Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet

Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 61
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    et al.
    Jenab, Mazda
    Boeing, Heiner
    Jansen, Eugene
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Rinaldi, Sabina
    Riboli, Elio
    Overvad, Kim
    Dahm, Christina C
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Morois, Sophie
    Palli, Domenico
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Tumino, Rosario
    Vineis, Paolo
    Panico, Salvatore
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Rohrmann, Sabine
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    van Duijnhoven, Fränzel JB
    Leufkens, Anke M
    Peeters, Petra H
    Rodríguez, Laudina
    Bonet, Catalina
    Sánchez, María-José
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Navarro, Carmen
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Allen, Naomi E
    Spencer, Elizabeth
    Romaguera, Dora
    Norat, Teresa
    Pischon, Tobias
    Circulating C-reactive protein concentrations and risks of colon and rectal cancer: a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition2010In: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 172, no 4, p. 407-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigated associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and colon and rectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2003) among 1,096 incident cases and 1,096 controls selected using risk-set sampling and matched on study center, age, sex, time of blood collection, fasting status, menopausal status, menstrual cycle phase, and hormone replacement therapy. In conditional logistic regression with adjustment for education, smoking, nutritional factors, body mass index, and waist circumference, CRP showed a significant nonlinear association with colon cancer risk but not rectal cancer risk. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks for CRP concentrations of > or = 3.0 mg/L versus <1.0 mg/L were 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.85; P-trend = 0.01) for colon cancer and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.57; P-trend = 0.65) for rectal cancer. Colon cancer risk was significantly increased in men (relative risk = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.73; P-trend = 0.01) but not in women (relative risk = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.68; P-trend = 0.13). Additional adjustment for C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not attenuate these results. These data provide evidence that elevated CRP concentrations are related to a higher risk of colon cancer but not rectal cancer, predominantly among men and independently of obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.

  • 2. Alonso, Silvia
    et al.
    Dohoo, Ian
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Verdugo, Cristobal
    Akuku, Isaiah
    Grace, Delia
    Prevalence of tuberculosis, brucellosis and trypanosomiasis in cattle in Tanzania: a systematic review and meta-analysis.2016In: Animal Health Research Reviews, ISSN 1466-2523, E-ISSN 1475-2654, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 16-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A meta-analysis was performed to derive prevalence estimates for Brucella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Trypanosoma spp. in cattle in Tanzania using data derived from a systematic review of zoonotic hazards in cattle production systems. Articles published before 2012 reporting prevalence and considered at least moderate in quality were included in the analysis. Results showed high heterogeneity between studies, with wide ranges in the reported prevalence: Brucella (0.3-60.8%), Mycobacterium (0.1-13.2%) and Trypanosoma (0.82-33.3%). Overall meta-analytic mean prevalence estimates were 8.2% (95% CI 6.5-10.2), 1.28% (95% CI 0.35-4.58) and 10.3% (95% CI 6.20-16.70) respectively, for Brucella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Trypanosoma spp. Time and region were predictors of variability of Brucella spp. prevalence, while diagnostic test was a strong predictor of Mycobacterium spp. prevalence, with higher prevalence estimates given by skin tests compared with post-mortem inspection. None of the studied factors were associated with prevalence of Trypanosoma spp. The small sample sizes, range of study locations, study designs and diagnostics used, contributed to high variability among prevalence estimates. Larger and more robust prevalence studies are needed to adequately support risk assessment and management of animal and public health threats.

  • 3.
    Alsanius, Beatrix
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Vattenrening för ökad hygien vid odling av frilandsgrönsaker och bär2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har ett flertal utbrottmed magsjuka kopplats till konsumtionav grönsaker, frukt och bär. Sjukdomsframkallandebakterier och virus, såsomnorovirus, Salmonella, toxinproducerandeE. coli, Campylobacter och Listeria. kanspridas från bevattningsvatten via grö-dan till människor och orsaka sjukdom.Smittat bevattningsvatten kan därförförorena frilandsproducerade grönsakeroch bär. Det är alltås viktigt att hakontroll på bevattningsvattnets kvalitet.Dessutom är det viktigt att känna tillvilken typ av kultur som vattnet skaanvändas till, eftersom risken för vidaresmitta till människor varierar mellanolika typer av kulturer. T.ex. är det störrerisk att använda kontaminerat vatten tillkulturer som äts råa utan uppvärmninghos livsmedelsproducenten eller konsument,eftersom det då inte finns nå-gon möjlighet att avdöda de oönskademikroorganismerna i ett efterföljandesteg. Genom rätt hantering och adekvatbehandling av bevattningsvattnetkan dess hygieniska kvalitet förbättras.Ibland finns det möjlighet för odlarenatt byta vattenkälla, men då detta inte ärpraktiskt möjligt kan det kontamineradevattnet renas innan bevattning. I dettafaktablad beskrivs två grundläggandetekniker för rening av bevattningsvattenvid frilandsproduktion, nämligen fotokemi(fotokatalys, UV) och filtrering(mekanisk filtrering, långsamfiltrering).Dessa används för att minska risken försmittspridning med bevattningsvattnet.

  • 4. Benetou, Vassiliki
    et al.
    Orfanos, Philippos
    Benetos, Ioannis S
    Pala, Valeria
    Evangelista, Alberto
    Frasca, Graziella
    Giurdanella, Maria Concetta
    Peeters, Petra HM
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T
    Rohrmann, Sabine
    Linseisen, Jakob
    Boeing, Heiner
    Weikert, Cornelia
    Pettersson, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Altzibar, Jone
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Anthropometry, physical activity and hip fractures in the elderly2011In: Injury, ISSN 0020-1383, E-ISSN 1879-0267, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 188-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Hip fractures constitute a major and growing public health problem amongst the elderly worldwide. We examined the association of anthropometry and physical activity with hip fracture incidence in a cohort of elderly Europeans, participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 27982 volunteers (10553 men and 17429 women) aged 60 years and above from five European countries. Information on anthropometry, physical activity, medical history and other characteristics was collected at baseline. During a median follow-up of 8 years, 261 incident hip fractures (203 women and 58 men) were recorded. Data were analysed through Cox proportional hazard regression with adjustment for potential confounders.

    RESULTS: A higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower hip fracture risk (hazard ratio (HR) per increasing sex-specific-quintile: 0.85, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.77-0.94). Body height was associated with increased hip fracture risk (HR per 5cm: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01-1.25). Waist-to-hip ratio was not related to hip fracture risk. Increasing levels of leisure-time physical activity were related to lower risk (HR per increasing tertile: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70-0.99, p for trend: 0.039).

    CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective cohort study of elderly Europeans, we found evidence that high body stature increased and high BMI decreased the incidence of hip fractures. After adjustment for BMI, waist-to-hip ratio was not associated with hip fracture risk. Leisure-time physical activity appears to play a beneficial role in the prevention of hip fractures.

  • 5.
    Bett, B
    et al.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sang, R
    Kenya Govt Med Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wainaina, M
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kairu-Wanyoike, S
    Minist Agr Livestock & Fisheries, Dept Vet Serv, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Bukachi, S
    Univ Nairobi, Inst Anthropol Gender & African Studies, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Njeru, I
    Kenyatta Natl Hosp, Minist Hlth, Div Dis Surveillance & Response, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Karanja, J
    Kenyatta Natl Hosp, Minist Hlth, Div Dis Surveillance & Response, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Ontiri, E
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kariuki Njenga, M
    Washington State Univ, Paui Men Sch Global Anim Hlth, Pullman, WA 99164 USA.
    Wright, D
    Univ Oxford, Jenner Inst, Oxford, England.
    Warimwe, G M
    KEMRI Wellcome Trust Res Programme, Kilifi, Kenya; Univ Oxford, Ctr Trop Med & Global Hlth, Oxford, England.
    Grace, D
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Association between Rift Valley fever virus seroprevalences in livestock and humans and their respective intra-cluster correlation coefficients, Tana River County, Kenya2019In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 147, article id e67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We implemented a cross-sectional study in Tana River County, Kenya, a Rift Valley fever (RVF)-endemic area, to quantify the strength of association between RVF virus (RVFv) seroprevalences in livestock and humans, and their respective intra-cluster correlation coefficients (ICCs). The study involved 1932 livestock from 152 households and 552 humans from 170 households. Serum samples were collected and screened for anti-RVFv immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using inhibition IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data collected were analysed using generalised linear mixed effects models, with herd/household and village being fitted as random variables. The overall RVFv seroprevalences in livestock and humans were 25.41% (95% confidence interval (CI) 23.49-27.42%) and 21.20% (17.86-24.85%), respectively. The presence of at least one seropositive animal in a household was associated with an increased odds of exposure in people of 2.23 (95% CI 1.03-4.84). The ICCs associated with RVF virus seroprevalence in livestock were 0.30 (95% CI 0.19-0.44) and 0.22 (95% CI 0.12-0.38) within and between herds, respectively. These findings suggest that there is a greater variability of RVF virus exposure between than within herds. We discuss ways of using these ICC estimates in observational surveys for RVF in endemic areas and postulate that the design of the sentinel herd surveillance should consider patterns of RVF clustering to enhance its effectiveness as an early warning system for RVF epidemics.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6. Breed, Andrew C.
    et al.
    Breed, Martin F.
    Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity (ACEBB), and School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide.
    Meers, Joanne
    Field, Hume E.
    Evidence of endemic Hendra virus infection in flying-foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus): implications for disease risk management2011In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, p. e28816-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the seroepidemiology of Hendra virus in a spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus) population in northern Australia, near the location of an equine and associated human Hendra virus infection in late 2004. The pattern of infection in the population was investigated using a serial cross-sectional serological study over a 25-month period, with blood sampled from 521 individuals over six sampling sessions. Antibody titres to the virus were determined by virus neutralisation test. In contrast to the expected episodic infection pattern, we observed that seroprevalence gradually increased over the two years suggesting infection was endemic in the population over the study period. Our results suggested age, pregnancy and lactation were significant risk factors for a detectable neutralizing antibody response. Antibody titres were significantly higher in females than males, with the highest titres occurring in pregnant animals. Temporal variation in antibody titres suggests that herd immunity to the virus may wax and wane on a seasonal basis. These findings support an endemic infection pattern of henipaviruses in bat populations suggesting their infection dynamics may differ significantly from the acute, self limiting episodic pattern observed with related viruses (e.g. measles virus, phocine distemper virus, rinderpest virus) hence requiring a much smaller critical host population size to sustain the virus. These findings help inform predictive modelling of henipavirus infection in bat populations, and indicate that the life cycle of the reservoir species should be taken into account when developing risk management strategies for henipaviruses.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Breed_PLoS_ONE.pdf
  • 7. Bröjer, Caroline
    et al.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Söderström, Hanna
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Gavier-Widén, Dolores
    Pathobiology and virus shedding of low-pathogenic avian influenza virus (A/H1N1) infection in mallards exposed to oseltamivir2013In: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, ISSN 0090-3558, E-ISSN 1943-3700, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 103-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in wild birds are important as they can constitute the basis for the development of high-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses or form part of human-adapted strains with pandemic potential. However, the LPAI infection as such is not very well characterized in the natural reservoir, dabbling ducks, and results are in part contradictory. The effects on the infection by artificial versus natural infection, exposure to antiviral drugs or development of resistance have not been studied. Therefore, we used q-PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to study mallards infected with an influenza A/H1N1 virus isolated from a wild mallard in Sweden. The mallards were either inoculated intra-esophageally or infected by virus shed by other ducks in the experiment. The birds were subjected to low levels of the active metabolite of oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) and the resistance mutation H274Y developed during the course of the experiment.

    All mallards but one had a strictly intestinal localization of the LPAI infection. The exception was a bird euthanized one day post artificial inoculation whose infection was located solely in the lung, possibly due to intra-tracheal deposition of virus. The intestinal infection was characterized by degenerating cells in the lamina propria, infiltrating heterophils and lymphocytes as well as positivity of IHC and q-PCR on samples from feces and intestinal contents. Histopathological changes, IHC positivity and viral shedding all indicate that the infection peaked early, around two days post infection. Furthermore, the infection had a longitudinal progression in the intestine with more activity in the proximal parts early in the infection and vice versa as observed both by IHC and by q-PCR. There was no obvious difference in the course of the infection in artificial versus natural infection, when the level of OC was increased from 80 ng/L to 80 µg/L or when the resistance mutation H274Y developed.

  • 8.
    Chea, Rortana
    et al.
    Natl Anim Hlth & Prod Res Inst, Gen Directorate Anim Hlth & Prod, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.;Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nguyen-Viet, Hung
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Tum, Sothyra
    Natl Anim Hlth & Prod Res Inst, Gen Directorate Anim Hlth & Prod, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Unger, Fred
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, SWEDESD - Sustainability Learning and Research Centre. Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Grace, Delia
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.;Univ Greenwich, Nat Resources Inst, Greenwich, Kent, England..
    Ty, Chhay
    Livestock Dev Community Livelihood Org, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Koam, Sok
    Natl Anim Hlth & Prod Res Inst, Gen Directorate Anim Hlth & Prod, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Sina, Vor
    Livestock Dev Community Livelihood Org, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Sokchea, Huy
    Livestock Dev Community Livelihood Org, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Pov, Son
    Livestock Dev Community Livelihood Org, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Heng, Theng
    Natl Anim Hlth & Prod Res Inst, Gen Directorate Anim Hlth & Prod, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Phirum, Or
    Natl Anim Hlth & Prod Res Inst, Gen Directorate Anim Hlth & Prod, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Dang-Xuan, Sinh
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.;Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, Ctr Publ Hlth & Ecosyst Res, Hanoi, Vietnam..
    Experimental cross-contamination of chicken salad with Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and London during food preparation in Cambodian households2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 8, article id e0270425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-typhoidal Salmonellae are common foodborne pathogens that can cause gastroenteritis and other illnesses in people. This is the first study to assess the transfer of Salmonella enterica from raw chicken carcasses to ready-to-eat chicken salad in Cambodia. Twelve focus group discussions in four Cambodian provinces collected information on typical household ways of preparing salad. The results informed four laboratory experiments that mimicked household practices, using chicken carcasses inoculated with Salmonella. We developed four scenarios encompassing the range of practices, varying by order of washing (chicken or vegetables first) and change of chopping utensils (same utensils or different). Even though raw carcasses were washed twice, Salmonella was isolated from 32 out of 36 chicken samples (88.9%, 95% CI: 73.0-96.4) and two out of 18 vegetable samples (11.1%, 95% CI: 1.9-36.1). Salmonella was detected on cutting boards (66.7%), knives (50.0%) and hands (22.2%) after one wash; cross-contamination was significantly higher on cutting boards than on knives or hands (p-value < 0.05). The ready-to-eat chicken salad was contaminated in scenario 1 (wash vegetables first, use same utensils), 2 (wash vegetables first, use different utensils) and 3 (wash chicken first, use same utensils) but not 4 (wash chicken first, use different utensils) (77.8%, 11.1%, 22.2% and 0%, respectively). There was significantly higher Salmonella cross-contamination in scenario 1 (wash vegetables first, use same utensils) than in the other three scenarios. These results show how different hygiene practices influence the risk of pathogens contaminating chicken salad. This information could decrease the risk of foodborne disease in Cambodia and provides inputs to a quantitative risk assessment model.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Dahlin, Anna M
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Henriksson, Maria L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Jacobsson, Maria
    Eklöf, Vincy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Rutegård, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Öberg, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    The role of the CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer prognosis depends on microsatellite instability screening status2010In: Clinical Cancer Research, ISSN 1078-0432, E-ISSN 1557-3265, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1845-1855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to relate the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP; characterized by extensive promoter hypermethylation) to cancer-specific survival in colorectal cancer, taking into consideration relevant clinicopathologic factors, such as microsatellite instability (MSI) screening status and the BRAF V600E mutation.

    EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Archival tumor samples from 190 patients from the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS) and 414 patients from the Colorectal Cancer in Umeå Study (CRUMS), including 574 with cancer-specific survival data, were analyzed for an eight-gene CIMP panel using quantitative real-time PCR (MethyLight). MSI screening status was assessed by immunohistochemistry.

    RESULTS: CIMP-low patients had a shorter cancer-specific survival compared with CIMP-negative patients (multivariate hazard ratio in NSHDS, 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.37; multivariate hazard ratio in CRUMS, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.22). This result was similar in subgroups based on MSI screening status and was statistically significant in microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors in NSHDS. For CIMP-high patients, a shorter cancer-specific survival compared with CIMP-negative patients was observed in the MSS subgroup. Statistical significance was lost after adjusting for the BRAF mutation, but the main findings were generally unaffected.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found a poor prognosis in CIMP-low patients regardless of MSI screening status, and in CIMP-high patients with MSS. Although not consistently statistically significant, these results were consistent in two separate patient groups and emphasize the potential importance of CIMP and MSI status in colorectal cancer research.

  • 10.
    Díaz-Sánchez, Adrian A.
    et al.
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Corona-González, Belkis
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Chilton, Neil B.
    Universidad de Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Lobo-Rivero, Evelyn
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Vega-Cañizares, Ernesto
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Estrada, Carlos Yrurzun
    Universidad Agraria de La Habana Fructuoso Rodríguez Pérez, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro
    Instituto Nacional de Investigación para la Agricultura, la Alimentación y el Medio Ambiente de Francia, Francia, Paris, France.
    Fonseca-Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Roblejo-Arias, Lisset
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Marrero-Perera, Roxana
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique
    Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Massard, Carlos Luiz
    Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Pires, Marcus Sandes
    Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    del Castillo Domínguez, Sergio Luis
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Molecular detection and identification of tick-borne pathogens in Equus caballus and ticks from western Cuba: [Detección e identificación molecular de patógenos transmitidos por garrapatas en Equus caballus y garrapatas del occidente de Cuba]2022In: Biotecnologia Aplicada, ISSN 0864-4551, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 2501-2505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Babesia caballi, Theileria equi and several species of rickettsias are agents of vector-borne diseases that affect equines. The objective of this study was to detect infections by B. caballi and T. equi in horses and to identify rickettsias in horses and ticks in the western region of Cuba. Two nPCR assays were developed and standardized for the detection of B. caballi and T. equi. Blood samples from horses and ticks were collected. Identification by blood smear and molecular detection and identification of B. caballi, T. equi and Rickettsia spp. were carried out. Intraerythrocytic formations compatible with B. caballi and T. equi were observed. The nPCR showed that 25 % of the samples were positive for B. caballi, 73 % for T. equi and 20 % showed coinfection. The results were confirmed with the partial sequencing of the genes bc48 (B. caballi) and ema-1 (T. equi). The sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene of T. equi demonstrated the presence of at least two genotypes of T. equi isolates in Cuba. The real time qPCR assay and sequencing revealed the presence of Rickettsia amblyommatis in A. mixtum and Rickettsia felis in D. nitens.

    Conclusions: These results constitute the first piece of molecular evidence of B. caballi and T. equi in horses and the first report of R. felis in D. nitens in Cuba, which broadens the knowledge about the distribution of pathogens and the spectrum of potential vectors contributing to the strengthening of management and control programs.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Ebrahimi, Majid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Studies of p63 and p63 related proteins in patients diagnosed with oral lichen planus2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa and also one of the more common mucosal conditions mostly affecting middle aged individuals. Even though OLP is well investigated the etiology of this disease is still unknown, even if autoimmunity as a possible etiologic factor has been suggested. WHO classifies OLP as a pre malignant condition but malignant transformation of OLP is a matter of great controversy. The p53 protein is a tumour suppressor with the potential to induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest of DNA damaged cells. Another member of the p53 family, p63, comprises six different isoforms, and plays a crucial role in the formation of oral mucosa, salivary glands, teeth and skin. p63 has also been suggested to be involved in development of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). β-catenin, E-cadherin and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are p63 related proteins and abnormalities in their expression are suggested to be involved in development of SCCHN.

    Methods. Using immunohistochemistry and antibodies directed against p53 and those distinguishing between the p63 isoforms we analysed biopsies of OLP, SCCHN and normal oral tissue. We also mapped levels of p63 and p53 isoforms using RT-PCR technique. Furthermore expression of the p63 related proteins β-catenin, E-cadherin and EGFR was studied using immunoblot analysis. In an attempt to investigate autoimmunity as a causative factor of OLP we analysed sera from patients diagnosed with OLP and matched control individuals in order to see if there were autoantibodies directed against the p53 family.

    Results. When mapping p53 and p63 protein status decreased expression of p63 and increased expression of p53 was seen in OLP compared to normal tissue. In accordance with these results, levels of p63 RNA were also lower in OLP lesions compared with normal tissue. Concerning p53 isoforms, the “original” p53 isoform was expressed in all OLP lesions and normal control tissue. Of the other isoforms, p53β and Δ133p53 were expressed in the majority of samples. Our results regarding p63 related proteins showed a generally lower expression of these proteins in OLP lesions compared to normal control tissue. When studying sera from patients with OLP we found circulating autoantibodies against all six p63 and four p73 isoforms in two patients.

    Conclusions. The potential for malignant transformation of OLP is still a subject of discussion and rather controversial. While some of our results regarding status of p53 and p63 both at protein and RNA levels support this theory, other results concerning for example p63 related proteins point in the opposite direction. Based on our studies it is thus not possible to either support nor contradict the statement that OLP is a clear-cut premalignant condition. In our effort to understand the etiology of OLP we were the first to demonstrate autoantibodies against p63 and p73 in what could be a subgroup of OLP patients. OLP could thus be suggested to be not one distinct disease, but based on our data a disease comprising different subgroups.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 12.
    Effati, Pedram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Survey Of Genes Of Escherichia Coli Causing Bovine Mastitis With DNA Microarrays2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mastitis in dairy cattle is a common ailment worldwide. A cause of mastitis can be bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Mastitis is not a deadly ailment and sometimes the dairy cows show no symptoms but if certain virulence genes are present in the bacteria that cause the mastitis, the bacteria can be transmitted to humans and cause severe diseases. The potential presence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in particular would be a major concern for human health.

    Aim: The aim for this study was to analyze the presence of virulence genes known to be present in E.coli strains isolated from dairy cows with mastitis in Sweden.

    Method: A Qiagen BIO ROBOT EZ1 was used to purify DNA from 90 bacterial cultures. A panel of virulence genes were amplified and biotinylated from the purified DNA by PCR and an E.coli based DNA microarray was used to detect presumed virulence genes in E.coli.

    Result: There were no samples that had all the genes traditionally used to classify E.coli as EHEC or potential EHEC. 63 samples were analyzed without any problems but 27 samples were not fully analyzed.

    Conclusion: The DNA based microarray proved to be a reliable method to detect genes from pathogenic bacteria but it needed high concentration of purified DNA which was not always easy to obtain. There were some samples in this study that contained virulence genes.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13. Ekstrand, Carl
    et al.
    Sterning, Marie
    Bohman, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edner, Anna
    Lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia as a complement to dissociative anaesthesia during scrotal herniorrhaphy of livestock pigs in the field2015In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 57, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, scrotal or inguinal herniorrhaphy of livestock pigs in the field has traditionally been an important part of the surgical skills training of veterinary students. Few substances meet the legal requirements for field anaesthesia of production animals in the European Union but a protocol based on azaperone-detomidine-butorphanol-ketamine does. Unfortunately the anaesthesia is characterised by unpredictable duration and depth and of abrupt awakenings which is not acceptable from an animal welfare perspective and impedes surgical training. Lumbo-sacral epidural analgesia is proven to provide sufficient analgesia to allow abdominal surgery, but there are few reports on the field use of this loco-regional technique. The study aim was to evaluate whether lumbo-sacral anaesthesia can be safely and successfully used in the field by a veterinary student and whether the combination of dissociative and lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia improves analgesia and anaesthesia to guarantee animal welfare during herniorrhaphy in livestock pigs, enabling surgical skills training. Results: Pigs in the control-group (placebo) responded significantly stronger to surgery, with five out of 11 requiring additional doses of detomidine and ketamine. There were no significant differences between groups in respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, SpO(2) or blood gases. SpO(2) levels <94 % were recorded in several pigs in both groups. No post-injection complications were reported at follow-up. Conclusions: The results from this study showed that lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia with lidocaine could successfully be administered during dissociative anaesthesia of livestock pigs by a veterinary student and without reported post-injection complications. It improved analgesia and anaesthesia during herniorrhaphy of sufficient duration to enable surgical skills training. The risks and consequences of hypoxaemia and hypoventilation should be considered.

  • 14.
    Enlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Klinisk molekylär patologi, Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Laboratoriemedicinska kliniken, Enhet patologi, Universitetssjukhuset i Örebro, Sweden.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Edsjö, Anders
    Labmedicin Skåne, Klinisk patologi, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sundström, Magnus
    Avdelningen för molekylärpatologi, Sektionen för klinisk patologi och cytologi, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mutationsanalys av KRAS inför riktad terapi vid kolorektalcancer: kvalitetskontroll av molekylärpatologiska metoder i Sverige: [Mutational analysis of KRAS prior to targeted therapy in colorectal cancer: quality control of molecular pathological methods in Sweden]2010In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 255-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Behandling av cancerpatienter med nya riktade terapier medför krav på implementering och kvalitetssäkring av behandlingsstyrande molekylärpatologiska analyser. 30–40 procent av alla patienter med kolorektalcancer har en mutation i genen KRAS.Mutationen resulterar i ett ständigt aktivt protein, som gör tumören resistent mot anti-EGFR-behandling med t ex cetuximab (Erbitux) och panitumumab (Vectibix). Därför måste KRAS-mutationsstatus fastställas innan eventuell behandling med dessa läkemedel inleds. Ett svenskt projekt för kvalitetskontroll beskrivs, där histologisk bedömning av kolorektaltumörvävnad samt metoder för DNA-extraktion och KRAS-mutationsanalys har utvärderats. Känsligheten i KRAS-analyserna har också utvärderats genom att jämföra erhållen mutationsfrekvens för re­spektive mutationsanalys i det totala antalet analyserade kolorektalcancerfall i Sverige.

  • 15. Epstein, Kathleen
    et al.
    von Essen, Erica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Wilmer, Hailey
    The Emotional Dimensions of Animal Disease Management: A Political Ecology Perspective for a Time of Heightened Biosecurity2021In: Frontiers in Human Dynamics, E-ISSN 2673-2726 , Vol. 3, article id 640119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing devastation of the Covid-19 pandemic has brought new urgency to questions surrounding the origins, management, and complex dynamics of infectious diseases. In this mini review, we use growing international concern over the pandemic potential of emerging infectious diseases as motivation for outlining a research approach to study the emotional dimensions of animal disease management. We sketch out this important analytical terrain by first locating opportunities for literature on the biosecurization of nature to intersect with the emerging field of emotional political ecology. Second, we describe three biosecurity contexts and environmental conflicts at the wildlife-livestock interface: African swine fever in wild boar, brucellosis in elk, and pneumonia in bighorn and domestic sheep. We argue that in these “contact zones,” a focus on emotions can add a new layer of explanation for analyzing the manifestations, implications, and varied experiences of biosecurity.

  • 16. Eussen, Simone JPM
    et al.
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Hustad, Steinar
    Midttun, Øivind
    Meyer, Klaus
    Fredriksen, Ase
    Ueland, Per Magne
    Jenab, Mazda
    Slimani, Nadia
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Overvad, Kim
    Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Morois, Sophie
    Weikert, Cornelia
    Pischon, Tobias
    Linseisen, Jakob
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Zilis, Demosthenes
    Katsoulis, Michael
    Palli, Domenico
    Pala, Valeria
    Vineis, Paolo
    Tumino, Rosario
    Panico, Salvatore
    Peeters, Petra HM
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    van Duijnhoven, Fränzel JB
    Skeie, Guri
    Muñoz, Xavier
    Martínez, Carmen
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Navarro, Carmen
    Rodríguez, Laudina
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Manjer, Jonas
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Bingham, Sheila
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Plasma vitamins B2, B6, and B12, and related genetic variants as predictors of colorectal cancer risk2010In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 2549-2561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This European population-based study is the first to indicate that vitamin B2 is inversely associated with colorectal cancer, and is in agreement with previously suggested inverse associations of vitamin B6 with colorectal cancer.

  • 17. Eussen, Simone JPM
    et al.
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Igland, Jannicke
    Meyer, Klaus
    Fredriksen, Ase
    Ueland, Per Magne
    Jenab, Mazda
    Slimani, Nadia
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Morois, Sophie
    Weikert, Cornelia
    Pischon, Tobias
    Linseisen, Jakob
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Zilis, Demosthenes
    Katsoulis, Michael
    Palli, Domenico
    Berrino, Franco
    Vineis, Paolo
    Tumino, Rosario
    Panico, Salvatore
    Peeters, Petra HM
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    van Duijnhoven, Fränzel JB
    Gram, Inger Torhild
    Skeie, Guri
    Lund, Eiliv
    González, Carlos A
    Martínez, Carmen
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Navarro, Carmen
    Rodríguez, Laudina
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Manjer, Jonas
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Bingham, Sheila
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Plasma folate, related genetic variants, and colorectal cancer risk in EPIC2010In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1328-1340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Findings of the present study tend to weaken the evidence that folate plays an important role in CRC carcinogenesis. However, larger sample sizes are needed to adequately address potential gene-environment interactions.

  • 18. Fitchev, Philip P
    et al.
    Wcislak, Susan M
    Lee, Chung
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Brendler, Charles B
    Stellmach, Veronica M
    Crawford, Susan E
    Mavroudis, Constantine D
    Cornwell, Mona L
    Doll, Jennifer A
    Thrombospondin-1 regulates the normal prostate in vivo through angiogenesis and TGF-beta activation2010In: Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0023-6837, E-ISSN 1530-0307, Vol. 90, no 7, p. 1078-1090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Castration experiments in rodents show that the stromal vasculature is critical to the androgen-mediated prostate growth regulation. However, the role of angiogenesis inhibitors, such as thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), in this process is unclear. TSP-1 is a multifunctional glycoprotein that can function as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor and an in vivo activator of latent transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in some tissues. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesized that TSP-1 regulated androgen withdrawal-induced prostate regression and that this process was mediated not only through antiangiogenic activity but also through TGF-beta activation. To test this, we evaluated angiogenic activity in human prostate epithelial and stromal cells treated with androgens and hypoxia in vitro. TSP-1 knockout mice were characterized to investigate the in vivo functions of TSP-1. In vitro, we found that androgens and hypoxia differentially regulated TSP-1 and angiogenic activity. Androgens stimulated normal epithelial cell, but inhibited normal stromal cell, angiogenic activity. Conversely, hypoxia stimulated stromal while inhibiting epithelial activity. Thus, in vivo, net angiogenic activity must reflect cellular interactions. And, we found that media conditioned by epithelial cells grown under normoxic conditions stimulated stromal cell angiogenic activity, and if epithelial cells were grown under hypoxic conditions, stromal activity was further increased. TSP-1 levels, however, were unchanged. In vivo, TSP-1 loss in a mouse model led to prostate epithelial hyperplasia by 3 months of age with only a modest stromal effect. Androgens suppressed TSP-1 as expression increased after castration both in normal mouse prostate and in human prostate cancer tissues. In addition, TSP-1 expression corresponded to increased TGF-beta activation in mouse tissues, specifically in the stromal compartment. These data show a critical role for TSP-1 in prostate epithelial and stromal growth regulation through angiogenic inhibition and activation of latent TGF-beta. Therefore, loss of TSP-1 during tumorigenesis would eliminate two barriers to cancer progression.

  • 19. García-Sanchez, Marta
    et al.
    Jiménez-Pelayo, Laura
    Horcajo, Pilar
    Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier
    Ólafsson, Einar B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Bhandage, Amol K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Barragan, Antonio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Werling, Dirk
    Miguel Ortega-Mora, Luis
    Collantes-Fernández, Esther
    Differential Responses of Bovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages to Infection by Neospora caninum Isolates of High and Low Virulence2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, represents one of the main causes of abortion in cattle. Macrophages (Mempty sets) are mediators of the innate immune response against infection and likely one of the first cells encountered by the parasite during the host infection process. In this study, we investigated in vitro how high or low virulent isolates of N. caninum (Nc-Spain7 and Nc-Spain1H, respectively) interact with bovine monocyte-derived Mempty sets and the influence of the isolate virulence on the subsequent cellular response. Both isolates actively invaded, survived and replicated in the Mempty sets. However, Nc-Spain7 showed a higher invasion rate and a replication significantly faster, following an exponential growth model, whereas Nc-Spain1H presented a delayed replication and a lower growth rate without an exponential pattern. N. caninum infection induced a hypermigratory phenotype in bovine Mempty sets that was characterized by enhanced motility and transmigration in vitro and was accompanied by morphological changes and abrogated extracellular matrix degradation. A significantly higher hypermotility was observed with the highly virulent isolate Nc-Spain7. Nc-Spain1H-infected Mempty sets showed elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and IL12p40 expression, which also resulted in increased IFN-gamma release by lymphocytes, compared to cells infected with Nc-Spain7. Furthermore, IL-10 was upregulated in Mempty sets infected with both isolates. Infected Mempty sets exhibited lower expression of MHC Class II, CD86, and CD1b molecules than uninfected Mempty sets, with non-significant differences between isolates. This work characterizes for the first time N. caninum replication in bovine monocyte-derived Mempty sets and details isolate-dependent differences in host cell responses to the parasite.

  • 20.
    Gerdtsson, Axel
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Division of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Urology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Ulf
    Gastrocenter, Lund, Sweden.
    Törnblom, Magnus
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Surgery, Visby County Hospital, Visby, Sweden.
    Jancke, Georg
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Negaard, Helene F. S.
    Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Glimelius, Ingrid
    Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Unit of Clinical and Experimental Oncology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Halvorsen, Dag
    Department of Urology, St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Karlsdóttir, Ása
    Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Haugnes, Hege Sagstuen
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Clinical Medicine, UIT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Andreassen, Kristine Engen
    Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Larsen, Signe Melsen
    Department of Urology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Holmberg, Göran
    Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wahlqvist, Rolf
    Department of Urology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Tandstad, Torgrim
    The Cancer Clinic, St; Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Cohn-Cedermark, Gabriella
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; PO Bäckencancer, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Olof
    Department of Oncology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kjellman, Anders
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Division of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Urology, Pelvic Cancer, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Surgical Complications in Postchemotherapy Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection for Nonseminoma Germ Cell Tumour: A Population-based Study from the Swedish Norwegian Testicular Cancer Group2020In: European Urology Oncology, E-ISSN 2588-9311, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 382-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports on perioperative complications after postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) for nonseminoma germ cell tumour (NSGCT) are from experienced single centres, with a lack of population-based studies.

  • 21.
    González, Belkis Corona
    et al.
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Sánchez, Adrián Alberto Díaz
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Lehmann, Regina Hofmann
    Laboratorio clínico, Departamento para estudios y servicios clínicos, Centro para estudios clínicos, Facultad Vetsuisse, Universidad de Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Meli, Marina L.
    Laboratorio clínico, Departamento para estudios y servicios clínicos, Centro para estudios clínicos, Facultad Vetsuisse, Universidad de Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Arias, Lisset Roblejo
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Rivero, Evelyn Lobo
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Chilton, Neil B.
    Universidad de Saskatchewan, SK, Canada.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Cañizares, Ernesto Vega
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Castillo, Anisleidy Pérez
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Perera, Roxana Marrero
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Corona, Cristian Díaz
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Sardiñas, Elianne Piloto
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Detección e identificación molecular de patógenos transmitidos por garrapatas en perros de La Habana, Cuba: [Detection and molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in Havana, Cubandogs]2023In: Anales de la Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, E-ISSN 2304-0106, Vol. 13, no 1, article id e1281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Vector-borne canine diseases are a serious danger to animal and human health. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens (Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia spp. and non-zoonotic (Hepatozoon canis and Babesia spp.) in ownerless dogs from Havana, Cuba.

    Methods: Blood samples were collected from 100 dogs and the hematological profiles were studied and pathogens were detected by visualization of blood smears and real-time PCR. To determine the prevalence of infection by Hepatozoon canis, 80 dogs were studied by visualization of blood smears andreal time PCR. For the detection of Babesia spp., 60 dogs were studied, using hematological examination, blood smear visualization and PCR.

    Results: Eighty-five dogs were positive for at least one pathogen, being E. canis the most prevalent, followed by A. platys and Rickettsia felis, and 36 % showed coinfections. All samples were negative for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. These results constitute the first report of R. felis in dogs from Cuba, demonstrate the high prevalence of pathogens transmitted by ticks, with zoonotic potential, and constitute the first study where coinfections are analyzed. 38 % of the dogs were positive for H. canis by PCR and for the first-time molecular characterization of H. canis was carried out in Cuban ownerless dogs and 20 % were positive by PCR for Babesia spp., which constitutes the first molecular evidence of Babesia spp. in ownerless dogs fromCuba.

    Conclusions, these results are of great importance for the surveillance of vector-borne diseasesin dogs, and demonstrate the need for studies on the prevention of transmission and spread of the diseases they cause.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Guo, Yongzhi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biochemistry and Biophsyics.
    Plasmin: a potent pro-inflammatory factor2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmin, the central molecule of the plasminogen activator system, is a broad-spectrum serine protease. Plasmin is important for the degradation of fibrin and other components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during a number of physiological and pathological processes. The aim of this thesis was to elucidate the functional roles of plasmin during pathological inflammation and infection in autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases. For this purpose, mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), bacterial arthritis, infection, and sepsis have been used.

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that plasminogen-deficient mice are resistant to the development of collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA). In contrast, others have shown that plasmin plays a protective role in antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). To investigate the contrasting roles of plasminogen deficiency in models of CIA and AIA, a new animal model of arthritis called local injection-induced arthritis (LIA) was developed. In this model, we replaced methylated bovine serum albumin, which is normally used as an immunogen in the AIA model, with collagen type II (CII) to induce arthritis. When wild-type and plasminogen-deficient mice were injected intra-articularly with CII or 0.9% NaCl following CIA induction, plasminogen-deficient mice developed typical CIA, but the disease was less severe than in wild-type mice and was restricted to the injected joints. When the AIA model was used, plasminogen-deficient mice developed a much more severe arthritis than the wild-type mice. These results indicate that both the antigen and joint trauma caused by the local injection are critical to explaining the contrasting roles of plasminogen deficiency in CIA and AIA. This indicates that CIA and AIA have distinct pathogenic mechanisms and plasmin plays contrasting roles in different types of arthritis models.

    To study the functional roles of plasmin in the host inflammatory response during infectious arthritis, a Staphylococcus aureus-induced bacterial arthritis model was established. When wild-type mice were injected intra-articularly with 1 × 106 colony-forming units (CFU) of S. aureus per joint, all the bacteria were completely eliminated from the injected joints in 28 days. However, in the plasminogen-deficient mice, the S. aureus counts were 27-fold higher at day 28 than at day 0. When human plasminogen was given to the plasminogen-deficient mice daily for 7 days, the bacterial clearance was greatly improved and the necrotic tissue in the joint cavity was also completely eliminated. Supplementation of plasminogen-deficient mice with plasminogen also restored the expression level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the arthritic joints. In summary, plasmin has protective roles during S. aureus-induced arthritis by enhancing cytokine expression, removing necrotic tissue, and mediating bacterial killing and inflammatory cell activation.

    The functional roles of plasmin during infection and sepsis were also studied in mice. Infection was induced by injecting 1 × 107 CFU of S. aureus intravenously and the sepsis model was induced by injecting 1.6 × 108 CFU of S. aureus. In the infection model, the wild-type mice had a 25-day survival rate of 86.7%, as compared to 50% in the plasminogen-deficient group. However, when sepsis was induced, the average survival for plasminogen-deficient mice was 3 days longer than for wild-type mice. Twenty-four hours after the induction of sepsis, the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 as well as the bacterial counts in all organs investigated were significantly higher in wild-type mice than in plasminogen-deficient mice. In wild-type mice, blockade of IL-6 by intravenous injection of anti-IL-6 antibodies significantly prolonged the onset of mortality and improved the survival rate during sepsis. These data indicate that plasmin plays different roles during infection and sepsis. Furthermore, plasmin appears to be involved in the regulation of inflammatory cytokine expression during sepsis.

    Taken together, our data indicate that plasmin plays multifunctional pro-inflammatory roles in different autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases. The pro-inflammatory roles of plasmin include activation of inflammatory cells, regulation of cytokine expression, and enhancement of the bacterial killing ability of the host.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 23.
    Hammarsten, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Androgen controlled regulatory systems in prostate cancer: potential new therapeutic targets and prognostic markers2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is by far the most common cancer among Swedish men. Some patients have an aggressive lethal disease, but the majority of affected men have long expected survival. Unfortunately, the diagnostic tools available are insufficient in predicting disease aggressiveness. Novel prognostic markers are therefore urgently needed. Furthermore, metastatic prostate cancer is generally treated with castration, but the long-term effects are insufficient. Additional studies are therefore needed to explore how the effects of this therapy can be enhanced. Prostate growth and regression is beside testosterone controlled by locally produced regulators. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are two of the major regulators in the normal prostate and in prostate tumours.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: VEGF and EGFR were explored in the prostate, by treating rats with either anti-VEGF or anti-EGFR treatment during castration and testosterone-stimulated prostate growth. Rats with implanted androgen-independent prostate tumours were treated with an inhibitor of both VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and EGFR. Stereological techniques, immunohistochemistry, western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR were used to evaluate these experiments. Furthermore, prostate tissue from untreated prostate cancer patients was used to retrospectively explore the expression of phosphorylated-EGFR (pEGFR) in relation to outcome.

    RESULTS: Anti-VEGF treatment during testosterone-stimulated prostate growth, inhibited vascular and prostate growth. Anti-EGFR treatment during castration and testosterone-stimulated prostate growth resulted in enhanced castration effects and inhibited prostate growth. Anti-vascular treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer with an inhibitor of VEGFR-2 and EGFR, that targets the normal and tumour vasculature, enhanced the effects of castration. Low immunoreactivity for pEGFR in prostate epithelial cells, both in the tumour and also in the surrounding non-malignant tissue, was associated with good prognosis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Anti-vascular treatment, with an inhibitor of VEGFR-2 and EGFR, in combination with castration could be an effective way to treat androgen-insensitive prostate tumours. VEGF and EGFR signalling are necessary components in testosterone-stimulated prostate growth. Phosphorylation of EGFR could be a useful prognostic marker for prostate cancer patients. Tumours may affect the surrounding non-malignant tissue and pEGFR immunoreactivity in the morphologically normal prostate tissue can be used to retrieve prognostic information.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 24.
    Havarinasab, Said
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effect of thimerosal on the murine immune system: especially induction of systemic autoimmunity2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The organic mercury compound ethylmercurithiosalicylate (thimerosal), an antiseptic and a preservative, has recently raised public health concern due to its presence in vaccines globally. Thimerosal dissociates in the body to thiosalicylate and ethyl mercury (EtHg), which is partly converted to inorganic mercuric mercury (Hg2+). The immunosuppressive, immunostimulatory, and de novo autoimmunogen effect of thimerosal in mice, as well as the accelerating/aggravating effect on spontaneous systemic autoimmunity including dose-response aspects were the subject of this thesis.

    Thimerosal perorally (590 μg Hg/kg body weight (bw)/day) to genetically susceptible (H-2s) mice caused immunosuppression during the first week with reduction of the total number of splenocytes, T- and B-cells. The suppression lasted 2 weeks for CD4+ cells, but was superseded by a strong immunostimulation/proliferation including T- as well as B-cells, and polyclonal B-cell activation (PBA). Antinuclear antibodies targeting the 34-kDa nucleolar protein fibrillarin (AFA) appeared after 10 days, followed by renal mesangial and systemic vessel wall immune-complex (IC) deposits. The Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) was in the order AFA = glomerular and splenic vessel wall deposits < hyperimmunoglobulinemia < PBA. The LOAEL for AFA was 118 μg Hg/kg bw/day. The LOAEL for the different parameters of this thimerosal-induced systemic autoimmune condition (HgIA) was 3-11-fold higher compared with HgIA induced by HgCl2. The thimerosal-induced HgIA shared with HgCl2 a significant dose-response relationship, and requirement for: T-cells, the costimulatory factor CD28, the IFN-γ/IFN-γ-receptor pathway,but not IL-4. The mRNA expression in lymph nodes of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-15 was significantly increased but not delayed compared with HgCl2.

    Treatment with the ubiquitous organic Hg compound methyl Hg using equimolar doses of Hg (533 μg Hg/kg bw/day) caused a transient immunosuppression, followed by a weak immunostimulation and AFA. The IgG AFA isotypes induced by the organic Hg compounds MeHg and EtHg were stable and dominated by a Th1-like pattern over a broad time- and dose range. Treatment with inorganic HgCl2 caused a dose- and time-dependent pattern of IgG AFA isotypes. Low doses favored a Th1-like pattern, a high dose a balanced or Th2-like pattern. Middle-range doses showed initially a Th1-like pattern which gradually evolved into a balanced or Th2-like pattern. The qualitative difference in IgG AFA isotypes between organic and inorganic Hg may be due to differences in activation and/or suppression of T-helper cell subsets or factors influencing the Th1/Th2-function. Speciation of the renal Hg2+ concentration and comparison with the threshold dose for induction of AFA by HgCl2 showed that even with the lowest doses of thimerosal and MeHg used in this thesis, the AFA response might from a dose threshold point of view have been caused by conversion of the organic Hg species to Hg2+.

    Primary treatment with inorganic Hg (HgCl2) accelerates/aggravates murine systemic autoimmunity, both spontaneous (genetic) and induced by other means. This capacity was assessed for thimerosal over a broad dose range using the (NZB X NZW)F1 hybrid mouse model. Significantly increased antinuclear antibodies (ANA) was seen after 4-7 weeks treatment (LOAEL 147 μg Hg/kg bw/day), and the response was dose-dependent up to 13 weeks. Renal mesangial and systemic vessel walls deposits similar to those in de novo HgIA were present after 7 weeks treatment. Twenty-two to 25 weeks treatment with thimerosal caused, in a dose-dependent fashion (LOAEL 295 μg Hg/kg bw/day), relocalization of the spontaneously developing glomerular IC deposits from the capillary vessel walls to the mesangium, which attenuated histological kidney damage and proteinuria, and increased survival. Thimerosal caused systemic vessel wall IC-deposits over a broad dose range: the Low Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) for renal and splenic vessel wall IC deposits was 18 and 9 μg Hg/kg bw/day, respectively. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) could not be determined for the latter, since deposits were present even with the lowest dose used.

    Thimerosal causes in genetically susceptible mice an initial, transient immunosuppression which is superseded by a strong immunostimulation and systemic autoimmunity, sharing many characteristics with the HgIA induced by inorganic HgCl2. The IgG AFA isotype pattern is however qualitatively different, and the threshold dose substantially higher. In contrast, long-term treatment with thimerosal induces systemic vessel wall IC-deposits also using doses below those needed to induce HgIA de novo in H-2s mice.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 25.
    Hellman, Stina
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, SLU, POB 7028, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Martin, Frida
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, SLU, POB 7028, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Tyden, Eva
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, SLU, POB 7028, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sellin, Mikael E.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Norman, Albin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, SLU, POB 7028, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hjertner, Bernt
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, SLU, POB 7028, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Svedberg, Pia
    Vidilab AB, POB 33, S-74521 Enkoping, Sweden..
    Fossum, Caroline
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, SLU, POB 7028, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Equine enteroid-derived monolayers recapitulate key features of parasitic intestinal nematode infection2024In: Veterinary research (Print), ISSN 0928-4249, E-ISSN 1297-9716, Vol. 55, no 1, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stem cell-derived organoid cultures have emerged as attractive experimental models for infection biology research regarding various types of gastro-intestinal pathogens and host species. However, the large size of infectious nematode larvae and the closed structure of 3-dimensional organoids often hinder studies of the natural route of infection. To enable easy administration to the apical surface of the epithelium, organoids from the equine small intestine, i.e. enteroids, were used in the present study to establish epithelial monolayer cultures. These monolayers were functionally tested by stimulation with IL-4 and IL-13, and/or exposure to infectious stage larvae of the equine nematodes Parascaris univalens, cyathostominae and/or Strongylus vulgaris. Effects were recorded using transcriptional analysis combined with histochemistry, immunofluorescence-, live-cell- and scanning electron microscopy. These analyses revealed heterogeneous monolayers containing both immature and differentiated cells including tuft cells and mucus-producing goblet cells. Stimulation with IL-4/IL-13 increased tuft- and goblet cell differentiation as demonstrated by the expression of DCLK1 and MUC2. In these cytokine-primed monolayers, the expression of MUC2 was further promoted by co-culture with P. univalens. Moreover, live-cell imaging revealed morphological alterations of the epithelial cells following exposure to larvae even in the absence of cytokine stimulation. Thus, the present work describes the design, characterization and usability of an experimental model representing the equine nematode-infected small intestinal epithelium. The presence of tuft cells and goblet cells whose mucus production is affected by Th2 cytokines and/or the presence of larvae opens up for mechanistic studies of the physical interactions between nematodes and the equine intestinal mucosa.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 26.
    Herrmann, John A.
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
    36. Agricultural Terrorism: The US Perspective2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, p. 296-305Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    ehsa 2-36
  • 27.
    Hilborn, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The role of the androgen receptor and hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase in breast cancer: Impact on tamoxifen treatment2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The healthy breast is a tissue composed of centrally located milk producing glands connected to the nipple by ducts, surrounded by fat tissue and connective tissue. The growth of the breast is primarily mediated by the estrogens, while the androgens mediate tissue homeostasis and protect against growth signals. In breast cancer, the cells of the glands or ducts undergo malignant transformation, and start proliferating in an uncontrollable fashion. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, and it is estimated that 10% of all women will be diagnosed with breast cancer during their life-time. The primary classification of breast cancer is based mainly on the expression of the estrogen receptor, and 70-80% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor positive, and are classified as luminal. The remaining breast cancers are classified into HER2 positive or triple negative breast cancer. Out of all breast cancers, ~80% are androgen receptor positive. This varies in different subtypes, however, with the highest expression in luminal and lowest expression in triple negative breast cancers. The role of androgen receptor varies depending on subtype. It is considered tissue-protective in luminal breast cancer, while it’s role in HER2 positive and triple negative breast cancers is less defined, but is generally considered to be associated with worse outcome. The primary treatment for breast cancer is surgery, followed by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to reduce the risk of recurrence. Treatment is also subtype specific, and luminal breast cancers in premenopausalwomen are treated using the estrogen receptor blocker (antagonist) tamoxifen, which blocks estrogen signaling. In postmenopausal women, luminal breast  cancers are treated using tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, which prevent the formation of estrogen. The knowledge of which patient will respond and who will develop treatment resistance is of great importance, and the development of markers which can be analyzed prior to treatment in order to reduce the risk of unwanted side effects or complications is the focus of a large body of research. One of the primary goals of this thesis was to establish biomarkers for prognosis and tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer, and paper I, paper II and paper III address this aim.

    Steroid hormones, including estrogens and androgens, are normally synthesized from cholesterol in the adrenal gland, as well as in gender specific tissues such as ovaries in women or the testis or prostate in men. This synthesis takes place as a number of enzymatic conversions, mediated by several different enzymes, and the expression of these enzymes determines the final product of this conversion. In the adrenal gland, testis and prostate, androgens are the end-product, while the ovaries synthesize estrogens. These hormones are transported through the circulation, and upon reaching their target tissues, they mediate their effect. The impact of the steroids on their destination tissue is dependent on their relative concentration and exposure time, which in turn is dependent on the amount in the circulation, but also on the presence of local steroid converting enzymes, which are present in most tissues. The enzymes of the hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase family are present in most tissues, primarily the oxidative member hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 2, which facilitate the conversion of estrogens and androgens to the less active forms, thus protecting the tissues from their effect. In breast cancer, the reductive form, hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 1 is often up-regulated, and mediates increased activation of estrogens, resulting in increased estrogen signaling, which results in increased proliferation and growth. The second goal of this thesis was to further study the role of hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase enzymes in breast cancer, and paper I and paper IV address different  aspects of their role in breast cancer.

    Following reduction of the expression of hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 14, an oxidative member of the family, in breast cancer, the expression of C-X-C ligand 10 was found to be altered. In paper I, in order to determine the role of C-X-C ligand 10 and C-X-C receptor 3 in breast cancer, their expression was quantified using immunohistochemistry in breast cancer patients randomized to tamoxifen or no endocrine treatment irrespectively of estrogen receptor status. The expression of C-XC ligand 10 and C-X-C receptor 3 was found to be associated with increased tamoxifen treatment benefit in the estrogen receptor positive group of patients, indicating that they could be useful markers for determining which patient would respond well to this treatment. Further, C-X-C receptor 3 expression was associated with worse outcome in patients who did not receive tamoxifen, and could be a potential target for inhibitors in order to improve patient outcome. The role of the androgen receptor in breast cancer was evaluated. In paper II the expression was quantified using immunohistochemistry in the same cohort as in paper I. We show that in patients with estrogen receptor negative tumors, the androgen receptor is associated with worse outcome. In patients with high tumoral androgen receptor expression, tamoxifen signaling results in significant improvement in outcome, despite lack of the estrogen receptor. The opposite was observed in patients without tumoral androgen receptor expression, and tamoxifen treatment was associated with adverse outcome. Similar findings were made in the triple negative cases. In the luminal cases, the androgen receptor does not provide further information pertaining to outcome. In paper III we evaluated the role of mutations in the androgen receptor in the cohort of estrogen receptor-negative and androgen receptorpositive cases from paper II. The role of mutations in the androgen receptor appear to have a modest role in regard to patient outcome, but rs17302090 appear associated with tamoxifen treatment benefit. The modulation of the members of the hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase in breast cancer is associated with changes in the local steroid balance, and has been associated with worse outcome and changes in the response to tamoxifen. Further, the inhibition of hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 1 has been proposed as an alternate treatment for breast cancer, but no inhibitors are currently used in the clinic. In paper IV, we evaluated several different mechanisms by which the expression of hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 1 and type 2 are modulated in breast cancer. We show that the most potent estrogen estradiol, in an estrogen receptor dependent fashion, can result in decreased hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 1 expression, and a short term reduction in type 2 expression or long term increased type 2 expression. We also show that the most potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone, can increase hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 2 expression, but has limited impact on hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 1. Further, we show that a number of genes involved in breast cancer, and microRNA are involved in modulating the expression of the hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 1 and type 2 in breast cancer. These findings could potentially be used as an alternative to inhibitors, and help modulate the steroidal balance in target tissue.

    Download full text (pdf)
    The role of the androgen receptor and hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase in breast cancer: Impact on tamoxifen treatment
    Download (pdf)
    omslag
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 28.
    Hägglöf, Christina
    et al.
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hammarsten, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Josefsson, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Paulsson, Janna
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Östman, Arne
    Stromal PDGFRbeta expression in prostate tumors and non-malignant prostate tissue predicts prostate cancer survival2010In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 5, p. e10747-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study revealed a number of novel associations between stromal PDGFRbeta expression in prostate tumors and several important clinical characteristics, including survival.

  • 29. Jenab, Mazda
    et al.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Ferrari, Pietro
    van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B
    Norat, Teresa
    Pischon, Tobias
    Jansen, Eugène H J M
    Slimani, Nadia
    Byrnes, Graham
    Rinaldi, Sabina
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Overvad, Kim
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Morois, Sophie
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Linseisen, Jakob
    Boeing, Heiner
    Bergmann, Manuela M
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Misirli, Gesthimani
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Berrino, Franco
    Vineis, Paolo
    Panico, Salvatore
    Palli, Domenico
    Tumino, Rosario
    Ros, Martine M
    van Gils, Carla H
    Peeters, Petra H
    Brustad, Magritt
    Lund, Eiliv
    Tormo, María-José
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Rodríguez, Laudina
    Sánchez, Maria-José
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Gonzalez, Carlos A
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Roddam, Andrew
    Key, Timothy J
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Autier, Philippe
    Hainaut, Pierre
    Riboli, Elio
    Association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration and risk of colorectal cancer in European populations: a nested case-control study2010In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, ISSN 0959-8146, E-ISSN 0959-535X, Vol. 340, p. b5500-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration, dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium, and the risk of colorectal cancer in European populations. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Setting The study was conducted within the EPIC study, a cohort of more than 520 000 participants from 10 western European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 1248 cases of incident colorectal cancer, which developed after enrolment into the cohort, were matched to 1248 controls MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Circulating vitamin D concentration (25-hydroxy-vitamin-D, 25-(OH)D) was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Dietary and lifestyle data were obtained from questionnaires. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of colorectal cancer by 25-(OH)D concentration and levels of dietary calcium and vitamin D intake were estimated from multivariate conditional logistic regression models, with adjustment for potential dietary and other confounders. RESULTS: 25-(OH)D concentration showed a strong inverse linear dose-response association with risk of colorectal cancer (P for trend <0.001). Compared with a pre-defined mid-level concentration of 25-(OH)D (50.0-75.0 nmol/l), lower levels were associated with higher colorectal cancer risk (<25.0 nmol/l: incidence rate ratio 1.32 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 2.01); 25.0-49.9 nmol/l: 1.28 (1.05 to 1.56), and higher concentrations associated with lower risk (75.0-99.9 nmol/l: 0.88 (0.68 to 1.13); >or=100.0 nmol/l: 0.77 (0.56 to 1.06)). In analyses by quintile of 25-(OH)D concentration, patients in the highest quintile had a 40% lower risk of colorectal cancer than did those in the lowest quintile (P<0.001). Subgroup analyses showed a strong association for colon but not rectal cancer (P for heterogeneity=0.048). Greater dietary intake of calcium was associated with a lower colorectal cancer risk. Dietary vitamin D was not associated with disease risk. Findings did not vary by sex and were not altered by corrections for season or month of blood donation. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this large observational study indicate a strong inverse association between levels of pre-diagnostic 25-(OH)D concentration and risk of colorectal cancer in western European populations. Further randomised trials are needed to assess whether increases in circulating 25-(OH)D concentration can effectively decrease the risk of colorectal cancer.

  • 30.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Rudolfsson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Hammarsten, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Halin, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Pietras, Kristian
    Jones, Jonathan
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Egevad, Lars
    Granfors, Torvald
    Wikström, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Mast cells are novel independent prognostic markers in prostate cancer and represent a target for therapy2010In: American Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0002-9440, E-ISSN 1525-2191, Vol. 177, no 2, p. 1031-1041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mast cells affect growth in various human tumors, but their role in prostate cancer (PC) is unclear. Here, we identify mast cells as independent prognostic markers in PC using a large cohort of untreated PC patients with a long follow-up. By analyzing mast cells in different tissue compartments, our data indicate that intratumoral and peritumoral mast cells have anti- opposed to protumor properties. Intratumoral mast cells negatively regulate angiogenesis and tumor growth, whereas peritumoral mast cells stimulate the expansion of human prostate tumors. We also observed mast cell recruitment particularly to the peritumoral compartment in men during the formation of castrate-resistant prostate tumors. In our ortothopic rat model, mast cells accumulated in the peritumoral tissue where they enhanced angiogenesis and tumor growth. In line with this, prostate mast cells expressed high levels of the angiogenic factor FGF-2. Similar to the situation in men, mast cells infiltrated rat prostate tumors that relapsed after initially effective castration treatment, concurrent with a second wave of angiogenesis and an up-regulation of FGF-2. We conclude that mast cells are novel independent prognostic markers in PC and affect tumor progression in animals and patients. In addition, peritumoral mast cells provide FGF-2 to the tumor micro environment, which may contribute to their stimulating effect on angiogenesis.

  • 31.
    Johnzon, Carl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ronnberg, Elin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Pejler, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    The Role of Mast Cells in Bacterial Infection2016In: American Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0002-9440, E-ISSN 1525-2191, Vol. 186, no 1, p. 4-14Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mast cells (MCs) are particularly abundant at host-environment interfaces, such as skin and intestinal mucosa. Because of their Location, it has been hypothesized that MCs can act as sentinel cells that sense microbial attacks and initiate a protective immune response. Several studies have suggested that animals deficient in MCs exhibit a worsened pathology in various experimental models of bacterial infection. However, other studies have indicated that MCs under certain circumstances may have a detrimental impact on bacterial disease, and there are also recent studies indicating that MCs are dispensable for the clearance of bacterial pathogens. Herein, we review the current knowledge of the role of MCs in bacterial infection.

  • 32. Källberg, Eva
    et al.
    Wikström, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Ivars, Fredrik
    Leanderson, Tomas
    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity influence tumor growth in the TRAMP prostate cancer model2010In: The Prostate, ISSN 0270-4137, E-ISSN 1097-0045, Vol. 70, no 13, p. 1461-1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our results argue for a role for IDO mediated immune suppression in the early stages of prostate cancer progression. However, since the intra-tumor IDO expression in J(-/-) mice was indistinguishable from that of C57BL/6 animals the IDO expression in the tumor tissue appears to be irrelevant for TRAMP tumor incidence.

  • 33.
    Lampman, Richard
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
    23. Emerging Vector-borne Diseases of Public Health in Europe and North America2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic Universit Press , 2012, 2, p. 191-198Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    ehsa 2-23
  • 34.
    LeBlanc, Neil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Leijon, Mikael
    Jobs, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Belak, Sandor
    A novel combination of TaqMan RT-PCR and a suspension microarray assay for the detection and species identification of pestiviruses2010In: Veterinary Microbiology, ISSN 0378-1135, E-ISSN 1873-2542, Vol. 142, no 1-2, p. 81-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genus pestivirus contains four recognized species: classical swine fever virus, border disease virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus types 1 and 2. All are economically important and globally distributed but classical swine fever is the most serious, concerning losses and control measures. It affects both domestic pigs and wild boars. Outbreaks of this disease in domestic pigs call for the most serious measures of disease control, including a stamping out policy in Europe. Since all the members of the pestivirus genus can infect swine, differential diagnosis using traditional methods poses some problems. Antibody tests may lack specificity due to cross-reactions, antigen capture ELISAs may have low sensitivity, and virus isolation may take several days or even longer time to complete. PCR-based tests overcome these problems for the most part, but in general lack the multiplexing capability to detect and differentiate all the pestiviruses simultaneously. The assay platform described here addresses all of these issues by combining the advantages of real-time PCR with the multiplexing capability of microarray technology. The platform includes a TaqMan real-time PCR designed for the universal detection of pestiviruses and a microarray assay that can use the amplicons produced in the real-time PCR to identify the specific pestivirus.

  • 35. Leufkens, Anke M
    et al.
    Van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B
    Siersema, Peter D
    Boshuizen, Hendriek C
    Vrieling, Alina
    Agudo, Antonio
    Gram, Inger T
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Dahm, Christina
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Morois, Sophie
    Palli, Domenico
    Grioni, Sara
    Tumino, Rosario
    Sacerdote, Charlotta
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Herman, Silke
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Steffen, Annika
    Boeing, Heiner
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Peeters, Petra H
    van Gils, Carla H
    van Kranen, Henk
    Lund, Eliv
    Dumeaux, Vanessa
    Engeset, Dagrun
    Rodríguez, Laudina
    Sánchez, Maria-José
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Manjer, Jonas
    Almquist, Martin
    van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K
    Straif, Kurt
    Leon-Roux, Maria
    Vineis, Paul
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study2011In: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, ISSN 1542-3565, E-ISSN 1542-7714, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 137-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever smokers have an increased risk of colon cancer, which appeared to be more pronounced in the proximal than the distal colon location.

  • 36.
    Ljuslinder, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Melin, Beatrice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Henriksson, Maria L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Öberg, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Increased epidermal growth factor receptor expression at the invasive margin is a negative prognostic factor in colorectal cancer2011In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 128, no 9, p. 2031-2037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often expressed in solid malignant tumours, and the expression has been correlated to disease progression. Multiple new agents targeted against the EGFR have been developed during the last decade, but treatment selecting criteria are still not clear. This immunohistochemical study includes 386 colorectal cancer patients and focuses on EGFR expression variations within the tumour, comparing central parts to the invasive margin. Positive immunostaining for EGFR was evident in the central part in 176/386 (46%) of analyzed primary tumours. The invasive margin was positive in 222/386 (58%). A similar expression in both the central part and the invasive front was evident in 286/386 (74%). An increased score at the invasive margin compared to central parts (EGFR(i)) was evident in 97/386 (25%) of the tumours. Moreover, the results show a significant survival disadvantage for the EGFR(i) group, both in potentially curatively resected colon cancer patients (n = 170, p = 0.01) and in potentially curatively resected colon and rectal cancer patients combined (n = 273, p = 0.013). Multivariate survival analysis adjusted for age, gender, bowel localisation, grade, stage and tumour type showed an increased risk of cancer death for EGFR(i) tumours (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.04-2.23; p = 0.029). A significant correlation between EGFR expression at the invasive margin and the presence of budding was seen (p = 0.0001). This investigation of a large patient material implies that EGFR immunohistochemical analysis still has a role in risk evaluation of colorectal cancer patients.

  • 37.
    Lysholm, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fischer, Klara
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Urban & Rural Dev, POB 7012, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Johanna F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden; Int Livestock Res Inst, Dept Biosci, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Munyeme, Musso
    Univ Zambia, Sch Vet Med, Dept Dis Control, Great East Rd,POB 32379, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Johansson Wensman, Jonas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Natl Vet Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Dis Control, S-75189 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Seropositivity rates of zoonotic pathogens in small ruminants and associated public health risks at informal urban markets in Zambia2022In: Acta Tropica, ISSN 0001-706X, E-ISSN 1873-6254, Vol. 225, article id 106217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Informal livestock markets are an important source of animal-derived proteins for growing urban populations in countries such as Zambia. In parallel, they can also constitute pathways of zoonotic pathogen transmission to humans. This risk is aggravated by limited disease monitoring and poor control systems with regards to biosecurity and public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the risks for spread of zoonotic diseases in Zambia's two largest informal small ruminant markets, located in Lusaka and Kasumbalesa, through combining seroepidemiology with interviews and observations. In April, May and September 2018, serum samples (n = 237) were collected and analysed for antibodies for the zoonotic pathogens Brucella spp., Coxiella (C.) burnetii and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). In addition, slaughterhouse activities were observed and semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions held with slaughterhouse workers and small ruminant traders, focusing on the handling of animals and meat, and the perceptions of zoonotic disease risks at slaughter and consumption. The study found seropositivity rates of 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.60–14.7) for Brucella spp., 5.9% (95% CI 3.27–9.71) for C. burnetii, and 0.8% (95% CI 0.10–3.01) for RVFV. Interviews with value chain members and observations at the slaughterhouse revealed unsanitary procedures and multiple occupational hazards for slaughterhouse workers. This study showed that the Zambian informal small ruminant trade system poses risks to public health, and that these risks are exacerbated by a lack of information about food-borne diseases and how associated risks can be mitigated amongst value chain actors. The results of this study can be used to formulate preventive measures to improve informal meat markets and reduce the risks to public health.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Lysholm, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Int Livestock Res Inst, Dept Biosci, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Munyeme, Musso
    Univ Zambia, Sch Vet Med, Dept Dis Control, Lusaka, Zambia..
    Misinzo, Gerald
    Sokoine Univ Agr, SACIDS Fdn Hlth 1, Morogoro, Tanzania..
    Mathew, Coletha
    Sokoine Univ Agr, Dept Vet Anat & Pathol, Morogoro, Tanzania..
    Alvåsen, Karin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Dautu, George
    Cent Vet Res Inst, Dept Vet Serv Minist Fisheries & Livestock, Lusaka, Zambia..
    Linde, Siri
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Mitternacht, Lydia
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Olovsson, Emelie
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wilen, Elsa
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Berg, Mikael
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wensman, Jonas J.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Natl Vet Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Dis Control, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Crossing the Line: Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Transboundary Animal Diseases Along the Tanzania-Zambia Border2022In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, E-ISSN 2297-1769, Vol. 9, article id 809128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transboundary pathogens pose a threat to livelihood security in countries such as Zambia and Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), sheep and goat pox virus (SGPV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Brucella spp. in sheep and goats along the Tanzania-Zambia border. Another aim was to assess the association between certain predictor variables and seroprevalence, focusing on trade and proximity to an international border, to a town and to the Tanzania-Zambia highway. During September-October 2018, 486 serum samples from small ruminants in Zambia and 491 in Tanzania were collected and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A questionnaire focused on management strategies was administered to each household. The animal-level seroprevalence in Zambia was 0.21% [95% confidence interval (CI) (0.01-1.14) for PPRV, 1.03% (95% CI 0.33-2.39) for FMDV, 0% (95% CI 0-0.76) for SGPV, 2.26% (95% CI 1.14-4.01) for RVFV and 1.65% (95% CI 0.71-3.22) for Brucella spp.]. In Tanzania, animal-level seroprevalence was 2.85% (95% CI 1.57-4.74) for PPRV, 16.9% (95% CI 13.7-20.5) for FMDV, 0.20% (95% CI 0.01-1.13) for SGPV, 3.26% (95% CI 1.87-5.24) for RVFV and 20.0% (95% CI 14.5-26.5) for Brucella spp. For PPRV (OR 6.83, 95% CI 1.37-34.0, p = 0.019) and FMDV (OR 5.68, 95% CI 1.58-20.3, p = 0.008), herds situated more than 30 km from an international border were more likely to be seropositive, while being located 10-30 km (OR 4.43, 95% CI 1.22-16.1 p = 0.024) from a border was identified as a risk factor for Brucella spp. For FMDV (OR 79.2, 95% CI 4.52-1388.9, p = 0.003), being situated within 30 km from a town was associated with seropositivity. Furthermore, contact with wild ruminants (OR 18.2, 95% CI 1.36-244), and the presence of sheep in the household (OR 5.20, 95% CI 1.00-26.9, p = 0.049), was associated with seropositivity for PPRV, and FMDV. No significant associations between trade or distance to the Tan-Zam highway and seroprevalence were found. We recommend that the impact of trade and proximity to borders, towns and roads should be further evaluated in larger studies, ideally incorporating aspects such as temporal trade fluctuations.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 39.
    Löfgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Johansson, Inga-Maj
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Strömberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Meyerson, Bengt
    Department of Neuroscience, Division of Pharmacology, Box 593, BMC, SE-751 24 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bäcktröm, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Chronic subordination stress augments combined progesterone and estradiol withdrawal behaviorManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to stress is a risk factor for developing pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) and pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), and stress enhances the anxiogenic effect of female sex steroids in animals. This study examines the interaction between chronic subordination stress and withdrawal from progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) (PEWD) in producing behaviors analogous to anxiety and irritability in rats. At the start of the experiment, male Wistar rats were housed in triads consisting of one younger rat (~35 days) and two older rats (~50 days). The housing condition was aimed at producing chronic subordination stress in the younger animals. Chronic subordination stress was assessed by the elevated plus maze (EPM) and by corticosterone (CORT) analysis. A triad of three 35-day-old rats was used as age control. Social rank within the triads was determined using a food competition test (FCT) and the tube test (TT). The younger rats (subordinate) and the dominant rats were assigned to 10 days of treatment with 5 mg/kg progesterone combined with 10 µg/kg 17β estradiol. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, the subordinate and dominant animals were tested in the open-field test (OFT) and in the intruder test (IT). The IT consists of a 10-minute exposure to 3 unfamiliar rats. Chronic subordination stress reduced EPM open-arm time and altered the CORT response. It also made the subordinate animals more vulnerable to PEWD. The effects were increased locomotion in the OFT, increased defensive burying, and increased social anxiety in the intruder test (IT). Dominant animals did not react to PEWD. Thus, chronic subordination stress augments PEWD.

  • 40.
    Mellroth, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins: Major Regulators of Drosophila Immunity2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All eukaryotic organisms have an innate immune system characterized by germ-line encoded receptors and effector molecules, which mediate detection and clearance of microbes such as bacteria, fungi, and parasites. VertebrateDrosophila as a genetically tractable organism with a

    This thesis concerns the peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) gene family in the fruit fly. The family consists of thirteen genes, of which a few have been reported to be part of the signaling pathways that regulates immune

    Data presented show that the putative receptors have affinity for peptidoglycan, but not for lipopolysaccharide, or the fungal cell wall polymer beta-glucan. PGRP-SA, receptor of the Toll pathway, has a preference for

    In a search for novel PGRP receptors I found two PGRP proteins that instead displayed enzymatic activity towards peptidoglycan. They are of the N-actylmuramoyl L-alanine amidase type, which degrades peptidoglycan by splittingStaphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan looses its immune elicitor capacity. This is in contrast to lysozyme-degraded peptidoglycan, which isDrosophila PGRPs to be potential enzymes. PGRP-SB1 is the other enzymatic PGRP described within this thesis. It has a moreBacillus megaterium.

    In conclusion, receptor PGRP proteins binds bacterial peptidoglycan and triggers immune gene pathways and enzymatic PGRPs have the capacity to reduce the elicitor property of peptidoglycan.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 41.
    Mogren, Lars
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Alsanius, Beatrix
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Håll bevattningsrören rena2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Mosomtai, G.
    et al.
    Esa, Eo Programmes, Science Applications & Climate Department, Frascati, Italy; International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kasiiti, J.L.
    Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Kabete, Kenya.
    Murithi, R.M.
    Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Kabete, Kenya.
    Sandström, P.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Landmann, T.
    International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Lwande, O.W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Hassan, Osama A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Sang, R.
    International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Szantoi, Z.
    Esa, Eo Programmes, Science Applications & Climate Department, Frascati, Italy.
    Ottavianelli, G.
    Esa, Eo Programmes, Science Applications & Climate Department, Frascati, Italy.
    Characterizing movement patterns of nomadic pastoralists and their exposure to rift valley fever in Kenya2023In: The international archives of the photogrammetry, remote sensing and spatial information sciences / [ed] O. Altan; F. Sunar; D. Klein, Copernicus GmbH , 2023, Vol. XLVIII-M-1-2023, p. 211-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of animal movement in spreading infectious diseases is highly recognized by various legislations and institutions such as the World Organisation for Animal Health and the International Animal Health Code. The increased interactions at the nexus of human-animal-ecosystem interface have seen an unprecedented introduction and reintroduction of new zoonotic diseases with high socio-economic impacts such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that affects both humans and animals and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes or through contact with the body fluids of infected animals. This study seeks to characterize movement patterns of pastoralist and how this movement behaviour increases their susceptibility to RVF virus exposure. We levarage on a rapidly growing field of movement ecology to monitor five herds collared from 2013 - 2015 in an RVF endemic semi-arid region in Kenya. The herds were also sampled for RVF antibodies to assess their exposure to RVF virus during the rainy seasons. adehabitatLT package in R was used to analyze the trajectory data whereas the first passage time (FPT) analysis was used to measure the area utilized in grazing. Sedentary herds grazed within 15km radius while migrating herds presented restricted space use patterns during the dry seasons and transient movement during the start and end of the rainy season. Furthermore, RVF virus antibodies were generally low for sedentary herds whereas the migrating herds recorded high levels during their transition periods. This study can be used to identify RVF risk zones for timely and targeted management strategies.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43.
    Nol, Pauline
    et al.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Inspect Serv, Ctr Epidemiol, Vet Serv, USDA, Ft Collins, CO 80526 USA.;Anim & Plant Hlth Inspect Serv, Ctr Anim Hlth, Vet Serv, USDA, Ft Collins, CO 80526 USA..
    Ionescu, Radu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Solid State Physics. Rovira & Virgili Univ, Dept Elect Elect & Automat Engn, Tarragona 43007, Spain.
    Welearegay, Tesfalem Geremariam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Solid State Physics.
    Barasona, Jose Angel
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Vet Med, VISAVET Hlth Surveillance Ctr, Anim Hlth Dept, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Vicente, Joaquin
    Univ Castilla La Mancha, SaBio Inst Invest Recursos Cineget IREC, ETSIA Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real 13003, Spain.;CSIC, Ciudad Real 13003, Spain..
    de Jesus Beleno-Saenz, Kelvin
    Univ Autonoma Caribe, Fac Engn, Barranquilla 080020, Colombia.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Chem Engn, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Barrenetxea, Irati
    Rovira & Virgili Univ, Dept Elect Elect & Automat Engn, Tarragona 43007, Spain..
    Jose Torres, Maria
    Univ Seville, Univ Hosp Virgen Rocio, Biomed Inst Sevilla IBiS, CSIC, Seville 41071, Spain..
    Ionescu, Florina
    Rovira & Virgili Univ, Dept Elect Elect & Automat Engn, Tarragona 43007, Spain..
    Rhyan, Jack
    Anim & Plant Hlth Inspect Serv, Natl Vet Serv Lab, Vet Serv, USDA, Ft Collins, CO 80521 USA..
    Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds Obtained from Breath and Feces to Detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Donana National Park, Spain2020In: Pathogens, E-ISSN 2076-0817, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in wild swine, such as in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Eurasia, is cause for serious concern. Development of accurate, efficient, and noninvasive methods to detect MTBC in wild swine would be highly beneficial to surveillance and disease management efforts in affected populations. Here, we describe the first report of identification of volatile organic compounds (VOC) obtained from the breath and feces of wild boar to distinguish between MTBC-positive and MTBC-negative boar. We analyzed breath and fecal VOC collected from 15 MTBC-positive and 18 MTBC-negative wild boar in Donana National Park in Southeast Spain. Analyses were divided into three age classes, namely, adults (>2 years), sub-adults (12-24 months), and juveniles (<12 months). We identified significant compounds by applying the two-tailed statistical t-test for two samples assuming unequal variance, with an alpha value of 0.05. One statistically significant VOC was identified in breath samples from adult wild boar and 14 were identified in breath samples from juvenile wild boar. One statistically significant VOC was identified in fecal samples collected from sub-adult wild boar and three were identified in fecal samples from juvenile wild boar. In addition, discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to build classification models for MTBC prediction in juvenile animals. Using DFA, we were able to distinguish between MTBC-positive juvenile wild boar and MTBC-negative juvenile wild boar using breath VOC or fecal VOC. Based on our results, further research is warranted and should be performed using larger sample sizes, as well as wild boar from various geographic locations, to verify these compounds as biomarkers for MTBC infection in this species. This new approach to detect MTBC infection in free-ranging wild boar potentially comprises a reliable and efficient screening tool for surveillance in animal populations.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 44. Perez-Cornago, Aurora
    et al.
    Appleby, Paul N.
    Pischon, Tobias
    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Overvad, Kim
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Boeing, Heiner
    Steffen, Annika
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Kritikou, Maria
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Palli, Domenico
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Tumino, Rosario
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Agudo, Antonio
    Larranaga, Nerea
    Molina-Portillo, Elena
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Häggström, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Wareham, Nick
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Schmidt, Julie A.
    Gunter, Marc
    Freisling, Heinz
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Ward, Heather
    Riboli, Elio
    Key, Timothy J.
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Tall height and obesity are associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer: results from the EPIC cohort study2017In: BMC Medicine, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 15, article id 115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between body size and prostate cancer risk, and in particular risk by tumour characteristics, is not clear because most studies have not differentiated between high-grade or advanced stage tumours, but rather have assessed risk with a combined category of aggressive disease. We investigated the association of height and adiposity with incidence of and death from prostate cancer in 141,896 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Methods: Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average of 13.9 years of follow-up, there were 7024 incident prostate cancers and 934 prostate cancer deaths. Results: Height was not associated with total prostate cancer risk. Subgroup analyses showed heterogeneity in the association with height by tumour grade (P-heterogeneity = 0.002), with a positive association with risk for high-grade but not low-intermediate-grade disease (HR for high-grade disease tallest versus shortest fifth of height, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.18-2.03). Greater height was also associated with a higher risk for prostate cancer death (HR = 1.43, 1.14-1.80). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly inversely associated with total prostate cancer, but there was evidence of heterogeneity by tumour grade (P-heterogeneity = 0.01; HR = 0.89, 0.79-0.99 for low-intermediate grade and HR = 1.32, 1.01-1.72 for high-grade prostate cancer) and stage (P-heterogeneity = 0.01; HR = 0.86, 0.75-0.99 for localised stage and HR = 1.11, 0.92-1.33 for advanced stage). BMI was positively associated with prostate cancer death (HR = 1.35, 1.09-1.68). The results for waist circumference were generally similar to those for BMI, but the associations were slightly stronger for high-grade (HR = 1.43, 1.07-1.92) and fatal prostate cancer (HR = 1.55, 1.23-1.96). Conclusions: The findings from this large prospective study show that men who are taller and who have greater adiposity have an elevated risk of high-grade prostate cancer and prostate cancer death.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45. Pfeffer, Martin
    et al.
    Modlmaier, Michael
    Lundström, Jan O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Lack of Evidence for the Presence of Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany, in 1999 to 20002010In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 3457-3458Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Roos, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Neimane, Aleksija
    Wikström, Emil
    Ågren, Erik
    Harbor porpoise - Health status and causes of death 20192020Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47. Schmidt, Britta
    et al.
    Sonne, Christian
    Nachtsheim, Dominik
    Dietz, Rune
    Oheim, Ralf
    Rolvien, Tim
    Persson, Sara
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Amling, Michael
    Siebert, Ursula
    Variation in skull bone mineral density of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the Gulf of Bothnia and West Greenland between 1829 and 20192020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone is remodelled constantly through a balance of bone formation and resorption. This process can be affectedby various factors such as hormones, vitamins, nutrients and environmental factors, which can create an imbalanceresulting in systemic or local bone alteration. The aim of the present study was to analyse the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over time in skulls of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from the Baltic and Greenland using museum samples. Overall, 303 skulls (102 Male, 89 Female, 112 unknown) were used for bone investigationsand were divided into three periods according to collection year: before 1958 (n = 167), between 1958 and 1989 (n=40) and after 1994 up to 2019 (n=96). All skulls were examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometryto obtain the BMD. Skull BMD of the Baltic seals was positively correlated with the historical polychlorinatedbiphenyls (PCB) contamination having potential effects on the constitution of bones. BMD fluctuated between the three study periods (LM: p-value < 0.001, F-value = 47.5) with the lowest BMD found between 1897 and 1957, in the Gulf of Bothnia, where the highest peak of contaminant concentration was in the second period. BMD levels increased with increasing PCB concentration (LM: p < 0.001). The Greenland population showed significant lower BMD levels in the pollution and post-pollution period than the Baltic population (LM:p < 0.001). It also revealed a higher BMD in males than in females (LM: p=0.03). In conclusion, the variations between 1829 and 2019 in the Baltic Sea and Greenland may to a certain extent reflect normal fluctuations; however, this study revealed several factors affecting BMD, including sex and PCB levels.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48. Schmidt, Britta
    et al.
    Sonne, Christian
    Nachtsheim, Dominik
    Wohlsein, Peter
    Persson, Sara
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Dietz, Rune
    Siebert, Ursula
    Liver histopathology of Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) over three decades2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The liver plays an important role in the metabolism and elimination of endogenic and exogenic lipid-solublecompounds. Multiple studies have shown that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane(DDT) lead to morphological changes in liver cells. The aim of the present study was therefore toanalyse liver changes over time in Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and to correlate these with historical PCBand DDT contaminations. A total of 191 liver samples were collected between 1981 and 2015 in the Gulf ofBothnia and northern Baltic Proper. Six histological features were evaluated, including portal mononuclear cellinfiltration, random mononuclear cell infiltration, lipid granulomas, hepatocellular fat vacuoles, hepatic stellatecells and mild multifocal bile duct hyperplasia accompanied by portal fibrosis. Three of the six lesions showed asignificant correlation with age. Furthermore, a positive correlation between portal mononuclear cell infiltrationand mild multifocal bile duct hyperplasia was found. Additionally, lipid granulomas were significantly correlatedwith hepatic stellate cells. More importantly, hepatic stellate cells and mild multifocal bile duct hyperplasia werecorrelated with adipose tissue (blubber) concentrations of ƩPCB, measured in a subsample (n = 34) of all individuals.No correlation with lesions and ƩDDT concentrations were found. These results show that age is animportant factor for the development of these liver lesions, but PCBs burden may be an influencing factor. This isin agreement with previous studies of marine mammals in the Baltic Sea as well as in the Arctic. We thereforeconclude that not only age of the animals, but also exposure to PCBs should be taken into account when understandingand evaluating the current health status of Baltic grey seals.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Sjøvold, Torstein
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Osteology Unit.
    Hufthammer, Anne Karin
    Costal cartilage fractures among artiodactyles and perissodactyles2008In: Veterinarija ir Zootechnika, Vol. 43(65), p. 84-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In artiodactyles and perissodactyles the interior of the costal cartilages ossify, forming a spongy, osseous tissue. Recently, it has been discovered that such ossifications frequently display visible lines perpendicular to the cur-vature of the ossification. Such lines are not rare, and often several lines along the same costal cartilage are observed. Macerated ossified costal cartilages frequently, but not always, split into short, bony stabs with straight, cutoff ends, sometimes retaining organic matter encircled within a bony periphery. In archaeological materials such bony stabs areoccasionally observed, and are just denoted “costal cartilages” if recognized. The cause of these structures is not clear. Some may be regarded as transverse splits of the ossifications along a weakness zone, but in other cases the cause isobviously a fracture with more or less extensive callus formation. The smooth surfaces are typical and cannot be con-fused with a secondary fracture, which occur after deposition or maceration. The smooth ends of a healed fracture al-ways display a thin layer of compact tissue, while a secondary fracture is irregular and displays the spongy tissue. Thus, they may be considered as healed micro or macro fractures, where fusion of the fractured ends had occurred along theperiphery of the ossification. In other cases, however, healing may involve dislocation prior to the healing process, ex-tensive callus formation, lipping or formation of pseudoarthroses. How such an injury affected the animal is not gener-ally known. However, in the cases of dislocation and extensive bony reaction to the fracture, it is highly probable that the wellbeing of the animal was influenced by the injury.

  • 50. Sonne, Christian
    et al.
    Lakemeyer, Jan
    Desforges, Jean-Pierre
    Eulaers, Igor
    Persson, Sara
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Stokholm, Iben
    Galatius, Anders
    Gross, Stephanie
    Gonnsen, Katharina
    Lehnert, Kristina
    Andersen-Ranberg, Emelie
    Tange Olsen, Morten
    Dietz, Rune
    Siebert, Ursula
    A review of pathogens in selected Baltic Sea indicator species2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we review the state-of-the-art of pathogens in select marine and terrestrial key species of the Baltic Sea, i.e.ringed seal (Pusa hispida), harbour seal (Phoca vitulina), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harbour porpoise(Phocoena phocoena), common eider (Somateria mollissima), pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) and whitetailedeagle (Haliaeetus albicilla). This review is the first to merge and present available information and baselinedata for the FP7 BONUS BaltHealth project: Baltic Sea multilevel health impacts on key species of anthropogenichazardous substances. Understanding the spread, prevalence and effects of wildlife pathogens is important for theunderstanding of animal and ecosystem health, ecosystem function and services, as well as human exposure tozoonotic diseases. This review summarises the occurrence of parasites, viruses and bacteria over the past sixdecades, including severe outbreaks of Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), the seroprevalence of Influenza A andthe recent increase in seal parasites. We show that Baltic high trophic key species are exposed to multiplebacterial, viral and parasitic diseases. Parasites, such as C. semerme and P. truncatum present in the colon andliver Baltic grey seals, respectively, and anisakid nematodes require particular monitoring due to their effects onanimal health. In addition, distribution of existing viral and bacterial pathogens, along with the emergence andspread of new pathogens, need to be monitored in order to assess the health status of key Baltic species. Relevantbacteria are Streptococcus spp., Brucella spp., Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Mycoplasma spp. and Leptospira interrogans;relevant viruses are influenza virus, distemper virus, pox virus and herpes virus. This is of special importanceas some of the occurring pathogens are zoonotic and thus also pose a potential risk for human health.Marine mammal handlers, as well as civilians that by chance encounter marine mammals, need to be aware ofthis risk. It is therefore important to continue the monitoring of diseases affecting key Baltic species in order toassess their relationship to population dynamics and their potential threat to humans. These infectious agents arevaluable indicators of host ecology and can act as bioindicators of distribution, migration, diet and behaviour ofmarine mammals and birds, as well as of climate change and changes in food web dynamics. In addition, infectiousdiseases are linked to pollutant exposure, overexploitation, immune suppression and subsequent inflammatorydisease. Ultimately, these diseases affect the health of the entire ecosystem and, consequently,ecosystem function and services. As global warming is continuously increasing, the impact of global change oninfectious disease patterns is important to monitor in Baltic key species in the future.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
12 1 - 50 of 61
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf