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  • 1.
    Abdullahi, Fardosa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Investigating possible differential expression level of hsa-miR-708-5p in Neuroblastoma2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most common extracranial cancers found in children under the age of five. The cause of NB is not well understood, about 2% of the cases have been linked to rare germline mutations in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. However, NB is thought to be mainly caused by genetic mutation at the early stages of development. Clinically, NB can be grouped into three risk groups: low, intermediate and high-risk disease. The survival rate of patients with high-risk NB is less than 50% of the diagnosed cases. Survival rates emphasizes the necessity for future NB diagnostic therapy. One potential study area is miRNA, studies have demonstrated both prognostic and predictive usefulness to therapies. MiRNA is a single-stranded RNA that is 18-24 nucleotides long. Its function is to regulate numerous cellular activities, and to act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Genetic anomalies such as MYCN amplification and 11q deletion cause NB by disrupting the expression patterns of certain miRNAs. In this experiment the miRNA, hsa-miR-708-5p, was examined in three genetically diverse NB cell lines; NB69 without MYCN amplification and 11q deletion, SKNBE with MYCN amplification, and Kelly with a chromosome 11q deletion, the cell lines were used to see if the expression levels of hsa-miR-708-5p differed. The expression level of hsa-miR-708-5p, was assessed using qPCR; variation in gene expression was identified between the cell lines. Therefore, miR-708-5p could be a viable option when looking at gene expression of hsa-miR-708-5p for future diagnostic or prognostic in NB.

  • 2.
    Abela, Sohunda
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Molecular detection of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from petals of oilseed rape by Nanopore sequencing using MinIon2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes Sclerotinia stem rot in oilseed rape. In Sweden, the disease causes severe crop loss that varies by year. Previous studies have shown a relationship between the proportion of infected petals and disease incidence in infected fields in places with high humidity levels before and during flowering. In this study, the aim was to develop a technique to detect S. sclerotiorum and other fungi pathogens in the petals of oilseed rape from naturally infected fields by using nanopore sequencing from Oxford Nanopore Technologies. DNA was extracted from the petals of oilseed rape and subsequently amplified by performing PCR after optimizing the optimal annealing temperature. Using the forward primer ITS1catta and the reverse primer ITS4ngsUni, these primers targeted the ITS region, which is used as a marker for the identification of fungi. The resulting Amplicon concentrations varied. Five amplicon PCR samples were selected for MinION sequencing. These samples were selected since they had the best purity levels. Finally, bioinformatic analysis was done with Kraken2 and the Pavian tool and compared with UNITE databases. The result showed hundreds of thousands of reads were recovered from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi divisions; S. sclerotiorum was observed in one field sample; other Sclerotiniaceae species like Dumontinia tuberosa, Botrytis cinerea, and Sclerotinia bulborum were detected in two fields; and many other fungal pathogen species affecting rapeseed crops in Sweden were successfully detected. MinION was successful in identifying S. sclerotiorum and other plant pathogens.

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  • 3.
    Abu Hatab, Assem
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boqvist, Sofia
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lagerkvist, Carl-Johan
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Editorial: Livestock Systems in Urbanizing Environments: Impacts and Implications for Food Security in Developing Countries2022In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, E-ISSN 2297-1769, Vol. 9, article id 966044Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 4.
    Adindu Uzowuru, Cosmas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Inflammasome: Investigating the effect of NEK7 in the activation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammation is a biological defence mechanism applied by living organisms against foreign invaders. In the response to DAMPs and PAMPs, organisms use inflammatory multi-protein complexes to fight the attackers. The most studied inflammasome proteins are NLRP3, ASC and Caspase-1. This study is aimed at understanding the role of NEK7 protein in the NLRP3 inflammasome’s activation, using CRISPR/Cas9 system. To determine the effect of CRISPR/Cas9 and transfection, mRNA expression was analyzed. The results obtained suggest that neither the transfection nor the NEK7 protein knockout have sufficiently worked. This study could not experimentally establish that NEK7 triggers NLRP3 inflammasome activation because ELISA was not conducted to verify the levels of cytokines emitted, due to there being no statistical differences between the samples. Above all, the research question in this thesis project was not answered because the instability of the ACTB reference gene negatively influenced the results. However, previous related studies conclude that NEK7 plays a crucial role in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

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  • 5.
    Ahlbeck Bergendahl, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Salvanes, Anne Gro V.
    Braithwaite, Victoria A.
    Determining the effects of duration and recency of exposure to environmental enrichment2016In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 176, p. 163-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experience can help animals adapt their behaviour to fit the environment or conditions that they find themselves in. Understanding how and when experience affects behaviour is important for the animals we rear in captivity. This is particularly true when we rear animals with the intent of releasing them into the wild as part of population rehabilitation and conservation efforts. We investigated how exposure to a changing, more complex environment promotes behavioural development in juvenile trout. Four groups of fish were compared; (i) fish that were maintained without enrichment, (ii) fish that were exposed to an early period of enrichment, but were then returned to a plain environment, (iii) fish that were maintained in plain conditions, but were then exposed to enrichment towards the end of the rearing phase, (iv) a group that were kept in enriched conditions throughout the 12 week rearing period. We then assessed fish anxiety levels, their spatial learning ability, and the capacity of the fish to find their way through a barrier where different routes were presented across 4 different trials. Fish that experienced enriched conditions for the longest duration had superior spatial learning abilities, and they were better at finding the correct route to get past the barrier than fish from the remaining three treatments. Positive effects on behaviour were, however, also found in the fish that only experienced enrichment in the last part of the rearing period, compared to the control, or fish exposed to early enrichment. No effect of enrichment was found on levels of anxiety in any of the groups.

  • 6.
    Ahlgren, Kerstin, M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Wilbe, Maria
    Sundberg, Katarina
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Andersson, Göran
    Lobell, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hansson-Hamlin, Helene
    Kämpe, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Type I Interferon signature in Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever dogs with steroid responsive meningitis-arteritisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Dogs of the breed Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever (NSDTR) are prone to develop a disease complex in some aspects resembling human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human SLE patients have an increased mRNA expression type I interferon (IFN) regulated genes. However, it is unknown whether diseased dogs also display the typical type I IFN signature.

    Methods: To test canine sera for their capacity to induce type I IFN response Mardin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were cultured with sera from healthy dogs (n=25),  immune-mediated rheumatic disease (IMRD) dogs with anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA+) (n=30) or dogs with steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA) (n=25). mRNA expression of the genes MX1, IFIT1 and CXCL10 was measured by quantitative Real Time PCR.

    Results: A highly significant (p=0.0009) increase in mRNA expression of the type I IFN responsive gene MX1 was detected in cells stimulated by sera from dogs with SRMA, but not from IMRD ANA+ dogs. Expression of IFIT1 was twice as high in cells stimulated by sera from dogs with SRMA compared to both healthy dogs and ANA+ dogs. The mean expression of CXCL10 was nearly ten times higher in cells stimulated by sera from SRMA dogs than by ANA+ dogs and four times higher compared to cells stimulated by control dogs.

    Conclusion: Presence of type I IFN in sera from diseased NSDTR dogs was found in this study. This implies that this canine model can be used for identification of pathways of importance for autoimmune disorders in humans and for testing of novel therapeutic approaches. Our results can also be a step on the way towards personalized drugs in these dogs.

  • 7. Ahsan, Murshidul
    et al.
    Hasan, Badrul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Algotsson, Magnus
    Sarenbo, Sirkku
    Handling and Welfare of Bovine Livestock at Local Abattoirs in Bangladesh2014In: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, ISSN 1088-8705, E-ISSN 1532-7604, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 340-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) allows rope casting and the tying of legs for nonhuman animals laughter without stunning. The handling and welfare of bovine livestock (Bosindicus and Bubalus bubalis) were studied in 8 local abattoirs in 5 districts of Bangladesh. A total of 302 animals were evaluated. At the local abattoirs, approximately 1/3 of the cattle and water buffalo were eithere maciated orinjured/sick. The size and vigor of the animals determined the casting method. Small and weak animals were cast on concrete floors by lifting a foreleg followed by pushing, or simply by twisting the head of the animal and then binding the legs with rope. Vigorous animals such as buffalo were castusing ropes and human force. Bleeding was slow and flaying was sometimes initiated before the animals were unconscious. Pulling and tearing of the trachea and pouring of water into the exposed trache a shortly after cutting were also observed in some cases.The over all animal handling was unnecessarily rough and he OIE standards were not implemented. Animals are subjected to considerable mistreatment, and there is an urgent need for the training nde ducation of the staff in a battoirs concerning humanes laughtering practices as well as a need to build moderns laughtering plants in Bangladesh.

  • 8.
    Ajaj, Asil
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The ecotoxicity effect of metronidazole on Raphidocelis subcapitata2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata is a sickle-shaped freshwater green microalga that is normally found in unicellular form. It is the best known and most frequently used species of ecotoxicological bioindicator because of its high growth rate and sensitivity to toxicants. Metronidazole (MTZ) is a routinely used nitroimidazole antibiotic that has caused environmental issues owing to incorrect use. A toxicity test was performed in order to understand the relationship between the MTZ concentrations and response at a physiological level. The study found a growth percentage of (0, 4.8571, 4.5714, -15.1429, -37.1429 %) accordingly. The changes on the transcriptomic level were tested by performing a RT-qPCR. Using ∆∆Ct method to compare the treated samples with low and high MTZ concentration against the control sample. The study found that Exposure to MTZ at the low and high concentrations gave rise to 1.45 fold upregulated pcna gene expression that was differentially expressed in control R. subcapitata. The high group of samples in the high group were clearly distinguishable from those in the control and low treatment groups.

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  • 9.
    Akanda, Nesar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) in the plasma membrane induce apoptosis2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is essential for proper development and functioning of the body systems. During development, apoptosis plays a central role to sculpt the embryo, and in adults, to maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating redundant, damaged or effete cells. Therefore, a tight regulation of this process is essential. Cell shrinkage associated efflux of K+ and Cl through plasma membrane ion channels is an early event of apoptosis. However, little is known about these fluxes. The aim of this thesis was to investigate ion channels in the plasma membrane of neurons undergoing apoptosis. We studied differentiated (the mouse hippocampal cell line HT22, the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC, and rat primary hippocampal neurons) and undifferentiated (rat primary cortical neural stem cells cNSCs) cells with the patch-clamp technique. All cell types displayed a low electrical activity under control conditions. However, during apoptosis in differentiated neurons, we found an activation of a voltage-dependent anion channel. The conductance of the channel is 400 pS, the voltage dependence of the opening is bell shaped with respect to membrane voltage with a maximum open probability at 0 mV, and the Cl to cation selectivity is >5:1. These biophysical properties remind about the voltage-dependent anion channel normally found in the outer mitochondrial membrane (VDACmt). Hence, we call our apoptosis-inducing plasma membrane channel VDACpl. The molecular identity of the channel was corroborated with the specific labelling of different anti-VDAC antibodies. Block of this channel either with antibodies or with sucrose prevented apoptosis, suggesting a critical role for VDACpl in the apoptotic process. VDACpl is a NADH (-ferricyanide) reductase in control cells. We found that the enzymatic activity is altered while the VDACpl channel is activated during apoptosis. Surprisingly, in cNSCs we did not find any activation of VDACpl, no VDACpl-specific labelling, no enzymatic activity, and no prevention of apoptosis with VDACpl-blocking strategies. Instead, we found an activation of a voltage-independent 37 pS ion channel, and that the Cl channel blocker DIDS prevented apoptosis in cNSCs. Our finding that activation of VDACpl is critical for apoptosis in differentiated neurons hopefully can lead to new strategies in the treatment of several diseases related to apoptosis.

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  • 10.
    Al-Attar, Rima
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Characterization of the antimicrobial activity of plantaricin NC8 αß in a viral-bacterial coinfection model2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Viral-bacterial coinfection is a major and life-threatening issue, and it ranks among the primary causes of mortality. Current monotherapies that only target either bacteria or viruses, are deemed insufficient for treating coinfection and may be associated with undesirable consequences. Therefore, the development of novel treatment approaches is necessary, preferably with dual effects against both viruses and bacteria. This study sought to assess the effectiveness of PLNC8 αβ, in specifically targeting both KUNV and S. aureus infection in an in vitro coinfection model using human keratinocyte cells. The LDH cytotoxicity test was performed to evaluate the peptide’s effectiveness in reducing cytotoxicity that is individually caused by S. aureus, KUNV, as well as their coinfection. Additionally, ELISA was utilized to quantify the levels of inflammatory cytokines, namely CXCL8, and IL-6. The results demonstrated that both forms of the PLNC8 αβ effectively decreased the infection-induced cellular cytotoxicity. The D- PLNC8 αβ exhibited superior efficacy compared to the L- PLNC8 αβ, since the latter was more susceptible to enzymatic degradation, resulting in the loss of its functionality. Furthermore, both forms of PLNC8 αβ effectively modulated the levels of inflammatory cytokine and restored cellular viability. In addition, the peptide substantially reduced the number of bacterial colonies in both S. aureus infection and coinfection. Based on these findings D- PLNC8 αβ possesses a dual antimicrobial action and could be further characterized and validated as a promising therapeutic agent against viral-bacterial coinfection.

  • 11. Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    et al.
    Jenab, Mazda
    Boeing, Heiner
    Jansen, Eugene
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Rinaldi, Sabina
    Riboli, Elio
    Overvad, Kim
    Dahm, Christina C
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Morois, Sophie
    Palli, Domenico
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Tumino, Rosario
    Vineis, Paolo
    Panico, Salvatore
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Rohrmann, Sabine
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    van Duijnhoven, Fränzel JB
    Leufkens, Anke M
    Peeters, Petra H
    Rodríguez, Laudina
    Bonet, Catalina
    Sánchez, María-José
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Navarro, Carmen
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Allen, Naomi E
    Spencer, Elizabeth
    Romaguera, Dora
    Norat, Teresa
    Pischon, Tobias
    Circulating C-reactive protein concentrations and risks of colon and rectal cancer: a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition2010In: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 172, no 4, p. 407-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigated associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and colon and rectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2003) among 1,096 incident cases and 1,096 controls selected using risk-set sampling and matched on study center, age, sex, time of blood collection, fasting status, menopausal status, menstrual cycle phase, and hormone replacement therapy. In conditional logistic regression with adjustment for education, smoking, nutritional factors, body mass index, and waist circumference, CRP showed a significant nonlinear association with colon cancer risk but not rectal cancer risk. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks for CRP concentrations of > or = 3.0 mg/L versus <1.0 mg/L were 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.85; P-trend = 0.01) for colon cancer and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.57; P-trend = 0.65) for rectal cancer. Colon cancer risk was significantly increased in men (relative risk = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.73; P-trend = 0.01) but not in women (relative risk = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.68; P-trend = 0.13). Additional adjustment for C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not attenuate these results. These data provide evidence that elevated CRP concentrations are related to a higher risk of colon cancer but not rectal cancer, predominantly among men and independently of obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.

  • 12.
    Aleksija, Neijmane
    et al.
    Statens Veterinärmedicinska Anstalt.
    Jasmine, Stavenow
    Statens Veterinärmedicinska Anstalt.
    Roos, Anna
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Kallunki-Nyström, Jonas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Hälsa, sjukdomar och dödsorsaker hos marina däggdjur 2020: Resultat från obduktion och provtagning av marina däggdjur som undersökts på SVA2021Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 13.
    Alghazali, Raghad
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    GSK-3 post-transcriptionally regulates TNF-α biosynthesis in THP-1 macrophages2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Few things are more fascinating than finding new interactions between previously unrelated pathways. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a ubiquitous kinase initially known for its role in regulating glycogen metabolism, has recently been found to be an indispensable regulator of the TLR4-mediated inflammatory response. GSK-3 inhibition exhibits potent anti-inflammatory effects by acting on both arms of the inflammatory response, reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and promoting the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) is among the most important inflammatory cytokines. Aberrant TNF-α expression is associated with various inflammatory conditions, including sepsis and cancer. Thus, understanding the mechanisms regulating TNF-α production could reveal potential therapeutic strategies for TNF-α-associated diseases. Consequently, this study aimed to examine the effect of GSK-3 inhibition on TLR4-induced TNF-a production by THP-1 macrophages. THP-1 macrophages were stimulated with LPS and nigericin in the presence and absence of GSK-3 inhibitor, and TNF-α protein and mRNA levels were evaluated by ELISA and Real-time PCR, respectively. GSK-3 inhibition significantly attenuated TNF-α protein levels in a dose-dependent manner, whereas TNF-α mRNA levels remained unaffected, reflecting a possible post-transcriptional modulation of TNF-α biosynthesis by GSK-3. However, more comprehensive research is needed to elucidate the precise contribution of GSK-3 to TNF-α biosynthesis and to identify novel therapeutic mechanisms to alleviate inflammatory diseases associated with abnormal TNF-α production.

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  • 14. Alonso, Silvia
    et al.
    Dohoo, Ian
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Verdugo, Cristobal
    Akuku, Isaiah
    Grace, Delia
    Prevalence of tuberculosis, brucellosis and trypanosomiasis in cattle in Tanzania: a systematic review and meta-analysis.2016In: Animal Health Research Reviews, ISSN 1466-2523, E-ISSN 1475-2654, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 16-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A meta-analysis was performed to derive prevalence estimates for Brucella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Trypanosoma spp. in cattle in Tanzania using data derived from a systematic review of zoonotic hazards in cattle production systems. Articles published before 2012 reporting prevalence and considered at least moderate in quality were included in the analysis. Results showed high heterogeneity between studies, with wide ranges in the reported prevalence: Brucella (0.3-60.8%), Mycobacterium (0.1-13.2%) and Trypanosoma (0.82-33.3%). Overall meta-analytic mean prevalence estimates were 8.2% (95% CI 6.5-10.2), 1.28% (95% CI 0.35-4.58) and 10.3% (95% CI 6.20-16.70) respectively, for Brucella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Trypanosoma spp. Time and region were predictors of variability of Brucella spp. prevalence, while diagnostic test was a strong predictor of Mycobacterium spp. prevalence, with higher prevalence estimates given by skin tests compared with post-mortem inspection. None of the studied factors were associated with prevalence of Trypanosoma spp. The small sample sizes, range of study locations, study designs and diagnostics used, contributed to high variability among prevalence estimates. Larger and more robust prevalence studies are needed to adequately support risk assessment and management of animal and public health threats.

  • 15. Alonso, Silvia
    et al.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Roesel, Kristina
    Traore, Sylvain Gnamien
    Yobouet, Bassa Antoine
    Ndour, Andrée Prisca Ndjoug
    Carron, Maud
    Grace, Delia
    Where literature is scarce: observations and lessons learnt from four systematic reviews of zoonoses in African countries.2016In: Animal Health Research Reviews, ISSN 1466-2523, E-ISSN 1475-2654, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 28-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of a systematic review depends on the availability, accessibility and quality of literature related to the review question. This paper presents the literature found in four systematic reviews conducted for a selection of zoonotic hazards in four livestock value chains in Africa, as well as setting out the challenges in conducting the reviews. The protocol was designed following international standards, and addressed four questions around prevalence, risk factors, control options and impact of various hazards and populations. Searches were conducted in four online databases. Articles were screened for relevance, and quality was assessed before data extraction. Literature on zoonotic hazards was in general scarce and access to full articles was limited. Overall, 25-40% of papers were considered poor quality. The diversity of approaches and designs in the studies compromised the ability to generate summarized estimates. We found that the emphasis of veterinary research has been on livestock problems rather than public health issues, although this seems to be shifting in the last decade; we also found there are limited studies on impact and control. While increasing literature is being published around zoonoses in Africa, this is still inadequate to appropriately inform policy and guide research efforts.

  • 16.
    Alsanius, Beatrix
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Vattenrening för ökad hygien vid odling av frilandsgrönsaker och bär2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har ett flertal utbrottmed magsjuka kopplats till konsumtionav grönsaker, frukt och bär. Sjukdomsframkallandebakterier och virus, såsomnorovirus, Salmonella, toxinproducerandeE. coli, Campylobacter och Listeria. kanspridas från bevattningsvatten via grö-dan till människor och orsaka sjukdom.Smittat bevattningsvatten kan därförförorena frilandsproducerade grönsakeroch bär. Det är alltås viktigt att hakontroll på bevattningsvattnets kvalitet.Dessutom är det viktigt att känna tillvilken typ av kultur som vattnet skaanvändas till, eftersom risken för vidaresmitta till människor varierar mellanolika typer av kulturer. T.ex. är det störrerisk att använda kontaminerat vatten tillkulturer som äts råa utan uppvärmninghos livsmedelsproducenten eller konsument,eftersom det då inte finns nå-gon möjlighet att avdöda de oönskademikroorganismerna i ett efterföljandesteg. Genom rätt hantering och adekvatbehandling av bevattningsvattnetkan dess hygieniska kvalitet förbättras.Ibland finns det möjlighet för odlarenatt byta vattenkälla, men då detta inte ärpraktiskt möjligt kan det kontamineradevattnet renas innan bevattning. I dettafaktablad beskrivs två grundläggandetekniker för rening av bevattningsvattenvid frilandsproduktion, nämligen fotokemi(fotokatalys, UV) och filtrering(mekanisk filtrering, långsamfiltrering).Dessa används för att minska risken försmittspridning med bevattningsvattnet.

  • 17.
    Alsayed Ahmad, Alaa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Azithromycin effects on R. subcapitata on molecular levels: Ecotoxicological study on the effects of a pollutant on chlorophyll contents, pcna and cyt P450 genes expression2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotics are considered a type of antimicrobial that particularly has an impact on bacteria or fungi in humans and animals. The widespread use of common antibiotics, combined with the fact that the majority of active antibiotics and their metabolites are water-soluble, results in persistent pollution in aquatic environments, as well as a potential threat to ecosystems. Moreover, there are inadequate ecotoxicological data on many antibiotics, such as azithromycin, which has been quantified at elevated levels in the aquatic system. Raphidocelis subcapitata is a globally distributed green alga that is commonly used as a model species for evaluating chemical toxicity due to the availability of a sequenced genome and its rapid growth, which allows assessing chemical effects across many generations. the aim of this project is to provide an insight on genotoxicity for R. subcapitata and study the effects of azithromycin antibiotic on algae, on both growth rate and molecular levels by determining gene expression levels, specifically, its effect related to chlorophyll pigments,biosynthesis, and DNA replication levels. In order to do that, toxicity test according to OECD guidelines for 7 days, photosynthetic pigment extraction and qRT-PCR were utilized. In the present study, an EC50 of 24 µg/L was obtained, while low risk in the Swedish water streams was indicated, significant induction in Chlorophyll a and b at high concentrations while no effects on carotenoids were observed, no significant difference in pcna and cyt P450 at LOEC and lower concentrations was obtained. This might suggests testing higher concentrations in upcoming research.

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  • 18.
    Alsmark, UCM
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Natl Vet Inst, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nolskog, Peter
    Dept Communicable Dis Control & Prevent Reg Vastr, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Angervall, Anna Lindqvist
    Dept Communicable Dis Control & Prevent Reg Vastr, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Toepfer, Michael
    Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden..
    Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Solna, Sweden..
    Bouwmeester, Johanna
    Primary Healthcare Ctr Hjo, Hjo, Sweden..
    Bjelkmar, Par
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Solna, Sweden..
    Troell, Karin
    Natl Vet Inst, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lahti, Elina
    Natl Vet Inst, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Beser, Jessica
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Solna, Sweden..
    Two outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis associated with cattle spring pasture events2018In: Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports, E-ISSN 2405-9390, Vol. 14, p. 71-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over a period of less than four weeks, 50 human cases of cryptosporidiosis were reported from a relatively small geographical area in Sweden. All cases were associated with visits to cattle spring pasture events at two farms (referred to as Farm A and B). Epidemiological and microbiological evidence show that contact with calves at the farms was the most likely source of Cryptosporidium infections. Gp60 sequences from human and calf isolates at Farm A were identical to each other, but differed from those at Farm B where, again, human and calf gp60 sequences were identical, proving that the two outbreaks had no common origin. As a direct consequence of these two outbreaks, and guided by knowledge gained from the outbreak investigations, the Swedish Board of Agriculture and all relevant farmer advisory organizations have updated their hygiene instructions for farm visits.

  • 19.
    Alvarez, Ignacio
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Div Ruminant Med, 8 Almas Alle, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ducatez, Mariette
    Univ Tolouse, IHAP, INRAE, ENVT, F-31076 Toulouse, France..
    Guo, Yongzhi
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Div Ruminant Med, 8 Almas Alle, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lion, Adrien
    Univ Tolouse, IHAP, INRAE, ENVT, F-31076 Toulouse, France..
    Widgren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Dubourdeau, Marc
    Ambiotis SAS, 3 Rue Satell, F-31400 Toulouse, France..
    Baillif, Vincent
    Ambiotis SAS, 3 Rue Satell, F-31400 Toulouse, France..
    Saias, Laure
    Ambiotis SAS, 3 Rue Satell, F-31400 Toulouse, France..
    Zohari, Siamak
    Dept Microbiol, Swedish Vet Agcy, Ullsvagen 2B, S-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Biosci, Ulls Vag 26, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Meyer, Gilles
    Univ Tolouse, IHAP, INRAE, ENVT, F-31076 Toulouse, France..
    Valarcher, Jean-Francois
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Div Ruminant Med, 8 Almas Alle, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hägglund, Sara
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Div Ruminant Med, 8 Almas Alle, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Proteomic and Lipidomic Profiling of Calves Experimentally Co-Infected with Influenza D Virus and Mycoplasma bovis: Insights into the Host-Pathogen Interactions2024In: Viruses, E-ISSN 1999-4915, Vol. 16, no 3, article id 361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of Influenza D virus (IDV) in bovine respiratory disease remains unclear. An in vivo experiment resulted in increased clinical signs, lesions, and pathogen replication in calves co-infected with IDV and Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis), compared to single-infected calves. The present study aimed to elucidate the host-pathogen interactions and profile the kinetics of lipid mediators in the airways of these calves. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples collected at 2 days post-infection (dpi) were used for proteomic analyses by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Additionally, lipidomic analyses were performed by LC-MS/MS on BAL samples collected at 2, 7 and 14 dpi. Whereas M. bovis induced the expression of proteins involved in fibrin formation, IDV co-infection counteracted this coagulation mechanism and downregulated other acute-phase response proteins, such as complement component 4 (C4) and plasminogen (PLG). The reduced inflammatory response against M. bovis likely resulted in increased M. bovis replication and delayed M. bovis clearance, which led to a significantly increased abundance of oxylipids in co-infected calves. The identified induced oxylipids mainly derived from arachidonic acid; were likely oxidized by COX-1, COX-2, and LOX-5; and peaked at 7 dpi. This paper presents the first characterization of BAL proteome and lipid mediator kinetics in response to IDV and M. bovis infection in cattle and raises hypotheses regarding how IDV acts as a co-pathogen in bovine respiratory disease.

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  • 20.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Spain.
    Martinez-Pastor, Felipe
    Univ Leon, Spain.
    Molecular Determinants of Seminal Plasma on Sperm Biology and Fertility2021In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 22, no 7, article id 3555Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

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  • 21.
    Amjad, M.
    et al.
    University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Saleem, M. H.
    University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Iqbal, M. Z.
    University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Hassan, A.
    Department of Veterinary Surgery and Pet Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Jabbar, A.
    University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Ashraf, M.
    University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Qasim, Muhammad
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Statistics.
    Ullah, A.
    University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Tolba, M. M.
    Biomedical Informatics and Biotechnology Group, Informatics and Systems Department, Division of Engineering Research, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.
    Nasser, H. A.
    Microbiology and Public Health Department. Faculty of Pharmacy, Helipolis, University, Egypt.
    Naaz, S.
    Livestock and Dairy Development Department Punjab Pakistan.
    Ahmad, I.
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, University of Poonch Rawalakot Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.
    Efficacy of Quinapyramine Sulphate, Isometamedium Chloride and Diminazene Aceturate For Treatment of Surra2022In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, ISSN 1018-7081, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 663-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trypanosomiasis (Surra) is a parasitic and zoonotic disease caused by Trypanosoama evansi, transmitted by insect vectors Tabanus and Stomoxys mechanically. The aim of the present study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of various trypanosidal drugs against trypanosomiasis in Thoroughbred horses. Horses having clinical signs of trypanosomiasis were diagnosed through blood smear through a microscope were selected for this study. The infected horses were divided into three experimental groups for therapeutic trials. Animals in group A were treated with a single dose of quinapyramine sulphate @ 3000mg/ml per 50/kg body weight; group B was treated with a single dose of isometamedium chloride Hydrochloride@ 0.5 mg/2.5 ml of 1% solution per 50/kg body weight; group C was treated with a single dose of diminazene aceturate@ 2360 mg/15 ml per 100/kg. Results revealed that significant (P<0.0001) de cline in the values of erythrocyte counts (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), platelets (PLT) and a significant (P<0.0001) increase in white blood cells (WBC), granulocytes, and monocytes in infected horses as compared to healthy ones. Therapeutic trials indicated that quinapyramine sulphate that showed 100% efficacy at 21th days had significantly higher than isometamedium chloride and diminazene aceturate (95.83 and 75% efficacy, respectively). The hematological parameters of recovered horses were significantly restored to normal values on day 21 after treatment. It is concluded that quinapyramine sulphate is the drug of choice against trypanosomiasis in Thoroughbred horses.

  • 22.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

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    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation
  • 23.
    Andersen, Pia Haubro
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Broomé, Sofia
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL.
    Rashid, Maheen
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Comp Sci, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Lundblad, Johan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ask, Katrina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Li, Zhenghong
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL. SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Comp Sci, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Hernlund, Elin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Rhodin, Marie
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kjellström, Hedvig
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL.
    Towards Machine Recognition of Facial Expressions of Pain in Horses2021In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1643Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple Summary Facial activity can convey valid information about the experience of pain in a horse. However, scoring of pain in horses based on facial activity is still in its infancy and accurate scoring can only be performed by trained assessors. Pain in humans can now be recognized reliably from video footage of faces, using computer vision and machine learning. We examine the hurdles in applying these technologies to horses and suggest two general approaches to automatic horse pain recognition. The first approach involves automatically detecting objectively defined facial expression aspects that do not involve any human judgment of what the expression "means". Automated classification of pain expressions can then be done according to a rule-based system since the facial expression aspects are defined with this information in mind. The other involves training very flexible machine learning methods with raw videos of horses with known true pain status. The upside of this approach is that the system has access to all the information in the video without engineered intermediate methods that have filtered out most of the variation. However, a large challenge is that large datasets with reliable pain annotation are required. We have obtained promising results from both approaches. Automated recognition of human facial expressions of pain and emotions is to a certain degree a solved problem, using approaches based on computer vision and machine learning. However, the application of such methods to horses has proven difficult. Major barriers are the lack of sufficiently large, annotated databases for horses and difficulties in obtaining correct classifications of pain because horses are non-verbal. This review describes our work to overcome these barriers, using two different approaches. One involves the use of a manual, but relatively objective, classification system for facial activity (Facial Action Coding System), where data are analyzed for pain expressions after coding using machine learning principles. We have devised tools that can aid manual labeling by identifying the faces and facial keypoints of horses. This approach provides promising results in the automated recognition of facial action units from images. The second approach, recurrent neural network end-to-end learning, requires less extraction of features and representations from the video but instead depends on large volumes of video data with ground truth. Our preliminary results suggest clearly that dynamics are important for pain recognition and show that combinations of recurrent neural networks can classify experimental pain in a small number of horses better than human raters.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Engelska: Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical Programme.
    Adjuvant and Down-Staging Treatment with Imatinib in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: GISTs are gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumours that express the type III receptor tyrosine kinase KIT. The KIT proto-oncogene encodes the receptor KIT. Most GISTs have gain-of-function mutations in the KIT or PDGFRA gene. The tyrosine kinase is therefore continuously activated leading to ligand-independent dimerization. Imatinib mesylate (Glivec®) is considered to be the first-line palliative treatment. The activated form of the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase is inhibited by imatinib. The aim of the study was to compare the survival of patients treated with either adjuvant or down-staging imatinib with historic controls treated with radical surgery (R0) only.

    Methods: A historic control group was chosen from a population-based series from western Sweden (population 1.6 million) that matched the adjuvant (n=23) and down-staging (n=7) groups respectively. Mutation analysis was performed in all cases with bidirectional direct sequencing. The recurrence-free survival was calculated.

    Results: There was only one recurrence (4 %) in the adjuvant group, and no recurrences in the down-staging study group, compared to 32/48 patients (67 %) in the control group. Tumour size decreased in diameter from 20 cm to 11 cm with down-staging treatment.

    Conclusion: Adjuvant imatinib improves recurrence-free survival in R0 resected patients. Down-staging treatment with imatinib is recommended for patients with large tumours or metastases. The importance of mutation analysis was established.

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  • 25.
    Andersson, David
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Boyacioglu, Anders
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bilateral deficit vid excentrisk och koncentrisk muskelaktion: En jämförande studie mellan den summerade unilaterala och bilaterala kraftutvecklingen hos roddare visavi sprinters2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The main aim of the study was to investigate the difference in bilateral deficit between rowers and sprinters during maximal eccentric/concentric muscle actions.

    • Are there any significant differences in bilateral deficit between rowers and sprinters?

    • Do the amount of years in practice effect the bilateral deficit?

    Method

    Fourteen male subject participants divided in 2 equal sized groups (7 individuals in each group; rowers and sprinters) performed maximal unilateral/bilateral eccentric and concentric muscle actions in a leg press machine at a velocity of 0.2m/s. The range of motion in the knee joint was 70° – 140°. Dependent t-tests have been performed within each group pre and post test. P was set to 0,05 to prevent type I faults (false positive) a Bonferroni test was made for two comparisons and set to 0,0253.

    Results

    Average bilateral deficit for rowers were: 11% concentric and 33% eccentric. Number of years in practice and bilateral deficit: practiced >8years concentric 7% and eccentric 24%. Practiced <8 years concentric 21% and eccentric 55%.

    Average bilateral deficit for sprinters were: 5% concentric and 24% eccentric. Number of years in practice and bilateral deficit: practiced >8years concentric 4% and eccentric 26%. Practiced <8years concentric 16% and eccentric 11%.

    Conclusions

    The main explanation for the larger differences in bilateral deficit for rowers in eccentric muscle action compared to sprinters may be related for the fact that the rowers have an almost non - eccentric phase during rowing. When comparing the amount of years in practice and bilateral deficit we saw that it decreased with the number of practiced years for booth rowers and sprinters. The reason to this pattern is probably on a neural base.

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  • 26.
    Andersson, Gunnel
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Urinary incontinence: prevalence, treatment seeking behaviour, experiences, and perceptions among persons with and without urinary leakage2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to describe urinary incontinence (UI) from a population perspective and to describe experiences and perceptions of UI from an individual perspective. This includes assessing the prevalence of urinary incontinence as well as describing treatment seeking and experiences of living with UI. A secondary aim was to describe the perception of UI among cultures other than the Swedish mainstream, exemplified in this case by Syrian women living in Sweden. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used, including questionnaires and interviews.

    Studies I and II were quantitative studies based on a population-based study. Together with a postal survey on general health and living conditions “Life & Health”, a questionnaire on urinary incontinence was sent out to 15 360 randomly-selected residents aged 18-79 in Orebro County, Sweden. In Study I, UI was found to affect 19%. The majority of the respondents experienced minor problems, and only 18% of those reporting UI wanted treatment. However, there was also a group who reported severe problems, but despite this 42% of them did not want treatment. Study II investigated why people with UI refrain from seeking care and treatment. It was found that the desire for treatment was regulated by the frequency of UI, being restricted from participating in various activities, the degree of inconvenience, and the type of UI.

    Studies III and IV were both qualitative interview studies, describing older women’s experiences of living with UI (Study III) and Syrian women’s perceptions of UI (Study IV). There were similarities between the results of these two studies; the women described UI as a normal and expected problem, and they knew that the district nurse could prescribe incontinence protections and that treatments existed. In both studies, the women expressed difficulties in making contact with the health care service, while the women who did not speak Swedish (Study IV) also had difficulties due to different communication problems.

    In conclusion, it is important that health care resources are optimized to identify and meet the needs of those who experience major problems with UI, and that there is awareness of the communication difficulties that can be present in meeting with people who speak other languages. However it is also important not to medicalize those who experience minor problems and who have the desire to manage on their own.

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  • 27.
    Andersson, Katri
    et al.
    Institutionen för livsmedelshygien, Kungliga Veterinärhögskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Danielsson Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Barn smittar hund1977In: Svensk veterinärtidning, ISSN 0346-2250, Vol. 29, no 24, p. 977-977Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Children with cancer: focusing on their fear and on how their fear is handled2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Various fears in children with cancer have previously been identified as a result of studying e.g. symptom experiences, distress and uncertainty within this population. Studies of the meaning the children give to their fear, as well as the handling of their fear seem to be sparse, however. Also, fear has not been an exclusive focus in previous studies. Professionals in clinical practice have pointed to the need for such research, which has prompted the present research work. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore twofold; firstly, the aim was to elucidate fear in children and adolescents with cancer in order to gain an understanding from the perspective of adolescents and parents. Secondly, it was to elucidate parents’ and professionals’ handling of the fear. This in order to gain a deeper understanding of what performances and manners the children and adolescents can face when being fearful. A qualitative descriptive design was adopted in the five included studies. The methods used in the data analysis were phenomenological hermeneutical method (studies I–III) and qualitative content analysis (studies IV–V).

    In study I six adolescent girls, aged 14–16 years, with experiences of various cancer diagnoses, but now declared fit, were interviewed. The results reveal that they experience their fear as embodied, which in the comprehensive understanding of the results was interpreted as a threat to their personal self, their whole existence. Their fear was seen as a holistic intertwined experience, including fear related to the physical body and to the social self. Also, existential fear was described. Their described experience was interpreted as suffering.

    Studies II and III share the same data. Fifteen parents of children at various ages with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed in focus groups about their experience of their child’s fear. In study II the result reveals how the parents experienced and understood their child’s fear. The fear was described as a multidimensional phenomenon, which was not always easy to identify. It was contrasted to feelings of unease and to absence of fear. In the comprehensive understanding the fear was interpreted as a suffering, as that was regarded to be what was the common meaning in the narratives. The suffering was interpreted as an ethical demand to the parents to take action. In study III the parents described their actions, i.e. they described how they dealt with the fear. Their actions were described as acting in the best interests of the child, which included striving to make the child feel secure and experience wellbeing, up to a certain point. However, after this point the parents used their parental authority to maintain the child’s physical health rather than trying to prevent or relieve the child’s fear. In the comprehensive understanding the parents’ handling of their child’s fear was interpreted as revealing mercy and as being synonymous with meeting the ethical demand put on them.

    In study IV ten experienced nurses and physicians were individually interviewed about how they handled fear in children with cancer. The result reveals that the existential issues were dealt with within the relationship with the child, on a sliding scale between closeness and distance, and that the fear related to medical procedures occurred on a continuum between support and lack of support. The various actions involved, and the manner in which these actions were performed, was described.

    In the observational study (study V) eleven parents and their children as well as eleven health professionals participated. They were observed at children’s routine visits at the outpatient clinic. The aim was to study the interactions related to fear. The result reveals that when children were fearful they expressed this both verbally and non-verbally. The parents’ and professionals’ actions and interactions in these situations were found to be characterized by recognition of the fear or lack of attention to the fear.

    The findings can contribute to a broadened knowledge on fear in children and adolescents with cancer. Awareness and understanding of the meaning adolescents give to their fear, and furthermore, of the parents’ experience and understanding of their child’s fear can provide tools for interacting with these groups. The findings on how fear is dealt with by the ones children have claimed as important sources for support, can give insights into what the child may face when being fearful. These insights can form the basis for individual, as well as collegial, reflections on what is done when children face fear, how fear is handled on an everyday basis and why it is handled in this way. Such reflections could lead to an ethical awareness of handling fear in children with cancer.

  • 29.
    Anjum, Muna F
    et al.
    Department of Bacteriology, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK.
    Schmitt, Heike
    Centre for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology - Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), 3720 BA, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), 751 89, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Public Health Agency of Sweden, 171 82 Solna, Sweden.
    Berendonk, Thomas U
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), 751 89, Uppsala, Sweden Present address: Department of Microbiology, Public Health Agency of Sweden, 171 82 Solna, Sweden.
    The potential of using E. coli as an indicator for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the environment2021In: Current Opinion in Microbiology, ISSN 1369-5274, E-ISSN 1879-0364, Vol. 64, p. 152-158Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), in a One-Health perspective, surveillance play an important role. Monitoring systems already exist in the human health and livestock sectors, but there are no environmental monitoring programs. Therefore there is an urgent need to initiate environmental AMR monitoring programs nationally and globally, which will complement existing systems in different sectors. However, environmental programs should not only identify anthropogenic influences and levels of AMR, but they should also allow for identification of transmissions to and from human and animal populations. In the current review we therefore propose using antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli as indicators for monitoring occurrence and levels of AMR in the environment, including wildlife.

  • 30. Anyango, Gladys
    et al.
    Mutua, Florence
    Kagera, Irene
    Andang‘O, Pauline
    Grace, Delia
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    A survey of aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw milk produced in urban and peri-urban areas of Kisumu County, Kenya2018In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACTBackground: Food safety is of increasing global concern, and a OneHealth issue requiring attention of many disciplines. Aflatoxins are toxins produced by fungi and found in foods and feeds, and exposure causes negative health effects in humans and animals. When lactating animals consume aflatoxin B1, the metabolite (AFM1) is transferred to milk.Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to determine characteristics of smallholder dairy farming in urban and peri-urban areas of Kisumu and quantify AFM1 in milk. Data was collected from 97 randomly selected dairy farms on farming practices, milk production, and awareness about aflatoxins. Collected milk samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for AFM1.Results: Average milk produced was 13 liters per day per household and mainly used for household consumption and sold to neighbours. Farmers mainly fed cows on forage and concentrates (62.9%). Levels of AFM1 ranged from below the detection limit to 151 ppt, with a mean of 29.67 p...

  • 31.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tannerstedt, Jörgen
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nutrition och muskeluppbyggnad2007Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Senare års studier har gett oss en klarare bild av hur muskeluppbyggnaden stimuleras och regleras av styrketräning och nutrition. Mycket forskning kvarstår dock innan fullständiga rekommendationer kan ges. Vad som dock är klart är att de allmänna rekommendationerna som idag uppgår till 0.8 g protein • kg-1 kroppsvikt • dag-1 i de flesta länder (Lemon, 2000) inte räcker till för fysiskt aktiva individer. Atletens ökade proteinbehov kan dock enkelt tillgodoses via ökat matintag varvid supplementering ur den aspekten inte är nödvändig.

    Vidare vet man att tillgängligheten och tillförseln av aminosyror runt träningen är avgörande för maximal stimulering av proteinsyntesen. Muskeln behöver tillgång till essentiella aminosyror när träningen påbörjas för maximal stimulering av proteinsyntesen. Huruvida aminosyrorna behöver tas i form av en dryck i kosttillskottsform eller kan intas i form av vanlig mat för att tillräckligt fort kunna förse muskeln med EAA är inte utrett.

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  • 32.
    Arama, Charles
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University of Sciences Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Mali.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    The path of malaria vaccine development: challenges and perspectives2014In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 275, no 5, p. 456-466Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites of the Plasmodium genus. In many parts of the world, the parasites have developed resistance to a number of antimalarial agents. Key interventions to control malaria include prompt and effective treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies, use of insecticidal nets by individuals at risk and active research into malaria vaccines. Protection against malaria through vaccination was demonstrated more than 30years ago when individuals were vaccinated via repeated bites by Plasmodium falciparum-infected and irradiated but still metabolically active mosquitoes. However, vaccination with high doses of irradiated sporozoites injected into humans has long been considered impractical. Yet, following recent success using whole-organism vaccines, the approach has received renewed interest; it was recently reported that repeated injections of irradiated sporozoites increased protection in 80 vaccinated individuals. Other approaches include subunit malaria vaccines, such as the current leading candidate RTS,S (consisting of fusion between a portion of the P.falciparum-derived circumsporozoite protein and the hepatitis B surface antigen), which has been demonstrated to induce reasonably good protection. Although results have been encouraging, the level of protection is generally considered to be too low to achieve eradication of malaria. There is great interest in developing new and better formulations and stable delivery systems to improve immunogenicity. In this review, we will discuss recent strategies to develop efficient malaria vaccines.

  • 33.
    Ardesjö-Lundgren, Brita
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Box 7023, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tengvall, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Karolinska Inst, Neuroimmunol Unit, Centrum Mol Med, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergvall, Kerstin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Box 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Farias, Fabiana H. G.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Wang, Liya
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Box 7011, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hedhammar, Åke
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Box 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, 415 Main St, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.
    Andersson, Göran
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Box 7023, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Comparison of cellular location and expression of Plakophilin-2 in epidermal cells from nonlesional atopic skin and healthy skin in German shepherd dogs2017In: Veterinary dermatology (Print), ISSN 0959-4493, E-ISSN 1365-3164, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 377-e88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is an inflammatory and pruritic allergic skin disease caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Previously, a genome‐wide significant risk locus on canine chromosome 27 for CAD was identified in German shepherd dogs (GSDs) and Plakophilin‐2 (PKP2) was defined as the top candidate gene. PKP2 constitutes a crucial component of desmosomes and also is important in signalling, metabolic and transcriptional activities.

    Objectives

    The main objective was to evaluate the role of PKP2 in CAD by investigating PKP2 expression and desmosome structure in nonlesional skin from CAD‐affected (carrying the top GWAS SNP risk allele) and healthy GSDs. We also aimed at defining the cell types in the skin that express PKP2 and its intracellular location.

    Animals/Methods

    Skin biopsies were collected from nine CAD‐affected and five control GSDs. The biopsies were frozen for immunofluorescence and fixed for electron microscopy immunolabelling and morphology.

    Results

    We observed the novel finding of PKP2 expression in dendritic cells and T cells in dog skin. Moreover, we detected that PKP2 was more evenly expressed within keratinocytes compared to its desmosomal binding‐partner plakoglobin. PKP2 protein was located in the nucleus and on keratin filaments attached to desmosomes. No difference in PKP2 abundance between CAD cases and controls was observed.

    Conclusion

    Plakophilin‐2 protein in dog skin is expressed in both epithelial and immune cells; based on its subcellular location its functional role is implicated in both nuclear and structural processes.

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  • 34.
    Arneson, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Att motverka dehydrering hos äldre i teori och praktik2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To identify similarities and differences in methods and aids used to prevent dehydraton in the elderly as identified from the scientific literature and from interviews with caretakers.

    Method: Literature studies was performed through the University Library search service ”OneSearch” and further from references in key papers. Three interviews were conducted on nursing assistants in two retirement homes and home care services, to offer some insight into the practical activities.

    Results : The following factors were identified as important in both literature and interviews: (1) knowledge of the elderly through documentation, (2) adapted approach when serving drinks after the elderly person's preferences and condition, (3) a homely environment with social interactions, (4) assessments of fluid intake, fluid balance and risk factors through attention, fluid registration and with the help of several other professional groups, and given the history of the elderly, (5) reminders for dementia and a accessibility of large amount of easily absorbed beverages consumed gradually during diarrhea and vomiting, (6) easy-to-use and specially designed drinking aids. For the following factors differences were obeserved between literature survey and interviews: (1) education for caregivers; limited to the investigated sites, (2) technical aids and swallowing therapy (dietary modifications, adapted head positions, swallowing training) in dysphagia; diet modification is used at the investigated sites (3) the importance of cup and jug colours; blue cups used in practice, no support in literature.

    Conclusions: Differences were found in terms of education and the use of swallowing therapy, assistive technology and infusions. Education, more frequent fluid registration and a complete swallowing therapy are improvement opportunites, some of them requires extra resources and/or clear guidelines. Acceptance of technical aids is not self-evident. Investigation of the effect of cup color and design that can encourage the elderly to drink could potentially be a way forward. The results of the interviews are not generalizable because they only aimed to give an insight into the practical activities. Most of the strategies that have been identified are "soft" in nature. It is difficult to get a clear picture of the efficiency of different methods. Methods that have been evaluated with good results in dysphagia and therefore offer potential to improve liquid intake, are swallowing therapy and stimulation of swallowing musculature.

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  • 35.
    Arnison, Tor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Schrooten, Martien G. S.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Jonas
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Longitudinal, bidirectional relationships of insomnia symptoms and musculoskeletal pain across adolescence: the mediating role of mood2022In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 163, no 2, p. 287-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have established a bidirectional relationship between sleep and pain, and mood has been proposed as a mediator of this relationship. There are only a limited number of longitudinal studies examining the mediational role of mood, and the directionality of effects between sleep, pain and mood is uncertain. Also, and despite the high prevalence of pain and sleep problems during adolescence, these relationships have rarely been examined in a longitudinal sample of adolescents. Here, longitudinal survey data with five yearly measurements was used to examine the bidirectional relationship between insomnia symptoms and pain across adolescence (Mbaseline age = 13.65 years, Nbaseline = 2766). We also explored if depressed mood, positive affect and anxious mood function as mediators in both directions of the sleep-pain relationship. Utilizing latent variables for insomnia, pain and mood at multiple time-points, the data was analyzed with cross-lagged panel models for longitudinal data with structural equation modeling. Current results confirmed a bidirectional relationship between insomnia symptoms and pain, where the effect of insomnia symptoms on pain was stronger than vice versa. Depressed mood and anxious mood mediated the effect of insomnia symptoms on pain, but not the reverse effect of pain on insomnia symptoms. Positive affect did not serve as a mediator in either direction. These findings add novel insights into the temporal directionality of sleep, pain and mood during adolescence, suggesting a temporal path from sleep to pain, via mood, rather than a reciprocal relationship between the constructs.

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    Longitudinal, bidirectional relationships of insomnia symptoms and musculoskeletal pain across adolescence: the mediating role of mood
  • 36.
    Arvidsson, D.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Clin Nutr, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Slinde, Frode
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Larsson, S.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Internal Med Respirat Med & Allergology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hulthén, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Clin Nutr, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Energy cost of physical activities in children: Validation of SenseWear Armband2007In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 39, no 11, p. 2076-2084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine the validity of SenseWear Pro2 Armband in assessing energy cost of physical activities in children, and to contribute with values of energy costs in an overview of physical activities in children. METHODS: Energy cost was assessed by SenseWear Pro2 Armband in 20 healthy children, 11-13 yr, while lying down resting, sitting playing games on mobile phone, stepping up and down on a step board, bicycling on a stationary bike, jumping on a trampoline, playing basketball, and walking/running on a treadmill at the speeds 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 km x h(-1). During these activities, energy cost was also assessed from VO2 and VCO2 measured by Oxycon Mobile portable metabolic system, which was used as criterion method. RESULTS: The difference in energy cost between SenseWear Pro2 Armband and Oxycon Mobile was -0.7 (0.5) (P < 0.001) for resting, -2.0 (0.9) (P < 0.001) for playing games on mobile phone, -6.6 (2.3) (P < 0.001) for stepping on the step board, -12.0 (3.7) (P < 0.001) for bicycling, -2.7 (11.9) (P = 0.34) for jumping on the trampoline, and -14.8 (6.4) kJ x min(-1) (P < 0.001) for playing basketball. The difference in energy cost between SenseWear Pro2 Armband and Oxycon Mobile for increasing treadmill speed was 1.3 (3.1) (P = 0.048), 0.1 (2.9) (P = 0.82), -1.2 (2.6) (P = 0.049), -1.6 (3.2) (P = 0.044), -3.1 (3.7) (P = 0.0013), -4.9 (3.7) (P < 0.001), -5.3 (3.7) (P < 0.001), and -11.1 (3.5) kJ x min(-1) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SenseWear Pro2 Armband underestimated energy cost of most activities in this study, an underestimation that increased with increased physical activity intensity. A table of energy costs (MET values) of physical activities in children measured by indirect calorimetry is presented as an initiation of the creation of a compendium of physical activities in children

  • 37. Asan, Noor Badariah
    et al.
    Velander, Jacob
    Redzwan, Syaiful
    Augustine, Robin
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications, Menoufia University, Menouf, Egypt.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Blokhuis, Taco J.
    Reliability of the Fat Tissue Channel for Intra-body Microwave Communication2017In: 2017 IEEE Conference on Antenna Measurements & Applications (CAMA), IEEE , 2017, p. 310-313Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the human fat tissue has been proposed as a microwave channel for intra-body sensor applications. In this work, we assess how disturbances can prevent reliable microwave propagation through the fat channel. Perturbants of different sizes are considered. The simulation and experimental results show that efficient communication through the fat channel is possible even in the presence of perturbants such as embedded muscle layers and blood vessels. We show that the communication channel is not affected by perturbants that are smaller than 15 mm cube.

  • 38.
    Askar, Raad
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Fredriksson, Elin
    Manell, Elin
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Bondesson, Ulf
    Bate, Simon
    Olsén, Lena
    Hedenqvist, Patricia
    Bioavailability of subcutaneous and intramuscular administrated buprenorphine in New Zealand White rabbits2020In: BMC Veterinary Research, E-ISSN 1746-6148, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Buprenorphine is one of the most used analgesics for postoperative pain in rabbits. The recommended dose in rabbits (0.01–0.05 mg/kg) is the same for intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) administration, despite lack of pharmacokinetic data. Five male and five female New Zealand White rabbits (mean ± SD body weight 3.1 ± 0.3 kg) were administered 0.05 mg/kg buprenorphine by the IV, IM and SC routes and 0.1 mg/kg by the SC route, in a cross-over design with two-week wash-out periods between treatments. Blood was collected before, and up to 8 h post buprenorphine injection, for determination of serum levels by UPHLC-MS/MS.

    Results The area under the time concentration curve (AUC0-t) was lower after SC (398 ± 155 ng/mL/min) than IM (696 ± 168 ng/mL/min, p < 0.001) and IV (789 ± 189 ng/mL/min, p < 0.001) administration. The maximum serum concentration was lower after SC (2.2 ± 1.4 ng/mL) than after IM (11 ± 3.2 ng/mL) administration (p < 0.001). The bioavailability was lower after SC (50 ± 19%) than after IM (95 ± 21%) administration (p = 0.006). The elimination half-life was longer after SC (260 ± 120 min) than after IM (148 ± 26 min, p = 0.002) as well as IV (139 ± 33 min) injection (p < 0.001). An increase in the SC dose from 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg resulted in an increase in the area under the time concentration curve of 50% in female (p = 0.022) and 165% in male rabbits (p < 0.001). The bioavailability did not change in the females (36 ± 14%, p = 0.6), whereas it increased in the males (71 ± 23%, p = 0.008).

    Conclusions The lower bioavailability of 0.05 mg/kg buprenorphine after SC administration could explain the lack of efficacy seen in clinical pain studies in rabbits, using this route. For immediate pain relief, IV or IM administration is therefore be recommended, whereas SC administration may be useful to sustain analgesic serum levels, once efficient pain relief has been achieved. The current data do not support an increase in dose to compensate for the lower SC bioavailability.

     

  • 39.
    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Seminal Influence on the Oviduct: Mating and/or semen components induce gene expression changes in the pre-ovulatory functional sperm reservoir in poultry and pigs2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal fertilization occurs in birds and eutherian mammals. Foetal development, however, is either extra- respectively intra-corpore (egg vs uterus). In these animal classes, the female genital tract stores ejaculated spermatozoa into a restricted oviductal segment; the functional pre-ovulatory sperm reservoir, where they survive until ovulation/s occur. Paradoxically, this immunologically foreign sperm suspension in seminal fluid/plasma, often microbiologically contaminated, ought to be promptly eliminated by the female local immune defence which, instead, tolerates its presence. The female immune tolerance is presumably signalled via a biochemical interplay of spermatozoa, as well as the peptides and proteins of the extracellular seminal fluid, with female epithelial and immune cells. Such interplay can result in gene expression shifts in the sperm reservoir in relation to variations in fertility. To further aid our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, this thesis studied the proteome of the seminal fluid (using 2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry) including cytokine content (using Luminex and/or ELISA) of healthy, sexually mature and fertile boars and cocks. As well, gene expression changes (using cDNA microarray) in the oviductal sperm reservoirs of sexually-mature females, mated or artificially infused with homologous sperm-free seminal fluid/plasma were studied. Pigs were of commercial, fertility-selected modern breeds (Landrace), while chicken belonged to the ancestor Red Junglefowl (RJF, low egg laying-capacity), a selected egg-layer White Leghorn (WL) and of their Advanced Intercross Line (AIL). Ejaculates were manually collected as single sample in cocks or as the sperm-rich fraction [SRF] and the post- SRF fraction in boars to harvest seminal fluid/plasma for proteome/cytokine and infusion-studies. Oviducts were retrieved for gene-expression analyses via microarray immediately post-mortem (chicken) or at surgery (pig), 24 h after mating or genital infusion. In pigs, the protein-rich seminal plasma showed the highest amounts of cytokines [interferon-γ, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10), macrophage derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22), growth-regulated oncogene (GRO/CXCL1), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1/ CCL2), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8/CXCL8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-3) in the larger, protein-rich and sperm-poor post-SRF, indicating its main immune signalling influence. Chicken showed also a plethora of seminal fluid proteins with serum albumin and ovotransferrin being conserved through selection/evolution. However, they showed fewer cytokines than pigs, as the anti-inflammatory/immune-modulatory TGF-β2 or the pro-inflammatory CXCL10. The RJF contained fewer immune system process proteins and lacked TGF-β2 compared to WL and AIL, suggesting selection for increased fertility could be associated with higher expression of immune-regulating peptides/proteins. The oviductal sperm reservoir reacted in vivo to semen exposure. In chicken, mating significantly changed the expression of immune-modulatory and pH-regulatory genes in AIL. Moreover, modern fertile pigs (Landrace) and chicken (WL), albeit being taxonomically distant, shared gene functions for preservation of viable sperm in the oviduct. Mating or SP/SF-infusion were able to change the expression of comparable genes involved in pH-regulation (SLC16A2, SLC4A9, SLC13A1, SLC35F1, ATP8B3, ATP13A3) or immune-modulation (IFIT5, IFI16, MMP27, ADAMTS3, MMP3, MMP12). The results of the thesis demonstrate that both mating and components of the sperm-free seminal fluid/plasma elicit gene expression changes in the pre-ovulatory female sperm reservoir of chickens and pigs, some conserved over domestication and fertility-selection.

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  • 40.
    Auckburally, Adam
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wiklund, Maja K.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lord, Peter F.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Hedenstierna laboratory.
    Nyman, Gorel
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Effects of pulsed inhaled nitric oxide delivery on the distribution of pulmonary perfusion in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated anesthetized ponies2022In: American Journal of Veterinary Research, ISSN 0002-9645, E-ISSN 1943-5681, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 171-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To measure changes in pulmonary perfusion during pulsed inhaled nitric oxide (PiNO) delivery in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated ponies positioned in dorsal recumbency.

    Animals: 6 adult ponies.

    Procedures: Ponies were anesthetized, positioned in dorsal recumbency in a CT gantry, and allowed to breathe spontaneously. Pulmonary artery, right atrial, and facial artery catheters were placed. Analysis time points were baseline, after 30 minutes of PiNO, and 30 minutes after discontinuation of PiNO. At each time point, iodinated contrast medium was injected, and CT angiography was used to measure pulmonary perfusion. Thermodilution was used to measure cardiac output, and arterial and mixed venous blood samples were collected simultaneously and analyzed. Analyses were repeated while ponies were mechanically ventilated.

    Results: During PiNO delivery, perfusion to aerated lung regions increased, perfusion to atelectatic lung regions decreased, arterial partial pressure of oxygen increased, and venous admixture and the alveolar-arterial difference in partial pressure of oxygen decreased. Changes in regional perfusion during PiNO delivery were more pronounced when ponies were spontaneously breathing than when they were mechanically ventilated.

    Clinical relevance: In anesthetized, dorsally recumbent ponies, PiNO delivery resulted in redistribution of pulmonary perfusion from dependent, atelectatic lung regions to nondependent aerated lung regions, leading to improvements in oxygenation. PiNO may offer a treatment option for impaired oxygenation induced by recumbency.

  • 41.
    Avall Lundqvist, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordström, L
    Sjövall, K
    Eneroth, P
    Evaluation of seven different tumour markers for the establishment of tumour marker panels in gynecologic malignancies.1989In: European journal of gynaecological oncology, ISSN 0392-2936, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 395-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven tumour markers, i.e. squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), neopterin, C-reactive protein (CRP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and deoxythymidine kinase (TK) were analysed in sera from 104 women with benign and 61 women with malignant gynecologic diseases, in order to create tumour marker panels for various gynecologic malignancies, for monitoring and prediction of disease development. The incidence of elevated tumour marker levels, in cervical carcinoma was 78% when SCC, CA 125 and CEA were used. In ovarian carcinoma one of the markers CA 125, TPA and CEA was elevated in 91% and for endometrial carcinoma the best combination of markers was SCC, CA 125 and CEA (57%). No individual marker was superior to the above combinations. However, in patients with a fatal outcome of their malignant gynecologic disease (mean survival time from serum sampling was 16 months), the incidence of death was highest among those who had TPA elevated (91%) followed by neopterin (86%) and CRP (76%). Although intercurrent diseases affected tumour marker levels the markers picked up a majority of patients with a poor prognosis. This demonstrates the importance of interpreting tumour marker results against a background of detailed clinical information.

  • 42.
    Babena, Omar
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Expression of the chloride channel CLCC1 is downregulated after 24 hours in LPS-primed THP-1 monocyte-like cell line2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammation is the body's response to infection or injury and is mediated by the innate immune system. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multi-protein complex that is a major contributor to many inflammatory disorders. Emerging evidence suggests the involvement of the Endoplasmic reticulum stress with the NLRP3 inflammasome. The endoplasmic reticulum stress is a series of stress signals that can activate the unfolded protein response and usually accompanies inflammation and eventually causes cell death. Recently, a localized endoplasmic reticulum micro-protein called the chloride clic like-1 channel was found to be involved in the endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the inflammation pathways of the NLRP3 inflammasome. The relationship between the ER and the NLRP3 inflammasome has not been clearly described. This study aimed at investigating the expression levels of the microprotein CLCC1 to shed a light on the relationship between the endoplasmic reticulum stress and the NLRP3 inflammasome. The expression levels of CLCC1 were analyzed by qPCR in cultured monocytes under different time points of Lipopolysachaaride immuno-stimulation. The stability of expression in candidate reference genes was investigated for normalization purposes. This study reported the regulation of CLCC1 as a novel finding under prolonged LPS exposure of monocytes and stable reference genes such as GUSB and ACTB were identified. The relationship between CLCC1 and NLRP3 inflammasome priming by LPS indicated that CLCC1 is regulated and may be involved in the inflammatory mechanisms of endoplasmic reticulum stress and NLRP3 inflammasome inflammatory diseases, contributing to a potential therapeutic target in the endoplasmic reticulum and inflammasome related diseases.

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  • 43.
    Backlund, Kristina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    microRNA-200 Family Expression Level Changes in Stimulated THP-1 Cells Following NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Innate immunity is the immune systems rapid responses to infection after being attacked by a pathogen. Inflammatory responses are activated by the detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and danger-associated molecular patterns through pattern recognition receptors on inflammatory cells. NLRs are activated by intracellular PAMPs which warn cells of damage and have a major role in initiating the innate inflammatory responses as well as the development of infectious and inflammatory diseases. NLRP3 is a very large multiprotein complex and is the most studied inflammasome. The NLRP3 Inflammasome follows a two-signal model for activation, signal one forms the NLRP3 complex and signal two activates the inflammasome. NLRP3 initiates an inflammatory form of cell death called pyroptosis and triggers the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. The miR-200 family has five members, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-429 located on chromosome 1 and miR-200c and miR-141 located on chromosome 12. In this study, THP-1 cells were differentiated with PMA then stimulated with LPS and ATP. Various time samples were collected and isolated to obtain miRNA. Two-step RT-qPCR was then performed to quantitively monitor the changes in miRNA-200 family expression levels. The purpose of this study was to observe how miRNA-200 family expression levels change in stimulated THP-1 cells as the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated. This became a pilot study as all biological replicates could not be analyzed, miR-200 family is showing a potential response to the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and they should be investigated further.

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  • 44.
    Bailey, Leslie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Infection biology of Chlamydia pneumoniae2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two main human pathogens in the family of Chlamydiaceae. Different serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis cause sexually-transmitted disease and eye infections whereas C. pneumoniae (TWAR) is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory infection. Chlamydia species are obligate, intracellular bacteria sharing a unique developmental cycle that occurs within a protected vacuole termed an inclusion. These microorganisms can be distinguished by two different forms: the infectious, metabolically inert elementary body (EB) and the reproducing non-infectious form, termed the reticulate body (RB). The cycle is terminated when re-differentiation of RBs back to infectious EBs occurs. Chlamydia possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS) essential for delivery of effector proteins into the host for host-cell interactions. This virulence system has been systematically characterized in several mammalian pathogens. Due to lack of a tractable genetic system for Chlamydia species, we have employed chemical genetics as a strategy to investigate molecular aspects of the T3SS. We have identified that the T3S-inhibitors INP0010 and INP0400 block the developmental cycle and interfere with secretion of T3S effector proteins in C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis, without any cytotoxic effect. We have further shown that INP0010 decreases initiation of transcription in C. pneumoniae during the early mid-developmental cycle as demonstrated by a novel calculation, useful for measurement of transcription initiation in any intracellular pathogen. The mechanism regulating the signal(s) for primary as well as terminal differentiation of RBs has not been defined in Chlamydia. We show using T3S-inhibitors that INP0010 targets the T3SS and thereby arrests RB proliferation as well as RB to EB re-differentiation of C. pneumoniae as where INP0400 targets the T3SS and provokes a bacterial dissociation from the inclusion membrane presumed to mimic the natural occurrence of terminal differentiation. The effect of INP0010 on iron-responsive genes indicates a role for T3S in iron acquisition. Accordingly, our results suggest the possibility that C. pneumoniae acquires iron via the intracellular trafficking pathway of endocytosed transferrin. Moreover, we have for the first time presented data showing generalized bone loss from C. pneumoniae infection in mice. The infection was associated with increased levels of the bone resorptive cytokines IL-6 and IL-1beta. In addition, an increased sub-population of T-cells expressed RANKL during infection. Additionally, C. pneumoniae established an infection in a human osteoblast cell line in vitro with a similar cytokine profile as seen in vivo, supporting a causal linkage. Collectively, these data may indicate a previously unknown pathological role of C. pneumoniae in generalized bone loss.

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  • 45.
    Bani Hassan, Ebrahim
    et al.
    Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, School of the University of Melbourne, Australia; Department of Medicine, Western Precinct and Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS), Melbourne, Australia.
    Moshaverinia, Ali
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Sheedfar, Fareeba
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    McCowan, Christina
    Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, School of the University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Bazargani, Taghi T.
    Veterinary Faculty of the University of Tehran, Iran.
    Hosseinzadeh, Ava
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Saghafi, Ramin
    University of Applied Science and Technology, Mollasadra, Yazd, Iran.
    Ashrafihelan, Javad
    Veterinary Faculty of Tabriz University, Iran.
    Beveridge, Ian
    Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, School of the University of Melbourne, Australia.
    A report of the unusual lesions caused by Thelazia gulosa in cattle2017In: Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports, E-ISSN 2405-9390, Vol. 7, p. 62-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case report of unusual lesions caused by Thelazia gulosa in cattle. After several ineffective treatments of suspected infectious keratoconjunctivitis in calves and cows, T. gulosa was found associated with retrobulbar granuloma-like masses. The masses with multiple digit-like protrusions on conjunctival surface ejected multiple worms on firm pressure on clinical examination. Samples of tissues that contained worms were surgically removed, fixed in ethanol and submitted to the parasitology and histopathology labs for morphological identification of worms and the nature of the tissue masses, respectively. The infestation was present only in young calves (< 3 months) and high-producing cows. Histopathology showed fibrovascular granulation tissue, containing a moderate to marked inflammatory infiltrate. Ivermectin treatment (200 μg/kg, SC, once) with and without surgical excision resolved the infestation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of tissue invasion by T. gulosa.

  • 46.
    Bansal, Divya
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Adipocytes from SERCA2 knockout mice exhibit a dysregulation in the secretion of adiponectin and resistin2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity leading to Type-2-diabetes is a major health issue all over the world. Obesity characterized by expansion of adipose tissue, in particular white adipose tissue (WAT) which controls the metabolic physiology in the body by secreting proteins like adiponectin and resistin. Adiponectin has a protective role against diabetes development whereas resistin causes insulin resistance. Protein folding, maturation and translocation is performed by the Endoplasmic reticulum using calcium ions. The calcium homeostasis is maintained by calcium pumps and channels, chief of this is sarco-/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) Ca2+ ATPase pump (SERCA) which restores calcium back to the ER. To study the effect of SERCA2 on adiponectin and resistin secretion in different adipose tissue depots using an adipocyte specific tamoxifen-inducible SERCA2 Knock-out mice, short term secretion experiments were performed. Chemical inhibition of SERCA2 and ER stress was performed in in-vitro experiments using adipocyte like 3T3-L1 cell line. The experiments revealed that SERCA2 dysfunction led to decrease in adiponectin and resistin secretion in normal and stimulant conditions in both male and female mice. In-vitro experiments revealed that ER stress led to misfolded protein accumulation affecting exocytotic events of adiponectin containing vesicles. Therapeutic agents can be formulated to tackle the SERCA2 dysfunction and to maintain calcium homeostasis by identifying these key mechanisms for diabetes and related metabolic disorders.

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  • 47.
    Bansal, Ruby
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.
    Tighe, Daniel
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.
    Danai, Amin
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.
    Rawn, Dorothea F. K.
    Health Canada, Health Products and Food Branch, Ottawa, Canada.
    Gaertner, Dean W.
    Health Canada, Health Products and Food Branch, Ottawa, Canada.
    Arnold, Doug L.
    Health Canada, Health Products and Food Branch, Ottawa, Canada.
    Gilbert, Mary E.
    Toxicity Assessment Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, USA.
    Zoeller, R. Thomas
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA; Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (DE-71) interferes with thyroid hormone action independent of effects on circulating levels of thyroid hormone in male rats2014In: Endocrinology, ISSN 0013-7227, E-ISSN 1945-7170, Vol. 155, no 10, p. 4104-4112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological studies is that PBDE effects on serum TH levels will reflect PBDE effects on TH action in tissues. To test whether this assumption is correct, we performed the following experiments. First, five concentrations of diphenyl ether (0-30 mg/kg) were fed daily to pregnant rats to postnatal day 21. PBDEs were measured in dam liver and heart to estimate internal dose. The results were compared with a separate study in which four concentrations of propylthiouracil (PTU; 0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm) was provided to pregnant rats in drinking water for the same duration as for diphenyl ether. PBDE exposure reduced serum T4 similar in magnitude to PTU, but serum TSH was not elevated by PBDE. PBDE treatment did not affect the expression of TH response genes in the liver or heart as did PTU treatment. PTU treatment reduced T4 in liver and heart, but PBDE treatment reduced T4 only in the heart. Tissue PBDEs were in the micrograms per gram lipid range, only slightly higher than observed in human fetal tissues. Thus, PBDE exposure reduces serum T4 but does not produce effects on tissues typical of low TH produced by PTU, demonstrating that the effects of chemical exposure on serum T4 levels may not always be a faithful proxy measure of chemical effects on the ability of thyroid hormone to regulate development and adult physiology.

  • 48.
    Bansal, Vanisha
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Blood interactions with bioactive peptidefunctionalized nanocellulose: An evaluation of the activation of the coagulation and complement system2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A current trend utilizing the biomedical approach in the field of wound care is focused on the increased potential to develop wound healing materials designed to address specific types of wounds or underlying pathologies to achieve improved healing. The work presented in this thesis evaluates the blood response to wood-derived nanocellulose functionalized with a peptide, with the ultimate aim of characterizing the material as a potential wound dressing for chronic wound care. The material was evaluated based on the response toward the innate immune system. These interactions between the material and blood were studied using an in vitro whole blood loop model, and then, the coagulation and complement system activation markers were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The platelet count and the levels of the thrombin-antithrombin complex reported for the material showed no activation of the coagulation cascade whereas there was an activation caused in the complement system showing higher levels of C3a and s-C5b9 components as compared to the controls. The observations obtained from this interdisciplinary project can be considered as a stepping stone toward the need for further analysis of the material in advanced wound care applications. This can be achieved by targeting the specific phases of the wound healing process in order to promote effective wound management. 

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  • 49.
    Barranco, Isabel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain; University of Girona, Girona, Spain.
    Padilla, Lorena
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Martinez-Serrano, Cristina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Parrilla, Inmaculada
    University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Lucas, Xiomara
    University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Ferreira-Dias, Graça
    University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Yeste, Marc
    University of Girona, Girona, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roca, Jordi
    University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Seminal Plasma Modulates miRNA Expression by Sow Genital Tract Lining Explants2020In: Biomolecules, E-ISSN 2218-273X, Vol. 10, no 6, article id E933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The seminal plasma (SP) modulates the female reproductive immune environment after mating, and microRNAs (miRNAs) could participate in the process. Considering that the boar ejaculate is built by fractions differing in SP-composition, this study evaluated whether exposure of mucosal explants of the sow internal genital tract (uterus, utero-tubal junction and isthmus) to different SP-fractions changed the profile of explant-secreted miRNAs. Mucosal explants retrieved from oestrus sows (n = 3) were in vitro exposed to: Medium 199 (M199, Control) or M199 supplemented (1:40 v/v) with SP from the sperm-rich fraction (SRF), the post-SRF or the entire recomposed ejaculate, for 16 h. After, the explants were cultured in M199 for 24 h to finally collect the media for miRNA analyses using GeneChip miRNA 4.0 Array (Affymetrix). Fifteen differentially expressed (False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05 and Fold-change ≥ 2) miRNAs (11 down- versus 4 up-regulated) were identified (the most in the media of uterine explants incubated with SP from post-SRF). Bioinformatics analysis identified that predicted target genes of dysregulated miRNAs, mainly miR-34b, miR-205, miR-4776-3p and miR-574-5p, were involved in functions and pathways related to immune response. In conclusion, SP is able to elicit changes in the miRNAs profile secreted by female genital tract, ultimately depending SP-composition.

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  • 50.
    Barranco, Isabel
    et al.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Roca, Jordi
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Rubér, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Vicente Carrillo, Alejandro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ceron, Jose J.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Martinez, Emilio A.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Measurement of Activity and Concentration of Paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) in Seminal Plasma and Identification of PON-2 in the Sperm of Boar Ejaculates2015In: Molecular Reproduction and Development, ISSN 1040-452X, E-ISSN 1098-2795, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 58-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study revealed and characterised the presence of the antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase (PON) type 1 (PON-1, extracellular) and type 2 (PON-2, intracellular) in boar semen. To evaluate PON-1, an entire ejaculate from each of ten boars was collected and the seminal plasma was harvested after double centrifugation (1,500g for 10min). Seminal plasma was analysed for concentration as well as enzymatic activity of PON-1 and total cholesterol levels. Seminal-plasma PON-1 concentration ranged from 0.961 to 1.670ng/ml while its enzymatic activity ranged from 0.056 to 0.400 IU/ml, which represent individual variance. Seminal-plasma PON-1 concentration and enzymatic activity were negatively correlated (r=-0.763; Pless than0.01). The activity of seminal-plasma PON-1 negatively correlated with ejaculate volume (r=-0.726, Pless than0.05), but positively correlated with sperm concentration (r=0.654, Pless than0.05). Total seminal-plasma cholesterol concentration positively correlated with PON-1 activity (r=0.773; Pless than0.01), but negatively correlated with PON-1 concentration (r=-0.709; Pless than0.05). The presence of intracellular PON-2 was determined via immunocytochemistry in spermatozoa derived from artificial insemination. PON-2 localised to the post-acrosomal area of the sperm head and principal piece of the tail in membrane-intact spermatozoa. In summary, PON is present in boar semen, with PON-1 at low levels in seminal plasma and PON-2 within the spermatozoa. Further studies are needed to characterise the relationship between antioxidant PONs with sperm and other seminal-plasma parameters. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82: 58-65, 2015. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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