionally, most of the reviewed studies do not consider transformation of natural areas driven by food production, e.g., deforestation, and may therefore be underestimating the impacts. In future studies, the reference systems may also be discussed and further developed, and more taxonomic groups (e.g., arthropods such as insects) should preferably be included.

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  • 17.
    Ahlqvist, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Geography, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Wästfelt, Anders
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Formalized interpretation of compound land use objects – Mapping historical summer farms from a single satellite image2012In: Journal of Land Use Science, ISSN 1747-423X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 89-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Notions of land cover relating to physical landscape characters are readily captured by satellite imagery. Land use on the other hand relates more to the societal aspects of a landscape. We argue that much of the spatial configuration of landscape characters is related to land use and that satellite data can be used to represent and investigate interpretations of land use. We propose and demonstrate the joint use of a novel SRPC procedure for satellite imagery together with an explicit representation of category semantics. We use these two mechanisms to identify a collection of conceptual spaces related to land use on Swedish historic summer farms. We also outline a framework for analysis of the relations between two separate ways of knowing: the machine-based knowledge and the human, mental knowledge. An evaluation demonstrates that satellite images can be used to identify land use processes as a mixture of land cover objects occurring in particular spatial contextual relationships closely tied to the land use category semantics. This opens up an unexplored possibility for research on vague spatial ontologies and questions on how to formally articulate different interpretations of space, land use, and other branches of spatial social science.

  • 18.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Environmental arsenic in a changing world2019In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 8, p. 169-171Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ahnström, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden; Länsstyrelsen i Uppsala län, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berg, Åke
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Lars
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boonstra, Wijnand J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Farmers' Interest in Nature and Its Relation to Biodiversity in Arable Fields2013In: International Journal of Ecology, ISSN 1687-9708, E-ISSN 1687-9716, article id 617352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity declines in farmland have been attributed to intensification of farming at the field level and loss of heterogeneity at the landscape level. However, farmers are not solely optimizing production; their actions are also influenced by social factors, tradition and interest in nature, which indirectly influence biodiversity but rarely are incorporated in studies of farmland biodiversity. We used social science methods to quantify farmers’ interest in nature on 16 farms with winter wheat fields in central Sweden, and combined this with biodiversity inventories of five organism groups (weeds, carabid beetles, bumblebees, solitary bees, and birds) and estimates of landscape composition andmanagement intensity at the field level.Agricultural intensity,measured as crop density, and farmers’ interest in nature explained variation in biodiversity, measured as the proportion of the regional species richness found on single fields. Interest in nature seemed to incorporate many actions taken by farmers and appeared to be influenced by both physical factors, for example, the surrounding landscape, and social factors, for example, social motivations.This study indicates that conservation of biodiversity in farmland, and design of new agri-environmental subsidy systems, would profit from taking farmers’ interest in nature and its relation to agricultural practices into account.

  • 20.
    Ajjan Godoy, Fátima Nadia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biohybrid Polymer Electrodes for Renewable Energy Storage2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Daily and seasonally fluctuating energy supply and demand requires adequate energy storage solutions. In recent years electrochemical supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to both store and deliver electrical energy efficiently. Our efforts are focused on developing and optimizing sustainable organic electrode materials for supercapacitors based on renewable bioorganic materials, offering a cheap, environmentally friendly and scalable alternative to store energy. In particular, we are using the second most abundant biopolymer in nature, lignin (Lig), which is an insulating material. However, when used in combination with electroactive and conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), the biohybrid electrodes PPy/Lig and PEDOT/Lig display significantly enhanced energy storage performance as compared to the pristine conducting polymers without the lignin. Redox cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements indicate that the enhanced performance is due to the additional pseudocapacitance generated by the quinone moieties in lignin. Moreover, a conjugated redoxpolymer poly(aminoanthraquinone) PAAQ, with intrinsic quinone functions and excellentstability, has been combined with lignin and PEDOT resulting in a trihybrid bioelectrode. PEDOT compensates the low conductivity of PAAQ and provides electrical pathways to the quinone groups. The electrochemically generated quinones undergo a two electron, two protonredox process within the biohybrid electrodes as revealed by FTIR spectroelectrochemistry.These remarkable features reveal the exciting potential of a full organic energy storage device with long cycle life. Therefore, supercapacitor devices were designed in symmetric or asymmetric two electrode configuration. The best electrochemical performance was achieved by the asymmetric supercapacitor based on PEDOT+Lignin/PAAQ as the positive electrode and PEDOT/PAAQ as the negative electrode. This device exhibits superior electrochemical performance and outstanding stability after 10000 charge/discharge cycles due to the synergistic effect of the two electrodes. Finally, we have characterized the response of this supercapacitor device when charged with the intermittent power supply from an organic photovoltaic module. We have designed charging/discharging conditions such that reserve power was available in the storage device at all times. This work has resulted in an inexpensive fully organic system witht he dual function of energy conversion and storage.

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  • 21.
    Akinyemi, Felicia O.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Land transformation across agroecological zones reveals expanding cropland and settlement at the expense of tree-cover and wetland areas in Nigeria2024In: Geo-spatial Information Science, ISSN 1009-5020, E-ISSN 1993-5153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating how land cover is being transformed is essential to identify patterns necessary to infer the change trajectories and the driving factors. This study considers the case of Nigeria, where various natural ecosystems are being converted and for which a current national scale assessment at high spatial resolution is lacking. Producing 30 m Landsat-based time-series data, we analyze change among land cover types (i.e. tree-covered area, grassland, wetland, waterbody, cropland, artificial surface, and otherland) across seven agroecological zones. The annual change intensity was assessed at multi-levels across two time-intervals (i.e. 2000–2013, 2013–2022). Distinguishing between natural land cover and human activity-related land-use, we estimate the extent of change signifying how humans have appropriated natural land cover. Insights from analysis at the interval level reveal that land transformation accelerated from 3.3% in 2000–2013 to 4.5% during 2013–2022 in all agroecological zones (e.g. rainforest, mangrove), except in Sudan savannah and Sahel savannah where speed was higher in 2000–2013 as grasslands were increasingly cultivated. Cropland expanded almost two-fold (22% to 37%), whereas tree-cover declined from 50% to 31% and wetland from 7% to 3.7% over the 23 years. Much loss of natural land cover (e.g. tree-cover, grassland, and wetland) to cropland occurred in 2000–2013 (22%) when most irrigation schemes in Nigeria were established. In contrast, the loss of natural land cover to settlement (0.9%) during 2000–2013 increased to 2.0% in 2013–2022. Of all agroecological zones, the mangrove zone was most disturbed as its persisting land cover areas reduced from 69% to 5% between 2000–2013 and 2013–2022. The amount of persisting land cover was highest in the Sudan savannah at 44% in 2000–2013 and 49% in 2013–2022. Processes of human-appropriated natural land cover in Nigeria are related to urbanization and cropland expansion into natural areas with some instances of natural regeneration, especially in croplands and abandoned settlement areas.

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  • 22.
    Akram, Usman
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Closing nutrient cycles2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adequate and balanced crop nutrition – with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) – is vital for sustainable crop production. Inadequate and imbalanced crop nutrition contributes to the crop yield gaps – a difference in actual and potential crop yield. Yield gap is one of the many causes of insufficient food production, thus aggravating hunger and malnourishment across the globe. On the other hand, an oversupply of nutrients is highly unsustainable, in terms of both resource conservation and global environmental health. A decreasing excreta recycling in crop production is one of the many reasons for nutrient imbalances in agriculture. Previous studies show that increasing agricultural specialization leads to spatial separation of crop and animal production. Increasing distance between excreta production and crop needs is one of the leading factors that cause reduced excreta recycling. Studies focusing on excreta recycling show that a substantial barrier to a more efficient excreta nutrient reuse is the expensive transportation of bulky volumes of excreta over long distances. In order to overcome that barrier, more detailed spatial estimates of distances between excreta production and crop nutrient needs, and the associated costs for complete excreta transport in an entire country are needed. Hence, the overall aim of this thesis was to quantify the amount of nutrients in the excreta resources compared to the crop nutrient needs at multiple scales (global, national, subnational, and local), and to analyze the need for excreta transports, total distances and costs, to meet the crop nutrient needs in a country.

    On the global scale, annual (2000-2016) excreta supply (livestock and human) could provide at least 48% of N, 57% of P, and 81% of K crop needs. Although excreta supply was not enough to cover the annual crop nutrient needs at the global scale, at least 29 countries for N, 41 for P, and 71 for K had an excreta nutrient surplus. When including the annual use of synthetic fertilizers, at least 42 additional countries had a N surplus, with the equivalent figures for P being 17 countries, whereas 8 additional countries attained a K surplus. At the same time, when accounting for the use of synthetic fertilizers, each year, at least 57 countries had an N deficit, 70 a P deficit, and 51 countries a K deficit, in total equivalent to 14% of global N and 16% of each P and K crop needs. The total surplus in other countries during the period was always higher than the deficit in the countries with net nutrient deficits, except for P for some years. Unfortunately, both the deficits of the deficit countries and surpluses of the surplus countries were increasing substantially during the 17 years. Such global divergence in nutrient deficits and surpluses have clear implications for global food security and environmental health.

    A district-scale investigation of Pakistan showed that the country had a national deficit of 0.62 million tons of P and 0.59 million tons of K, but an oversupply of N. The spatial separation was not significant at this resolution; only 6% of the excreta N supply needed to be transported between districts. Recycling all excreta, within and between districts, could cut the use of synthetic N to 43% of its current use and eliminate the need for synthetic K, but there would be an additional need of 0.28 million tons of synthetic P to meet the crop nutrient needs in the entire country. The need for synthetic fertilizers to supplement the recycled excreta nutrients would cost USD 2.77 billion. However, it might not be prohibitively expensive to correct for P deficiencies because of the savings on the costs of synthetic N, and K. Excreta recycling could promote balanced crop nutrition at the national scale in Pakistan, which in turn could eliminate the nutrient-related crop yield gaps in the country.

    The municipal-scale investigation using Swedish data showed that the country had a national oversupply of 110,000 tons of N, 6,000 tons of P, and 76,000 tons of K. Excreta could provide up to 75% of N and 81% of P, and more than 100% of the K crop needs in the country. The spatial separation was pronounced at the municipal scale in the country. Just 40% of the municipalities produced over 50% of the excreta N and P. Nutrient balance calculations showed that excreta recycling within municipalities could provide 63% of the P crop needs. Another 18% of the P crop needs must be transported from surplus municipalities to deficit municipalities. Nationally, an optimized reallocation of surplus excreta P towards the P deficit municipalities would cost USD 192 million for a total of 24,079 km truck transports. The cost was 3.7 times more than the total NPK fertilizer value transported, and that met the crop nutrient needs. It was concluded that Sweden could potentially reduce its dependence on synthetic fertilizers, but to cover the costs of an improved excreta reuse would require valuing the additional benefits of recycling.

    An investigation was also done to understand the effect of the input data resolution on the results (transport needs and distances) from a model to optimize excreta redistribution. The results showed that the need for excreta transports, distances, and spatial patterns of the excreta transports changed. Increasing resolution of the spatial data, from political boundaries in Sweden and Pakistan to 0.083 decimal grids (approximately 10 km by 10 km at the equator), showed that transport needs for excreta-N increased by 12% in Pakistan, and the transport needs for excreta-P increased by 14% in Sweden. The effect of the increased resolution on transport analysis showed inconsistency in terms of the excreta total nutrient transportation distance; the average distance decreased by 67% (to 44 km) in Pakistan but increased by 1 km in Sweden. A further increase in the data resolution to 5 km by 5 km grids for Sweden showed that the average transportation distance decreased by 9 km. In both countries, increasing input data resolution resulted in a more favorable cost to fertilizer value ratios. In Pakistan, the cost of transport was only 13% of the NPK fertilizer value transported at a higher resolution. In Sweden, the costs decreased from 3.7 (at the political resolution) to slightly higher than three times of the fertilizer value transported in excreta at the higher data resolution.

    This Ph.D. thesis shows that we could potentially reduce the total use of synthetic fertilizers in the world and still reduce the yield gaps if we can create a more efficient recycling of nutrients both within and between countries, and a more demand adapted use of synthetic fertilizers.

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  • 23.
    al Rawaf, Rawaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Urbanism: Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a demand for practical ways to integrate ecological insights into practices of design, which previously have lacked a substantive empirical basis. In the process of developing the Albano Resilient Campus, a transdisciplinary group of ecologists, design scholars, and architects pioneered a conceptual innovation, and a new paradigm of urban sustainability and development: Social-Ecological Urbanism.  Social-Ecological Urbanism is based on the frameworks of Ecosystem Services and Resilience thinking. This approach has created novel ideas with interesting repercussions for the international debate on sustainable urban development. From a discourse point of view, the concept of SEU can be seen as a next evolutionary step for sustainable urbanism paradigms, since it develops synergies between ecological and socio-technical systems. This case study collects ‘best practices’ that can lay a foundational platform for learning, innovation, partnership and trust building within the field of urban sustainability. It also bridges gaps in existing design approaches, such as Projective Ecologies and Design Thinking, with respect to a design methodology with its basis firmly rooted in Ecology.

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    Social-Ecological Urbanism - Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus (Abstract)
  • 24.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ericson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lundberg, Per
    Nutrient addition extends flowering display, which gets tracked by seed predators, but not by their parasitoids2008In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 117, p. 473-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although phenological matching between two and three trophic interactions has received some attention, it has largely been disregarded in explaining the lack of strong cascade dynamics in terrestrial systems. We studied the response of the specialist seed predator, Paroxyna plantaginis (Tephritidae) and associated generalist parasitoids (Chalcidoidea) to controlled fertilisation of individuals of naturally growing Tripolium vulgare (Asteraceae) on four island populations (Skeppsvik Archipelago, Sweden). We consistently found evidence of nutrient limitation: fertilised plants increased their biomass, produced more capitula (the oviposition units for tephritid flies), were more at risk of attack by the tephritids, and puparia were heavier in fertilised plants. During some parts of the season tephritids became more heavily parasitized, supporting the presence of cascade dynamics, however net parasitism over season decreased in response to nutrient addition. We found no evidence that capitulum size complicated parasitoid access to the tephritids, however the extended bud production prolonged the flowering season. Thus, tephritids utilized the surplus production of capitula throughout the entire season, while parasitoids did not expand their oviposition time window accordingly. Implications for top down regulation and cascade dynamics in the system are discussed.

  • 25.
    Ali, Muatasem Latif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Riskkommunikation generellt exemplifierat genom branden i Halmstad 20122017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A chemical accident can cause damage in individuals, groups or entire communities. The injury may concern human life, property or the environment. An accident can affect a large part of society and requires cooperation between the actors involved. Different stakeholders need to be informed, but it is not certain how a message should be delivered and who should do it.

    The study's purpose is to study risk communication generally, as exemplified by the accident in Halmstad September 21, 2012, when a fire broke out in a warehouse in Halmstad harbor. How the involved persons experienced communication,

    What factors could affect the communication at such types of critical situations.

    In the study, two methods have been used. The first used method was a web-survey of people working in civil protection in Halmstad municipality, environmental office in Halmstad, the public living in the municipality, police, Coast Guard, industries and media. The second method was semi-structured interviews addressed to some of those affected who worked in media, police, coast guard, the company, emergency services and the local authority.

    This study showed that there were differences between the respondents' answers on how respondents perceived that there were risks to human health or the environment in this accident. Many of the respondents who responded to the survey felt that the risk communication worked well after the fire. This survey and semi- structured interviews showed that respondents felt that the municipality's website was a good information channel and the internet and social media could be a good source for the responsible authorities to quickly disseminate information to the public. This study showed that the municipality and emergency services were actors most concerned in this context when it came to communicating risks in major accidents where chemicals were involved and all respondents had great confidence to the emergency services and municipality. 

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  • 26.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, HansLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Grimvall, AndersLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 19891991Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The state of the art on isolation techniques, ion binding theory, biologic activity in the aquatic environment as well as the formation of mutagenic compounds from chlorination is reviewed by worldwide-known experts. Additional papers describe current research on the topics: isolation, fractionation and characterization; biological and chemical transformation and degradation; complex formation and interactions with solids; biologic activity, halogenation of humic substances.

  • 27.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Introductory chapter: Overview on grass topic2017In: Grasses - benefits, diversities and functional roles, London: IntechOpen , 2017, , p. 168p. 3-10Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A regulate analysis of the connotation of the word “environment” in the sustainability explains clear circumstances of a being or thing (social, economic, and physical). Moreover, the meaning covers the systematization of the environment upon the physical process. The environment in a broad sense also contains all the natural and artificial factors of the physical, chemical, biological, and social nature in which a human being is a factor motor of community that develops. The importance of maintaining a steady state, the human relationship, and its living environment requires an ability to control the environment in an optimal arrangement of ecological balance. For creating a competent urban zoning, it is necessary to state that green areas in general and grass in special require a delimitation based on a unitary structure of territory structure organized. It has to be created by successive stages (valuable parts), which in the functional aspect consists of areas characteristic of the dominant aspect, the weight of one of the functions, or a greater diversity of the functions, mono-functional multifunctional space [1]. Grasses in the planted area (as a functional urban area) are shaped to serve the specific areas for beauty or recreational purpose. The grasslands have an esthetic function, which can be presented by

    • An essential element to highlight architectural objects
    • A significant decorative value (by shape or color)
  • 28.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Al-Samaraee, Sammera Mohamed Salih
    Grasses - benefits, diversities and functional roles2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book has been prepared to embody the major and efficient applications of the different duties and roles of grasses in our life, as well as offered a solid concept for this kind of science. The book aims to illustrate various ideas, methods and how it is treated in the agronomic process for different forms of grasses in human life.

  • 29.
    Al-sabti, Merna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science.
    Lönsamhet och affärsmodell för en biogasanläggning som drivs av lantbrukare2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production has environmental and social advantages for farmers, the target group of this study, but there are obstacles. Profitability issues can be resolved by, for example, applying business models. The purpose of the study was to investigate which business model can be applied by an agricultural biogas plant and to analyze the profitability of the company through assessment of key figures and DuPont models. An agricultural biogas plant was selected and various studies on the profitability and business models of agricultural biogas plants were used as a basis for comparing the example plant with previous research. Interviews were conducted with a partner in the biogas company. In order to determine the profitability of the company, calculations of key figures and DuPont models were carried out for the years 2017 and 2018. The study identified various success factors for the company, regarding collaboration, entrepreneurial characteristics, long-term perspective and the relationship to the market. The results show that even if the company has lacked a structured business model, their work is following recommendations given by published business models. The analysis shows that the company has good profitability, but profitability is difficult to evaluate on the long term, since data for several years were not available in the yearly report of the company. The conclusions from the present study are that the company is profitable, however, profitability risks are present, which demonstrate that the company cannot lower its prices due to competition, and they require knowledge about costs to maintain or increase profit over time. The present study proposes that the company utilizes a formal business model, which needs to include financial analysis for long-term and maintained profitability. The business model of the company could be used as a source of inspiration to other farmers, as long as it will be expanded to include financial analysis.

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  • 30.
    Ambros, Pontus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Granvik, Madeleine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Trends in Agricultural Land in EU Countries of the Baltic Sea Region from the Perspective of Resilience and Food Security2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 14, article id 5851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural land is crucial for the production of food and is, thereby, directly connected to food security. Agriculture is threatened by a multitude of hazards, such as climate change, peak oil, peak soil and peak phosphorus. These hazards call for a more resilient food system that can deliver food security for the global population in the future. In this paper, we analyse the Baltic Sea region's ten European Union (EU) member states, investigating which trends are to be found in statistics between 2005 to 2016 on the development of agricultural land. In our paper, we analyse these trends of agricultural land by looking at three categories of data: (1) utilised agricultural area, (2) number of farms and (3) agricultural labour input. The results showed a trend that agricultural land is increasingly dominated by large farms, whilst over 1 million predominantly small farms have disappeared, and agricultural-labour input has dropped by more than 26%. These trends point towards a mechanisation of production, where larger and less labour-intensive farms take over production. This could partly be due to the EU common agricultural policy, which tends to favour large farms over small. Further, we argue for the importance of farm-size diversity, and about the dangers to food security that a system that is dominated by large farms possesses. Lastly, we conclude that the concept of resilience needs to be better included in policy development and food-system planning, and that more research needs to be done, analysing how existing agricultural policies impact the parameters studied in this paper.

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  • 31.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henning, Dag
    Optensys Energianalys, Linköping, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Björn G.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Simulation and introduction of a CHP plant in a Swedish biogas system2013In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 49, p. 242-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study are to present a model for biogas production systems to help achieve a more cost-effective system, and to analyse the conditions for connecting combined heat and power (CHP) plants to the biogas system. The European electricity market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of CHP. increased electricity and heat production, electricity prices, and electricity certificate trading is investigated. A cost-minimising linear programming model (MODEST) is used. MODEST has been applied to many energy systems, but this is the first time the model has been used for biogas production. The new model, which is the main result of this work, can be used for operational optimisation and evaluating economic consequences of future changes in the biogas system. The results from the case study and sensitivity analysis show that the model is reliable and can be used for strategic planning. The results show that implementation of a biogas-based CHP plant result in an electricity power production of approximately 39 GW h annually. Reduced system costs provide a profitability of 46 MSEK/year if electricity and heat prices increase by 100% and electricity certificate prices increase by 50%. CO2 emission reductions up to 32,000 ton/year can be achieved if generated electricity displaces coal-fired condensing power.

  • 32.
    Anbalagan, Anbarasan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Toledo-Cervantes, A.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Posadas, E.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Rojo, E. M.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Lebrero, R.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    González-Sánchez, A.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Muñoz, R.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Continuous photosynthetic abatement of CO2 and volatile organic compounds from exhaust gas coupled to wastewater treatment: Evaluation of tubular algal-bacterial photobioreactor2017In: Journal of CO2 Utilization, ISSN 2212-9820, E-ISSN 2212-9839, Vol. 21, p. 353-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuous abatement of CO2 and toluene from the exhaust gas by an indigenous microalgal-bacterial consortium was investigated in a pilot tubular photobioreactor interconnected to an absorption column using diluted centrate in seawater as a free nutrient source. The removal efficiency of CO2 and toluene was maximised in the vertical absorption column by identifying an optimum liquid to gas (L/G) ratio of 15. The photobioreactor supported steady-state nitrogen and phosphorus removals of 91 ± 2% and 95 ± 4% using 15% diluted centrate at 14 and 7 d of hydraulic retention time (HRT), respectively. A decrease in the removal efficiencies of nitrogen (36 ± 5%) and phosphorus (58 ± 10%) was recorded when using 30% diluted centrate at 7 d of HRT. The volumetric biomass productivities obtained at an HRT of 7 d accounted for 42 ± 11 and 80 ± 3 mg TSS L-1 d-1 using 15 and 30% centrate, respectively. Stable CO2 (76 ± 7%) and toluene removals (89 ± 5%) were achieved at an L/G ratio of 15 regardless of the HRT or centrate dilution. Hence, this study demonstrated the potential of algal-bacterial systems for the continuous removal of CO2 and volatile organic compounds from exhaust gas coupled with the simultaneous treatment of centrate. 

  • 33.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessing the Contribution of Organic Agriculture: PovertyReduction and Employment Creation in Selected Value Chains2016In: Vulnerability of Agricultural Production Networks and Global Food Value Chainsdue to Natural Disasters: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Meinhard Breiling, Anbumozhi Venkatachalam, Vienna: TU Wien , 2016, p. 23-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic agriculture (OA) is increasingly viewed as an economic opportunity for farmers allover the world. This paper addresses the effects of OA in terms of income, vulnerability andpoverty alleviation in rural areas in developing countries. It is based on a literature reviewwith emphasis on two value chains: cotton and coffee, which both involve smallholders indeveloping regions, and growing organic markets, but differ in terms of value chain structuresand geographical patterns.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Comparing mail-in, interview and tournament catch rates for a recreational salmonid fisheryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Su, Zhenming
    Andersson, Magnus
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Estimating effort and catch of a recreational trolling fishery in one of Europe’s largest lakesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Memory carriers and stewardship of metropolitan landscapes2016In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, p. 606-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    History matters, and can be an active and dynamic component in the present. We explore social-ecological memory as way to diagnose and engage with urban green space performance and resilience. Rapidly changing cities pose a threat and a challenge to the continuity that has helped to support biodiversity and ecological functions by upholding similar or only slowly changing adaptive cycles over time. Continuity is perpetuated through memory carriers, slowly changing variables and features that retain or make available information on how different situations have been dealt with before. Ecological memory carriers comprise memory banks, spatial connections and mobile link species. These can be supported by social memory carriers, represented by collectively created social features like habits, oral tradition, rules-in-use and artifacts, as well as media and external sources. Loss or lack of memory can be diagnoses by the absence or disconnect between memory carriers, as will be illustrated by several typical situations. Drawing on a set of example situations, we present an outline for a look-up table approach that connects ecological memory carriers to the social memory carriers that support them and use these connections to set diagnoses and indicate potential remedies. The inclusion of memory carriers in planning and management considerations may facilitate preservation of feedbacks and disturbance regimes as well as species and habitats, and the cultural values and meanings that go with them.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahrné, K.
    Department of Entomology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Measuring social – ecological dynamics behind the generation of ecosystem services2007In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 1267-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of ecosystem services depends on both social and ecological features. Here we focus on management, its ecological consequences, and social drivers. Our approach combined (1) quantitative surveys of local species diversity and abundance of three functional groups of ecosystem service providers (pollinators, seed dispersers, and insectivores) with (2) qualitative studies of local management practices connected to these services and their underlying social mechanisms, i.e., institutions, local ecological knowledge, and a sense of place. It focused on the ecology of three types of green areas (allotment gardens, cemeteries, and city parks) in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. These are superficially similar but differ considerably in their management. Effects of the different practices could be seen in the three functional groups, primarily as a higher abundance of pollinators in the informally managed allotment gardens and as differences in the composition of seed dispersers and insectivores. Thus, informal management, which is normally disregarded by planning authorities, is important for ecosystem services in the urban landscape. Furthermore, we suggest that informal management has an important secondary function: It may be crucial during periods of instability and change as it is argued to promote qualities with potential for adaptation. Allotment gardeners seem to be the most motivated managers, something that is reflected in their deeper knowledge and can be explained by a sense of place and management institutions. We propose that co-management would be one possible way to infuse the same positive qualities into all management and that improved information exchange between managers would be one further step toward ecologically functional urban landscapes.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, S.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Tomas
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gren, A.
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reconnecting cities to the biosphere: Stewardship of green infrastructure and urban ecosystem services2016In: Sustainable Cities: Urban Planning Challenges and Policy, CRC Press , 2016, p. 29-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden; Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    de la Torre Castro, Maricela
    Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hughes, Alice C.
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Ilstedt, Ulrik
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jernelöv, Arne
    Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Department of Natural Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Department of Fish, Wildlife and Environmental Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Kritzberg, Emma
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    McNeely, Jeffrey A.
    Society for Conservation Biology Asia Section, Petchburi, Thailand.
    Mohr, Claudia
    Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mustonen, Tero
    Snowchange Cooperative, Lehtoi, Finland.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Department of Technology, Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; Gothenburg Centre for Sustainable Development, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reyes-Garcia, Victoria
    Institució Catalana de Recerca I Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (ICTA-UAB), Barcelona, Spain.
    Rusch, Graciela M.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Sanderson Bellamy, Angelina
    Department of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England at Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thomas, David N.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Wulff, Angela
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Söderström, Bo
    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ambio fit for the 2020s2022In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, p. 1091-1093Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Andersson, Isac
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Riskhantering vid naturvårdsbränning: En critical incident studie (CIT)2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturvårdsbränning är en åtgärd som avser att återskapa effekterna avnaturliga skogsbränder genom att påverka det ekologiska systemet. Trotsfördelarna föreligger risker, såsom oönskad eskalering och spridning av eld,rök och glöd, vilket kan negativt påverka mark, människor och samhällen.Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur ansvariga inom Länsstyrelsen hanterarrisker genom identifiering av kritiska incidenter utifrån Critical IncidentTechnique (CIT) baserad på intervjuer, samt att bidra till att öka den allmännakunskapen kring åtgärden.Resultatet visade att naturvårdsbränningsansvariga tar stor hänsyn till riskeroch arbetar kontinuerligt för att minimera dem. Dock identifierades treförbättringsområden inom riskhanteringsarbetet: säkerhet under bränningar,kommunikation under bränningar och kommunikation med samhället.Förbättringar inom dessa områden kan minimera risker under bränningar,minska oron i samhället och antalet falsklarm samt öka tryggheten igenomförandet för allmänheten och naturvårdsbränningspersonal vidnaturvårdsbränningar.

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    Riskhantering vid naturvårdsbränning
  • 41.
    Andersson, Jessica
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Magnusson, Carl
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Alternativa urbana odlingsmetodernas potential för självförsörjning i Sverige2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the COVID pandemic of 2019, Sweden saw a huge increase in food prices, as many of the country's grocery chains import a large amount of all foods. This research is motivated by the Swedish Parliament's motion "Self-Sufficiency of Food in Sweden" and the need for innovative solutions to enhance Sweden's food supply. This study focuses on alternative urban agriculture methods, with a focus on aeroponics, aquaponics, hydroponics, and vertical farming, and their potential for self-sufficiency in Sweden. This study aims to fill the gap in Swedish research on soilless urban farming methods and contribute to the understanding and acceptance of the alternative methods above. The study seeks to determine whether the yield of alternative cultivation methods is comparable to traditional methods, soil-based and greenhouse-based farming, in terms of resources invested and to identify the alternative method with the highest yield. Resources in this thesis will be defined as the amount of water that is used. Our thesis aims to support businesses and local governance in decision-making regarding implementation of alternative urban farming in Sweden. A literature search was conducted using keywords such as hydroponic, vertical farming and sustainability. Statistical analysis of collected data indicates significant differences in yield and water usage among the collected examples which resulted in vertical hydroponic farming offering the highest yield in terms of space utilization, with significant statistical significance (p < 0.05). Additionally, hydroponic farming requires the least amount of water compared to other methods although this is not a certainty as there was no significant statistical difference between the different methods. The study demonstrates that hydroponic farming can achieve higher yields compared to traditional soil-based farming and other alternative farming methods. The study emphasizes organizational and governmental solutions to improve self-sufficiency at the local and national levels. Alternative urban farming methods offer a sustainable contribution to increasing self-sufficiency while minimizing resource usage.

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  • 42.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordberg, Åke
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Westin, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum.
    Askfilter för rening av svavelväte i deponigas2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill gas is formed under anaerobic conditions in landfills by microbial degradation of organic material. The gas composition can vary, but at Swedish landfills the gas generally consists of 40-60% methane, 30-40% carbon dioxide and 5-20% nitrogen. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a highly toxic and corrosive gas, which occur in landfill gas in varying concentrations, from 10 to 30,000 ppm (equivalent to 0.001 to 3.0%). It is desirable that the landfill gas is used for electricity and/or heat production, but to do that there is a need to clean the gas to reach <200 ppm H2S. High levels of H2S increases wear on the engine/boiler and thus the frequency of servicing. This leads to expensive maintenance costs, and ultimately shortens the economic life of the plant. To reduce corrosion, it is common to adjust the flue gas temperature, but this also leads to a lower efficiency and thus reduces the energy utilization of the gas. In some cases the gas concentration of H2S is judged to be too high to be used for energy production at all. In 2015, approximately 53 GWh of landfill gas was flared in Sweden, which in many cases is due to problems with high levels of H2S.

     

    Cleaning of landfill gas from H2S leads to several values; the gas energy is used efficiently, maintenance and service costs of the engines/boiler are reduced, and emissions of acidifying sulphur dioxide from combustion of landfill gas decreases. There are commercial cleaning technologies for H2S but they are expensive, both in terms of capital cost and operating cost. Thus, there is a need to develop new cost efficient cleaning technologies that improve the economic outcome at landfills and that enables landfill gas with high H2S concentrations to be utilized for valuable energy transformation.

     

    RISE (formerly JTI – Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering) together with SLU develops new, potentially cost-efficient methods for upgrading biogas to fuel quality. One of the methods is based on the gas passing through a bed of moist ash (a so-called ash filter), where carbon dioxide and H2S are fixed. The hypothesis of this project was that ashes originating from the incineration of waste, recycled waste wood etc., can be used to clean the high levels of H2S in landfill gas. This type of ashes will usually be disposed of in landfills anyway and if the treatment effect is good, it would generate synergy effects in the form of the ash first being used to clean landfill gas from sulphur before it is used as a construction material at landfills.

     

    This project performed two trials in pilot scale at a Swedish landfill with very high concentration of H2S, approximately 15,000 ppm. Different gas flow rates were studied (0.7 to 7.6 m3 / h), while the volume of ash used were similar in the two trials, 0,37 m3. The concentration of H2S in the cleaned gas was consistently very low during treatment, < 10 ppm at low gas flow rates and < 200 ppm at high gas flow rates. Two types of ash were investigated and both proved to have very good capacity to fix H2S, 44-61 g H2S/kg dry ash. In comparison with literature values, there is only one study showing an uptake capacity in the same order. Other studies report an order of magnitude lower uptake capacity.

    Based on the experimental results, the technical and economic potential for an ash filter as the cleaning method was assessed. The calculations were made for various typical landfills to cover the different range of landfills. For normal sized landfills with gas flow rates of 100-1 000 m3/h and H2S concentrations between 100 and 1 000 ppm, the amount of ash needed is 10-130 tons of dry ash per year. For the special case where the H2S concentration is extremely high, the amount of ash increases and a plant with 15 000 ppm H2S and a gas flow rate of 200 m3/h requires approximately 800 tons of dry ash per year. However, overall modest amounts of ash is required and considering all Swedish landfills the requirement of ash would be only 0.2-0.3% of the annual production of ash in Sweden.

     

    The economic calculations show that the ash filter is a competitive method for removal of H2S. For the special case of extremely high levels of H2S, it turned out that the cost of the ash filter is approximately 20% lower in comparison with the cheapest feasible conventional cleaning technology on the market. Also for the cleaning of landfill gas at more normal levels of H2S, the ash filter is competitive. At low gas flow rates (100 m3/h), the ash filter is clearly competitive compared to literature values for conventional cleaning technologies. The economy of scale seems to be higher for the conventional cleaning technologies, and consequently the difference between the cost of ash filter cleaning and other technologies is less at higher gas flow rates.

     

    The low treatment cost of the ash filter reveals opportunities for landfills that currently do not clean the gas from H2S. During the project 15 Swedish landfills was contacted and none of these reported any form of H2S cleaning. When using cleaning, the landfill gas can be used effectively, i.e. reduced flaring, increased efficiency of electricity and heat production with reduced wear on boilers and combustion equipment as well as reduced emissions of sulphur into the atmosphere, which also reduces the potential odour problems around the landfill.

     

    For further development, the design of an ash filter module prototype at full-scale is important. Furthermore, the treated ashes should be analysed for leaching characteristics, storability and usability as construction materials or as cover landfills along with an assessment of the overall environmental impact. Further tests at full scale should be made at other landfills with various gas flow rates and H2S concentrations to verify the performance of the conducted pilot tests.

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    Askfilter för rening av svavelväte från deponigas
  • 43.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Optimering av driftstemperatur vid mesofil rötning av slam: - funktionskontroll vid Uppsalas reningsverk2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficient processes and the use of fossil free fuels play an important role in order to reduce the impact of climate change. Anaerobic digestion is a common way for stabilizing sewage sludge at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). One of the benefits with anaerobic digestion is that it also produces biogas, a fossil free fuel with low greenhouse gas emissions. An operational temperature within the mesophilic range has proven to give a stable process with an unfluctuating production of gas. The mesophilic temperature range between 25-40°C but most processes are operated between 35-40°C. This study investigates the opportunity to lower the temperature within the mesophilic range in order to reduce energy consumption. It is important to maintain the production of biogas with a lower temperature. Therefore, the reduction in VS-content (VS-volatile solids), methane yield and time for degradation was determined by a BMP-experiment (BMP-Biochemical Methane Potential) in three different temperatures (32, 34.5 and 37.5°C). In order to quantify the reduction in heat consumption with lower operational temperatures the change in heat balance for a full-scale WWTP in Uppsala was calculated. A major part of the operational cost is dewatering of sludge and it is therefore important that it does not deteriorate with a lower temperature. The effect on the dewaterability at different temperatures was examined by a filterability test measuring CST (capillary suction time). The results from the study showed no significant difference in methane yield between 37.5°C and 34.5°C. The methane yield at 32°C was 11 % lower compared to 37.5°C but the degradation kinetic was not affected by a temperature change. The reduction in heat consumption was 14 % when the temperature was reduced to 34.5°C and 27 % when it was reduced to 32°C. The filterability test did not show a deterioration with lower temperatures. The study showed that it is possible to reduce the operational temperature for anaerobic digestion at the WWTP in Uppsala in order to reduce the energy consumption. To confirm these results a continuously experiment should be done, but this study shows that it is possible to get a successful degradation in a lower mesophilic temperature. This leads the way for further investigations within the mesophilic range and could lead to optimizing anaerobic digestion and the opportunity to get an energy efficient production of biogas.

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  • 44. Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Mácsik, Josef
    van der Nat, Dimitry
    Reducing Highway Runoff Pollution: sustainable design and maintenance of stormwater treatment facilities2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Management practices for handling highway runoff differ between the various European national road administrations. These differences manifest themselves in different approaches related to planning, construction and operation of runoff treatment facilities. For example, Sweden, Norway and Germany, use different standard guidelines when managing stormwater. Proprietors, owners, consultants and building contractors involved in design and construction of treatment facilities are accountable for meeting the requirements set by the national road administrations or by the national environmental authorities. With the aim of compiling current practice and knowledge of stormwater best management practices (BMPs) the Swedish Transport Administration (STA), the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) and the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) initiated the collaborative project “Reducing Highway Runoff Pollution” (REHIRUP). This project aims to provide a basis for design, operation and management of environmentally safe and cost-effective stormwater BMPs. Thereby, REHIRUP endeavours to contribute to the overall goal of improved pollutant retention efficiencies, enhanced degradation of organic pollutants, optimised multiple use of the land utilised for runoff management, and an overall better utilization of resources. One of the project objectives is to provide recommendations for maintenance of future BMPs such as settling ponds, subterranean stormwater storage facilities and filters, and thereby improve road runoff management in an environmentally and economically sustainable way. This report summarizes outcomes of two work packages (WPs) of the REHIRUP project, namely Maintenance (WP2) and Sustainable design (WP4).

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    Omslagsbild
  • 45.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Division of Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food, Box 7033, SE-750 50 Uppsala, Sweden; HELIX - Competence Centre, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden .
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. HELIX - Competence Centre, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden .
    Rydberg, A.
    Lean-inspired development work in agriculture: Implications for the work environment2020In: Agronomy Research, ISSN 1406-894X, E-ISSN 2228-4907, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 324-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmers operate in a turbulent environment that includes international competition, weather conditions and animal behaviour, for example, and is difficult for them to control. However, economy and productivity always have a high priority. As a consequence, farms have started to implement lean-inspired work systems. At the same time, health and safety are of urgent concern in the sector. This article explores how famers apply lean-inspired work processes. It identifies work environment changes during and after a lean implementation, as well as possible developments in the work environment following implementation of the lean philosophy. Data were collected from three groups: lean, lean-light and development-inclined reference farms (in total 54 farms), using a questionnaire and interviews. The results indicate that a majority of the lean farms were applying several lean principles and tools, and the lean philosophy. The lean-light farms applied parts of the lean concept, while the reference farms applied some of the more general tools, used in lean and elsewhere, such as visualisation in various forms and to various extents. The results showed positive effects of lean on the psychosocial work environment, better work structure and improved information, communication and co-operation. The physical work environment was improved to some extent by lean, where advantages such as a more structured and practical work environment with less physical movements and locomotion could be noticed. The lean concept provided a more structured and systematic approach to dealing with work and production environmental issues, for managers as well as for employees.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Kjell
    et al.
    School for Forest Management, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Swedish University of Agriculture.
    Angelstam, Per
    School for Forest Management, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Swedish University of Agriculture / Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Axelsson, Robert
    County Administrative Board Västmanland.
    Bax, Gerhard
    Limited GIS skills hamper spatial planning for green infrastructures in Sweden2022In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 80, no 1, p. 16-35Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The term green infrastructure captures the need to conserve biodiversity and to sustain landscapes’ different ecosystem services. Maintaining green infrastructures through protected areas, management and landscape restoration requires knowledge in geography, spatial data about biophysical, anthropogenic and immaterial values, spatial comprehensive planning, and thus geographical information systems (GIS). To understand land use planning practices and planning education regarding GIS in Sweden we interviewed 43 planners and reviewed 20 planning education programmes. All planners used GIS to look at data but did not carry out spatial analyses of land covers. BSc programmes included more GIS than MSc programmes but very few taught analyses for spatial planning. As key spatial planning actors, municipalities’ barriers and bridges for improved GIS use for collaborative learning about green infrastructures are discussed. A concluding section presents examples of how GIS can support spatial planning for green infrastructures.

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    Limited-GIS-skills-hamper-spatial-planning
  • 47.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Palme, Ulrika
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Markanvändningens effekter på växthusgaser, biologisk mångfald och vatten2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten fokuserar på skötselmetoder inom skogsoch jordbruk och vilka effekter de får för växthusgaser, biologisk mångfald och vattenkvalitet/kvantitet. Skogen spelar en allt större roll i klimatarbetet för att minska atmosfärens halter av växthusgaser, främst koldioxid. För den fysiska samhällsplaneringen är det viktigt att kunna diskutera olika utfall för olika markanvändning, både i tid och rum. Rapporten visar genom en systemanalytisk ansats att: De flesta skötselmetoder kan möta målen för växthusgasminskning, minimera påverkan på biologisk mångfald och vattensäkerhet, med undantag för intensivskogsbruk. Rapporten kan användas som diskussionsunderlag när olika miljömål konkurrerar.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Ramon
    Halmstad University.
    Hållbart jordbruk inom vattenskyddsområde: En studie om Sverige, Danmark, Frankrike och Tyskland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To guarantee protection of our drinking water, water catchment protections are established. These are divided into three different zones and in the first zone it is most likely that an activity, such as agriculture, will contaminate the water resource. Hence the activities are strongly regulated or banned. The EU communion is working towards a sustained water quality through several directives; Nitrate Directive, Waterframwork directives and Sustainable use of pesticide directive. The main purpose is to regulate the diffuse pollution from agriculture.This thesis is about how Denmark, Germany and France are working towards a sustainable agriculture within water protection areas. Sweden is also discussed but mainly about two different methods applied in Linköpings and Ljungbys municipalties.How the different countries work is mainly the same due to the directives. However, there are some interesting water management methods to observe such as voluntary agreements between water companies and farmers. Moreover, the sustainability perspective is approached in a larger scale where you and I as consumers also contribute via consumer-pays-principle. Therefore, we are, by our demand for water, the problem but also the solution and together we can contribute with good social, economic and ecological conditions for ourselves and the farmer.

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  • 49.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Göteborgs botaniska trädgård.
    Fredriksson, Lena M
    Tidningen Utemiljö.
    Att värdera ekosystemtjänster2017In: Gröna Fakta från Utemiljö, ISSN 0284-9798, no 8, p. I-VIIIArticle, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet ekosystemtjänster används allt oftare och värdet av ekosystemtjänsterna ska, enligt Naturvårdsverkets etappmål, vara allmänt kända och integrerade i olika ställningstaganden och beslut senast 2018. Här förklaras begreppet i korthet och några tips om hur det kan implementeras i kommuner ges. Därefter beskriver forskarna Yvonne Andersson-Sköld och Jenny Klingberg ett forskningsprojekt som de har deltagit i och vars resultat är en handbok om hur ekosystemtjänster kan värderas.

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  • 50.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Göteborgs botaniska trädgård, Sverige.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Göteborgs universitet, Sverige.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Göteborgs universitet, Sverige.
    Metod för bedömning och värdering av ekosystemtjänster i staden (VEKST): Handbok version 1.02018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under åren 2013–2016 genomfördes forskningsprojektet Värdering av ekosystemtjänster av urban grönska med syftet att kartlägga, synliggöra och värdera den urbana grönskan. Inom forskningsprojektet studerades bland annat hur ekosystemtjänsterna klimatreglering, förbättrad luftkvalitet, dagvattenhantering, bullerdämpning, rekreation och välbefinnande kan bedömas och värderas. Dessutom kartlades delar av den biologiska mångfalden (träd, buskar, örter, bin och fåglar). För att kunna bedöma och värdera de ekosystemtjänster som ingick i projektet utvecklades en stegvis metod. Metoden baseras på mätningar och inventeringar i sju fallstudieområden i Göteborg, intervjuer och enkätstudier samt relevant litteratur. I denna handbok presenteras metoden samt mallar som guidar användaren genom metodens fem steg. Handboken innehåller också exempel på hur metoden har använts. Viktigt att poängtera är att metoden som beskrivs i denna handbok inte är en slutprodukt utan en första version. I takt med ökad kunskap kan, och bör, metoden utvecklas, kompletteras och förbättras. Till exempel kan fler ekosystemtjänster bedömas och värderas. Metoden är utvecklad med tanken att den ska vara enkel att använda, systematisk och transparent i alla steg. Denna handbok vänder sig bland annat till stadsplanerare och konsulter som på uppdrag av planerare arbetar med beslutsstöd i planprocessen. Metoden kan användas för att bedöma inverkan av förändringar i stadsbilden, t ex vid förtätning, eller för att följa förändringar över tid.

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