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  • 1.
    Akanda, Nesar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) in the plasma membrane induce apoptosis2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is essential for proper development and functioning of the body systems. During development, apoptosis plays a central role to sculpt the embryo, and in adults, to maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating redundant, damaged or effete cells. Therefore, a tight regulation of this process is essential. Cell shrinkage associated efflux of K+ and Cl through plasma membrane ion channels is an early event of apoptosis. However, little is known about these fluxes. The aim of this thesis was to investigate ion channels in the plasma membrane of neurons undergoing apoptosis. We studied differentiated (the mouse hippocampal cell line HT22, the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC, and rat primary hippocampal neurons) and undifferentiated (rat primary cortical neural stem cells cNSCs) cells with the patch-clamp technique. All cell types displayed a low electrical activity under control conditions. However, during apoptosis in differentiated neurons, we found an activation of a voltage-dependent anion channel. The conductance of the channel is 400 pS, the voltage dependence of the opening is bell shaped with respect to membrane voltage with a maximum open probability at 0 mV, and the Cl to cation selectivity is >5:1. These biophysical properties remind about the voltage-dependent anion channel normally found in the outer mitochondrial membrane (VDACmt). Hence, we call our apoptosis-inducing plasma membrane channel VDACpl. The molecular identity of the channel was corroborated with the specific labelling of different anti-VDAC antibodies. Block of this channel either with antibodies or with sucrose prevented apoptosis, suggesting a critical role for VDACpl in the apoptotic process. VDACpl is a NADH (-ferricyanide) reductase in control cells. We found that the enzymatic activity is altered while the VDACpl channel is activated during apoptosis. Surprisingly, in cNSCs we did not find any activation of VDACpl, no VDACpl-specific labelling, no enzymatic activity, and no prevention of apoptosis with VDACpl-blocking strategies. Instead, we found an activation of a voltage-independent 37 pS ion channel, and that the Cl channel blocker DIDS prevented apoptosis in cNSCs. Our finding that activation of VDACpl is critical for apoptosis in differentiated neurons hopefully can lead to new strategies in the treatment of several diseases related to apoptosis.

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  • 2.
    Alsmark, UCM
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Natl Vet Inst, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nolskog, Peter
    Dept Communicable Dis Control & Prevent Reg Vastr, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Angervall, Anna Lindqvist
    Dept Communicable Dis Control & Prevent Reg Vastr, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Toepfer, Michael
    Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden..
    Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Solna, Sweden..
    Bouwmeester, Johanna
    Primary Healthcare Ctr Hjo, Hjo, Sweden..
    Bjelkmar, Par
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Solna, Sweden..
    Troell, Karin
    Natl Vet Inst, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lahti, Elina
    Natl Vet Inst, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Beser, Jessica
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Solna, Sweden..
    Two outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis associated with cattle spring pasture events2018In: Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports, E-ISSN 2405-9390, Vol. 14, p. 71-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over a period of less than four weeks, 50 human cases of cryptosporidiosis were reported from a relatively small geographical area in Sweden. All cases were associated with visits to cattle spring pasture events at two farms (referred to as Farm A and B). Epidemiological and microbiological evidence show that contact with calves at the farms was the most likely source of Cryptosporidium infections. Gp60 sequences from human and calf isolates at Farm A were identical to each other, but differed from those at Farm B where, again, human and calf gp60 sequences were identical, proving that the two outbreaks had no common origin. As a direct consequence of these two outbreaks, and guided by knowledge gained from the outbreak investigations, the Swedish Board of Agriculture and all relevant farmer advisory organizations have updated their hygiene instructions for farm visits.

  • 3.
    Alvarez, Ignacio
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Div Ruminant Med, 8 Almas Alle, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ducatez, Mariette
    Univ Tolouse, IHAP, INRAE, ENVT, F-31076 Toulouse, France..
    Guo, Yongzhi
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Div Ruminant Med, 8 Almas Alle, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lion, Adrien
    Univ Tolouse, IHAP, INRAE, ENVT, F-31076 Toulouse, France..
    Widgren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Dubourdeau, Marc
    Ambiotis SAS, 3 Rue Satell, F-31400 Toulouse, France..
    Baillif, Vincent
    Ambiotis SAS, 3 Rue Satell, F-31400 Toulouse, France..
    Saias, Laure
    Ambiotis SAS, 3 Rue Satell, F-31400 Toulouse, France..
    Zohari, Siamak
    Dept Microbiol, Swedish Vet Agcy, Ullsvagen 2B, S-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Biosci, Ulls Vag 26, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Meyer, Gilles
    Univ Tolouse, IHAP, INRAE, ENVT, F-31076 Toulouse, France..
    Valarcher, Jean-Francois
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Div Ruminant Med, 8 Almas Alle, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hägglund, Sara
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Div Ruminant Med, 8 Almas Alle, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Proteomic and Lipidomic Profiling of Calves Experimentally Co-Infected with Influenza D Virus and Mycoplasma bovis: Insights into the Host-Pathogen Interactions2024In: Viruses, E-ISSN 1999-4915, Vol. 16, no 3, article id 361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of Influenza D virus (IDV) in bovine respiratory disease remains unclear. An in vivo experiment resulted in increased clinical signs, lesions, and pathogen replication in calves co-infected with IDV and Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis), compared to single-infected calves. The present study aimed to elucidate the host-pathogen interactions and profile the kinetics of lipid mediators in the airways of these calves. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples collected at 2 days post-infection (dpi) were used for proteomic analyses by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Additionally, lipidomic analyses were performed by LC-MS/MS on BAL samples collected at 2, 7 and 14 dpi. Whereas M. bovis induced the expression of proteins involved in fibrin formation, IDV co-infection counteracted this coagulation mechanism and downregulated other acute-phase response proteins, such as complement component 4 (C4) and plasminogen (PLG). The reduced inflammatory response against M. bovis likely resulted in increased M. bovis replication and delayed M. bovis clearance, which led to a significantly increased abundance of oxylipids in co-infected calves. The identified induced oxylipids mainly derived from arachidonic acid; were likely oxidized by COX-1, COX-2, and LOX-5; and peaked at 7 dpi. This paper presents the first characterization of BAL proteome and lipid mediator kinetics in response to IDV and M. bovis infection in cattle and raises hypotheses regarding how IDV acts as a co-pathogen in bovine respiratory disease.

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  • 4.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Spain.
    Martinez-Pastor, Felipe
    Univ Leon, Spain.
    Molecular Determinants of Seminal Plasma on Sperm Biology and Fertility2021In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 22, no 7, article id 3555Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

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    fulltext
  • 5.
    Andersson, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Engelska: Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical Programme.
    Adjuvant and Down-Staging Treatment with Imatinib in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: GISTs are gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumours that express the type III receptor tyrosine kinase KIT. The KIT proto-oncogene encodes the receptor KIT. Most GISTs have gain-of-function mutations in the KIT or PDGFRA gene. The tyrosine kinase is therefore continuously activated leading to ligand-independent dimerization. Imatinib mesylate (Glivec®) is considered to be the first-line palliative treatment. The activated form of the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase is inhibited by imatinib. The aim of the study was to compare the survival of patients treated with either adjuvant or down-staging imatinib with historic controls treated with radical surgery (R0) only.

    Methods: A historic control group was chosen from a population-based series from western Sweden (population 1.6 million) that matched the adjuvant (n=23) and down-staging (n=7) groups respectively. Mutation analysis was performed in all cases with bidirectional direct sequencing. The recurrence-free survival was calculated.

    Results: There was only one recurrence (4 %) in the adjuvant group, and no recurrences in the down-staging study group, compared to 32/48 patients (67 %) in the control group. Tumour size decreased in diameter from 20 cm to 11 cm with down-staging treatment.

    Conclusion: Adjuvant imatinib improves recurrence-free survival in R0 resected patients. Down-staging treatment with imatinib is recommended for patients with large tumours or metastases. The importance of mutation analysis was established.

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  • 6.
    Andersson, Gunnel
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Urinary incontinence: prevalence, treatment seeking behaviour, experiences, and perceptions among persons with and without urinary leakage2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to describe urinary incontinence (UI) from a population perspective and to describe experiences and perceptions of UI from an individual perspective. This includes assessing the prevalence of urinary incontinence as well as describing treatment seeking and experiences of living with UI. A secondary aim was to describe the perception of UI among cultures other than the Swedish mainstream, exemplified in this case by Syrian women living in Sweden. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used, including questionnaires and interviews.

    Studies I and II were quantitative studies based on a population-based study. Together with a postal survey on general health and living conditions “Life & Health”, a questionnaire on urinary incontinence was sent out to 15 360 randomly-selected residents aged 18-79 in Orebro County, Sweden. In Study I, UI was found to affect 19%. The majority of the respondents experienced minor problems, and only 18% of those reporting UI wanted treatment. However, there was also a group who reported severe problems, but despite this 42% of them did not want treatment. Study II investigated why people with UI refrain from seeking care and treatment. It was found that the desire for treatment was regulated by the frequency of UI, being restricted from participating in various activities, the degree of inconvenience, and the type of UI.

    Studies III and IV were both qualitative interview studies, describing older women’s experiences of living with UI (Study III) and Syrian women’s perceptions of UI (Study IV). There were similarities between the results of these two studies; the women described UI as a normal and expected problem, and they knew that the district nurse could prescribe incontinence protections and that treatments existed. In both studies, the women expressed difficulties in making contact with the health care service, while the women who did not speak Swedish (Study IV) also had difficulties due to different communication problems.

    In conclusion, it is important that health care resources are optimized to identify and meet the needs of those who experience major problems with UI, and that there is awareness of the communication difficulties that can be present in meeting with people who speak other languages. However it is also important not to medicalize those who experience minor problems and who have the desire to manage on their own.

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    COVER01
  • 7.
    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Children with cancer: focusing on their fear and on how their fear is handled2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Various fears in children with cancer have previously been identified as a result of studying e.g. symptom experiences, distress and uncertainty within this population. Studies of the meaning the children give to their fear, as well as the handling of their fear seem to be sparse, however. Also, fear has not been an exclusive focus in previous studies. Professionals in clinical practice have pointed to the need for such research, which has prompted the present research work. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore twofold; firstly, the aim was to elucidate fear in children and adolescents with cancer in order to gain an understanding from the perspective of adolescents and parents. Secondly, it was to elucidate parents’ and professionals’ handling of the fear. This in order to gain a deeper understanding of what performances and manners the children and adolescents can face when being fearful. A qualitative descriptive design was adopted in the five included studies. The methods used in the data analysis were phenomenological hermeneutical method (studies I–III) and qualitative content analysis (studies IV–V).

    In study I six adolescent girls, aged 14–16 years, with experiences of various cancer diagnoses, but now declared fit, were interviewed. The results reveal that they experience their fear as embodied, which in the comprehensive understanding of the results was interpreted as a threat to their personal self, their whole existence. Their fear was seen as a holistic intertwined experience, including fear related to the physical body and to the social self. Also, existential fear was described. Their described experience was interpreted as suffering.

    Studies II and III share the same data. Fifteen parents of children at various ages with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed in focus groups about their experience of their child’s fear. In study II the result reveals how the parents experienced and understood their child’s fear. The fear was described as a multidimensional phenomenon, which was not always easy to identify. It was contrasted to feelings of unease and to absence of fear. In the comprehensive understanding the fear was interpreted as a suffering, as that was regarded to be what was the common meaning in the narratives. The suffering was interpreted as an ethical demand to the parents to take action. In study III the parents described their actions, i.e. they described how they dealt with the fear. Their actions were described as acting in the best interests of the child, which included striving to make the child feel secure and experience wellbeing, up to a certain point. However, after this point the parents used their parental authority to maintain the child’s physical health rather than trying to prevent or relieve the child’s fear. In the comprehensive understanding the parents’ handling of their child’s fear was interpreted as revealing mercy and as being synonymous with meeting the ethical demand put on them.

    In study IV ten experienced nurses and physicians were individually interviewed about how they handled fear in children with cancer. The result reveals that the existential issues were dealt with within the relationship with the child, on a sliding scale between closeness and distance, and that the fear related to medical procedures occurred on a continuum between support and lack of support. The various actions involved, and the manner in which these actions were performed, was described.

    In the observational study (study V) eleven parents and their children as well as eleven health professionals participated. They were observed at children’s routine visits at the outpatient clinic. The aim was to study the interactions related to fear. The result reveals that when children were fearful they expressed this both verbally and non-verbally. The parents’ and professionals’ actions and interactions in these situations were found to be characterized by recognition of the fear or lack of attention to the fear.

    The findings can contribute to a broadened knowledge on fear in children and adolescents with cancer. Awareness and understanding of the meaning adolescents give to their fear, and furthermore, of the parents’ experience and understanding of their child’s fear can provide tools for interacting with these groups. The findings on how fear is dealt with by the ones children have claimed as important sources for support, can give insights into what the child may face when being fearful. These insights can form the basis for individual, as well as collegial, reflections on what is done when children face fear, how fear is handled on an everyday basis and why it is handled in this way. Such reflections could lead to an ethical awareness of handling fear in children with cancer.

  • 8.
    Arnison, Tor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Schrooten, Martien G. S.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Jonas
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Longitudinal, bidirectional relationships of insomnia symptoms and musculoskeletal pain across adolescence: the mediating role of mood2022In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 163, no 2, p. 287-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have established a bidirectional relationship between sleep and pain, and mood has been proposed as a mediator of this relationship. There are only a limited number of longitudinal studies examining the mediational role of mood, and the directionality of effects between sleep, pain and mood is uncertain. Also, and despite the high prevalence of pain and sleep problems during adolescence, these relationships have rarely been examined in a longitudinal sample of adolescents. Here, longitudinal survey data with five yearly measurements was used to examine the bidirectional relationship between insomnia symptoms and pain across adolescence (Mbaseline age = 13.65 years, Nbaseline = 2766). We also explored if depressed mood, positive affect and anxious mood function as mediators in both directions of the sleep-pain relationship. Utilizing latent variables for insomnia, pain and mood at multiple time-points, the data was analyzed with cross-lagged panel models for longitudinal data with structural equation modeling. Current results confirmed a bidirectional relationship between insomnia symptoms and pain, where the effect of insomnia symptoms on pain was stronger than vice versa. Depressed mood and anxious mood mediated the effect of insomnia symptoms on pain, but not the reverse effect of pain on insomnia symptoms. Positive affect did not serve as a mediator in either direction. These findings add novel insights into the temporal directionality of sleep, pain and mood during adolescence, suggesting a temporal path from sleep to pain, via mood, rather than a reciprocal relationship between the constructs.

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    Longitudinal, bidirectional relationships of insomnia symptoms and musculoskeletal pain across adolescence: the mediating role of mood
  • 9.
    Arvidsson, D.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Clin Nutr, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Slinde, Frode
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Larsson, S.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Internal Med Respirat Med & Allergology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hulthén, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Clin Nutr, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Energy cost of physical activities in children: Validation of SenseWear Armband2007In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 39, no 11, p. 2076-2084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine the validity of SenseWear Pro2 Armband in assessing energy cost of physical activities in children, and to contribute with values of energy costs in an overview of physical activities in children. METHODS: Energy cost was assessed by SenseWear Pro2 Armband in 20 healthy children, 11-13 yr, while lying down resting, sitting playing games on mobile phone, stepping up and down on a step board, bicycling on a stationary bike, jumping on a trampoline, playing basketball, and walking/running on a treadmill at the speeds 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 km x h(-1). During these activities, energy cost was also assessed from VO2 and VCO2 measured by Oxycon Mobile portable metabolic system, which was used as criterion method. RESULTS: The difference in energy cost between SenseWear Pro2 Armband and Oxycon Mobile was -0.7 (0.5) (P < 0.001) for resting, -2.0 (0.9) (P < 0.001) for playing games on mobile phone, -6.6 (2.3) (P < 0.001) for stepping on the step board, -12.0 (3.7) (P < 0.001) for bicycling, -2.7 (11.9) (P = 0.34) for jumping on the trampoline, and -14.8 (6.4) kJ x min(-1) (P < 0.001) for playing basketball. The difference in energy cost between SenseWear Pro2 Armband and Oxycon Mobile for increasing treadmill speed was 1.3 (3.1) (P = 0.048), 0.1 (2.9) (P = 0.82), -1.2 (2.6) (P = 0.049), -1.6 (3.2) (P = 0.044), -3.1 (3.7) (P = 0.0013), -4.9 (3.7) (P < 0.001), -5.3 (3.7) (P < 0.001), and -11.1 (3.5) kJ x min(-1) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SenseWear Pro2 Armband underestimated energy cost of most activities in this study, an underestimation that increased with increased physical activity intensity. A table of energy costs (MET values) of physical activities in children measured by indirect calorimetry is presented as an initiation of the creation of a compendium of physical activities in children

  • 10. Asan, Noor Badariah
    et al.
    Velander, Jacob
    Redzwan, Syaiful
    Augustine, Robin
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications, Menoufia University, Menouf, Egypt.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Blokhuis, Taco J.
    Reliability of the Fat Tissue Channel for Intra-body Microwave Communication2017In: 2017 IEEE Conference on Antenna Measurements & Applications (CAMA), IEEE , 2017, p. 310-313Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the human fat tissue has been proposed as a microwave channel for intra-body sensor applications. In this work, we assess how disturbances can prevent reliable microwave propagation through the fat channel. Perturbants of different sizes are considered. The simulation and experimental results show that efficient communication through the fat channel is possible even in the presence of perturbants such as embedded muscle layers and blood vessels. We show that the communication channel is not affected by perturbants that are smaller than 15 mm cube.

  • 11.
    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Seminal Influence on the Oviduct: Mating and/or semen components induce gene expression changes in the pre-ovulatory functional sperm reservoir in poultry and pigs2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal fertilization occurs in birds and eutherian mammals. Foetal development, however, is either extra- respectively intra-corpore (egg vs uterus). In these animal classes, the female genital tract stores ejaculated spermatozoa into a restricted oviductal segment; the functional pre-ovulatory sperm reservoir, where they survive until ovulation/s occur. Paradoxically, this immunologically foreign sperm suspension in seminal fluid/plasma, often microbiologically contaminated, ought to be promptly eliminated by the female local immune defence which, instead, tolerates its presence. The female immune tolerance is presumably signalled via a biochemical interplay of spermatozoa, as well as the peptides and proteins of the extracellular seminal fluid, with female epithelial and immune cells. Such interplay can result in gene expression shifts in the sperm reservoir in relation to variations in fertility. To further aid our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, this thesis studied the proteome of the seminal fluid (using 2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry) including cytokine content (using Luminex and/or ELISA) of healthy, sexually mature and fertile boars and cocks. As well, gene expression changes (using cDNA microarray) in the oviductal sperm reservoirs of sexually-mature females, mated or artificially infused with homologous sperm-free seminal fluid/plasma were studied. Pigs were of commercial, fertility-selected modern breeds (Landrace), while chicken belonged to the ancestor Red Junglefowl (RJF, low egg laying-capacity), a selected egg-layer White Leghorn (WL) and of their Advanced Intercross Line (AIL). Ejaculates were manually collected as single sample in cocks or as the sperm-rich fraction [SRF] and the post- SRF fraction in boars to harvest seminal fluid/plasma for proteome/cytokine and infusion-studies. Oviducts were retrieved for gene-expression analyses via microarray immediately post-mortem (chicken) or at surgery (pig), 24 h after mating or genital infusion. In pigs, the protein-rich seminal plasma showed the highest amounts of cytokines [interferon-γ, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10), macrophage derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22), growth-regulated oncogene (GRO/CXCL1), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1/ CCL2), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8/CXCL8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-3) in the larger, protein-rich and sperm-poor post-SRF, indicating its main immune signalling influence. Chicken showed also a plethora of seminal fluid proteins with serum albumin and ovotransferrin being conserved through selection/evolution. However, they showed fewer cytokines than pigs, as the anti-inflammatory/immune-modulatory TGF-β2 or the pro-inflammatory CXCL10. The RJF contained fewer immune system process proteins and lacked TGF-β2 compared to WL and AIL, suggesting selection for increased fertility could be associated with higher expression of immune-regulating peptides/proteins. The oviductal sperm reservoir reacted in vivo to semen exposure. In chicken, mating significantly changed the expression of immune-modulatory and pH-regulatory genes in AIL. Moreover, modern fertile pigs (Landrace) and chicken (WL), albeit being taxonomically distant, shared gene functions for preservation of viable sperm in the oviduct. Mating or SP/SF-infusion were able to change the expression of comparable genes involved in pH-regulation (SLC16A2, SLC4A9, SLC13A1, SLC35F1, ATP8B3, ATP13A3) or immune-modulation (IFIT5, IFI16, MMP27, ADAMTS3, MMP3, MMP12). The results of the thesis demonstrate that both mating and components of the sperm-free seminal fluid/plasma elicit gene expression changes in the pre-ovulatory female sperm reservoir of chickens and pigs, some conserved over domestication and fertility-selection.

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    Seminal Influence of the Oviduct: Mating and/or semen components induce gene expression changes in the pre-ovulatory functional sperm reservoir in poultry and pigs
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  • 12.
    Auckburally, Adam
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wiklund, Maja K.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lord, Peter F.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Hedenstierna laboratory.
    Nyman, Gorel
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Effects of pulsed inhaled nitric oxide delivery on the distribution of pulmonary perfusion in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated anesthetized ponies2022In: American Journal of Veterinary Research, ISSN 0002-9645, E-ISSN 1943-5681, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 171-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To measure changes in pulmonary perfusion during pulsed inhaled nitric oxide (PiNO) delivery in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated ponies positioned in dorsal recumbency.

    Animals: 6 adult ponies.

    Procedures: Ponies were anesthetized, positioned in dorsal recumbency in a CT gantry, and allowed to breathe spontaneously. Pulmonary artery, right atrial, and facial artery catheters were placed. Analysis time points were baseline, after 30 minutes of PiNO, and 30 minutes after discontinuation of PiNO. At each time point, iodinated contrast medium was injected, and CT angiography was used to measure pulmonary perfusion. Thermodilution was used to measure cardiac output, and arterial and mixed venous blood samples were collected simultaneously and analyzed. Analyses were repeated while ponies were mechanically ventilated.

    Results: During PiNO delivery, perfusion to aerated lung regions increased, perfusion to atelectatic lung regions decreased, arterial partial pressure of oxygen increased, and venous admixture and the alveolar-arterial difference in partial pressure of oxygen decreased. Changes in regional perfusion during PiNO delivery were more pronounced when ponies were spontaneously breathing than when they were mechanically ventilated.

    Clinical relevance: In anesthetized, dorsally recumbent ponies, PiNO delivery resulted in redistribution of pulmonary perfusion from dependent, atelectatic lung regions to nondependent aerated lung regions, leading to improvements in oxygenation. PiNO may offer a treatment option for impaired oxygenation induced by recumbency.

  • 13.
    Avall Lundqvist, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordström, L
    Sjövall, K
    Eneroth, P
    Evaluation of seven different tumour markers for the establishment of tumour marker panels in gynecologic malignancies.1989In: European journal of gynaecological oncology, ISSN 0392-2936, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 395-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven tumour markers, i.e. squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), neopterin, C-reactive protein (CRP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and deoxythymidine kinase (TK) were analysed in sera from 104 women with benign and 61 women with malignant gynecologic diseases, in order to create tumour marker panels for various gynecologic malignancies, for monitoring and prediction of disease development. The incidence of elevated tumour marker levels, in cervical carcinoma was 78% when SCC, CA 125 and CEA were used. In ovarian carcinoma one of the markers CA 125, TPA and CEA was elevated in 91% and for endometrial carcinoma the best combination of markers was SCC, CA 125 and CEA (57%). No individual marker was superior to the above combinations. However, in patients with a fatal outcome of their malignant gynecologic disease (mean survival time from serum sampling was 16 months), the incidence of death was highest among those who had TPA elevated (91%) followed by neopterin (86%) and CRP (76%). Although intercurrent diseases affected tumour marker levels the markers picked up a majority of patients with a poor prognosis. This demonstrates the importance of interpreting tumour marker results against a background of detailed clinical information.

  • 14.
    Bailey, Leslie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Infection biology of Chlamydia pneumoniae2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two main human pathogens in the family of Chlamydiaceae. Different serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis cause sexually-transmitted disease and eye infections whereas C. pneumoniae (TWAR) is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory infection. Chlamydia species are obligate, intracellular bacteria sharing a unique developmental cycle that occurs within a protected vacuole termed an inclusion. These microorganisms can be distinguished by two different forms: the infectious, metabolically inert elementary body (EB) and the reproducing non-infectious form, termed the reticulate body (RB). The cycle is terminated when re-differentiation of RBs back to infectious EBs occurs. Chlamydia possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS) essential for delivery of effector proteins into the host for host-cell interactions. This virulence system has been systematically characterized in several mammalian pathogens. Due to lack of a tractable genetic system for Chlamydia species, we have employed chemical genetics as a strategy to investigate molecular aspects of the T3SS. We have identified that the T3S-inhibitors INP0010 and INP0400 block the developmental cycle and interfere with secretion of T3S effector proteins in C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis, without any cytotoxic effect. We have further shown that INP0010 decreases initiation of transcription in C. pneumoniae during the early mid-developmental cycle as demonstrated by a novel calculation, useful for measurement of transcription initiation in any intracellular pathogen. The mechanism regulating the signal(s) for primary as well as terminal differentiation of RBs has not been defined in Chlamydia. We show using T3S-inhibitors that INP0010 targets the T3SS and thereby arrests RB proliferation as well as RB to EB re-differentiation of C. pneumoniae as where INP0400 targets the T3SS and provokes a bacterial dissociation from the inclusion membrane presumed to mimic the natural occurrence of terminal differentiation. The effect of INP0010 on iron-responsive genes indicates a role for T3S in iron acquisition. Accordingly, our results suggest the possibility that C. pneumoniae acquires iron via the intracellular trafficking pathway of endocytosed transferrin. Moreover, we have for the first time presented data showing generalized bone loss from C. pneumoniae infection in mice. The infection was associated with increased levels of the bone resorptive cytokines IL-6 and IL-1beta. In addition, an increased sub-population of T-cells expressed RANKL during infection. Additionally, C. pneumoniae established an infection in a human osteoblast cell line in vitro with a similar cytokine profile as seen in vivo, supporting a causal linkage. Collectively, these data may indicate a previously unknown pathological role of C. pneumoniae in generalized bone loss.

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  • 15.
    Bani Hassan, Ebrahim
    et al.
    Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, School of the University of Melbourne, Australia; Department of Medicine, Western Precinct and Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS), Melbourne, Australia.
    Moshaverinia, Ali
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Sheedfar, Fareeba
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    McCowan, Christina
    Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, School of the University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Bazargani, Taghi T.
    Veterinary Faculty of the University of Tehran, Iran.
    Hosseinzadeh, Ava
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Saghafi, Ramin
    University of Applied Science and Technology, Mollasadra, Yazd, Iran.
    Ashrafihelan, Javad
    Veterinary Faculty of Tabriz University, Iran.
    Beveridge, Ian
    Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, School of the University of Melbourne, Australia.
    A report of the unusual lesions caused by Thelazia gulosa in cattle2017In: Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports, E-ISSN 2405-9390, Vol. 7, p. 62-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case report of unusual lesions caused by Thelazia gulosa in cattle. After several ineffective treatments of suspected infectious keratoconjunctivitis in calves and cows, T. gulosa was found associated with retrobulbar granuloma-like masses. The masses with multiple digit-like protrusions on conjunctival surface ejected multiple worms on firm pressure on clinical examination. Samples of tissues that contained worms were surgically removed, fixed in ethanol and submitted to the parasitology and histopathology labs for morphological identification of worms and the nature of the tissue masses, respectively. The infestation was present only in young calves (< 3 months) and high-producing cows. Histopathology showed fibrovascular granulation tissue, containing a moderate to marked inflammatory infiltrate. Ivermectin treatment (200 μg/kg, SC, once) with and without surgical excision resolved the infestation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of tissue invasion by T. gulosa.

  • 16.
    Beckmann, Katrin M.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Vetsuisse Fac Zurich, Dept Small Anim, Sect Neurol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Wang-Leandro, Adriano
    Univ Zurich, Vetsuisse Fac Zurich, Dept Diagnost & Clin Serv, Clin Diagnost Imaging, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Richter, Henning
    Univ Zurich, Vetsuisse Fac Zurich, Dept Diagnost & Clin Serv, Clin Diagnost Imaging, Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Hosp Bonn, Clin Neuroradiol, Bonn, Germany..
    Bektas, Rima N.
    Univ Zurich, Vetsuisse Fac, Dept Diagnost & Clin Serv, Sect Anaesthesiol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Steffen, Frank
    Univ Zurich, Vetsuisse Fac Zurich, Dept Small Anim, Sect Neurol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Dennler, Matthias
    Univ Zurich, Vetsuisse Fac Zurich, Dept Diagnost & Clin Serv, Clin Diagnost Imaging, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Carrera, Ines
    Willows Vet Ctr & Referral Serv, Highlands Rd, Shirley, England..
    Haller, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology. Univ Geneva, Fac Med, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Increased resting state connectivity in the anterior default mode network of idiopathic epileptic dogs2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 23854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic, neurological diseases in humans and dogs and considered to be a network disease. In human epilepsy altered functional connectivity in different large-scale networks have been identified with functional resting state magnetic resonance imaging. Since large-scale resting state networks have been consistently identified in anesthetised dogs' application of this technique became promising in canine epilepsy research. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in large-scale resting state networks in epileptic dogs compared to healthy controls. Our hypothesis was, that large-scale networks differ between epileptic dogs and healthy control dogs. A group of 17 dogs (Border Collies and Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs) with idiopathic epilepsy was compared to 20 healthy control dogs under a standardized sevoflurane anaesthesia protocol. Group level independent component analysis with dimensionality of 20 components, dual regression and two-sample t test were performed and revealed significantly increased functional connectivity in the anterior default mode network of idiopathic epileptic dogs compared to healthy control dogs (p = 0.00060). This group level differences between epileptic dogs and healthy control dogs identified using a rather simple data driven approach could serve as a starting point for more advanced resting state network analysis in epileptic dogs.

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  • 17.
    Beckmann, Katrin M.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Vetsuisse Fac Zurich, Dept Small Anim, Sect Neurol, Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Bern, Grad Sch Cellular & Biomed Sci, Bern, Switzerland..
    Wang-Leandro, Adriano
    Univ Zurich, Vetsuisse Fac Zurich, Dept Diagnost & Clin Serv, Clin Diagnost Imaging, Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Vet Med Hannover, Dept Small Anim Med & Surg, Hannover, Germany..
    Steffen, Frank
    Univ Zurich, Vetsuisse Fac Zurich, Dept Small Anim, Sect Neurol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Richter, Henning
    Univ Zurich, Vetsuisse Fac Zurich, Dept Diagnost & Clin Serv, Clin Diagnost Imaging, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Dennler, Matthias
    Univ Zurich, Vetsuisse Fac Zurich, Dept Diagnost & Clin Serv, Clin Diagnost Imaging, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Bektas, Rima
    Univ Zurich, Vetsuisse Fac, Dept Clin Diagnost & Serv, Sect Anaesthesiol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Carrera, Ines
    Vet Oracle Teleradiol, Norfolk, England..
    Haller, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology. Univ Geneva, Fac Med, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Diffusion tensor-based analysis of white matter in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy2023In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, E-ISSN 2297-1769, Vol. 10, article id 1325521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The understanding of epileptic seizure pathogenesis has evolved over time, and it is now generally accepted that not only are cortical and subcortical areas involved but also the connection of these regions in the white matter (WM). Recent human neuroimaging studies confirmed the involvement of the WM in several epilepsy syndromes. Neuroimaging studies investigating WM integrity with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in canine idiopathic epilepsy are lacking. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that WM diffusion changes can be found in dogs affected by idiopathic epilepsy.

    Method: Twenty-six dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (15 Border Collies and 11 Greater Swiss Mountain dogs) and 24 healthy controls (11 Beagle dogs, 5 Border Collies, and 8 Greater Swiss Mountain dogs) were prospectively enrolled. Most dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (17/26) were enrolled within 3 months after seizure onset. Diffusion tensor imaging of the brain with 32 diffusion directions (low b value = 0 s/mm2; maximal b value = 800 s/mm2) was performed in a 3 Tesla scanner. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), a voxel-based approach, was used to investigate changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) in the idiopathic epilepsy group compared to the healthy control group. Additionally, FA and MD were investigated in the region of corpus callosum and cingulate white matter in both groups.

    Results: We observed subtle changes in WM DTI between the idiopathic epilepsy group and the healthy control group limited to cingulate WM, with a significantly lower FA in the idiopathic epilepsy group compared to the healthy control group in the region of interest (ROI) approach (p = 0.027). No significant changes were found between the idiopathic epilepsy group and the healthy control group in the TBSS analysis and in the corpus callosum in the ROI approach.

    Conclusion: This study supports the cingulate area as a target structure in canine epilepsy. The subtle changes only might be explained by the short duration of epilepsy, small sample sizes, and the higher variability in canine brain anatomy. Furthermore, all included dogs showed generalized tonic-clonic seizures, possibly affected by generalized epilepsy syndrome, which are also associated with less pronounced DTI changes in humans than focal epilepsy syndromes.

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  • 18.
    Bednarska, Olga
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Peripheral and Central Mechanisms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: in search of links2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic visceral pain disorder with female predominance, characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and disturbed bowel habits in the absence of an identifiable organic cause. This prevalent and debilitating disease, which accounts for a substantial economic and individual burden, lacks exact diagnostic tools and effective treatment, since its pathophysiology remains uncertain. The bidirectional and multilayered brain-gut axis is a well-established disease model, however, the interactions between central and peripheral mechanisms along the brain-gut axis remain incompletely understood. One of the welldescribed triggering factors, yet accounting for only a fraction of IBS prevalence, is bacterial gastroenteritis that affects mucosal barrier function. Altered gut microbiota composition as well as disturbed intestinal mucosal barrier function and its neuroimmune regulation have been reported in IBS, however, the impact of live bacteria, neither commensal nor pathogenic, on intestinal barrier has not been studied yet. Furthermore, abnormal central processing of visceral sensations and psychological factors such as maladaptive coping have previously been suggested as centrally-mediated pathophysiological mechanisms of importance in IBS. Brain imaging studies have demonstrated an imbalance in descending pain modulatory networks and alterations in brain regions associated with interoceptive awareness and pain processing and modulation, particularly in anterior insula (aINS), although biochemical changes putatively underlying these central alterations remain poorly understood. Most importantly, however, possible associations between these documented changes on central and peripheral levels, which may as complex interactions contribute to disease onset and chronification of symptoms, are widely unknown.

    This thesis aimed to investigate the peripheral and central mechanisms in women with IBS compared to female healthy controls (HC) and to explore possible mutual associations between these mechanisms.

    In Paper I, we studied paracellular permeability and passage of live bacteria, both commensal and pathogenic through colonic biopsies mounted in Ussing chambers. We explored the regulation of the mucosal barrier function by mast cells and the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as well as a correlation between mucosal permeability and gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms. We observed increased paracellular permeability and the passage of commensal and pathogenic live bacteria in patients with IBS compared with HC, which was diminished by blocking the VIP receptors as well as after stabilizing mast cells in both groups. Moreover, higher paracellular permeability was associated with less somatic and psychological symptoms in patients.

    In Paper II, we aimed to determine the association between colonic mucosa paracellular permeability and structural and resting state functional brain connectivity. We demonstrated different patterns of associations between mucosa permeability and functional and structural brain connectivity in IBS patients compared to HC. Specifically, lower paracellular permeability in IBS, similar to the levels detected in HC, was associated with more severe IBS symptoms and increased functional and structural connectivity between intrinsic brain resting state network and descending pain modulation brain regions. Our findings further suggested that this association between mucosa permeability and functional brain connectivity was mainly mediated by coping strategies.

    In Paper III, we investigated putative alterations in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission of aINS, as the brain’s key node of the salience network crucially involved in cognitive control, in IBS patients relative to HC and addressed possible connections with both symptoms and psychological factors. We found decreased concentrations of the excitatory neurotransmitter Glx in bilateral aINS in IBS patients compared to HC, while inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA+ levels were comparable. Further, we demonstrated hemisphere-specific associations between abdominal pain, coping and aINS excitatory neurotransmitter concentration.

    In conclusion, this thesis broadens the knowledge on peripheral and central mechanisms in IBS and presents novel findings that bring together the ends of brain-gut axis. Our results depict association between mucosal permeability, IBS symptoms and functional and structural connectivity engaging brain regions involved in emotion and pain modulation as well as underlying neurotransmitter alterations.

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  • 19.
    Bergh, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Lund, Iréne
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacolgy, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boström, Anna
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyytiäinen, Heli
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, Helsinki, Finland.
    A Systematic Review of Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine in Sport and Companion Animals: Soft Tissue Mobilization2022In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 12, no 11, article id 1440Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft tissue mobilization is frequently used in the treatment of sport and companion animals. There is, however, uncertainty regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of these methods. Therefore, the aim of this systematic literature review was to assess the evidence for clinical effects of massage and stretching in cats, dogs, and horses. A bibliographic search, restricted to studies in cats, dogs, and horses, was performed on Web of Science Core Collection, CABI, and PubMed. Relevant articles were assessed for scientific quality, and information was extracted on study characteristics, species, type of treatment, indication, and treatment effects. Of 1189 unique publications screened, 11 were eligible for inclusion. The risk of bias was assessed as high in eight of the studies and moderate in three of the studies, two of the latter indicating a decreased heart rate after massage. There was considerable heterogeneity in reported treatment effects. Therefore, the scientific evidence is not strong enough to define the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of massage and stretching in sport and companion animals.

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  • 20.
    Bergh, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lund, Iréne
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacolgy, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boström, Anna
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyytiäinen, Heli
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, Helsinki, Finland.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    A systematic review of complementary and alternative veterinary medicine: "miscellaneous therapies"2021In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 3356Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest in complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM). There is, however, an uncertainty of the efficacy of these methods. Therefore, the aim of this systematic literature review is to assess the evidence for clinical efficacy of 24 CAVM therapies used in cats, dogs, and horses. A bibliographic search, restricted to studies in cats, dogs, and horses, was performed on Web of Science Core Collection, CABI, and PubMed. Relevant articles were assessed for scientific quality, and information was extracted on study characteristics, species, type of treatment, indication, and treatment effects. Of 982 unique publications screened, 42 were eligible for inclusion, representing nine different CAVM therapies, which were aromatherapy, gold therapy, homeopathy, leeches (hirudotherapy), mesotherapy, mud, neural therapy, sound (music) therapy, and vibration therapy. For 15 predefined therapies, no study was identified. The risk of bias was assessed as high in 17 studies, moderate to high in 10, moderate in 10, low to moderate in four, and low in one study. In those studies where the risk of bias was low to moderate, there was considerable heterogeneity in reported treatment effects. Therefore, the scientific evidence is not strong enough to define the clinical efficacy of the 24 CAVM therapies.

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  • 21.
    Berglund, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Separation of Water and Fat Signal in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Advances in Methods Based on Chemical Shift2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most important diagnostic tools of modern healthcare. The signal in medical MRI predominantly originates from water and fat molecules. Separation of the two components into water-only and fat-only images can improve diagnosis, and is the premier non-invasive method for measuring the amount and distribution of fatty tissue.

    Fat-water imaging (FWI) enables fast fat/water separation by model-based estimation from chemical shift encoded data, such as multi-echo acquisitions. Qualitative FWI is sufficient for visual separation of the components, while quantitative FWI also offers reliable estimates of the fat percentage in each pixel. The major problems of current FWI methods are long acquisition times, long reconstruction times, and reconstruction errors that degrade image quality.

    In this thesis, existing FWI methods were reviewed, and novel fully automatic methods were developed and evaluated, with a focus on fast 3D image reconstruction. All MRI data was acquired on standard clinical scanners.

    A triple-echo qualitative FWI method was developed for the specific application of 3D whole-body imaging. The method was compared with two reference methods, and demonstrated superior image quality when evaluated in 39 volunteers.

    The problem of qualitative FWI by dual-echo data with unconstrained echo times was solved, allowing faster and more flexible image acquisition than conventional FWI. Feasibility of the method was demonstrated in three volunteers and the noise performance was evaluated.

    Further, a quantitative multi-echo FWI method was developed. The signal separation was based on discrete whole-image optimization. Fast 3D image reconstruction with few reconstruction errors was demonstrated by abdominal imaging of ten volunteers.

    Lastly, a method was proposed for quantitative mapping of average fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation. The method was validated by imaging different oils, using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) as the reference. The degree of saturation agreed well with GLC, and feasibility of the method was demonstrated in the thigh of a volunteer.

    The developed methods have applications in clinical settings, and are already being used in several research projects, including studies of obesity, dietary intervention, and the metabolic syndrome.

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  • 22.
    Bergman, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Camilla
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hansson-Hamlin, Helene
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Ström Holst, Bodil
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pre-existing canine anti-IgG antibodies: implications for immunotherapy, immunogenicity testing and immunoassay analysis2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 12696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most enigmatic features of humoral immunity is the prevalent presence of circulating autoantibodies against IgG. These autoantibodies consist of several subsets, including rheumatoid factors, anti-Fab/anti-F(ab')2-autoantibodies, and anti-idiotypic antibodies. Anti-IgG autoantibodies can impair the safety and efficacy of therapeutic antibodies and interfere with immunogenicity tests in clinical trials. They can also cross-react with allospecific IgG, presenting as heterophilic antibodies that interfere with diagnostic immunoassays. Owing to these factors, recent years have seen a resurgent interest in anti-IgG autoantibodies, but their underlying clinical significance, as well as biological roles and origins, remain opaque. Increased knowledge about canine anti-IgG autoantibodies could facilitate the development of canine immunotherapies and help in understanding and counteracting immunoassay interference. This study investigated the clinical significance and interconnection of heterophilic antibodies, anti-Fab, and anti-F(ab')2-autoantibodies in dogs. We performed a 2-year prospective follow-up of dogs with heterophilic antibodies and analyzed serum for anti-Fab and anti-F(ab')2-autoantibodies. Canine heterophilic antibodies can persist for at least 2 years in serum. A widespread occurrence of anti-Fab and anti-F(ab')2-autoantibodies was found, with reactivity to cryptic epitopes in the IgG hinge region and sporadic cross-reactivity with mouse IgG. Canine anti-Fab and anti-F(ab')2-autoantibodies are thus potential sources of clinical immunogenicity and immunoassay interference.

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  • 23.
    Bergman, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Hansson-Hamlin, Helene
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ström Holst, Bodil
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Investigation of interference from canine anti-mouse antibodies in hormone immunoassays2019In: Veterinary clinical pathology, ISSN 0275-6382, E-ISSN 1939-165X, Vol. 48, no S1, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Canine anti-mouse antibodies are a potential source of immunoassay interference, but erroneous immunoassay results are not always easily identifiable. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a marker for the presence of gonads in dogs, but elevated AMH concentrations in neutered dogs could also be caused by antibody interference. For other assays, a discrepant result obtained after antibody precipitation might indicate antibody interference.

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate if canine anti-mouse antibodies are a source of erroneous results in the AMH assay and if antibody precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a useful tool for detecting antibody interference in a variety of immunoassays used in the veterinary clinical laboratory.

    METHODS: Twenty-nine positive and 25 negative samples for anti-mouse antibodies were analyzed for AMH, canine total thyroxine (TT4), canine thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and progesterone before and after treatment with PEG. Results that differed by more than four SDs from the intra-assay coefficients of variation were considered discrepant. Elevated AMH concentrations in neutered dogs with anti-mouse antibodies and no visible gonads present were considered evidence of interference.

    RESULTS: Evidence of antibody interference was found in two samples analyzed for AMH. The presence of anti-mouse antibodies did not lead to a higher proportion of discrepant results after PEG treatment for any of the immunoassays. The overall incidence of discrepant results for healthy controls was very high (73%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Canine anti-mouse antibodies are a source of erroneous AMH results. Antibody precipitation with PEG is not a useful tool for detecting interference caused by such antibodies.

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  • 24.
    Bergman, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Hansson-Hamlin, Helene
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Svensson, Anna
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Holst, Bodil Ström
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Prevalence of interfering antibodies in dogs and cats evaluated using a species-independent assay.2018In: Veterinary clinical pathology, ISSN 0275-6382, E-ISSN 1939-165X, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 205-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Interfering antibodies in human serum and plasma are known to react with mammalian antibodies in immunoassays and cause false-positive test results. Although this phenomenon was recently shown in companion animals, knowledge regarding immunoassay interference in veterinary medicine is very limited.

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to set up a species-independent immunoassay procedure to detect interference in serum samples, to screen for interference in a cross-section of canine and feline patient samples from an animal hospital, and to determine if the detected interference could be neutralized using an immunoassay based on nonmammalian reagents.

    METHODS: A 2-site sandwich-type interference assay was set up using commercially available mouse reagents. A total of 369 serum samples from 320 dogs and 263 samples from 218 cats were analyzed using the interference assay. Multiple samples were submitted from 36 dogs and 39 cats. Nineteen samples identified as interference-positive were analyzed in an assay using chicken antibodies.

    RESULTS: Interference was detected in samples from 28 dogs (9%) and 10 cats (5%) screened with the interference assay. Except for 1 cat, consistent results were obtained for all 75 dogs and cats that submitted more than 1 sample. The interference was eliminated when analyzed in the chicken-based assay (P < .001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Substances with reactivity toward mouse IgG can be detected in serum samples from dog and cat patients using a 2-site interference assay. The detected substances are most likely interfering antibodies, possibly originating from immunization with other mammalian species.

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  • 25.
    Bergman, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 750 07, Sweden. .
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Hansson-Hamlin, Helene
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 750 07, Sweden. .
    Åhlén, Emma
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 750 07, Sweden. .
    Holst, Bodil Ström
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 750 07, Sweden. .
    Characterization of canine anti-mouse antibodies highlights that multiple strategies are needed to combat immunoassay interference2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 14521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunoassays are widely used for detection and quantification of analytes in biological samples, but are vulnerable to analytical errors caused by interfering sample substances. Of particular interest are endogenous anti-animal antibodies that may bind to the immunoassay antibodies and cause erroneous test results. This phenomenon is a hazard to patient safety in both human and veterinary medicine. Here, we demonstrate that anti-mouse antibodies in dogs bind selectively to different regions of the murine IgG molecule, cross-react with IgG from different species, and consist of all major antibody classes present in canine serum (IgA, IgG and IgM). The antibody characteristics varied among individuals and their prevalence differed between two dog breeds. The selective binding to different IgG regions suggests that the antibodies might not originate from immunization through exposure to mice or other species. These findings show that canine anti-mouse antibodies are highly heterogeneous in nature and therefore require a combination of strategies to be counteracted.

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  • 26.
    Blanco-Penedo, Isabel
    et al.
    Unit of Veterinary Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Obanda, Vincent
    Veterinary Services Department, Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Research Permitting and Compliance, Wildlife Research and Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya.
    Kingori, Edward
    Veterinary Services Department, Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Research Permitting and Compliance, Wildlife Research and Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya.
    Agwanda, Bernard
    Mammalogy Section, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Lwande, Olivia Wesula
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Seroepidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) in cattle across three livestock pastoral regions in Kenya2021In: Dairy, E-ISSN 2624-862X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 425-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne zoonotic disease, endemic in Africa, with a high case fatality rate. There is no efficient treatment or licensed vaccine. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CCHFV in cattle in extensive grazing systems (both pastoralism and ranching) within the Maasai Mara ecosystem, Nanyuki, and the Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya. We conducted a seroepidemiological study of the sera of 148 cattle from 18 households from the three ecosystems in 2014, 2016, and 2019. Sera from 23 sheep and 17 goats were also obtained from the same households during the same period. Sera were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to CCHFV using the commercially available double-antigen ELISA kit. Overall, 31.5% CCHFV seropositivity was observed. The prevalence of CCHF was analyzed using a multiple logistic mixed model with main predictors. Risk factors associated with exposure to CCHFV were age (p = 0.000) and season (p = 0.007). Our findings suggest exposure to CCHFV and point to cattle as likely reservoirs of CCHFV in Kenya. The findings might play a role in providing better insights into disease risk and dynamics where analysis of tick populations in these regions should be further investigated.

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  • 27.
    Boström, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, Helsinki, Finland.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Bergh, Anna
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hyytiäinen, Heli
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, Helsinki, Finland.
    Systematic review of complementary and alternative veterinary medicine in sport and companion animals: therapeutic ultrasound2022In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 12, no 22, article id 3144Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To explore the scientific evidence for therapeutic ultrasound (TU), we conducted a systematic review of the literature on TU in dogs, horses, donkeys, and cats. Methods: In three major databases, relevant articles published in 1980–2020 were identified. The risk of bias in each article was evaluated. Results: Twenty-four relevant articles on the effects of TU in dogs, nine in horses, two in donkeys, and one in cats were identified. TU usually involved 2–6 treatments weekly for up to 4 weeks. Articles on tendon, ligament, and bone healing, acute aseptic arthritis, osteoarthritis, paraparesis, hindquarter weakness, and back muscle pain were identified. In experimental bone lesions in dogs, there is moderate scientific evidence for enhanced healing. For the treatment of other musculoskeletal conditions, the scientific evidence is insufficient due to the high risk of bias. There is substantial evidence that continuous TU increases tissue temperature in muscles and tendons by up to 5 °C in healthy animals. For disorders in tendons, ligaments, muscles, and joints in sport and companion animals, there is insufficient evidence for the clinical effects of TU.

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  • 28.
    Boström, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bergh, Anna
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hyytiäinen, Heli
    Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Systematic review of complementary and alternative veterinary medicine in sport and companion animals: extracorporeal shockwave therapy2022In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 12, no 22, article id 3124Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) is increasingly used to treat different types of musculoskeletal conditions in sport and companion animals. To explore the scientific basis for the treatment, we conducted a systematic review of the literature on ECSWT used in horses, dogs, and cats. Methods: Relevant articles published in 1980–2020 were identified from three major databases. Each article was assessed for risk of bias. Results: The review identified 27 relevant articles on the effects of ECSWT in horses, nine in dogs, but none in cats. Typically, ECSWT involved one to three treatment sessions at 1- to 3-week intervals. We identified studies on bone mass and bone healing, wound healing, navicular disease, ligament injury, desmitis, sesamoiditis, tendon injury, osteoarthritis, and short-term analgesic effects. Common to all indications was that the scientific evidence was very limited. For each separate indication, there were relatively few studies, many of which had methodological flaws. Where favorable results were reported, they were usually not replicated in independent studies. A few encouraging results were found. Conclusions: In sport and companion animals, the scientific evidence for clinical effects of ECSWT in horses, dogs, and cats is limited. For some applications, notably short-term pain relief, ligament ailments, and osteoarthritis, the results seem promising and warrant further exploration in high-quality studies.

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  • 29.
    Brantberg, Ida
    et al.
    School of Veterinary Science, The University of Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Chester High Road, Neston CH64 7TE, Wirral, UK;Djursjukhuset Malmö, IVC Evidensia, Cypressvägen 11, SE-213 63 Malmö, Sweden.
    Grooten, Wilhelmus J. A.
    Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Alfred Nobels Allé 23, SE-141 83 Huddinge, Sweden;Women’s Health and Allied Health Professionals’ Theme, Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna N1:00, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Essner, Ann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Djurkliniken Gefle, IVC Evidensia, Norra Gatan 1, SE-803 21 Gävle, Sweden;Uppsala University Hospital, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Effect of Therapeutic Exercise on Body Weight Distribution, Balance, and Stifle Function in Dogs following Stifle Injury2023In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stifle injury is common in the companion dog population, affecting weight bearing, neuromuscular control, and balance. Therapeutic exercises after stifle injury seem to be effective, but high-quality research evaluating the effects is lacking. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the effects of a 12-week progressive therapeutic home exercise protocol on three-legged standing, targeting balance and postural- and neuromuscular control and disability in dogs with stifle injury. Thirty-three dogs with stifle injury were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 18) and control groups (n = 15), both receiving a standard rehabilitation protocol. Additionally, the intervention group received a progressive therapeutic exercise protocol. The outcome measures were static body weight distribution between hindlimbs, balance control, the canine brief pain inventory, and the Finnish canine stifle index. Both groups improved after the intervention period, but the group using the progressive therapeutic exercise protocol improved to a greater extent regarding static body weight distribution between the hindlimbs (I: median = 2.5%, IQR = 1.0–4.5; C: median = 5.5%, IQR = 3.0–8.8), pain-related functional disability (I: median = 0.0, IQR = 0.0–0.2; C: median = 0.9, IQR = 0.1–1.8), and stifle function (I: median = 25.0, IQR = 9.4–40.6; C: median = 75.0, IQR = 31.3–87.5), with intermediate to strong effects. These clinically relevant results indicate that this home exercise program can improve hindlimb function and restore neuromuscular control.

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  • 30.
    Brommesson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecological and Environmental Modeling. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cattle Shipments and Disease Spread Modeling2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spread of transboundary animal diseases can have large impact on animal welfare, public health and economy. The effects of this include economic losses in terms of lower milk production, lower weight gain and culling due to welfare concerns. Disease preparedness is therefore important to be prepared for a possible outbreak, and policies need to be in place in order to take appropriate actions in case of an outbreak. It is also important to be able to take preventive actions to lessen the risk and size of an outbreak. For this, mathematical models are useful to describe the effects of an outbreak and to facilitate informed policy decisions.

    Mathematical models of spread of animal diseases, implicitly or explicitly, model the route of infection. One route of particular concern is the shipment of livestock animals since animal shipments have the possibility to move infected animals over long distances and introduce disease in previously unaffected areas. It is therefore important to have underlying data to use as input to models in order to consider possible future scenarios. Such data may however be sparse and not readily available. Based on observed (and sometimes incomplete) data, the underlying process that determines the probabilities of livestock shipments’ origins and destinations can be modeled. By using Bayesian statistics and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, it is possible to obtain distributions of the underlying parameters in the model, which in turn allow posterior predictive sets of shipments to be generated. These can further be used in a disease simulation to analyze the course of a potential outbreak. Given a large number of scenarios of interest and substantial stochastic effects, implementation of such models requires fast algorithms to facilitate execution of a sufficient number of replicated simulations, which may be infeasible under naive methods. The topics of this thesis are models of live cattle shipment, the problems of lack of shipment data and the computational challenges of modeling and simulating spread of infectious animal diseases.

    In Paper I, the spatio-temporal variations in distance dependence of cattle shipments in Sweden were studied by using real shipment data, Bayesian statistics and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The main results were that the spatial as well as the temporal aspect are important when modeling networks of cattle shipments in Sweden. The spatial variations distance dependence were analyzed at county, land (Norrland, Svealand and Götaland) and national level (i.e. no spatial variation). Similarly, the temporal aspect were investigated at three levels of granularity, using monthly-, quarterly- and annual variations (i.e no temporal variation). The level of granularity at which the spatio-temporal variations in distance dependence was captured better, in terms of Deviance Information Criterion, was identified at the county and quarter level. This results shows that such variations should be acknowledged when modeling networks of cattle shipments in Sweden.

    Paper II considered cattle shipments in the U.S. It addressed the problem of intrastate shipments being absent in available data and included responses from a survey taken by experts to estimate the proportion of shipments moving intrastate. The results showed that data from experts had minor effects on the estimations of proportion of intrastate shipments, mainly because of disparate estimates provided by the experts. This paper also investigated three types of functional forms of the distance dependence, and it was shown that the type used in Paper I, was the least preferred of the three. The preferred functional form had a plateau-shape at short distances as well as a fat tail, describing high probability of long-distance shipments.

    Paper III addressed the computational challenges of simulating spread of livestock diseases. In Paper III, infections were modeled to spread locally from farm to farm without modeling§ each pathway individually (this may include pathways such as airborne spread, wildlife etc.). To avoid evaluating infection probability of all pairs of infected and susceptible premises, spread of disease was simulated by partitioning the landscape into grids and thereby letting farms belong to a specific cell in this grid. An algorithm was introduced that make use of overestimations of the probability of infection to discard entire cells from further consideration as they are considered as uninfected in the current time frame. Despite introducing estimations of probabilities, the algorithm does not introduce estimations to the spread of disease, and does not compromise the integrity of the simulation. This algorithm was compared to the naive algorithm of evaluating the farms pairwise as well as to two other published algorithms developed for increased computational efficiency. It was shown that the algorithm presented in Paper III was as fast as or faster than other considered methods.

    Paper IV expanded the methods of Paper II and used the methodology from Paper III to simulate spread of disease via cattle shipments and via local spread across the U.S. In Paper IV, additional data at state- and county level were included that aimed at capturing shipment patterns related to the infrastructure of the production system not captured by the distance dependence. The model also considered three types of premises: farm, feedlot and market. This approach allows for different parameters across premises types, acknowledging their different roles in the production system. The result showed that these types of data were important to include when modeling the system and increased model performance in terms of WAIC, suggesting that industry structure should be accounted for when modeling cattle shipments. The spread of disease simulation included control scenarios such as culling of specific premises and also included a SEIR-model to model the infection status of each premises, referred to as partial transition. The results showed that while the inclusion of partial transition slowed the outbreak, the spatial pattern of the outbreak did not change.

    This thesis provides insights to what factors are important when predicting animal shipments networks for usage in spread of disease simulations and how these factors can be modeled. It also stresses the importance of efficient algorithms when using simulations and presents an algorithm suited for simulating spread of disease between farms where pathways of the pathogen are not modeled explicitly. How to accurately estimate the spread of disease via shipments and how to simulate a large number of outbreak scenarios within reasonable time are two major challenges a modeler faces when trying to predict the impact of a potential outbreak.

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  • 31.
    Broomé, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL.
    Ask, Katrina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Rashid-Engstrom, Maheen
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Comp Sci, Davis, CA 95616 USA.;Univrses, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersen, Pia Haubro
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kjellström, Hedvig
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL. Silo AI, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sharing pain: Using pain domain transfer for video recognition of low grade orthopedic pain in horses2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 3, p. e0263854-, article id e0263854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orthopedic disorders are common among horses, often leading to euthanasia, which often could have been avoided with earlier detection. These conditions often create varying degrees of subtle long-term pain. It is challenging to train a visual pain recognition method with video data depicting such pain, since the resulting pain behavior also is subtle, sparsely appearing, and varying, making it challenging for even an expert human labeller to provide accurate ground-truth for the data. We show that a model trained solely on a dataset of horses with acute experimental pain (where labeling is less ambiguous) can aid recognition of the more subtle displays of orthopedic pain. Moreover, we present a human expert baseline for the problem, as well as an extensive empirical study of various domain transfer methods and of what is detected by the pain recognition method trained on clean experimental pain in the orthopedic dataset. Finally, this is accompanied with a discussion around the challenges posed by real-world animal behavior datasets and how best practices can be established for similar fine-grained action recognition tasks. Our code is available at https://github.com/sofiabroome/painface-recognition.

  • 32.
    Börjesson, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Investigations of Strategies to Counteract Proinflammatory Cytokines in Experimental Type 1 Diabetes2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease targeted against the pancreatic β-cells. Proinflammatory cytokines are considered to play a major role in the destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells. This thesis studied strategies to counteract proinflammatory cytokines in experimental T1D. Both animal models for T1D as well as β-cell preparations exposed in vitro to putative noxious conditions were examined.

    In the first study we observed that cytokine treatment of mouse pancreatic islets lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced a prolongation of the early stimulatory phase of glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Various experiments led to the conclusion that this prolonged stimulatory effect may involve the DAG/PLD/PKC pathway.

    Next, we transplanted mouse islets deficient in iNOS to spontaneously diabetic NOD mice. We observed a normalization of hyperglycemia but not a delayed allograft rejection compared to transplanted wild type islets. Thus, absence of iNOS in the graft was not sufficient to prolong allograft survival.

    In paper III we found that sustained glucose stimulation of rat pancreatic islets was coupled to a decreased conversion of proinsulin to insulin. Islet treatment with IL-1β was also coupled to a decreased proinsulin conversion. Islet proconvertase activity may be a target in islet damage.

    In paper IV prolactin (PRL) was administered to mice in the multiple low dose streptozotocin model and we observed that PRL enhanced a Th2 response. This may contribute to the protective action by PRL in this model of autoimmune T1D.

    Finally, by examining β-cells overexpressing Suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS-3) it was found that this could inhibit IL-1β induced signalling through the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. SOCS-3 overexpression also inhibited apoptosis induced by cytokines in primary β-cells. Lastly, we demonstrated that SOCS-3 transgenic islets were protected in an allogeneic transplantation model.

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  • 33.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    et al.
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Landén, Annica
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bergström, Martin
    Department of Business Support, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Ulrika Grönlund
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in Sweden2012In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 597-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an opportunistic pathogen that is one of the most frequent causes of infections in dogs. In Europe, there are increasing reports of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP), and in Sweden, MRSP has also been more frequently isolated during recent years. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the epidemiology and genetic relationship among the Swedish isolates. This study therefore investigated the genetic relationship of MRSP isolated from companion animals in Sweden. In the study, MRSP isolates taken in the period January 2008-June 2010 from a total of 226 dogs and cats were characterized by spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In addition, the geographical distribution of the isolates based on year of isolation and genetic typing was determined using a geographical information system. One multiresistant clonal lineage dominated among Swedish MRSP isolates, corresponding to the European winning lineage ST71-J-t02-SCCmec II-III. Furthermore, the geographical dissemination of MRSP corresponded to areas with high dog densities, centered on the three major cities in Sweden where the largest animal hospitals are situated.

  • 34.
    Böttiger, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Genetic variation in the folate receptor-alpha and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genes as determinants of plasma homocysteine concentrations2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive disease such as dementia. The B vitamins folate and B12 are the main de terminants of tHcy. tHcy concentration can also be affected by mutations in genes coding for receptors, enzymes and transporters important in the metabolism of Hcy. This thesis focuses on mutations in the genes for folate receptor-alpha and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and the effect they have on tHcy concentrations.

    Six novel mutations in the gene for folate receptor-alpha were described in Paper I. Taken together they exist in a population with a prevalence of approximately 1% and thus are not unusual. There may be an association of –69dupA and –18C>T to tHcy but for the 25-bp deletion, –856C>T, –921T>C and –1043G>A there is probably no association to tHcy. Mutation screening was continued and four additional mutations, 1314G>A, 1816delC, 1841G>A and 1928C>T, were described in Paper II. The prevalences for the heterozygotes were between 0.5% and 13% in an elderly population. There was no significant difference in prevalence between the elderly subjects and patients with dementia. The 1816(–)-allele and the 1841A-allele were in complete linkage and the haplotype 1816(–)-1841A may possibly have a tHcy raising effect. The 1314G>A and 1928C>T mutations had no association to tHcy.

    The genotype prevalences and haplotype frequencies of the MTHFR 677C>T, 1298A>C and 1793G>A polymorphisms were determined in a population sample of Swedish children and adolescents (Paper III). The MTHFR 677T-allele was associated with increased tHcy concentrations in both children and adolescents. A small elevating effect of the 1298C-allele and a small lowering effect of the 1793A-allele could be shown. In an epidemiological sample of adults from the Canary Islands, Spain, data for serum folate and vitamin B12 were used for a broader study of the nutrigenetic impact on tHcy (Paper IV). The 677T-allele had a significant tHcy increasing effect in men but not in women. The 1298C-allele had a minor elevating effect on tHcy in men with the 677CT genotype. It was not possible to document any effect of the 1793A-allele on tHcy due to its low prevalence. A slightly superior explanatory power for the genetic impact was obtained using the MTHFR haplotypes in the analysis compared to the MTHFR 677C>T genotype-based approach in both the Swedish children and adolescents and in the Spanish adults. Therefore MTHFR haplotypes should be considered when analysing the impact of the MTHFR 677C>T, 1298A>C and 1793G>A polymorphisms on tHcy.

    Notwithstanding the large geographical distance between our study populations the haplotype composition is quite similar. The MTHFR 677T-allele is slightly more prevalent in Spain compared to Sweden but it has only an effect on tHcy in the Spanish men. Age, gender and factors linked to the ethnicity of the studied subjects, seem to be able to override the nutrigenetic impact of tHcy-raising genotypes or haplotypes in particular settings, such as in the Spanish women in our study. Gene-nutrient interactions on plasma tHcy levels thus may or may not exist in a certain population. The transferability of nutrigenetic findings may therefore be limited, and must be re-evaluated for each particular setting of age-gender-ethnicity.

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  • 35.
    Corrò, Michela
    et al.
    Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, viale Università 10, 35020, Legnaro, PD, Italy.
    Skarin, Joakim
    Department of Microbiology, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), SE-751 89, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), SE-751 89, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rota, Ada
    Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Turin, Largo Paolo Braccini 2-5, 10090, Grugliasco, TO, Italy.
    Occurrence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in successive parturitions of bitches and their puppies in two kennels in Italy2018In: BMC Veterinary Research, E-ISSN 1746-6148, Vol. 14, article id 308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Multi-drug methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) detection is rapidly increasing in microbial specimens from pets across Europe. MRSP has also been isolated from bitches and newborns in dog breeding kennels. This study assessed whether MRSP lineage differs between breeding kennels and is maintained over time. Post-partum bitches (at day 3 vaginal and day 3, 9 and 35 milk samples) and their litters (at day 3, 9 and 35 oral and abdominal skin samples) from two Italian breeding kennels (A and B) were sampled and MRSP was subsequently characterized via whole-genome sequencing and antibiotic susceptibility testing. The study was carried out from October 2014 to March 2016 and included successive parturitions from the same animals.

    RESULTS: The analysis revealed different situations in both investigated kennels. In kennel A, circulating strains were from 7-locus sequence types ST688, ST258 and closely related isolates of ST71, which included most isolates. In kennel B, only a new isolate, ST772, was detected. In addition, most isolates from both kennels had multi-resistant antibiotic profiles. MRSP was only isolated from litters of MRSP-positive bitches, thus suggesting that bitch-litter transmission is likely.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that MRSP circulation can differ in different settings, that several clonal lineages can circulate together, and that vertical transmission appears common. MRSP colonization did not affect the health conditions of the bitches or of their litters.

  • 36.
    Cristea, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Effects of Ageing and Physical Activity on Regulation of Muscle Contraction2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanisms underlying (1) the ageing-related motor handicap at the whole muscle, cellular, contractile protein and myonuclear levels; and (2) ageing-related differences in muscle adaptability.

    In vivo muscles function was studied in the knee extensors. Decreases were observed in isokinetic and isometric torque outputs in old age in the sedentary men and women and elite master sprinters. A 20-week long specific sprint and resistance training successfully improved the maximal isometric force and rate of force development in a subgroup of master sprinters.

    In vitro measurements were performed in muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle. Immunocytochemical and contractile measurements in single membrane permeabilized muscle fibres demonstrated ageing- and gender-related changes at the myofibrillar level. In sedentary subjects, data showed a preferential decrease in the size of muscle fibres expressing type IIa MyHC in men, lower force generating capacity in muscle fibres expressing the type I MyHC isoform in both men and women and lower maximum velocity of unloaded shortening (V0) in fibres expressing types I and IIa MyHC isoforms in both men and women. The master sprinters also experienced the typical ageing-related reduction in the size of fast-twitch fibres, a shift toward a slower MyHC isoform profile and a lower V0 of type I MyHC fibres, which played a role in the decline in explosive force production capacity. The fast-twitch fibre area increased after the resistance training period. A model combining single muscle fibre confocal microscopy with a novel algorithm for 3D imaging of myonuclei in single muscle fibre segments was introduced to study the spatial organisation of myonuclei and the size of individual myonuclear domains (MNDs). Significant changes in the MND size variability and myonuclear organization were observed in old age, irrespective gender and fibre type. Those changes may influence the local quantity of specific proteins per muscle fibre volume by decreased and/or local cooperativity of myonuclei in a gender and muscle fibre specific manner.

    In conclusion, the ageing-related impairments in in vivo muscle function were related to significant changes in morphology, contractile protein expression and regulation at the muscle fibre level. It is suggested that the altered myonuclear organisation observed in old age impacts on muscle fibre protein synthesis and degradation with consequences for the ageing-related changes in skeletal muscle structure and function. However, the improved muscle function in response to a 20-week intense physical training regime in highly motivated physically active old subjects demonstrates that all ageing-related in muscle function are not immutable.

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  • 37.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Functions of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses in a Large Community Sample of Adolescents2015In: Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1040-3590, E-ISSN 1939-134X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 302-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is prevalent in adolescents, structured assessment is an essential tool to guide treatment interventions. The Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM) is a self-report scale that assesses frequency, methods, and functions of NSSI. FASM was administered to 3,097 Swedish adolescents in a community sample. With the aim of examining the underlying factor structure of the functions of FASM in this sample, the adolescents with NSSI who completed all function items (n = 836) were randomly divided into 2 subsamples for cross-validation purposes. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using the mean and variance adjusted weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimator in the Mplus statistical modeling program. The results of the EFA suggested a 3-factor model (social influence, automatic functions, and nonconformist peer identification), which was supported by a good fit in the CFA. Factors differentiated between social/interpersonal and automatic/intrapersonal functions. Based on learning theory and the specific concepts of negative and positive reinforcement, the nonconformist peer identification factor was then split into 2 factors (peer identification and avoiding demands). The resulting 4-factor model showed an excellent fit. Dividing social functions into separate factors (social influence, peer identification, and avoiding demands) can be helpful in clinical practice, where the assessment of NSSI functions is an important tool with direct implications for treatment.

  • 38. Deka, Ram Pratim
    et al.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Grace, Delia
    Randolph, Thomas F.
    Shome, Rajeswari
    Lindahl, Johanna F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Estimates of the Economic Cost Caused by Five Major Reproductive Problems in Dairy Animals in Assam and Bihar, India2021In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 11, no 11, article id 3116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproductive problems in dairy animals reduce fertility, prevent conception, create problems in the delivery of healthy calves, lead to postpartum complications, increase inter-calving periods, reduce milk yield, and lower overall lifetime productivity. This study aimed at understanding the incidence of reproductive problems and the cost caused by these. The study covered 954 dairy animals in Bihar and 1348 dairy animals in Assam that were selected using a multi-stage random sampling method. The costs were calculated as the sum of income losses and expenditures incurred. The major cost incurred resulted from extended calving intervals (46.1% of the total cost), followed by loss through salvage selling (38.1%), expenditure for treatment of repeat breeders (5.9%), loss of milk production (5.3%) and expenditure for extra inseminations (2.0%). About one fifth of the selected reproductive problems were left untreated. The estimated cost of reproductive problems was Indian Rupees (INR) 2424.9 (USD 36.1) per dairy animal per year (of the total dairy animal population) which represented approximately 4.1% of the mean value loss of dairy animals (INR 58,966/USD 877) per year. Reproductive problems were significantly (p < 0.001) higher among improved (exotic breed or cross-bred) dairy animals than indigenous (native breed or nondescript indigenous) dairy animals. The study suggests that with the increase of improved dairy animal population, the loss may further increase. The study concludes that any economic estimation of reproduction problems based on aetiology without confirmatory diagnoses could be highly misleading because of the complex nature of the problems.

    Simple Summary

    Large ruminant dairy animals (i.e., cattle and buffalo) suffer from several reproductive problems (such as abortion) that reduce ther ability to produce milk and offspring, resulting in huge economic costs to farmers; however, there are few studies in India that estimate such costs. Therefore, an attempt was made to assess the economic cost of five major reproductive problems in two of the poorest Indian states—Assam and Bihar. We estimated the cost by interviewing 534 randomly selected dairy farming households in both the states. Based on this, we found that 32.9% of dairy animals (milking, not-milking and heifer) in Assam and 43.1% dairy animals in Bihar suffered from one or more reproductive problems. The most common reproductive problem was failing to conceive after breeding (23.2% of surveyed dairy animals) followed by retained placenta (6.1%), abortion (4.9%), purulent vaginal discharge (2.9%) and stillbirths (1.0%). It was estimated that the selected reproductive problems caused an annual economic cost of Indian Rupees (INR), 3963.1 million (USD 59.0 million) in Assam, and INR 30,500.0 million (USD 453.9 million) in Bihar. The study concludes that adequate awareness, capacity building, adoption of good reproductive health management practices, proper farm record keeping and improved access to quality veterinary services are essential to address reproductive problems and reduce the cost caused by these reproductive problems.

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  • 39.
    Deka, Ram Pratim
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Clin Sci, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden; Int Livestock Res Inst ILRI, Dept Anim & Human Hlth, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Shome, Rajeswari
    Natl Inst Vet Epidemiol & Dis Informat NIVEDI, Bangalore 560064, Karnataka, India.
    Dohoo, Ian
    Univ Prince Edward Isl, Epidemiol, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Clin Sci, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Randolph, Delia Grace
    Int Livestock Res Inst ILRI, Dept Anim & Human Hlth, Nairobi 00100, Kenya; Univ Greenwich, Nat Resources Inst, Food Safety Syst, Chatham ME4 4TB, Kent, England.
    Lindahl, Johanna F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Clin Sci, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden; Int Livestock Res Inst ILRI, Dept Anim & Human Hlth, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Brucella Infection in Dairy Animals in Urban and Rural Areas of Bihar and Assam, India2021In: Microorganisms, E-ISSN 2076-2607, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed seropositivity of Brucella infection in dairy animals and risk factors associated with it. The cross-sectional study used multi-stage, random sampling in the states of Bihar and Assam in India. In total, 740 dairy animals belonging to 534 households of 52 villages were covered under this study. Serological testing was conducted by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Animal-level Brucella seropositivity was found to be 15.9% in Assam and 0.3% in Bihar. Seropositivity in urban areas (18.7%) of Assam was found to be higher than in rural areas (12.4%). Bihar was excluded from the risk factor analysis, as only one Brucella seropositive sample was detected in the state. A total of 30 variables were studied for assessing risk factors, of which 15 were selected for multivariable regression analyses following a systematic process. Finally, only three risk factors were identified as statistically significant. It was found that animals belonging to districts having smaller-sized herds were less likely (p < 0.001) to be Brucella seropositive than animals belonging to districts having larger-sized herds. Furthermore, the chance of being Brucella seropositive increased (p = 0.007) with the increase in age of dairy animals, but decreased (p = 0.072) with the adoption of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding. We speculated that the identified risk factors in Assam likely explained the reason behind lower Brucella seropositivity in Bihar, and therefore any future brucellosis control program should focus on addressing these risk factors.

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  • 40.
    Deksne, Gunita
    et al.
    Inst Food safety Anim Hlth & Environm BIOR, Lejupes Str 3, Riga LV-1076, Latvia.;Univ Latvia, Fac Biol, Jelgavas Str 1, Riga LV-1004, Latvia..
    Mateusa, Maira
    Inst Food safety Anim Hlth & Environm BIOR, Lejupes Str 3, Riga LV-1076, Latvia.;Univ Life Sci & Technol, Fac Vet Med, K Helmana Str 8, Jelgava LV-3004, Latvia..
    Cvetkova, Svetlana
    Inst Food safety Anim Hlth & Environm BIOR, Lejupes Str 3, Riga LV-1076, Latvia..
    Derbakova, Alina
    Univ Life Sci & Technol, Fac Vet Med, K Helmana Str 8, Jelgava LV-3004, Latvia..
    Keida, Dace
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life sciences and Technologies, K. Helmaņa Str. 8, Jelgava LV-3004, Latvia.
    Troell, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Natl Vet Inst, SE-75189 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schares, Gereon
    Friedrich Loeffler Inst, Fed Res Inst Anim Hlth, Sudufer 10, D-17493 Greifswald, Germany..
    Prevalence, risk factor and diversity of Cryptosporidium in cattle in Latvia2022In: Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports, E-ISSN 2405-9390, Vol. 28, article id 100677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. in Latvia was investigated by testing fecal samples from 926 animals aged from one day to 24 years for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. The samples were collected from 87 cattle farms and from four slaughterhouses, and analyzed by conventional and fluorescent microscopy, fol-lowed by Cryptosporidium species and C. parvum subtype differentiation. Moreover, using a questionnaire, we surveyed factors that could be relevant as risk factors of Cryptosporidium spp. infection on the farms. Crypto-sporidium spp. were shed by 33.8% of the investigated cattle and at least one shedding animal was found on 77.8% of the farms. In the present study, all four Cryptosporidium species reported to commonly infect cattle and two additional Cryptosporidium species (C. scrofarum and C. ubiquitum) were identified. In addition, mix in-fections of C. parvum/C. bovis, C. bovis/C. ryanae, C. parvum/C. ryanae, C. parvum/C. andersoni and C. bovis/ C. andersoni were observed. C. parvum and C. bovis was mostly prevalent in young animals (0-3 months old) and in addition, diarrhea associated with C. parvum infection was observed only in very young animals. Cryptosporidium andersoni and C. ryanae in age group 0-3 months was observed in low prevalence, while a higher proportion of animals with diarrhea associated with C. andersoni infection was observed in very young animals and with C. ryanae in animals age group 4-24 months. Eight previously described C. parvum subtypes were observed. The majority of the subtypes were in the IIa subtype family, while one subtype was identified from the IId subtype family. The most common subtype was IIaA15G2R1, which was found in 34.2% of the C. parvum successfully subtyped samples. The probability of Cryptosporidium spp. associated diarrhea in cattle decreased significantly with the age of the animals and a prolonged period during which calves were fed with milk.

  • 41.
    Edner, Ann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Pediatric Surgery.
    Lindström Nilsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Pediatric Surgery.
    Melhus, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Low risk of transmission of pathogenic bacteria between children and the assistance dog during animal-assisted if strict rules are followed2021In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 115, p. 5-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the bacterial transmission between patients and dogs during dog assisted therapy (DAT). Twenty children (55% girls) with a median age of 7 years (range 3-17 years) were included. Two dogs assisted and the conditions were more restricted hygienically with dog 2. Samples from child and dog were collected and cultured before and after each DAT visit. The results showed that dog 1 transmitted bacteria repeatedly to the children. No bacteria were transmitted with dog 2. In conclusion, exchange of bacteria can occur between dog and child during DAT, but it can be reduced by simple infection control measures. (c) 2021 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Healthcare Infection Society.

  • 42.
    Ekman, Lisa
    et al.
    Natl Vet Inst, Dept Anim Hlth & Antimicrobial Strategies, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bagge, Elisabeth
    Natl Vet Inst, Dept Anim Hlth & Antimicrobial Strategies, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nyman, Ann
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden; Växa Sverige, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson Waller, Karin
    Natl Vet Inst, Dept Anim Hlth & Antimicrobial Strategies, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pringle, Märit
    Natl Vet Inst, Dept Anim Hlth & Antimicrobial Strategies, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Segerman, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Natl Vet Inst, Dept Microbiol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A shotgun metagenomic investigation of the microbiota of udder cleft dermatitis in comparison to healthy skin in dairy cows2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 12, article id e0242880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Udder cleft dermatitis (UCD) is a skin condition affecting the fore udder attachment of dairy cows. UCD may be defined as mild (eczematous skin changes) or severe (open wounds, large skin changes). Our aims were to compare the microbiota of mild and severe UCD lesions with the microbiota of healthy skin from the fore udder attachment of control cows, and to investigate whether mastitis-causing pathogens are present in UCD lesions. Samples were obtained from cows in six dairy herds. In total, 36 UCD samples categorized as mild (n = 17) or severe (n = 19) and 13 control samples were sequenced using a shotgun metagenomic approach and the reads were taxonomically classified based on their k-mer content. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare the abundance of different taxa between different sample types, as well as to compare the bacterial diversity between samples. A high proportion of bacteria was seen in all samples. Control samples had a higher proportion of archaeal reads, whereas most samples had low proportions of fungi, protozoa and viruses. The bacterial microbiota differed between controls and mild and severe UCD samples in both composition and diversity. Subgroups of UCD samples were visible, characterized by increased proportion of one or a few bacterial genera or species, e.g. Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium luteolum, Trueperella pyogenes and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Bifidobacterium spp. were more common in controls compared to UCD samples. The bacterial diversity was higher in controls compared to UCD samples. Bacteria commonly associated with mastitis were uncommon. In conclusion, a dysbiosis of the microbiota of mild and severe UCD samples was seen, characterized by decreased diversity and an increased proportion of certain bacteria. There was no evidence of a specific pathogen causing UCD or that UCD lesions are important reservoirs for mastitis-causing bacteria.

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  • 43.
    Ekstrand, Carl
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Box 7058, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bondesson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Chem Environm & Feed Hyg, S-75189 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Giving, Ellen
    Romerike Hesteklin, Riisveien 75, N-2007 Kjeller, Norway.
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Chem Environm & Feed Hyg, S-75189 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ingvast-Larsson, Carina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Box 7058, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jacobsen, Stine
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Dept Vet Clin Sci, Dyrlaevej 16, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Löfgren, Maria
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Box 7058, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Moen, Lars
    Romerike Hesteklin, Riisveien 75, N-2007 Kjeller, Norway.
    Rhodin, Marie
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Box 7011, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Saetra, Tonje
    Rikstotoklinikken Bjerke, Postboks 194, N-0510 Oslo, Norway.
    Ranheim, Birgit
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Fac Vet Med, Prod Anim Clin Sci, Box 369 Sentrum, N-0102 Oslo, Norway.
    Disposition and effect of intra-articularly administered dexamethasone on lipopolysaccharide induced equine synovitis2019In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 61, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dexamethasone is used for the intra-articular route of administration in management of aseptic arthritis in horses. Despite its widespread use there is very little quantitative data of the disposition and response to dexamethasone. The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the synovial fluid and plasma dexamethasone concentration over time and to explore the relation between synovial fluid concentration and response using clinical endpoints as response biomarkers after IA injection of dexamethasone disodium salt solution in an equine model of synovitis.

    Results: Inflammation was induced in the radiocarpal joint of six horses by injection of 2ng lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Two hours later either saline or dexamethasone was injected in the same joint in a two treatment cross over design. Each horse was treated once with one of the six doses dexamethasone used (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1 or 3mg) and once with saline. Dexamethasone was quantified by means of UHPLC-MS/MS. Dexamethasone disposition was characterised by means of a non-linear mixed effects model. Lameness was evaluated both objectively with an inertial sensor based system and subjectively scored using a numerical scale (0-5). Joint circumference, skin temperature over the joint and rectal temperature were also recorded. The LPS-challenge induced lameness in all horses with high inter-individual variability. Dexamethasone significantly decreased lameness compared with saline. Other variables were not statistically significant different between treatments. Objective lameness scoring was the most sensitive method used in this study to evaluate the lameness response. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was successfully fitted to experimental dexamethasone and lameness data. The model allowed characterization of the dexamethasone synovial fluid concentration-time course, the systemic exposure to dexamethasone after intra-articular administration and the concentration-response relation in an experimental model of synovitis.

    Conclusions: The quantitative data improve the understanding of the pharmacology of dexamethasone and might serve as input for future experiments and possibly contribute to maintain integrity of equine sports.

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  • 44.
    Ekstrand, Carl
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed & Vet Publ Hlth, Div Pharmacol & Toxicol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Michanek, Peter
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed & Vet Publ Hlth, Div Pharmacol & Toxicol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gehring, Ronette
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed & Vet Publ Hlth, Div Pharmacol & Toxicol, Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Utrecht, Dept Populat Hlth Sci, Div Vet & Comparat Pharmacol, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Sundell, Anna
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed & Vet Publ Hlth, Div Pharmacol & Toxicol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kallse, Annika
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed & Vet Publ Hlth, Div Pharmacol & Toxicol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Strom, Lena
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Div Large Anim Surg, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Plasma atropine concentrations associated with decreased intestinal motility in horses2022In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, E-ISSN 2297-1769, Vol. 9, article id 951300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionAtropine is an essential part of the treatment protocol for equine uveitis. Topical atropine administration has been associated with decreased intestinal motility and abdominal pain in horses. Experimental studies have indicated that frequent dosing is associated with a higher risk than dosing every 6 h. Unfortunately, no quantitative pharmacodynamic data for inhibition of the equine gut are published. Materials and methodsEight standardbred horses were assigned to receive either atropine or saline (control) to be infused over 30 min in a two-treatment cross-over design. Atropine concentrations in plasma were measured using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Intestinal motility was measured using borborygmi frequency and electrointestinography (EIG). Experimental data were analyzed using a non-linear mixed effects model. The model was then used to simulate different dosing regimens. ResultsAtropine significantly decreased borborygmi response and EIG response. Six horses developed clinical signs of abdominal pain. The pharmacokinetic typical values were 0.31, 1.38, 0.69, and 1.95 L/kg center dot h for the volumes of the central, the highly perfused, the scarcely perfused compartments, and the total body clearance, respectively. The pharmacodynamic typical values were 0.31 mu g/L and 0.6 and 207 nV(2)7 cpm for the plasma concentration at 50% of the maximum response and the maximum response and the baseline of cecal EIG response, respectively. Six different dosing regimens of topical atropine sulfate to the eye (0.4 and 1 mg every hour, every 3 h, and every 6 h) were simulated. ConclusionThe IV PK/PD data coupled with simulations predict that administration of 1 mg of topical atropine sulfate administered to the eye every hour or every 3 h will lead to atropine accumulation in plasma and decreased intestinal myoelectric activity. Administration every 6 h predicted a safe dosing regimen in full-sized horses. Clinical studies would be valuable to confirm the conclusions. For smaller equids and horses put at risk for colic due to othercauses, droplet bottles that deliver 40 mu l of 1% atropine sulfate per drop or less may be used to lower the risk further.

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  • 45. Ekstrand, Carl
    et al.
    Sterning, Marie
    Bohman, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edner, Anna
    Lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia as a complement to dissociative anaesthesia during scrotal herniorrhaphy of livestock pigs in the field2015In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 57, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, scrotal or inguinal herniorrhaphy of livestock pigs in the field has traditionally been an important part of the surgical skills training of veterinary students. Few substances meet the legal requirements for field anaesthesia of production animals in the European Union but a protocol based on azaperone-detomidine-butorphanol-ketamine does. Unfortunately the anaesthesia is characterised by unpredictable duration and depth and of abrupt awakenings which is not acceptable from an animal welfare perspective and impedes surgical training. Lumbo-sacral epidural analgesia is proven to provide sufficient analgesia to allow abdominal surgery, but there are few reports on the field use of this loco-regional technique. The study aim was to evaluate whether lumbo-sacral anaesthesia can be safely and successfully used in the field by a veterinary student and whether the combination of dissociative and lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia improves analgesia and anaesthesia to guarantee animal welfare during herniorrhaphy in livestock pigs, enabling surgical skills training. Results: Pigs in the control-group (placebo) responded significantly stronger to surgery, with five out of 11 requiring additional doses of detomidine and ketamine. There were no significant differences between groups in respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, SpO(2) or blood gases. SpO(2) levels <94 % were recorded in several pigs in both groups. No post-injection complications were reported at follow-up. Conclusions: The results from this study showed that lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia with lidocaine could successfully be administered during dissociative anaesthesia of livestock pigs by a veterinary student and without reported post-injection complications. It improved analgesia and anaesthesia during herniorrhaphy of sufficient duration to enable surgical skills training. The risks and consequences of hypoxaemia and hypoventilation should be considered.

  • 46.
    Ekström, Anette
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Process-oriented training in breastfeeding attitudes and continuity of care improve mothers perception of support2007In: Health Education Research Trends / [ed] Peter R. Hong, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2007, p. 211-225Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Elffors, Jenny
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Johannessen, Athena
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Marknadsföring på recept: Läkemedelsmarknadsföring ur ett moraliskt perspektiv2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Overall aims of this thesis are to bring a broader and deeper understanding, from  a moral point of view, of marketing of pharmaceuticals, and to consider whether  there is a reason for separating advertising from information in the sector.

    Methods: A qualitative approach to the subject was used. Methods for data compilation  were semi-structured interviews with representatives for The Swedish Association  of the Pharmaceutical Industry (Läkemedelsindustriföreningen), and studies  of advertisements in The Journal of the Swedish Medical Association (Läkartidningen)  and commercials on a TV channel (TV4). A customised, self-made,  grid was utilised for coding and compiling data from the observations of commercial  material. Following that, the empirical material from interviews as well  as observations has been analysed, using the theory of counter productivity as a  model for ethical audit.

    Results: The authors judge marketing activities of the pharmaceutical industry to be morally  justified. One reason for this judgement is, that the pharmaceutical industry  contributes to an increased well-being among citizens by providing research, research  activities being financed by revenues, which – in turn – are enhanced by  marketing. Another reason is that companies show responsible in the dissemination  of information and that the results of the study indicate sincerity in marketing.  When responsibility is linked to trustworthiness and when availability of information  provided by marketing activities is taken into consideration, there is  also evidence of a morally justifiable behaviour. Advertisements for drugs on  prescription showed more informatively designed than those for over-the-counter  drugs. A more informative and appropriate marketing of non-prescription pharmaceuticals  would enhance the moral reputation of the companies.

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  • 48.
    Eliasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Tularemia: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the small, fastidious, gram-negative rod Francisella tularensis that appears over almost the entire Northern Hemisphere. In Sweden, tularemia has appeared mainly in restricted areas in northern parts of central Sweden.

    The disease can be transmitted through several routes: direct contact with infected animals, by vectors, through contaminated food or water or through inhalation of aerosolized bacteria. Distinct clinical forms of the disease are seen, depending on the route of transmission. During the last years, tularemia has emerged in new areas in central Sweden, south of the endemic area. The emergence of tularemia in the County of Örebro prompted the investigations presented in this thesis.

    We performed a case-control study, using a mailed questionnaire, to identify risk factors for acquiring tularemia in Sweden (Paper I). After multivariate analysis, mosquito bites and cat ownership could be associated with tularemia in all studied areas while farming appeared as a risk factor only in endemic areas.

    In Paper II, we evaluated a PCR analysis, targeting the tul4 gene, used on samples from primary lesions in patients with ulceroglandular tularemia. The method performed well, with a sensitivity of 78% and a specifi city of 96%. The clinical characteristics of tularemia in an emergent area in Sweden were studied Paper III), using case fi les and a questionnaire. Of 278 cases of tularemia reported during the years 2000 to 2004, 234 had been in contact with a doctor from the Department of Infectious Diseases at Örebro University Hospital, and were thus included. The ulceroglandular form of the disease was seen in 89% of the cases, with the primary lesion, in most cases, on the lower leg. An overwhelming majority of cases occurred during late summer and early autumn, further supporting transmission by mosquitoes. Erythemas overlying the affected lymph node areas were seen in 19% of patients with forms of tularemia affecting peripheral lymph nodes. Late skin manifestations, of various appearances, were seen in 30% of the cases, predominantly in women. A raised awareness of tularemia among physicians in the county during the course of the outbreak was found, as documented by the development of shorter doctor’s delay and less prescription of antibiotics inappropriate in tularemia.

    Finally, we developed a simplifi ed whole-blood lymphocyte stimulation test, as a diagnostic tool in tularemia (Paper IV). The level of IFN-γ, as a proxy for lymphocyte proliferation, was measured after 24-h stimulation. Additionally, a tularemia ELISA with ultra-purifi ed LPS as the antigen was evaluated, showing a high sensitivity. The lymphocyte stimulation test, when performed on consecutive samples from subjects with ongoing tularemia was able to detect the disease earlier in the course of the disease than both the new ELISA and the tube agglutination test. Furthermore, all tularemia cases became positive in the lymphocyte stimulation test within 12 days of disease. In conclusion, this thesis describes risk factors for acquiring tularemia as well as the clinical characteristics of the disease in Sweden. Additionally, a Francisella PCR analysis and a tularemia ELISA based on highly purifi ed LPS is evaluated, and a simplified lymphocyte stimulation test, for early confirmation of the disease, is developed.

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  • 49.
    Enlund, Karolina Brunius
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Pettersson, Ann
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research. Linköping Univ, Dept Hlth, Med & Caring Sci, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dog Owners' Ideas and Strategies Regarding Dental Health in Their Dogs-Thematic Analysis of Free Text Survey Responses2022In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, E-ISSN 2297-1769, Vol. 9, article id 878162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Periodontal disease is the most common disease in dogs over 3 years of age. In dogs, as in humans, daily tooth brushing, as a means of active dental home care, is considered the gold standard for prophylaxis and prevention of periodontal disease progression. However, the performance of adequate tooth brushing is insufficient in dogs. There is no full account as to why dog owners fail to comply with this routine, but in order to facilitate better practice, a further understanding of dog owner's perspectives is needed. The aim of this study was to investigate dog owners' ideas and strategies regarding their dogs' dental health. In a large-scale Swedish survey regarding dental health in dogs, dog owners' free text comments (n = 8,742) from a concluding open-ended query were analyzed using qualitative methods. Many different notions concerning dental health in dogs were identified, of which perceived importance of different diets and chewing being the most prominent. Five common themes represented dog owners' ideas and strategies regarding dental health in their dogs: what is considered to cause dental problems; what is deemed not to promote dental health; how to prevent dental problems; what impedes proper dental care, and; needs for increased knowledge and support. Contrary to existing research and knowledge in the field, the respondents commonly trusted that diet procure good dental health in the dog, as does chewing on bones. Seemingly, a range of misconceptions flourish among dog owners, indicating a need to share information and experiences, as well as support to bridge barriers to tooth brushing and other aspects that can enhance dog owners' knowledge and practice. In addition, this study highlights the need for randomized controlled trials on effects of diets and supplements on different aspects of dental health; calculus, periodontal disease, and dental fractures, including dogs of different breeds, sizes and ages. Further research is also needed with respect to which strategies that best aid dog owners, by whom the support is best provided, when, and at what time point.

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  • 50.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Aspects on stroke outcome: survival, functional status, depression and sex differences in Riks-Stroke, the National Quality Register for Stroke Care2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In Sweden, about 30 000 strokes occur each year. The aim of this thesis was to analyse survival, functional outcome and self-reported depression after stroke, and to explore possible differences between men and women in stroke care and outcome.

    These studies were based on Riks-Stroke, the Swedish national quality register for stroke care. Information on background variables and treatment were collected during the hospital stay. The patient’s situation and outcome after stroke were followed-up after 3 months. Long term survival was retrieved from the Swedish Population Register (Folkbokföringen).

    Possible sex-differences in stroke care and outcome 3 months after stroke were explored in 24 633 strokes, registered during 2006. In conscious patients, the proportions treated at stroke units were similar for men and women. Men and women had equal chance to receive thrombolytic therapy or secondary prevention with oral anticoagulants. Compared to men, women were less likely to develop pneumonia, but more likely to experience deep venous thromboses and fractures during hospital stay. Women had worse 3-month survival and functional outcome, differences that were explained by their higher age and impaired level of consciousness on admission. Women felt more depressed and perceived their health as worse than men did. Women were also less satisfied with the care they had received in the hospital.

    The agreement between self-reported functional outcome 3 months after stroke and the commonly used modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was explored in 555 stroke survivors from 4 hospitals during May-September 2005. Riks-Stroke’s self-reported questions classified 76% of the patients into correct mRS grade.

    The association between functional outcome 3 months after stroke and 3-year survival was assessed in 15 959 men and women who had had a stroke during 2001-2002. Patients with estimated mRS grades 3, 4 and 5 had hazard ratios for death of 1.7, 2.5 and 3.8, respectively, as compared with patients with lower grades, 0-2. Depressed mood, male sex, high age, diabetes, smoking, antihypertensive therapy at onset and atrial fibrillation were also identified as predictors of poor survival.

    Self-reported depression 3 months after stroke and use of antidepressants were analysed in 15 747 stroke survivors from 2002. Fourteen percent felt depressed 3 months after stroke. Female sex, age <65, previous stroke, living alone or in institution, or being dependent in activities of daily living (ADL) were factors associated with self-reported depression. At the follow-up, 22% of the men and 28% of the women were using antidepressant medication, which were approximately twice as many as in the general population. Still, 8% of all patients in Riks-Stroke reported depressive mood but no treatment with antidepressants.

    In conclusion, men and women with stroke in Sweden experience similar treatment and outcome in most aspects. Patient-reported functional outcome can be reliably transformed to a standard disability scale. Impaired functional outcome three months after stroke is an independent predictor of poor long-term survival. Depressive mood is common after stroke and is associated with poor survival and impaired functional outcome.

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