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  • 1.
    Abu Hatab, Assem
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boqvist, Sofia
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lagerkvist, Carl-Johan
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Editorial: Livestock Systems in Urbanizing Environments: Impacts and Implications for Food Security in Developing Countries2022In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, E-ISSN 2297-1769, Vol. 9, article id 966044Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 2. Alonso, Silvia
    et al.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Roesel, Kristina
    Traore, Sylvain Gnamien
    Yobouet, Bassa Antoine
    Ndour, Andrée Prisca Ndjoug
    Carron, Maud
    Grace, Delia
    Where literature is scarce: observations and lessons learnt from four systematic reviews of zoonoses in African countries.2016In: Animal Health Research Reviews, ISSN 1466-2523, E-ISSN 1475-2654, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 28-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of a systematic review depends on the availability, accessibility and quality of literature related to the review question. This paper presents the literature found in four systematic reviews conducted for a selection of zoonotic hazards in four livestock value chains in Africa, as well as setting out the challenges in conducting the reviews. The protocol was designed following international standards, and addressed four questions around prevalence, risk factors, control options and impact of various hazards and populations. Searches were conducted in four online databases. Articles were screened for relevance, and quality was assessed before data extraction. Literature on zoonotic hazards was in general scarce and access to full articles was limited. Overall, 25-40% of papers were considered poor quality. The diversity of approaches and designs in the studies compromised the ability to generate summarized estimates. We found that the emphasis of veterinary research has been on livestock problems rather than public health issues, although this seems to be shifting in the last decade; we also found there are limited studies on impact and control. While increasing literature is being published around zoonoses in Africa, this is still inadequate to appropriately inform policy and guide research efforts.

  • 3.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

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    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation
  • 4.
    Anjum, Muna F
    et al.
    Department of Bacteriology, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK.
    Schmitt, Heike
    Centre for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology - Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), 3720 BA, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), 751 89, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Public Health Agency of Sweden, 171 82 Solna, Sweden.
    Berendonk, Thomas U
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), 751 89, Uppsala, Sweden Present address: Department of Microbiology, Public Health Agency of Sweden, 171 82 Solna, Sweden.
    The potential of using E. coli as an indicator for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the environment2021In: Current Opinion in Microbiology, ISSN 1369-5274, E-ISSN 1879-0364, Vol. 64, p. 152-158Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), in a One-Health perspective, surveillance play an important role. Monitoring systems already exist in the human health and livestock sectors, but there are no environmental monitoring programs. Therefore there is an urgent need to initiate environmental AMR monitoring programs nationally and globally, which will complement existing systems in different sectors. However, environmental programs should not only identify anthropogenic influences and levels of AMR, but they should also allow for identification of transmissions to and from human and animal populations. In the current review we therefore propose using antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli as indicators for monitoring occurrence and levels of AMR in the environment, including wildlife.

  • 5. Anyango, Gladys
    et al.
    Mutua, Florence
    Kagera, Irene
    Andang‘O, Pauline
    Grace, Delia
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    A survey of aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw milk produced in urban and peri-urban areas of Kisumu County, Kenya2018In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACTBackground: Food safety is of increasing global concern, and a OneHealth issue requiring attention of many disciplines. Aflatoxins are toxins produced by fungi and found in foods and feeds, and exposure causes negative health effects in humans and animals. When lactating animals consume aflatoxin B1, the metabolite (AFM1) is transferred to milk.Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to determine characteristics of smallholder dairy farming in urban and peri-urban areas of Kisumu and quantify AFM1 in milk. Data was collected from 97 randomly selected dairy farms on farming practices, milk production, and awareness about aflatoxins. Collected milk samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for AFM1.Results: Average milk produced was 13 liters per day per household and mainly used for household consumption and sold to neighbours. Farmers mainly fed cows on forage and concentrates (62.9%). Levels of AFM1 ranged from below the detection limit to 151 ppt, with a mean of 29.67 p...

  • 6.
    Bergh, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Lund, Iréne
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacolgy, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boström, Anna
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyytiäinen, Heli
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, Helsinki, Finland.
    A Systematic Review of Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine in Sport and Companion Animals: Soft Tissue Mobilization2022In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 12, no 11, article id 1440Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft tissue mobilization is frequently used in the treatment of sport and companion animals. There is, however, uncertainty regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of these methods. Therefore, the aim of this systematic literature review was to assess the evidence for clinical effects of massage and stretching in cats, dogs, and horses. A bibliographic search, restricted to studies in cats, dogs, and horses, was performed on Web of Science Core Collection, CABI, and PubMed. Relevant articles were assessed for scientific quality, and information was extracted on study characteristics, species, type of treatment, indication, and treatment effects. Of 1189 unique publications screened, 11 were eligible for inclusion. The risk of bias was assessed as high in eight of the studies and moderate in three of the studies, two of the latter indicating a decreased heart rate after massage. There was considerable heterogeneity in reported treatment effects. Therefore, the scientific evidence is not strong enough to define the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of massage and stretching in sport and companion animals.

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  • 7.
    Bergh, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lund, Iréne
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacolgy, Karolinska Institutet, SE, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boström, Anna
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyytiäinen, Heli
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, Helsinki, Finland.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Reply to Weiermayer et al. Evidence-Based Human Homeopathy and Veterinary Homeopathy. Comment on “Bergh et al. A Systematic Review of Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine: “Miscellaneous Therapies”. Animals 2021, 11, 3356”2022In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 12, no 16, article id 2098Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 8. Bett, Bernard
    et al.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Delia, Grace
    Climate Change and Infectious Livestock Diseases: The Case of Rift Valley Fever and Tick-Borne Diseases2019In: The Climate-Smart Agriculture Papers: Investigating the Business of a Productive, Resilient and Low Emission Future / [ed] Todd S. Rosenstock, Andreea Nowak & Evan Girvetz, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 29-37Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change influences the occurrence and transmission of a wide range of livestock diseases through multiple pathways. Diseases caused by pathogens that spent part of their life cycle outside the host (e.g. in vectors or the environment) are more sensitive in this regard, compared to those caused by obligate pathogens. In this chapter, we use two well-studied vector-borne diseases—Rift Valley fever (RVF) and tick-borne diseases (TBDs)—as case studies to describe direct pathways through which climate change influences infectious disease-risk in East and southern Africa. The first case study demonstrates that changes in the distribution and frequency of above-normal precipitation increases the frequency of RVF epidemics. The second case study suggests that an increase in temperature would cause shifts in the spatial distribution of TBDs, with cooler and wetter areas expected to experience heightened risk with climate change. These diseases already cause severe losses in agricultural productivity, food security and socio-economic development wherever they occur, and an increase in their incidence or geographical coverage would intensify these losses. We further illustrate some of the control measures that can be used to manage these diseases and recommend that more research should be done to better understand the impacts of climate change on livestock diseases as well as on the effectiveness of the available intervention measures.

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  • 9.
    Björkman, Ingeborg
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    Röing, Marta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth Hlth Syst & Policy HSP Impr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksen, Jaran
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth Hlth Syst & Policy HSP Impr, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sodersjukhuset, Venhalsan, Dept Clin Sci & Educ,Unit Infect Dis, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Animal Production With Restrictive Use of Antibiotics to Contain Antimicrobial Resistance in Sweden: A Qualitative Study2021In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, E-ISSN 2297-1769, Vol. 7, article id 619030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibacterial resistance (ABR), is a growing global threat to human and animal health. Efforts to contain ABR are urgently needed. This qualitative interview study explored perceptions of work to contain ABR among stakeholders in food animal production in Sweden, with focus on broiler production. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with a strategic sample of 13 stakeholders in different parts of production, from professionals at policy level, veterinary authorities, to poultry farmers and poultry veterinarians. Conventional inductive content analysis was used for data analysis. A latent theme, "Working in unison," emerged, based on the consistency expressed by the informants when they discussed ABR, use of antibiotics, and animal health management. This theme was built on four domains representing the content of the interviews: Knowledge and engagement; Cooperation; Animal health concept; and Development in balance with economic prerequisites. According to the informants, ABR has not been an isolated issue in Sweden but has been included in a tradition of animal health and welfare, and actions have been driven by the industry or by government regulations. Veterinarians described how they worked closely with farmers. Farmers felt involved in the development of animal health management methods. The One Health concept was well-known among stakeholders at national level but not at farm level. Close cooperation between stakeholders seems to facilitate development of animal production with low use of antibiotics.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Björnström, Agnes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Blomström, Anne-Lie
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Box 7028, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Singh, Manish Chandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Hesson, Jenny C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Sindbis virus neutralising antibodies detected in Swedish horses2021In: One Health, ISSN 2352-7714, Vol. 12, article id 100242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of viruses transmitted by mosquitoes are well known to cause disease in both humans and horses, ranging from mild fevers to mortal neurological disease. A recently discovered connection between the alphavirus Sindbis virus (SINV) and neurological disease in horses in South Africa initiated this serological study in northern Europe, where the same genotype of SINV (SINV-I) is also highly endemic. We tested 171 serum samples, originally obtained from horses for other reasons from April to October 2019, for presence of SINV neutralising antibodies using a plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT). The serum from six horses reduced the plaque count more than 80%, and two out of these reduced the plaque count more than 90%. These horses were sampled in six different regions of Sweden, and included individuals sampled from April to August. This study shows that horses in Sweden have become infected with SINV and developed neutralising antibodies. Potential connections between infection and development of disease are important questions for future studies.

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  • 11.
    Boström, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, Helsinki, Finland.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Bergh, Anna
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hyytiäinen, Heli
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, Helsinki, Finland.
    Systematic review of complementary and alternative veterinary medicine in sport and companion animals: therapeutic ultrasound2022In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 12, no 22, article id 3144Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To explore the scientific evidence for therapeutic ultrasound (TU), we conducted a systematic review of the literature on TU in dogs, horses, donkeys, and cats. Methods: In three major databases, relevant articles published in 1980–2020 were identified. The risk of bias in each article was evaluated. Results: Twenty-four relevant articles on the effects of TU in dogs, nine in horses, two in donkeys, and one in cats were identified. TU usually involved 2–6 treatments weekly for up to 4 weeks. Articles on tendon, ligament, and bone healing, acute aseptic arthritis, osteoarthritis, paraparesis, hindquarter weakness, and back muscle pain were identified. In experimental bone lesions in dogs, there is moderate scientific evidence for enhanced healing. For the treatment of other musculoskeletal conditions, the scientific evidence is insufficient due to the high risk of bias. There is substantial evidence that continuous TU increases tissue temperature in muscles and tendons by up to 5 °C in healthy animals. For disorders in tendons, ligaments, muscles, and joints in sport and companion animals, there is insufficient evidence for the clinical effects of TU.

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  • 12.
    Boström, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bergh, Anna
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hyytiäinen, Heli
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Systematic review of complementary and alternative veterinary medicine in sport and companion animals: extracorporeal shockwave therapy2022In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 12, no 22, article id 3124Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) is increasingly used to treat different types of musculoskeletal conditions in sport and companion animals. To explore the scientific basis for the treatment, we conducted a systematic review of the literature on ECSWT used in horses, dogs, and cats. Methods: Relevant articles published in 1980–2020 were identified from three major databases. Each article was assessed for risk of bias. Results: The review identified 27 relevant articles on the effects of ECSWT in horses, nine in dogs, but none in cats. Typically, ECSWT involved one to three treatment sessions at 1- to 3-week intervals. We identified studies on bone mass and bone healing, wound healing, navicular disease, ligament injury, desmitis, sesamoiditis, tendon injury, osteoarthritis, and short-term analgesic effects. Common to all indications was that the scientific evidence was very limited. For each separate indication, there were relatively few studies, many of which had methodological flaws. Where favorable results were reported, they were usually not replicated in independent studies. A few encouraging results were found. Conclusions: In sport and companion animals, the scientific evidence for clinical effects of ECSWT in horses, dogs, and cats is limited. For some applications, notably short-term pain relief, ligament ailments, and osteoarthritis, the results seem promising and warrant further exploration in high-quality studies.

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  • 13.
    Brebu, M.
    et al.
    Petru Poni Inst Macromol Chem, Iasi, Romania..
    Beleno, K.
    Petru Poni Inst Macromol Chem, Iasi, Romania.;Univ Pamplona, Pamplona, Colombia..
    Ionescu, Radu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Solid State Physics.
    Turcu, D.
    Spiru Haret Univ, Fac Vet Med, Bucharest, Romania..
    Dinu, H.
    Pasteur Inst, Bucharest, Romania..
    Caciandone, H.
    CSV Targusor, Constanta, Romania..
    Enache, A. A.
    Apel Laser, Mogosoaia, Ilfov, Romania..
    Volatolomic analysis applied to farm animals. II.: Volatile compounds emitted from the faeces of cattle2020In: REVISTA ROMANA DE MEDICINA VETERINARA, ISSN 1220-3173, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 34-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatolomics opens new possibilities for the study of the biological systems. The volatility distribution of highly- and semi-volatile organic compounds released from the faeces of cattle was studied. Samples were collected from farm animals in three regions of Romania, namely Ramnicu Valcea, Bistri.a Nasaud and Constanta. Special procedures for sample collection, storage, transportation and analysis were developed. Organic compounds were found in a broad boiling point range, from n-C-6 (36 degrees C) up to n-C-17 (302 degrees C), but the highest concentration of about 80 % was found in the range of n-C-9-n-C-12 (151-216 degrees C), with a peak at n-C-10 (151-174 degrees C). Only slight variations were observed among the samples collected from different geographical regions.

  • 14.
    Brebu, M.
    et al.
    Petru Poni Inst Macromol Chem, Iasi, Jud Iasi, Romania..
    Mogollon, Lisset
    Univ Pamplona, Pamplona, Colombia..
    Ionescu, Radu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Solid State Physics.
    Turcu, D.
    Spiru Haret Univ, Fac Vet Med, Bucharest, Romania..
    Grigorescu, P.
    Spiru Haret Univ, Fac Vet Med, Bucharest, Romania..
    Iordache, A.
    CSV Tetoiu, Jud Valcea, Romania..
    Enache, A. A.
    Apel Laser, Mogosoaia, Jud Ilfov, Romania..
    Volatolomic analysis applied to farm animals. III.: Volatile compounds emitted through skin of cattle2020In: REVISTA ROMANA DE MEDICINA VETERINARA, ISSN 1220-3173, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 29-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatolomics opens new possibilities for the study of biological systems. Volatility distribution of highly-and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted through the skin of cattle was studied. Samples were collected from farm animals in three regions of Romania, namely Ramnicu Valcea, Bistrita Nasaud and Constanta. Special procedures for sample collection, storage, transportation and analysis were developed. About 62 -68 % of organic compounds emitted through skin had the volatility in the boiling point range of n-C(10 )ormal paraffin (151-174 degrees C) and another 16-18 % was in the range of n-C-11- n-C-12 (174-216 degrees C). Only slight variations were observed among samples collected from different geographical regions.

  • 15. Breed, Andrew C.
    et al.
    Breed, Martin F.
    Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity (ACEBB), and School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide.
    Meers, Joanne
    Field, Hume E.
    Evidence of endemic Hendra virus infection in flying-foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus): implications for disease risk management2011In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, p. e28816-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the seroepidemiology of Hendra virus in a spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus) population in northern Australia, near the location of an equine and associated human Hendra virus infection in late 2004. The pattern of infection in the population was investigated using a serial cross-sectional serological study over a 25-month period, with blood sampled from 521 individuals over six sampling sessions. Antibody titres to the virus were determined by virus neutralisation test. In contrast to the expected episodic infection pattern, we observed that seroprevalence gradually increased over the two years suggesting infection was endemic in the population over the study period. Our results suggested age, pregnancy and lactation were significant risk factors for a detectable neutralizing antibody response. Antibody titres were significantly higher in females than males, with the highest titres occurring in pregnant animals. Temporal variation in antibody titres suggests that herd immunity to the virus may wax and wane on a seasonal basis. These findings support an endemic infection pattern of henipaviruses in bat populations suggesting their infection dynamics may differ significantly from the acute, self limiting episodic pattern observed with related viruses (e.g. measles virus, phocine distemper virus, rinderpest virus) hence requiring a much smaller critical host population size to sustain the virus. These findings help inform predictive modelling of henipavirus infection in bat populations, and indicate that the life cycle of the reservoir species should be taken into account when developing risk management strategies for henipaviruses.

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    Breed_PLoS_ONE.pdf
  • 16.
    Chenais, Erika
    et al.
    Natl Vet Inst, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wennström, Patrick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kartskhia, Natia
    Natl Food Agcy, Tbilisi, Georgia..
    Fischer, Klara
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Risatti, Guillermo
    Univ Connecticut, Storrs, CT USA..
    Chaligava, Tengiz
    Natl Food Agcy, Tbilisi, Georgia..
    Enukidze, Tea
    State Lab Agr, Tbilisi, Georgia..
    Ståhl, Karl
    Natl Vet Inst, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Vepkhvadze, Nino G.
    State Lab Agr, Tbilisi, Georgia..
    Perceptions of pastoralist problems: A participatory study on animal management, disease spectrum and animal health priorities of small ruminant pastoralists in Georgia2021In: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, ISSN 0167-5877, E-ISSN 1873-1716, Vol. 193, article id 105412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small ruminants support the livelihoods of millions of poor pastoralist and sedentary households around the world. While pastoralists are generally not amongst the poorest in terms of assets, they are frequently marginalised in terms of their access to political power, health and education. This study was undertaken among pastoralist households keeping small ruminants in four regions of the country of Georgia. Small ruminants are an important cultural, social and economic asset in Georgia and are mainly managed in a transhumant pastoralist system. Georgia suffered its first, and so far only outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in 2016. This qualitative interview study was designed to acquire contextual understanding of local small ruminant husbandry and the livelihood situations of the participating pastoralists, and to detect historical, unreported PPR outbreaks. Focus group discussions comprising participatory epidemiology tools and other forms of interviews were used to explore small ruminant management, disease spectrum and management, and animal health priorities. The participants had experienced a wide variety of animal health constraints, with intestinal worms, braxy, piroplasmosis, pasture-related problems, predators and lameness emerging as priorities. No historic, unreported PPR outbreak was detected in this study, and PPR was not a priority for participants. Instead, the day-to-day reality of animal health for the pastoralists was characterised by co-infections of mainly endemic pathogens, and problems related to other challenges such as access to land, feed and genetic resources. The rationale behind the participants' prioritisation of animal health problems was supported by the need to pay extra attention to animals in order to avoid risk factors, keep animals healthy and minimise the negative impact of diseases or management problems; the various epidemiological and clinical parameters of the prioritised diseases; the economic impact of the specific problems and the zoonotic potential of diseases and predation. Even within regions, and within seemingly socially and culturally homogenous groups, there were important local differences in the problems faced by pastoralists that affect their livestock management. This study underlines the importance of a contextualised understanding of the local disease panorama and complexities in the livelihood situations of rural people when designing actions to improve animal health in general or, more specifically, passive surveillance as well as prevention or control measures. Finally, it is concluded that to achieve such an understanding, there is a need for participatory, scoping-style studies that specifically acknowledge diversity and power relations.

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  • 17.
    Chi, Xiaohui
    et al.
    Department of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Berglund, Björn
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Zou, Huiyun
    Department of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Zheng, Beiwen
    State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ji, Xiang
    Department of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Ottoson, Jakob
    Department of Risk and Benefit Assessment, National Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health—Health Systems and Policy, Medicines, Focusing Antibiotics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Xuewen
    Department of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Nilsson, Lennart E
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Characterization of Clinically Relevant Strains of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Occurring in Environmental Sources in a Rural Area of China by Using Whole-Genome Sequencing2019In: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen, and a common cause of healthcare-associated infections such as pneumonia, septicemia, and urinary tract infection. The purpose of this study was to survey the occurrence of and characterize K. pneumoniae in different environmental sources in a rural area of Shandong province, China. Two hundred and thirty-one samples from different environmental sources in 12 villages were screened for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-(ESBL)-producing K. pneumoniae, and 14 (6%) samples were positive. All isolates were multidrug-resistant and a few of them belonged to clinically relevant strains which are known to cause hospital outbreaks worldwide. Serotypes, virulence genes, serum survival, and phagocytosis survival were analyzed and the results showed the presence of virulence factors associated with highly virulent clones and a high degree of phagocytosis survivability, indicating the potential virulence of these isolates. These results emphasize the need for further studies designed to elucidate the role of the environment in transmission and dissemination of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and the potential risk posed to human and environmental health.

  • 18.
    Coronado, Liani
    et al.
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Rios, Liliam
    University of New Brunswick, Reiman Cancer Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint John, NB, E2L 4L5 Canada.
    Frías, María Teresa
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Amarán, Laymara
    National Laboratory for Veterinary Diagnostic (NLVD), Avenida 51 No. 33 222, Arroyo Arenas, La Lisa, La Habana, Cuba.
    Naranjo, Paula
    Veterinary Medicine Institute, Havana, Cuba.
    Percedo, María Irian
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Perera, Carmen Laura
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Prieto, Felix
    National Laboratory for Veterinary Diagnostic (NLVD), Avenida 51 No. 33 222, Arroyo Arenas, La Lisa, La Habana, Cuba.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Perez, Lester J
    University of Illinois, College of Veterinary Science, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Urbana, Illinois, 61802 United States.
    Positive selection pressure on E2 protein of classical swine fever virus drives variations in virulence, pathogenesis and antigenicity: implication for epidemiological surveillance in endemic areas2019In: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, ISSN 1865-1674, E-ISSN 1865-1682, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 2362-2382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by CSF virus (CSFV), is considered one of the most important infectious diseases with devasting consequences for the pig industry. Recent reports describe the emergence of new CSFV-strains resulting from the action of positive selection pressure, due mainly to the bottleneck effect generated by ineffective vaccination. Even though a decrease in the genetic diversity of the positive selected CSFV-strains has been observed by several research groups, there is little information about the effect of this selective force on the virulence degree, antigenicity and pathogenicity of this type of strains. Hence, the aim of the current study was to determine the effect of the positive selection pressure on these three parameters of CSFV-strains, emerged as result of the bottleneck effects induced by unproper vaccination in a CSF-endemic area. Moreover, the effect of the positive selected strains on the epidemiological surveillance system was assessed. By the combination of in vitro, in vivo and immunoinformatic approaches we revealed that the action of the positive selection pressure induces a decrease in virulence and alteration in pathogenicity and antigenicity. However, we also noted that the evolutionary process of CSFV, especially in segregated microenvironments, could contribute to the gain-fitness event, restoring the highly virulent pattern of the circulating strains. Besides, we denoted that the presence of low virulent strains selected by bottleneck effect after inefficient vaccination can lead to a relevant challenge for the epidemiological surveillance of CSF, contributing to under-reports of the disease, favoring the perpetuation of the virus in the field. In this study B-cell and CTL epitopes on the E2 3D-structure model were also identified. Thus, the current study provides novel and significant insights into variation in virulence, pathogenesis and antigenicity experienced by CSFV strains after the positive selection pressure effect.

  • 19.
    Davey, Gareth
    et al.
    Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, School of Foreign Languages and Literature, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China.
    Khor, Mei
    Department of Psychology, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Sunway, Malaysia.
    Zhao, Xiang
    Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, School of Foreign Languages and Literature, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China.
    Key beliefs underlying public feeding of free-roaming cats in Malaysia and management suggestions2019In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public feeding of free-roaming cats subsidizes their population growth, and has consequences in highly interconnected ecosystems including predation of native wildlife and alteration of their behavior and populations. Research is needed to explain, predict, and possibly curb public feeding. We conducted a theoretically informed analysis of key beliefs underlying intentions to feed free-roaming cats in Malaysia, offering new insights as well as management suggestions. Normative beliefs had the strongest associations with behavioral intentions. Management strategies should consider social influences from families and friends of those who feed free-roaming cats, especially cat owners and their significant others. Our results also suggest key behavioral beliefs regarding disadvantages of feeding free-roaming cats could be strengthened through education and other initiatives. The findings are particularly important for Malaysia, which is biodiversity-rich but has a large free-roaming cat population and a high incidence of public feeding.

  • 20.
    Davey, Gareth
    et al.
    College of Arts and Sciences, Webster University, Thailand Campus, Tambon Sampraya, Cha-am, Phetchaburi, Thailand.
    Zhao, Xiang
    Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, School of Foreign Languages and Literature, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China.
    ‘Feeding a cat that isn’t yours? Think again!’: an intervention protocol for reducing the feeding of free-roaming cats by residents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia2020In: Pacific Conservation Biology, ISSN 1038-2097, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 420-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-roaming cats negatively affect wildlife, human health, and society, and anthropogenic food sources partly maintain their populations. There is a dearth of theory-informed interventions to change people’s beliefs about feeding animals. Here, we outline a behavioural change intervention protocol to modify Malaysians’ key beliefs (i.e. the most influential beliefs) about feeding free-roaming cats. Our protocol serves as a novel, timely, and potentially valuable tool for addressing a significant conservation and societal issue. The Theory of Planned Behaviour is the theoretical framework of the intervention, underpinning its targets (i.e. behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs), content, delivery, and evaluation. The prescriptive intervention consists of one full-day workshop (duration = 5 h) with three sessions each attempting to alter one key belief using behavioural change strategies. A two-armed parallel-group prospective-cluster randomised controlled trial will be used to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. The protocol can be easily delivered for the public and adapted for other types of locations, human–animal interactions, and contexts. It also complements animal management and policy change approaches.

  • 21. Deka, Ram Pratim
    et al.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Grace, Delia
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Bovine brucellosis: prevalence, risk factors, economic cost and control options with particular reference to India- a review2018In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACTBackground: Brucellosis is an economically important zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution, with low-income countries being more affected. The disease is endemic in India, a country that house the world’s largest cattle and buffalo population and produce the most milk in the world.Results: Prevalence of the disease in the country is reported as low as 1% to as high as 60% by different researchers but many of the published studies that reported higher prevalence were conducted in non-randomised samples. Based on this review, overall prevalence in the country is likely 12% or less. About 20 different risk factors are reported that contribute/predispose to occurrence of bovine brucellosis. The risk factors could be classified in four groups: host factors, farmer’s factors, managemental factors, and agro-ecological factors. Various studies reported high economic burden of the diseases in dairy animals but there is dearth of comprehensive and rigorous economic studies.Conclusions: In the absence...

  • 22.
    du Preez, Marinus
    et al.
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Govender, Danny
    South African National Parks, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Metallic elements in Nile Crocodile eggs from the Kruger National Park, South Africa2018In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 148, p. 930-941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nile Crocodile is the largest predator on the African continent. Recent mass mortalities in the Kruger National Park (KNP) raised concerns about possible influence of pollution. We analysed eggs and their eggshells collected from nests inside the KNP and from a crocodile farm for metallic elements. We found that mercury, selenium, and copper occurred at levels of concern. Eggshells had very high concentrations of iron. Apart from toxicological implications associated with elevated concentrations in eggs, we found iron possibly contributing towards thicker eggshells. Thicker shells may act as a barrier to gas and water exchange, as well as possibly increasing the effort required for the hatchling to emerge from tightly packed shells under sand. Pollutants are transported into the KNP via rivers, and possibly via air. Mercury and copper pollution are waste-, industrial- and mining-related; ecotoxicological concern should therefore be extended to all areas where the four African crocodile species occur. Reptiles are under-represented in ecotoxicological literature in general, and especially from Africa. We know of only one previous report on metals and metalloids in crocodile eggs from Africa (Zimbabwe), published 30 years ago. Reduced fitness, endocrine disruption and effects on behaviour are other possible sub-lethal effects associated with metallic elements that may only become apparent decades later in a long-lived species such as the Nile Crocodile. In the face of habitat destruction, pollution, human population increases, and climate change, further research is needed regarding pollutant concentrations and effects in all African reptiles . The rivers that carry water from outside the park sustain its aquatic life, but also transport pollutants into the KNP. Therefore, improved source mitigation remains an important task and responsibility for all involved.

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  • 23.
    El-Seedi, Hesham
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Jiangsu Univ, Int Res Ctr Food Nutr & Safety, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Univ, Jiangsu Educ Dept, Int Joint Res Lab Intelligent Agr & Agriprod Proc, Nanjing 210024, Peoples R China.;Menoufia Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Chem, Shibin Al Kawm 32512, Egypt..
    Abd El-Wahed, Aida A.
    Agr Res Ctr, Plant Protect Res Inst, Dept Bee Res, Giza 12627, Egypt..
    Al Naggar, Yahya
    Tanta Univ, Fac Sci, Zool Dept, Tanta 31527, Egypt..
    Saeed, Aamer
    Quaid I Azam Univ, Dept Chem, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan..
    Xiao, Jianbo
    Univ Vigo, Dept Analyt Chem & Food Sci, Vigo 36310, Spain..
    Ullah, Hammad
    Univ Napoli Federico II, Dept Pharm, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Musharraf, Syed G.
    Univ Karachi, Int Ctr Chem & Biol Sci, HEJ Res Inst Chem, Karachi 75270, Pakistan..
    Boskabady, Mohammad H.
    Mashhad Univ Med Sci, Appl Biomed Res Ctr, Mashhad 1313199137, Razavi Khorasan, Iran.;Mashhad Univ Med Sci, Fac Med, Dept Physiol, Mashhad 1313199137, Razavi Khorasan, Iran..
    Cao, Wei
    Northwest Univ, Coll Food Sci & Technol, Xian 710069, Peoples R China.;Bee Prod Res Ctr Shaanxi Prov, Xian 710065, Peoples R China..
    Guo, Zhiming
    Jiangsu Univ, Sch Food & Biol Engn, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Daglia, Maria
    Jiangsu Univ, Int Res Ctr Food Nutr & Safety, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Univ Napoli Federico II, Dept Pharm, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    El Wakil, Abeer
    Alexandria Univ, Fac Educ, Dept Biol & Geol Sci, Alexandria 215260, Egypt..
    Wang, Kai
    Chinese Acad Agr Sci, Inst Apicultural Res, Beijing 100093, Peoples R China..
    Khalifa, Shaden A. M.
    Stockholm Univ, Wenner Gren Inst, Dept Mol Biosci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Insights into the role of natural products in the control of the honey bee gut parasite (Nosema spp.)2022In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 12, no 21, article id 3062Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The honey bee is an important economic insect due to its role in pollinating many agricultural plants. Unfortunately, bees are susceptible to many pathogens, including pests, parasites, bacteria, and viruses, most of which exert a destructive impact on thousands of colonies. The occurrence of resistance to the therapeutic substances used against these organisms is rising, and the residue from these chemicals may accumulate in honey bee products, subsequently affecting the human health. There is current advice to avoid the use of antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, and other drugs in bees, and therefore, it is necessary to develop alternative strategies for the treatment of bee diseases. In this context, the impact of nosema diseases (nosemosis) on bee health and the negative insults of existing drugs are discussed. Moreover, attempts to combat nosema through the use of alternative compounds, including essential oils, plant extracts, and microbes in vitro and in vivo, are documented.

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  • 24.
    Essner, Ann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle.
    Acupuncture in a dog with fibrocartilaginous embolism C6-T22011In: Spinal cord trauma- Physical therapy and rehabilitation / [ed] Bockstahler Barbara, Olsztyn, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle.
    Gauffin, Annelie
    Therapeutic exercises for dogs after cranial cruciate ligament injury2010In: Physical therapy of the stifle, Zagreb, 2010, p. 47-48Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Lena
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hellström, Karin
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gustås, Pia
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjöström, Rita
    Unit of Research Education and Development, Region Jämtland Härjedalen, Östersund, Sweden; Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Psychometric evaluation of the canine brief pain inventory in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to osteoarthritis2017In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 59, no 1, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate intervention, implement evidence-based practice and enhance the welfare of dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA), access to valid, reliable and clinically relevant outcome measures is crucial for researchers, veterinarians and rehabilitation practitioners. The objectives of the present study were to translate and evaluate psychometric properties, in terms of internal consistency and construct validity, of the owner-reported measure canine brief pain inventory (CBPI) in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to OA.

    RESULTS: Twenty-one owners of clinically sound dogs and 58 owners of dogs with pain related to OA were included in this observational and cross-sectional study. After being translated according to the guidelines for patient-reported outcome measures, the CBPI was completed by the canine owners. Construct validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis, by repeating the principal component analysis and by assessing for differences between clinically sound dogs and dogs with pain related to OA. Internal consistency was estimated by Cronbach's α. Confirmatory factor analysis was not able to confirm the factor-structure models tested in our sample. Principal component analysis showed a two-component structure, pain severity and pain interference of function. Two components accounted for 76.8% of the total variance, suggesting an acceptable fit of a two-component structure. The ratings from the clinically sound dogs differed from OA dogs and showed significantly lower CBPI total sum. Cronbach's α was 0.94 for the total CBPI, 0.91 for the pain severity and 0.91 for the pain interference of function.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the translated version of the CBPI is valid for use in the Swedish language. The findings suggest satisfying psychometric properties in terms of high internal consistencies and ability to discriminate clinically sound dogs from OA dogs. However, based on the confirmatory factor analysis, the original factor structure in the CBPI is not ideally suited to measure pain related to OA in our sample and the hypothesis of the presented two-factor structure was rejected. Further research needs to be conducted to determine whether the original psychometric results from CBPI can be replicated across different target groups and particularly with larger sample size.

  • 27.
    Evans, Alina L.
    et al.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Hedmark University College, Evenstad, Norway; Section of Arctic Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Tromsø, Norway.
    Sahlén, Veronica
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Stoen, Ole-Gunnar
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fahlman, Åsa
    Section of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Veterinary Clinical and Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada.
    Brunberg, Sven
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Madslien, Knut
    Section for Wildlife Health, National Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    Fröbert, Ole
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Cardiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Swenson, Jon E.
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway; Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Arnemo, Jon M.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Hedmark University College, Campus Evenstad, Norway; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Capture, Anesthesia, and Disturbance of Free-Ranging Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) during Hibernation2012In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 7, article id e40520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted thirteen immobilizations of previously collared hibernating two-to four-year-old brown bears (Ursus arctos) weighing 21-66 kg in central Sweden in winter 2010 and 2011 for comparative physiology research. Here we report, for the first time, an effective protocol for the capture and anesthesia of free-ranging brown bears during hibernation and an assessment of the disturbance the captures caused. Bears were darted in anthill, soil, or uprooted tree dens on eleven occasions, but two bears in rock dens fled and were darted outside the den. We used medetomidine at 0.02-0.06 mg/kg and zolazepam-tiletamine at 0.9-2.8 mg/kg for anesthesia. In addition, ketamine at 1.5 mg/kg was hand-injected intramuscularly in four bears and in six it was included in the dart at 1.1-3.0 mg/kg. Once anesthetized, bears were removed from the dens. In nine bears, arterial blood samples were analyzed immediately with a portable blood gas analyzer. We corrected hypoxemia in seven bears (PaO2 57-74 mmHg) with supplemental oxygen. We placed the bears back into the dens and antagonized the effect of medetomidine with atipamezole. Capturing bears in the den significantly increased the risk of den abandonment. One of twelve collared bears that were captured remained at the original den until spring, and eleven, left their dens (mean +/- standard deviation) 3.2 +/- 3.6 (range 0.5-10.5) days after capture. They used 1.9 +/- 0.9 intermediate resting sites, during 6.2 +/- 7.8 days before entering a new permanent den. The eleven new permanent dens were located 730 +/- 589 m from the original dens. We documented that it was feasible and safe to capture hibernating brown bears, although they behaved differently than black bears. When doing so, researchers should use 25% of the doses used for helicopter darting during the active period and should consider increased energetic costs associated with den abandonment.

  • 28.
    Falkenberg Hansen, Kjetil
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    The acoustics and performance of DJ scratching, Analysis and modelling2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the analysis and modeling of scratching, in other words, the DJ (disk jockey) practice of using the turntable as a musical instrument. There has been experimental use of turntables as musical instruments since their invention, but the use is now mainly ascribed to the musical genre hip-hop and the playing style known as scratching. Scratching has developed to become a skillful instrument-playing practice with complex musical output performed by DJs. The impact on popular music culture has been significant, and for many, the DJ set-up of turntables and a mixer is now a natural instrument choice for undertaking a creative music activity. Six papers are included in this thesis, where the first three approach the acoustics and performance of scratching, and the second three approach scratch modeling and the DJ interface. Additional studies included here expand on the scope of the papers.

    For the acoustics and performance studies, DJs were recorded playing both demonstrations of standard performance techniques, and expressive performances on sensor-equipped instruments. Analysis of the data revealed that there are both differences and commonalities in playing strategies between musicians, and between expressive intentions. One characteristic feature of scratching is the range of standard playing techniques, but in performances it seems DJs vary the combination of playing techniques more than the rendering of these techniques. The third study describes some of the acoustic parameters of typical scratch improvisations and looks at which musical parameters are typically used for expressive performances. Extracted acoustic and performance parameters from the data show the functional ranges within which DJs normally play.

    Unlike traditional musical instruments, the equipment used for scratching was not intended to be used for creating music. The interface studies focus on traditional as well as new interfaces for DJs, where parameter mappings between input gestures and output signal are described. Standard performance techniques have been modeled in software called Skipproof, based on results from the first papers. Skipproof was used for testing other types of controllers than turntables, where complex DJ gestures could be manipulated using simplified control actions, enabling even non-experts to play expressively within the stylistic boundaries of DJ scratching. The last paper describes an experiment of using an existing hardware platform, the Reactable, to help designing and prototyping the interaction between different sound models and instrument interfaces, including scratching and Skipproof.

    In addition to the included papers, studies were conducted of expressivity, description of the emotional contents of scratching, DJ playing activities, and the coupling between playing techniques and sample. The physical affordances of the turntable, mixer and samples, as well as genre conventions of hip-hop, are assumed to explain some of the findings that distinguish scratching from other instrumental sounds or practices.

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  • 29.
    Ferrari, Desiree
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Univ Anim Hosp, Box 7040, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lundgren, Sandra
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Univ Anim Hosp, Box 7040, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Holmberg, Johanna
    AniCura Albano Anim Hosp, Rinkebyvagen 21B, S-18236 Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Box 7054, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Edner, Anna
    AniCura Falu Anim Hosp, Samuelsdalsvagen 2B, S-79161 Falun, Sweden..
    Ekstrand, Carl
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Box 7070, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nyman, Gorel
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Box 7054, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bondesson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. SVA, Dept Chem Environm & Feed Hyg, Natl Vet Inst, SE-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hagman, Ragnvi
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Box 7054, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Concentration of carprofen in the milk of lactating bitches after cesarean section and during inflammatory conditions2022In: Theriogenology, ISSN 0093-691X, E-ISSN 1879-3231, Vol. 181, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain treatment of lactating bitches is a clinically relevant, but complicated issue. Published scientific studies regarding the excretion of drugs in canine milk are scarce. When considering the risk of side effects in their offspring, lactating bitches have traditionally received very restricted analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy. Our aim was to quantify the concentrations of carprofen in milk from lactating bitches and relate those to potential risks for the puppies. A second aim was to evaluate the impact mastitis may have on the concentration of carprofen in milk. A population of 100 bitches was enrolled in the study, among which 88 were bitches treated with carprofen after cesarean section (Group CS), eight were bitches with painful inflammatory conditions (Group I) and four were bitches with mastitis (Group M). The patients enrolled in the study received carprofen 4 mg/kg sc at day 1 followed by 2 mg/kg po every 12 h for the following 2-5 days. Owners were instructed to collect milk once a day for five days. The concentration of carprofen in the milk was quantified with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The data obtained were statistically analyzed as repeated-measures data with a mixed-model approach. Data were used to calculate the theoretical maximum total daily intake of carprofen by the puppies in order to perform a computerized simulation of the plasma concentration of carprofen in the puppies. Follow-up telephone interviews to check the status of the enrolled bitches and their litters occurred at one week and three-six months after treatment with car-profen. The major finding of the study was that the concentration of carprofen in the milk was <700 ng/ mL from bitches undergoing CS or suffering painful conditions other than mastitis. In comparison, administration of 2 mg/kg of carprofen sc or po to adult dogs, results in mean maximal plasma con-centrations of 19480 +/- 5420 ng/mL (mean +/- SD). Moreover, data suggests that inflammation of the mammary gland results in a higher concentration of carprofen in milk (up to 1300 ng/mL). In the computerized simulation, the plasma concentrations of carprofen in puppies in group CS and in group I are one tenth of the concentration in adult dogs receiving carprofen at standard doses. Considering the low excretion into milk, carprofen provides an analgesic alternative to lactating bitches without mastitis.(c) 2022 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  • 30.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    et al.
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Coronado, Liani
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Amarán, Laymara
    National Laboratory for Veterinary Diagnostic (NLVD), Avenida 51 No. 33 222, Arroyo Arenas, La Lisa, La Habana, Cuba.
    Perera, Carmen Laura
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Centelles, Yosdany
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Montano, Damarys N.
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Alfonso, Pastor
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Fernández, Octavio
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Santoro, Kleber R.
    Postgraduate Program in Biometrics and Applied Statistics (PPGBEA), Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (UFRPE). Rua Dom Manuel de Medeiros s/n. Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE 52171-900.
    Frías-Lepoureau, María Teresa
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Percedo, María Irian
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Descriptive epidemiology of endemic Classical Swine Fever in Cuba2018In: Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, ISSN 1695-971X, E-ISSN 2171-9292, Vol. 16, no 2, article id e0506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Cuba, Classical Swine Fever (CSF) has become an endemic disease since 1993 with several outbreaks each year despite the compulsory vaccination program implemented. To deepen the disease characterization is essential for improving the CSF control measures and to achieve its eradication. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of CSF occurrences in Cuba during a seven-year period within the endemic situation. Data on CSF occurrence from January 2010 to December 2016 were analyzed. The seven-year period shows a tendency of the number of affected premises to increase (r=0.31, p=0.005) over time (month). Directional distribution (1SD ellipse) indicated a great dispersion of affected premises by year across the country with a trend to a higher occurrence to the west. It was demonstrated by the negative correlation (r=-0.893, p=0.007) between the longitude of the mean center of the ellipses over the years. The Kernel density indicated that the disease was spatially distributed across the whole country, but four hot spots were found in the western (Pinar del Río and Artemisa) and eastern (Guantánamo and Holguín) regions. The clinical sign most frequently reported in affected premises was fever, followed by loss of appetite, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea. The most frequent observed clinical signs were non-specific, which complicates the disease recognition in the field. The obtained results have a practical importance for improving the efficiency of the CSF control program implemented in the country and contribute to enhance epidemiological surveillance taking into account the risk based principles.

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  • 31.
    Fonseca-Rodríguez, Osvaldo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Pinheiro Júnior, José Wilton
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Aparecido Mota, Rinaldo
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Spatiotemporal Analysis of Glanders in Brazil2019In: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, ISSN 0737-0806, E-ISSN 1542-7412, Vol. 78, p. 14-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Brazil, glanders remains a serious problem, with the obligatory sacrifice of disease-positive animals without compensation. Each year, glanders cases are reported in several regions of the country, causing severe economic losses and trade restrictions. The present study describes and discusses the occurrence of glanders foci in Brazil during a 12-year period from 2005 to 2016. The highest frequency of reported affected holdings during the study period was in the northeast region. Moreover, during this period, the disease incidence in Brazil showed an overall increasing tendency. The number of affected holdings significantly increased during the last four years of the period, and more cases were noted during the months of May and June. Spatiotemporally, there are four high-risk glanders clusters: (1) cluster A (relative risk [RR = 6.51, P < .0001) involved the northeast region from March 2008 to February 2014; (2) cluster B (RR = 17.37, P < .0001) involved a southeast region state from March 2013 to June 2015; (3) cluster C (RR = 6.92, P < .0001) involved the states in the midwest, southeast, and south regions of Brazil from March 2015 to May 2016; and (4) cluster D (RR = 19.07, P < .0001) involved a north region state from October 2015 to April 2016. Only two states of the north region (Acre and Amapá) did not experience glanders during the study period.

  • 32.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Svedberg, Anna-Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Wilsson, Erik
    Swedish Armed Forces Dog Training Unit, Märsta, Sweden.
    Olsen Faresjö, Åshild
    Linköpings universitet, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Behavior and cortisol responses of dogs evaluated in a standardized temperament test for military working dogs2016In: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 11, p. 7-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military and police working dogs are often exposed to stressful or threatening events, and an improper response, e.g., fear, may implicate both reduced working efficiency and welfare. Therefore, identifying individuals that display a favorable response to potentially threatening situations is of great interest. In the present study, we investigated behavior responses of 85 prospective military working dogs in 4 subtests in a standardized temperament test used to select working dogs for the Swedish Armed Forces. Our goal was to evaluate behavioral responses in specific subtests and cortisol responses of candidate dogs. After dogs were rated as approved or nonapproved based on the test leader’s assessment of the full test result, we independently analyzed video recordings of 4 subtests. In addition, for 37 dogs, we analyzed pretest and posttest salivary cortisol levels. Dogs which were approved by the test leader for further training scored higher in the video recordings on emotionality and, in particular, fear-related behavior during a subset of the test and had higher levels of cortisol both before and after the test, than nonapproved dogs. Although this may actually reflect the desired traits, it could also indicate a bias in the selection procedure, which may pose limitations on the attempts to recruit the most suitable working dogs.

  • 33.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division, Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Anna-Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wilsson, Erik
    Swedish Armed Forces Dog Training Unit, Märsta, Sweden.
    Olsen Faresjö, Åshild
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Behavior and cortisol responses of dogs evaluated in a standardized temperament test for military working dogs2016In: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 11, p. 7-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military and police working dogs are often exposed to stressful or threatening events, and an improper response, e.g., fear, may implicate both reduced working efficiency and welfare. Therefore, identifying individuals that display a favorable response to potentially threatening situations is of great interest. In the present study, we investigated behavior responses of 85 prospective military working dogs in 4 subtests in a standardized temperament test used to select working dogs for the Swedish Armed Forces. Our goal was to evaluate behavioral responses in specific subtests and cortisol responses of candidate dogs. After dogs were rated as approved or nonapproved based on the test leader’s assessment of the full test result, we independently analyzed video recordings of 4 subtests. In addition, for 37 dogs, we analyzed pretest and posttest salivary cortisol levels. Dogs which were approved by the test leader for further training scored higher in the video recordings on emotionality and, in particular, fear-related behavior during a subset of the test and had higher levels of cortisol both before and after the test, than nonapproved dogs. Although this may actually reflect the desired traits, it could also indicate a bias in the selection procedure, which may pose limitations on the attempts to recruit the most suitable working dogs.

  • 34.
    Girvan, Pilar
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies.
    Clearing up the bullshit: Deconstructing 'feminisation', gender stereotypes and gender biases within UK veterinary surgery2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores ‘feminisation’ discourse(s) within the UK veterinary profession, including the ways in which gender stereotypes and biases also influence such discourses and experiences of working within the field. Drawing upon and combining a range of sociological, organisational and feminist theories such as Witz’s (1992) theory of gendered professional projects and Butler’s (1990) highly influential notion of performativity, I am able to contextualise and expand upon the ‘doing’ of the veterinary profession as well as being able to frame ‘feminisation’ discourses as paradoxes, potentially producing the effects they articulate. My analysis is divided into two parts; the first deals with results of a 463 participant survey of veterinary workers regarding definitions, perceptions and observations of ‘feminisation’ and gender difference, highlighting the significance of this subject matter within their professional lives. The second part incorporates a deeper thematic analysis of particular everyday realities, emerging from four semi-structured interviews which also aimed to explore in greater detail individual perceptions and observations regarding ‘feminisation’ and gender biases and stereotypes, encouraging participants themselves to reflect upon their experiences. A number of conclusions emerged during the analysis, including an intriguing insight that those who tended to draw most strongly on gender stereotypes and biases to outline their perceptions and observations were paradoxically those who most vehemently believed gender was irrelevant. Fundamentally however this study concludes that the concept of ‘feminisation’ is a fluid conceptualisation, a cultural process and not just empirical category of ‘empty rhetoric’ as commonly utilised and applied to the veterinary profession; as such it has the potential to be utilised extensively to progress the profession in terms of wider inclusiveness, equality, transformation, in offering reconceptualised ways of considering what it means to be part of a ‘profession’ not predicated on patriarchal structures, and to ultimately reperceive how gender can be (re/un)enacted in transformative ways alongside progressively rearticulated ‘feminisation’ discourses.

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    Pilar Girvan Thesis
  • 35.
    Gizejewski, Z
    et al.
    Institute of Animal Breeding and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Olsztyn, Poland.
    Söderquist, L
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Genital and sperm characteristics of wild, free rangingred deer stags (Cervus elaphus L) hunted in different regions of Poland2010In: Wildlife Biology in Practice, ISSN 1646-1509, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 81-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to establish reference values for sperm morphology in wild red deer, genital tracts were collected from thirty-six 3-11 years old free-ranging, wild red deer stags (Cervus elaphus L) shot down during 3 consecutive mating seasons (1996-1998) at three different environmental regions of Poland, defining two major ecotypes: (i) highland (outer eastern Carpathian range, Bieszczady mountains) and, (ii) lowland (Mazuria and Pomerania) and studied within 4.5h-49h after death for testis (T), epididymides (E) and vesicular gland (VG) variables. Spermatozoa collected from the E-cauda were examined for motility and morphology (light and electron microscopy levels). Both T size and weight and VS-weight differed with age (P<0.05-0.01) while habitat influenced T size and weight (P<0.01) a well as sperm motility (P<0.05). Neither sperm numbers nor morphology showed significant differences, mostly owing to

    the large variation recorded among stags (range 1-72%). Domain-grouped sperm morphological deviations were <5%, the mean total proportion of abnormal spermatozoa ranging 7.2-17.5%. Although variation was present, the values ought to be used as reference for spermiogrammes.

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  • 36.
    Handlin, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Skara, Sweden.
    Human-Human and Human-Animal Interaction: Some Common Physiological and Psychological Effects2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present thesis was to investigate hormonal and physiological effects in mothers during a breastfeeding session and in dogs and their owners in response to short-term interaction. In study one, sixty-six mothers receiving either exogenous oxytocin infusion and/or epidural analgesia (EDA) during labor or intramuscular oxytocin injection post partum were studied. Oxytocin, prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, as well as blood pressure were measured during a breastfeeding session two days after birth. In response to breastfeeding two days after birth, the mothers displayed a pulsatile release of oxytocin and increasing prolactin levels. In addition, the activity in the HPA-axis was reduced and maternal blood pressure decreased. The results also show that EDA administration in combination with oxytocin during labor resulted insignificantly lower oxytocin levels and higher cortisol levels, as well as higher bloodpressure in response to breastfeeding two days after birth, compared to EDA administration alone. In addition, oxytocin infusions dose-dependently lowered the mothers’ endogenous oxytocin levels two days after birth. In study two, ten female dog owners and their male Labrador dogs participated, together with ten controls. Their levels of oxytocin, cortisol and insulin, as well as their heart rate, were measured. The connection between the quality of the dogowner relationship and hormone levels was also explored. Short-term interaction between dogs and their owners resulted in oxytocin release in both species and their cortisol levels and heart rate were also affected. Oxytocin levels and positive attitudes regarding the dog-owner relationship were positively correlated. In conclusion, both human-human and human-animal interactions induce oxytocin release and promote oxytocin mediated effects, such as decreasing cortisol levels and blood pressure. In addition, social interaction and oxytocin levels arepositively related.

  • 37.
    Handlin, Linda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Hydbring-Sandberg, Eva
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Anne
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Ejdebäck, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jansson, Anna
    Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Short-Term Interaction between Dogs and Their Owners: Effects on Oxytocin, Cortisol, Insulin and Heart Rate-An Exploratory Study2011In: Anthrozoos, ISSN 0892-7936, E-ISSN 1753-0377, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 301-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this exploratory study was to determine heart rate and the levels of oxytocin, cortisol, and insulin in dogs and their owners in response to a short-term interaction. In addition, the dogs' behavior was studied. The owners' responses were compared with those obtained from a control group. Ten female volunteers and their own male Labrador dogs participated in an experiment during which the owner stroked, petted, and talked with her dog during the first 3 minutes. Blood samples were collected from both dog and owner before (0) and at 1, 3, 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the start of the interaction. Blood samples were analyzed by EIA. Heart rate was monitored telemetrically. The data were analyzed using linear mixed models and paired t-tests. The dogs' oxytocin levels were significantly increased 3 minutes after the start of the interaction (p = 0.027). Cortisol levels were significantly increased after 15 and 30 minutes (p = 0.004 and p = 0.022, respectively), and heart rate was significantly decreased after 55 minutes (p = 0.008). The dogs displayed normal behaviors during the experiment. The owners' oxylocin levels peaked between 1 and 5 minutes after interaction (p = 0.026). No such effect was seen in the controls. Cortisol levels displayed a significant decrease at 15 or 30 minutes in both owners and controls, and insulin levels did so at 60 minutes (p = 0.030, p = 0.002 and p = 0.002, p < 0.0001, respectively). Heart rate decreased significantly in the owners at 55 and 60 minutes (p = 0.0008) but not in the controls. In conclusion, short-term sensory interaction between dogs and their owners influences hormonal levels and heart rate. However, further studies need to be performed in order to better understand the effects of interaction between dogs and their owners.

  • 38.
    Handlin, Linda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Ejdebäck, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Hydbring-Sandberg, Eva
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Associations between the Psychological Characteristics of the Human-Dog Relationship and Oxytocin and Cortisol Levels2012In: Anthrozoos, ISSN 0892-7936, E-ISSN 1753-0377, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 215-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore possible correlations between dog owners' relationships with their dogs, as measured with the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS), and oxytocin and cortisol levels in both the owners and their dogs. Ten female owners of male Labrador Retrievers completed the MDORS. The scores obtained from the single items, subscales, and total score of the MDORS were calculated. Ten blood samples were collected from each dog owner and her dog during a 60-minute interaction. Blood samples were analyzed for oxytocin and cortisol by Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA) and mean values of oxytocin and cortisol were calculated in both owners and dogs. The MDORS scores obtained were correlated with basal and mean oxytocin and cortisol levels. The correlation analysis revealed some relationships between the scores of items in the MDORS that reflect the character of the dog-owner-relationship and the owners' hormone levels. For example, higher oxytocin levels in the owners were associated with greater frequency in kissing their dogs (rs = 0.864, p = 0.001). Lower cortisol levels in the owners were associated with their perception that it will be more traumatic when their dog dies (rs = -0.730, p = 0.025). The correlation analysis also revealed some relationships between the scores of items in the MDORS and the dogs' hormone levels. For example, greater frequency in owners kissing their dogs was associated with higher oxytocin levels in the dogs (rs = 0.753, p = 0.029). Six items in the subscale Perceived Costs, as well as the subscale itself, correlated significantly with the dogs' oxytocin levels (rs = 0.820, p = 0.007), that is, the lower the perceived cost, the higher the dogs' oxytocin levels. In addition, significant correlations between the oxytocin levels of the owners and the dogs were demonstrated. Possible mechanisms behind these correlations are discussed. In conclusion, the scores of some items and the subscales of the MDORS correlated with oxytocin, and to a lesser extent cortisol, levels in both the owners and dogs.

  • 39.
    Hassell, James M.
    et al.
    Univ Liverpool, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Neston L7 3EA, England.;Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Ward, Melissa J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Immun Infect & Evolut, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Oxford, John Radcliffe Hosp, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Oxford, England..
    Muloi, Dishon
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Immun Infect & Evolut, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Bettridge, Judy M.
    Univ Liverpool, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Neston L7 3EA, England.;Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Robinson, Timothy P.
    Food & Agr Org United Nations, Rome, Italy..
    Kariuki, Sam
    Kenya Govt Med Res Ctr, Ctr Microbiol Res, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Ogendo, Allan
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kiiru, John
    Kenya Govt Med Res Ctr, Ctr Microbiol Res, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Imboma, Titus
    Natl Museums Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kang'ethe, Erastus K.
    Univ Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Öghren, Elin M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Williams, Nicola J.
    Univ Liverpool, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Neston L7 3EA, England..
    Begon, Michael
    Univ Liverpool, Inst Integrat Biol, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Woolhouse, Mark E. J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Immun Infect & Evolut, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Fevre, Eric M.
    Univ Liverpool, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Neston L7 3EA, England.;Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in Nairobi: an epidemiological study2019In: The Lancet Planetary Health, E-ISSN 2542-5196, Vol. 3, no 6, p. E259-E269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance is one of the great challenges facing global health security in the modern era. Wildlife, particularly those that use urban environments, are an important but understudied component of epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. We investigated antimicrobial resistance overlap between sympatric wildlife, humans, livestock, and their shared environment across the developing city of Nairobi, Kenya. We use these data to examine the role of urban wildlife in the spread of clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance.

    Methods: 99 households across Nairobi were randomly selected on the basis of socioeconomic stratification. A detailed survey was administered to household occupants, and samples (n=2102) were collected from the faeces of 75 wildlife species inhabiting household compounds (ie, the household and its perimeter; n=849), 13 livestock species (n=656), and humans (n=333), and from the external environment (n=288). Escherichia coli, our sentinel organism, was cultured and a single isolate from each sample tested for sensitivity to 13 antibiotics. Diversity of antimicrobial resistant phenotypes was compared between urban wildlife, humans, livestock, and the environment, to investigate whether wildlife are a net source for antimicrobial resistance in Nairobi. Generalised linear mixed models were used to determine whether the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant phenotypes and multidrug-resistant E coli carriage in urban wildlife is linked to variation in ecological traits, such as foraging behaviour, and to determine household-level risk factors for sharing of antimicrobial resistance between humans, wildlife, and livestock.

    Findings: E coli were isolated from 485 samples collected from wildlife between Sept 6,2015, and Sept 28, 2016. Wildlife carried a low prevalence of E coli isolates susceptible to all antibiotics tested (45 [9%] of 485 samples) and a high prevalence of clinically relevant multidrug resistance (252 [52%] of 485 samples), which varied between taxa and by foraging traits. Multiple isolates were resistant to one agent from at least seven antimicrobial classes tested for, and a single isolate was resistant to all antibiotics tested for in the study. The phenotypic diversity of antimicrobial-resistant E coli in wildlife was lower than in livestock, humans, and the environment. Within household compounds, statistical models identified two interfaces for exchange of antimicrobial resistance: between both rodents, humans and their rubbish, and seed-eating birds, humans and their rubbish; and between seed-eating birds, cattle, and bovine manure.

    Interpretation: Urban wildlife carry a high burden of clinically relevant antimicrobial-resistant E coli in Nairobi, exhibiting resistance to drugs considered crucial for human medicine by WHO. Identifiable traits of the wildlife contribute to this exposure; however, compared with humans, livestock, and the environment, low phenotypic diversity in wildlife is consistent with the hypothesis that wildlife are a net sink rather than source of clinically relevant resistance. Wildlife that interact closely with humans, livestock, and both human and livestock waste within households, are exposed to more antimicrobial resistant phenotypes, and could therefore act as conduits for the dissemination of clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance to the wider environment. These results provide novel insight into the broader epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in complex urban environments, characteristic of lower-middle-income countries. 

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  • 40.
    Hemberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Herrgarden Hjortkvarn, SE-69793 Hjortkvarn, Sweden..
    Niazi, Adnan
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, SLU Global Bioinformat Ctr, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Guo, Yongzhi
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Clin Sci, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Debnar, Viktoria J.
    Hungarian Univ Agr & Life Sci, Inst Anim Sci, Dept Prec Livestock Farming & Anim Biotech, Kaposvar Campus, H-2100 Godollo, Hungary..
    Vincze, Boglarka
    Univ Vet Med, Dept Obstet & Food Anim Med, H-1078 Budapest, Hungary..
    Morrell, Jane M.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Clin Sci, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kutvolgyi, Gabriella
    Hungarian Univ Agr & Life Sci, Inst Anim Sci, Dept Prec Livestock Farming & Anim Biotech, Kaposvar Campus, H-2100 Godollo, Hungary..
    Microbial Profiling of Amniotic Fluid, Umbilical Blood and Placenta of the Foaling Mare2023In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 13, no 12, article id 2029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple Summary Although previously the placenta was assumed to be sterile, with microbes only being present in association with pathology, recent studies have suggested that this assumption may not be correct. Some researchers argue for the presence of a microbial community in the placenta, which is important to help the foal to adapt to life outside the uterus. Therefore, we examined the placenta, amniotic fluid and umbilical blood of 24 foaling mares, as well as jugular blood from the foals. All of the mares and foals were healthy, and foaling was normal. Some bacterial growth was isolated in most of the umbilical blood samples. Bacterial DNA was extracted and sequenced from placental samples. The most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria (approximately 44%) and Actinobacteria (approximately 28%). In conclusion, bacteria were found in the fetal compartments and placenta of healthy equine pregnancies, perhaps lending support to the theory that the placenta has its own bacterial community. The presence of a microbiome/microbiota in the placenta is hotly debated. In previous studies, the presence of bacteria in equine amniotic fluid and umbilical blood was independent of foal health. The objective of the present study was to determine if the same bacteria are present in the equine placenta as in amniotic fluid and umbilical blood. Samples were obtained from 24 parturient mares and foals. Placental bacterial DNA was extracted, and the microbiome was identified using 16S rRNA sequencing. All amniotic fluid samples contained some polymorphonucleocytes; bacteria were isolated from four samples. Aerobic or anaerobic growth was found in 18 and 3 umbilical blood samples, respectively. Serum amyloid A was <5 mg/L in all 24 samples, total WBC varied between 2900 and 10,700/& mu;L, and fibrinogen varied between 0 and 5.16 g/L. In jugular blood, serum amyloid A was <5 mg/L in all 24 foals, total white blood count was 3200 to 8100/& mu;L, and fibrinogen was 0.44 to 4.42 g/L. The diversity of bacterial microbiota was similar in all placental regions at the phylum level but differed at the genus level; the most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria (42-46.26%) and Actinobacteria (26.91-29.96%). In conclusion, bacteria were found in the fetal compartments and placenta of healthy equine pregnancies; however, we can neither prove nor disprove the hypothesis that the placenta has its own microbiome.

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  • 41.
    Huber, Laura
    et al.
    Auburn Univ, Coll Vet Med, Dept Pathobiol, Auburn, AL 36849 USA; Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Environm Decis, Hlth Geog & Policy Grp, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Ström Hallenberg, Gunilla
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lunha, Kamonwan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leangapichart, Thongpan
    Norwegian Vet Inst, Sect Food Safety & AMR, Oslo, Norway.
    Jiwakanon, Jatesada
    Khon Kaen Univ, Res Grp Prevent Technol Livestock, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
    Hickman, Rachel A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sunde, Marianne
    Norwegian Vet Inst, Sect Food Safety & AMR, Oslo, Norway.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Van Boeckel, Thomas P.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Environm Decis, Hlth Geog & Policy Grp, Zurich, Switzerland; Ctr Dis Dynam Econ & Policy, Washington, DC USA.
    Geographic Drivers of Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Pigs in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand2021In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, E-ISSN 2297-1769, Vol. 8, article id 659051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Thailand, pig production has increased considerably in the last decades to meet a growing demand for pork. Antimicrobials are used routinely in intensive pig production to treat infections and increase productivity. However, the use of antimicrobials also contributes to the rise of antimicrobial resistance with potential consequences for animal and human health. Here, we quantify the association between antimicrobial use and resistance rates in extensive and intensive farms with a focus on geographic proximity between farm and drugstores. Of the 164 enrolled farms, 79% reported using antimicrobials for disease prevention, treatment, or as a feed additive. Antimicrobial-resistant E. coli were present in 63% of farms. These drugs included critically important antimicrobials, such as quinolones and penicillins. Medium-scale farms with intensive animal production practices showed higher resistance rates than small-scale farms with extensive practices. Farms with drug-resistant Escherichia coli were located closer to drugstores and a had a higher proportion of disease than farms without drug-resistant E. coli. We found no association between the presence of resistance in humans and antimicrobial use in pigs. Our findings call for actions to improve herd health to reduce the need for antimicrobials and systematic training of veterinarians and drugstore owners on judicious use of antimicrobials in animals to mitigate resistance.

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  • 42.
    Hultling, C
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosenlund, B
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Levi, Richard
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fridström, M
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöblom, P
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hillensjö, T
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Assisted ejaculation and in-vitro fertilization in the treatment of infertile spinal cord-injured men: the role of intracytoplasmic sperm injection.1997In: Human Reproduction, ISSN 0268-1161, E-ISSN 1460-2350, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 499-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present longitudinal descriptive study was to extend previous observations on the benefit of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in cases of anejaculatory infertility due to spinal cord injuries (SCI) and to report results achieved by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The study was performed in a national referral unit for SCI, Spinalis SCI Research Unit, the Karolinska Institute. The patient material consisted of couples with SCI men seeking treatment for their infertility. The inclusion criteria were: stable relationship, motile spermatozoa in a diagnostic sample and no female contraindications. Spermatozoa were retrieved through electroejaculation or vibratory stimulation. If the sperm quality was judged to be sufficient, standard IVF was performed. ICSI was employed if the semen quality was extremely poor. We have treated 25 couples in 52 cycles, leading to 81 ovum retrievals and 47 embryo transfers. Total sperm counts were very variable (0.01-978 x 10(6)). Before the introduction of ICSI the fertilization rate was 30%. ICSI increased the fertilization rate to 88%. There was no association between the pregnancy rate and the sperm count, level of injury or fertilization technique. A total of 16 clinical pregnancies was established, leading to 11 deliveries. This gives a cumulative pregnancy rate per couple of 56%.

  • 43.
    Jakobsen, Frida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Nguyen-Tien, Thang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Pham-Thanh, Long
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Bui, Vuong Nghia
    Nguyen-Viet, Hung
    Tran-Hai, Son
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Bui-Ngoc, Anh
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Hanoi, Vietnam; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Urban livestock-keeping and dengue in urban and peri-urban Hanoi, Vietnam.2019In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0007774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban livestock provides an important source of food and income, but it may increase the risks for disease transmission. Vectors, such as mosquitoes, might increase and thereby cause an enhanced transmission of infectious diseases, such as dengue fever; considered the most important mosquito-borne viral disease globally. This cross-sectional study evaluated the awareness of dengue fever and investigated how the presence of dengue vectors is affected by the keeping of livestock in urban households in the city of Hanoi, Vietnam. From February to March 2018, during the season of lowest occurrence of dengue in Hanoi, 140 households were interviewed, of which 69 kept livestock. A general trend was observed; respondents living in the Dan Phuong district, a peri-urban district, had better knowledge and practice regarding dengue as compared to the urban Ha Dong district. In total, 3899 mosquitoes were collected and identified, of which 52 (1.33%) were Aedes species. A significant difference between the two districts was observed, with more households in Ha Dong having Aedes spp. mosquitoes (p = 0.02) and a higher incidence of dengue fever (p = 0.001). There was no significant association between livestock-rearing and the presence of Aedes spp. mosquitoes (p = 0.955), or between livestock-rearing and the incidence of dengue fever (p = 0.08). In conclusion, this study could not find any indication that households keeping livestock were at higher risk of dengue virus infections in Hanoi during the season of lowest occurrence of dengue, but clearly indicated the need of more information provided to urban inhabitants, particularly on personal protection.

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  • 44. J.I., Nagasha
    et al.
    M, Ocaido
    Rajala, E.
    Abu Hatab, Assem
    Chiwona-Karltun, Linley
    Gender-based approaches for improving milk safety, value addition and marketing among smallholder livestock farmers2024In: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, E-ISSN 2571-581X, Vol. 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of Uganda, this study delves into gender-based strategies aimed at enhancing women's engagement in milk safety, value addition and marketing within smallholder livestock farming. The objectives were twofold: first, to document the current practices of women in milk safety, value addition, and marketing channels; second, to examine the constraints, opportunities, and strategies related to the production of safe milk and milk products, along with accessing sustainable markets. Conducted in four sub-counties of Kiruhura district, this research employed both qualitative participatory methods and structured questionnaires, including twelve focused group discussions and twenty key informant interviews with both women and men. Notably, 217 structured questionnaires were administered. The findings illuminate that women play a central role in milk processing, water provisioning, sanitation, hygiene practices and were the primary contributors to milk value addition, particularly in the production of butter and ghee. Despite their active involvement, women face challenges in accessing adequate milk quantities, employ traditional labor-intensive procedures and encounter difficulties in marketing their processed products. Men, often the household heads, held decision-making authority over milk consumption and control the selling of milk, contributing to gender disparities. Addressing these challenges necessitates comprehensive support, including training and capacity-building initiatives for both men and women in milk value addition, credit access, and market entry. The study underscores the potential for improved women's access to milk quantities, particularly for butter and ghee production, to strengthen rural livelihoods and boost dairy production in Uganda. 

  • 45.
    Josephson, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History of Ideas.
    Veterinären som folkets vetenskapsman: Kalvthymus och gettarmar mot cancer2020In: Humanimalt: Oss djur emellan – i medicin och samhälle förr och nu / [ed] Motzi Eklöf, Malmköping: Exempla förlag , 2020Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Landgren, Emilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Wallman, Sabina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hästavmaskningsmedels påverkan på miljö och välfärd2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy, natural pastures is very valuable for biodiversity in the form of both plants and animals. An efficient use of pastures helps to preserve biodiversity, but grazing animals needs to be de-wormed to keep them healthy and to prevent harmful parasites spread on the pasture. The awareness about the environmental impact of the frequent use of deworming agents is low among the public. Some people are unaware that the absorption in horses of anthelmintics is incomplete, which make the circumstances about enviromental effect important to investigate further. The scientific evidence in this area is limited and more studies and trials are needed to deepen the knowledge about the effects of anthelmintics in the environment. Our report includes a compilation of studies conducted on anthelmintics and equine parasites, as well as an experiment which was conducted at the University of Halmstad biogaslaboratory April 2014. Anthelmintics have been shown to have negative impact on the manure ecosystem and especially against manure living fauna. Deworming routines has changed over the years as the equine industry has developed. Nevertheless, there’s still a lack of concrete approach to deworming.

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    Hästavmaskningsmedels påverkan på miljö och välfärd
  • 47. Lee, Hu Suk
    et al.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Nguyen-Viet, Hung
    Khong, Nguyen Viet
    Nghia, Vuong Bui
    Xuan, Huyen Nguyen
    Grace, Delia
    An investigation into aflatoxin M 1 in slaughtered fattening pigs and awareness of aflatoxins in Vietnam.2017In: BMC Veterinary Research, E-ISSN 1746-6148, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite formed after aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is consumed by humans and animals; it can be detected in urine, milk and blood. It is well recognized that AFB1 is toxic to humans and other animals. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies aflatoxins as group 1 carcinogens and AFM1 as group 2B carcinogen. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure of pigs to aflatoxins as well as to assess the public awareness of aflatoxins among people in five provinces in Vietnam.

    RESULTS: A total of 1920 urine samples were collected from slaughterhouses located in five provinces. Overall, the positive rate of AFM1 was 53.90% (95% confidence interval 51.64-56.15) using a cut-off of 0.15 μg/kg (range: limit of detection to 13.66 μg/kg, median: 0.2 μg/kg and mean: 0.63 μg/kg). A total of 252 people from the general population were interviewed from 5 provinces, and overall 67.86% reported being aware of aflatoxins. We also found that men and more highly educated had significantly increased awareness of aflatoxins compared to the females and primary/secondary school group. The respective odds ratios (ORs) were as follows: "male" group (OR: 2.64), "high school educated" group (OR: 3.40) and "college/university or more educated" group (OR: 10.20).

    CONCLUSIONS: We can conclude that pigs in Vietnam are exposed to aflatoxins to varying degrees, and there may be a risk that pork products could contain AFM1. Further investigation is needed into the possible health impacts as well as to aid in establishing regulations for animal feed to reduce the health impacts in humans and animals.

  • 48.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Health in Non-human Organisms2020In: Explaining Health Across the Sciences / [ed] Jonathan Sholl; Suresh I.S. Rattan, Cham: Springer Nature, 2020, 1 uppl, p. 333-346Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses attempts made to define health for non-human organisms. This could be done either as a bottom-up approach finding a common denominator that all organisms share, or as a top-down approach which starts with a certain valuable criterion that those organisms share. Through this chapter I will discuss both approaches. I will briefly discuss the concept of organism and why I only choose to discuss biological organisms. This chapter will also further develop a categorization of health definitions that acknowledges the variety of the different kinds of definitions. This is done as a two-level categorization consisting of categories and versions of these categories. I will go through relevant categories and versions in order to be able to say which could be fruitful to use as well as where science needs to be heading.

  • 49.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transeminarium om eutanasi för människa och av djur2010In: Svensk Veterinärtidning, ISSN 0346-2250, Vol. 62, no 10, p. 23-25Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Zinsstag, Jakob
    Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Switzerland; University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Towards a healthy concept of health2020In: One Health: The Theory and Practice of Integrated Health Approaches / [ed] Jakob Zinsstag, Esther Schelling, Lisa Crump, Maxine Whittaker & Craig Stephen, Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2020, 2 uppl, p. 52-56Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses the concept of One Health and focuses on the two words in the concept with the aim to better explain what the terms ‘one’ and ‘health’ refer to. First, making a distinction between the usage of the terms ‘One Health approaches’, which refers to all appraoches with a multispecies and multi- or interdisciplinary scope, and ‘One Health’, which refers to a specific kind of approach being made. Second, the One Health definition set forth in this book was compared to three other definitions of One Health, and pros and cons were identified. Additionally, the meaning of ‘one’ was discussed, showing the need for an interdisciplinary approach. Finally, the meaning of ‘health’ was shown to be complex, both regarding which definition of health to choose and on which level (individual, population or ecosystem) to apply it. A non-speciesist definition of health is needed, which could be either a bottom up or top-down definition. Further discussions within the One Health approaches are needed.

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