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  • 1. Aanesen, Arthur
    et al.
    Westerbotn, Margareta
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Prospective study of a Swedish infertile cohort 2005-08: population characteristics, treatments and pregnancy rates2014In: Family Practice, ISSN 0263-2136, E-ISSN 1460-2229, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 290-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We here report on results from a prospective study comprising 380 infertile couples undergoing infertility work-up and various treatments for infertility in our clinic. The aim was to investigate the overall birth rate as a result of different treatments, as well as spontaneous pregnancies.

    METHODS: Three hundred and eighty couples were consecutively included between December 2005 and May 2008. All couples underwent a fertility work-up, including hysterosalpingogram, hormonal characterization, clinical examination, screening for infectious diseases and semen analysis. The mean age of the women at the time of inclusion was 33.2 years. The mean duration of infertility prior to inclusion was 1.8 years. And 46.6% (n = 177) of the women had been pregnant prior to their first visit to the clinic and 30.0% (n = 114) had been pregnant earlier in their present relationship.

    RESULTS: As of November 2010, 57.3% (n = 218) of the women had given birth to a child when they were lost to follow up by the study. Spontaneous conception was observed in 11.3% (n = 43) of the women, 14.5% (n = 64) conceived after intrauterine insemination (IUI), 4.2% (n = 16) conceived after ovarian hyperstimulation and ovulation induction (OH/OI) and 28.4% (n = 113) after in vitro fertilization. There were 280 pregnancies and 58 spontaneous abortions (22.3%) in the group. Mean anti-mullerian hormone significantly correlated with antral follicle count and age and was significantly higher in the subgroup that became pregnant after IUI.

    CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous pregnancies and IUI + OH/OI contributed significantly to the pregnancies observed in the total population. Predictive factors for pregnancy were anti-mullerian hormone in the group undergoing IUI treatment and in the age group ≥38-duration of infertility. Previous pregnancies, body mass index, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone or having given birth prior to the infertility period were not predictive of pregnancy for the infertile couples in this study.

  • 2.
    Aarnio, Pauliina
    et al.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci Global Hlth & Dev, Kalevantie 4, FI-33014 Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Med Sch, Dept Int Hlth, Tampere, Finland.
    Kulmala, Teija
    Univ Tampere, Med Sch, Child Hlth Res Unit, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Med Sch, Dept Int Hlth, Tampere, Finland.
    Olsson, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Husband's role in handling pregnancy complications in Mangochi District, Malawi: A call for increased focus on community level male involvement2018In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 16, p. 61-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the current study is to provide information about husbands' role in decision-making and healthcare seeking in cases of pregnancy complications in Mangochi district, Malawi with an analysis of qualitative interviews using the concepts of "capital" and "field" from Bourdieu's social field theory. Study design: Twelve husbands and wives who had experienced pregnancy complications and six key informants from a semi-rural area of Mangochi district were interviewed individually. Thematic analysis was conducted based on the concepts of capital and field in Bourdieu's social field theory. Results: Husbands have significant economic and symbolic capital in decisions about healthcare seeking during instances of pregnancy complications as a result of their roles as father, head of the household and main income earner. Lack of money is the only acceptable reason for husbands to deny their wives healthcare. Husbands have limited access to knowledge of maternal health, which can compromise their decisions about seeking healthcare. Joint decision-making within families can be bypassed to allow for prompt healthcare seeking in emergencies. Conclusions: Husbands are important decision makers regarding seeking healthcare for pregnancy complications because of their economic and symbolic power and despite their limited access to knowledge of maternal health. Maternal healthcare seeking practices would benefit from wives gaining an empowered role as well as improved knowledge of maternal health among husbands.

  • 3.
    Aarnio, Riina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Self-sampling for HPV testing in primary cervical screening: Including clinical and health economic aspects2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a prerequisite for the development of cervical cancer. HPV testing has higher sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) than cytology, resulting in more effective screening. As HPV testing also offers an opportunity for self-sampling, it could serve as an even more effective and cost-effective method of cervical screening.

    First, we compared repeated self-sampling for HPV testing with Pap smear cytology in detection of CIN2+ in primary cervical screening for women aged 30–49 years (n=36 390). We found a more than twofold higher detection rate of CIN2+ and a fourfold higher detection rate of CIN2 with self-sampling compared with cytology. However, no difference was seen between the arms in the detection rate of CIN3+. It thus seems that CIN is detected at an earlier stage with self-sampling than with cytology, but the impact of this needs to be further explored.

    Second, as management of HPV-positive women with normal cytology results is a challenge, we wanted to evaluate the proportion of cases of histological CIN2+ in these women. In this prospective study we performed LEEP and found that 15% (6/40) of the women had undetected CIN2+. These findings can be used in counseling women about the risk of cervical cancer and helping clinicians in decisions on management.

    Third, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis on the same study population as in Study I. Self-sampling for HPV testing resulted in a higher participation rate and more detected cases of CIN2+ at a lower cost and was regarded as more cost-effective than Pap smear cytology in cervical screening. These results can guide policy-makers when planning future screening programs.

    Fourth, we compared self-sampling with sampling by medical professionals for HPV testing in detection of CIN2+, using a combination of an FTA card as storage medium and a PCR-based HPV test (hpVIR) in women aged 30–60 years (n=11 951). No difference in the detection rates of histological CIN2+ was found between the arms.

    Taken together, self-sampling resulted in a higher participation rate than sampling by medical professionals in cervical screening and that triage with repeated self-sampling resulted in high compliance and detection rate of CIN2+. As repeated self-sampling for HPV testing was also cost-effective, it could serve as an attractive alternative in the development of future cervical screening programs. More research is needed on how to refine the management of HPV-positive women by self-sampling only.

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  • 4.
    Aarnio, Riina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Isacson, Isabella
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Sanner, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Gustavsson, Inger M.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Comparison of vaginal self-sampling and cervical sampling by medical professionals for the detection of HPV and CIN2+: a randomized study2021In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 148, no 12, p. 3051-3059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) test is more effective in reducing cervical cancer incidence than cytology and it also offers the opportunity to self-sample. We conducted a randomized study to compare vaginal self-sampling with cervical sampling by medical professionals for HPV testing concerning prevalence of HPV and detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) or grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in primary screening. In total, 11 951 women aged 30-60 years were randomized into two groups, 5961 for self-sampling (SS arm) and 5990 for sampling by medical professionals (SMP arm). Sampling was performed with a RoversViba-brush in the SS arm and a cytobrush in the SMP arm. All samples were applied to an indicating FTA elute card and analyzed for HPV using a clinically validated real-time PCR test (hpVIR). All HPV-positive women performed repeated sampling about 6 months later using the same procedure as used initially. All HPV-positive women in the second sampling were referred to colposcopy. The prevalence of HPV in the first test did not differ between the SS arm (6.8%, 167/2466) and the SMP arm (7.8%, 118/1519) (P = .255). The prevalence of CIN2+ per 1000 screened women was 17 (43/2466 × 1000) (95%CI 13-24) in the SS arm and 21 (32/1519 × 1000) (95%CI 15-30) in the SMP arm. For CIN3+, the prevalence per 1000 screened women was 14 (35/2466 × 1000) (95%CI 10-20) in the SS arm and 15 (23/1519 × 1000) (95%CI 10-23) in the SMP arm. In conclusion, self-sampling and sampling by medical professionals showed the same prevalence of HPV and detection rate of CIN2+ and CIN3+ in histology.

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  • 5.
    Aarnio, Riina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Wikström, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Gustavsson, Inger M.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Diagnostic excision of the cervix in women over 40 years with human papilloma virus persistency and normal cytology2019In: European journal of obstetrics & gynecology and reproductive biology: X, ISSN 2590-1613, Vol. 3, article id 100042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as the main risk factor of cervical cancer. Investigation via cytology and colposcopy have lower sensitivity than HPV testing in the diagnosis of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). Despite normal cytology and colposcopy findings women with persistent HPV infection have an increased risk of CIN2+. The aim of the study was to evaluate the proportion of histologically confirmed CIN2+ in women with persistent HPV infection and normal Pap smears.

    Study design: From April 2013 until March 2016 we prospectively recruited 91 women over 40 years with persistent HPV infection without any abnormalities in cytology. Of these, 40 women attended a gynecological examination including an HPV test, Pap smear, endocervical cytology, colposcopy with biopsies and diagnostic loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Biopsy and LEEP samples were subjected to histological examination.

    Results: CIN2+ was verified by histological examination of the LEEP sample in 6/40 (15%) of the women. All the cytological samples were normal and none of the biopsies confirmed CIN2+. Only 19/40 women still had a persistent HPV infection at the study visit. None of the 21/40 women who had cleared their HPV infection at the study visit had CIN2+ in histology of the LEEP sample.

    Conclusions: A persistent HPV infection needs to be monitored despite normal Pap smears, since 6/40 (15%) women older than 40 years, was revealed to have an undiagnosed CIN2+ when LEEP was performed. Counseling women regarding the risk of cervical cancer and the expected effect of an eventual LEEP can help them to make an optimal informed choice.

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  • 6.
    Aarnio, Riina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Östensson, Ellinor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Gustavsson, Inger M.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Cost-effectiveness analysis of repeated self-sampling for HPV testing in primary cervical screening: a randomized study2020In: BMC Cancer, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 645Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is recommended in primary cervical screening to improve cancer prevention. An advantage of HPV testing is that it can be performed on self-samples, which could increase population coverage and result in a more efficient strategy to identify women at risk of developing cervical cancer. Our objective was to assess whether repeated self-sampling for HPV testing is cost-effective in comparison with Pap smear cytology for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more (CIN2+) in increasing participation rate in primary cervical screening.

    Methods

    A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) was performed on data from a previously published randomized clinical study including 36 390 women aged 30–49 years. Participants were randomized either to perform repeated self-sampling of vaginal fluid for HPV testing (n = 17 997, HPV self-sampling arm) or to midwife-collected Pap smears for cytological analysis (n = 18 393, Pap smear arm).

    Results

    Self-sampling for HPV testing led to 1633 more screened women and 107 more histologically diagnosed CIN2+ at a lower cost vs. midwife-collected Pap smears (€ 228 642 vs. € 781 139). 

    Conclusions

    This study projected that repeated self-sampling for HPV testing increased participation and detection of CIN2+ at a lower cost than midwife-collected Pap smears in primary cervical screening. Offering women a home-based self-sampling may therefore be a more cost-effective alternative than clinic-based screening.

     

  • 7.
    Aarts, Clara
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Exclusive breastfeeding-Does it make a difference?: A longitudinal, prospective study of daily feeding practices, health and growth in a sample of Swedish infants2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of exclusive breastfeeding in relation to daily feeding practices and to health and growth of infants in an affluent society was examined. In a descriptive longitudinal prospective study 506 mother-infant pairs were followed from birth through the greater part of the first year. Feeding was recorded daily, and health and growth were recorded fortnightly.

    Large individual variations were seen in breastfeeding patterns. A wide discrepancy between the exclusive breastfeeding rates obtained from "current status" data and data "since birth" was found.

    Using a strict definition of exclusive breastfeeding from birth and taking into account the reasons for giving complementary feeding, the study showed that many exclusively breastfed infants had infections early in life, the incidence of which increased with age, despite continuation of exclusive breastfeeding. However, truly exclusively breastfed infants seem less likely to suffer infections than infants who receive formula in addition to breast milk. Increasing formula use was associated with an increasing likelihood of suffering respiratory illnesses. The growth of exclusively breastfed infants was similar to that of infants who were not exclusively breastfed.

    The health of newborn infants during the first year of life was associated with factors other than feeding practices alone. Some of these factors may be prenatal, since increasing birth weight was associated with an increasing likelihood of having respiratory symptoms, even in exclusively breastfed infants. However, exclusive breastfeeding was shown to be beneficial for the health of the infant even in an affluent society.

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  • 8.
    Abdalla, Mohammed Altigani
    et al.
    Academic Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Allam Diabetes Centre, The University of Hull, Hull York Medical School (HYMS), Hull, UK.
    Shah, Najeeb
    Academic Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Allam Diabetes Centre, The University of Hull, Hull York Medical School (HYMS), Hull, UK.
    Deshmukh, Harshal
    Academic Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Allam Diabetes Centre, The University of Hull, Hull York Medical School (HYMS), Hull, UK.
    Sahebkar, Amirhossein
    Biotechnology Research Centre, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Applied Biomedical Research Centre, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; School of Medicine, the University of Western Australia, Perth WA, Australia .
    Östlundh, Linda
    College of Medicine and Health Sciences, the National Medical Library, United Arab Emirates University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
    Al-Rifai, Rami H.
    College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institute of Public Health, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.
    Atkin, Stephen L.
    School of Postgraduate Studies and Research, RCSI Medical University of Bahrain, Busaiteen, Kingdom of Bahrain.
    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat
    Academic Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Allam Diabetes Centre, The University of Hull, Hull York Medical School (HYMS), Hull, UK.
    Impact of pharmacological interventions on biochemical hyperandrogenemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials2022In: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, ISSN 0932-0067, E-ISSN 1432-0711Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disease that affects women of reproductive age and is characterised by biochemical and clinical androgen excess.

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological interventions used to decrease androgen hormones in women with PCOS.

    Data source: We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane library and the Web of Science from inception up to March 2021. Data synthesis Two reviewers selected eligible studies and extracted data, and the review is reported according to the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA).

    Results: Of the 814 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) located in the search, 92 met the eligibility criteria. There were significant reductions in total testosterone level with metformin versus (vs) placebo (SMD: - 0.33; 95% CI - 0.49 to - 0.17, p < 0.0001, moderate grade evidence) and dexamethasone vs placebo (MD:-0.86 nmol/L; 95% CI - 1.34 to - 0.39, p = 0.0004, very low-grade evidence). Significant reductions in the free testosterone with sitagliptin vs placebo (SMD: - 0.47; 95% CI - 0.97 to 0.04, p = 0.07, very low-grade evidence), in dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) with flutamide vs finasteride (MD: - 0.37 mu g/dL; 95% CI - 0.05 to - 0.58, p = 0.02, very low-grade evidence), a significant reduction in androstenedione (A4) with rosiglitazone vs placebo (SMD: - 1.67; 95% CI - 2.27 to - 1.06; 59 participants, p < 0.00001, very low-grade evidence), and a significant increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with oral contraceptive pill (OCP) (35 mu g Ethinyl Estradiol (EE)/2 mg cyproterone acetate (CPA)) vs placebo (MD: 103.30 nmol/L; 95% CI 55.54-151.05, p < 0.0001, very low-grade evidence) were observed.

    Conclusion: Metformin, OCP, dexamethasone, flutamide, and rosiglitazone use were associated with a significant reduction in biochemical hyperandrogenemia in women with PCOS, though their individual use may be limited due to their side effects.

    PROSPERO registration No CRD42020178783.

  • 9.
    Abeid, Muzdalifat
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania.
    Muganyizi, Projestine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania.
    Mpembeni, Rose
    Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    A community-based intervention for improving health-seeking behavior among sexual violence survivors: A controlled before and after design study in rural Tanzania2015In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 8, article id 28608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite global recognition that sexual violence is a violation of human rights, evidence still shows it is a pervasive problem across all societies. Promising community intervention studies in the low- and middle-income countries are limited.

    Objective: This study assessed the impact of a community-based intervention, focusing on improving the community’s knowledge and reducing social acceptability of violence against women norms with the goal to prevent and respond to sexual violence.

    Design: The strategies used to create awareness included radio programs, information, education communication materials and advocacy meetings with local leaders. The intervention took place in Morogoro region in Tanzania. The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design including cross-sectional surveys at baseline (2012) and endline (2014) with men and women aged 18-49. Main outcome measures were number of reported rape cases at health facilities and the community’s knowledge and attitudes towards sexual violence.

    Results: The number of reported rape events increased by more than 50% at health facilities during the intervention. Knowledge on sexual violence increased significantly in both areas over the study period (from 57.3% to 80.6% in the intervention area and from 55.5% to 71.9% in the comparison area; p<.001), and the net effect of the intervention between the two areas was statistically significant (6.9, 95% CI 0.2–13.5, p= 0.03). There was significant improvement in most of attitude indicators in the intervention area, but not in the comparison area. However, the intervention had no significant effect in the overall scores of acceptance attitudes in the final assessment when comparing the two areas (-2.4, 95%CI: -8.4 – 3.6, p= 0.42).

    Conclusions: The intervention had an effect on some indicators on knowledge and attitudes towards sexual violence even after a short period of intervention. This finding informs the public health practitioners of the importance of combined strategies in achieving changes.

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  • 10.
    Abeid, Muzdalifat
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). MUHAS, Dept Obstet Gynecol, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Muganyizi, Projestine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). MUHAS, Dept Obstet Gynecol, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mpembeni, Rose
    MUHAS, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Publ Hlth & Gen Practice, Trondheim, Norway.
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Evaluation of a training program for health care workers to improve the quality of care for rape survivors: a quasi-experimental design study in Morogoro, Tanzania2016In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 9, article id 31735Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Sexual violence against women and children in Tanzania and globally is a human rights violation and a developmental challenge.

    OBJECTIVE:

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of training health professionals on rape management. The specific objectives were to evaluate the changes of knowledge and attitudes toward sexual violence among a selected population of health professionals at primary health care level.

    DESIGN:

    A quasi-experimental design using cross-sectional surveys was conducted to evaluate health care workers' knowledge, attitude, and clinical practice toward sexual violence before and after the training program. The study involved the Kilombero (intervention) and Ulanga (comparison) districts in Morogoro region. A total of 151 health professionals at baseline (2012) and 169 in the final assessment (2014) participated in the survey. Data were collected using the same structured questionnaire. The amount of change in key indicators from baseline to final assessment in the two areas was compared using composite scores in the pre- and post-interventions, and the net intervention effect was calculated by the difference in difference method.

    RESULTS:

    Overall, there was improved knowledge in the intervention district from 55% at baseline to 86% and a decreased knowledge from 58.5 to 36.2% in the comparison area with a net effect of 53.7% and a p-value less than 0.0001. The proportion of participants who exhibited an accepting attitude toward violence declined from 15.3 to 11.2% in the intervention area but increased from 13.2 to 20.0% in the comparison area.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Training on the management of sexual violence is feasible and the results indicate improvement in healthcare workers' knowledge and practice but not attitudes. Lessons learned from this study for successful replication of such an intervention in similar settings require commitment from those at strategic level within the health service to ensure that adequate resources are made available.

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  • 11.
    Abril, Jazmine
    et al.
    Univ Utah, Sch Med, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Trabert, Britton
    Huntsman Canc Inst Univ Utah, Huntsman Canc Inst, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, 2000 Circle Hope Dr Res South 4719, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Troisi, Rebecca
    NCI, NIH, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Bethesda, MD USA..
    Grotmol, Tom
    Canc Registry Norway, Oslo, Norway..
    Ekbom, Anders
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Clin Epidemiol Div, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Engeland, Anders
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Chron Dis, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway..
    Gissler, Mika
    THL Finnish Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Knowledge Brokers, Helsinki, Finland.;Acad Primary Hlth Care Ctr Reg Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Glimelius, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Cancer precision medicine. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Clin Epidemiol Div, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura
    Finnish Canc Registry, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Pediat, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki, Finland..
    Ording, Anne Gulbech
    Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki, Finland..
    Sorensen, Henrik Toft
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Clin Epidemiol, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Tretli, Steinar
    Canc Registry Norway, Oslo, Norway..
    Bjorge, Tone
    Canc Registry Norway, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway..
    Associations between pregnancy-related factors and birth characteristics with risk of rare uterine cancer subtypes: a Nordic population-based case-control study2024In: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 741-747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:  Uterine sarcomas are a rare group of uterine malignancies. Due to the low incidence and changes in uterine sarcoma classification, risk factors are not well characterized. Our objective was to evaluate risk factors for uterine sarcoma and compare risk factors between uterine sarcoma, malignant mixed Mullerian tumors (MMMTs), and type I endometrial carcinomas.

    Methods: This nested case-control study utilized linked data from population-based medical birth and cancer registries in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Up to 10 controls were matched on country and birth year for each uterine cancer case. Using multivariable adjusted multinomial logistic regression, estimates of the associations between pregnancy-related factors and risk of uterine sarcoma, MMMTs, and type I endometrial carcinomas were determined.

    Results: Having a very-low-birth-weight infant (< 1500 vs. 2500-3999 g: OR [95% CI] 2.83 [1.61-4.96]) was associated with an increased risk of uterine sarcoma. Whereas, having a more recent pregnancy was associated with reduced risks of MMMT (< 10 vs. >= 30 years: 0.66 [0.20-2.23]) and type 1 endometrial carcinomas (0.35 [0.30-0.41]) but not uterine sarcomas (1.33 [0.90-1.98], p-heterogeneity < 0.01).

    Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that risk factors for uterine sarcoma and MMMT, previously grouped with uterine sarcomas, vary substantially. Additionally, MMMT and type I endometrial carcinomas are more similar than uterine sarcoma in that pregnancy complications like gestational hypertension and preeclampsia were associated with reduced risks of both but not uterine sarcoma, suggesting different etiologies.

  • 12.
    Abujrais, Sandy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Ahnoff, Martin
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Carl Skottbergs gata 22B, SE-41319 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Rasmusson, Annica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical pharmacogenomics and osteoporosis.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Kultima, Kim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    A sensitive method detecting trace levels of levonorgestrel using LC-HRMS.2019In: Contraception, ISSN 0010-7824, E-ISSN 1879-0518, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 247-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) method to quantify levonorgestrel (LNG) in serum.

    STUDY DESIGN: Levonorgestrel was extracted using solid phase extraction and measured using liquid chromatography (LC) HRMS.

    RESULTS: Low limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 25pg/mL and low limit of detection (LLOD) was 12.5pg/mL. Precision and accuracy bias were<10%. LNG in serum samples from Mirena® users ranged between 37 to 219pg/mL (n=12). In eight out of 22 patients with suspected intrauterine device (IUD) expulsion LNG was detected (26 to 1272pg/mL).

    CONCLUSION: A sensitive, fast and simple LC-HRMS method was developed to detect trace levels of LNG.

  • 13.
    Abusabeib, Abdelrahman
    et al.
    Department of General Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
    Bhat, Harun
    Weill Cornell Medicine in Qatar, Doha, Qatar.
    El Ansari, Walid
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar / College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Al Hassan, Mohamed S.
    Department of General Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
    Abdelaal, Abdelrahman
    Department of General Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
    Right ectopic paraesophageal parathyroid adenoma with refractory hypercalcemia in pregnancy: A case report and review of the literature2020In: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports, E-ISSN 2210-2612, Vol. 77, p. 229-234Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Ectopic parathyroid adenoma is rare during pregnancy but poses multiple challenges in treatment. It presents as primary hyperparathyroidism which leads to symptoms and complications of hypercalcemia in both the mother and fetus. Presentation of case: A 38-year-old Sudanese female presented with diffuse bone pain and polyuria. Laboratory investigations revealed elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone. Ultrasound of the neck did not show any abnormal lesion, however 99mTc-sestamibi scan showed a right sided parathyroid adenoma, and an earlier CT scan showed the adenoma to be in an ectopic paraesophageal position. Focused surgical neck exploration was done, and the ectopic parathyroid adenoma was excised. Discussion: Preoperative localization of the ectopic parathyroid adenoma allows for a focused surgical procedure. Ultrasound is the safest during pregnancy, but 99mTc-sestamibi and CT scan may be necessary if ultrasound or initial bilateral neck exploration do not detect any adenoma. Mild elevations in maternal serum calcium can have detrimental effects on the fetus which suggests that a surgical approach may be necessary in the majority of cases. Conclusions: Ectopic parathyroid adenoma is rare during pregnancy and is detrimental to both the mother and fetus. Preoperative localization allows for a focused surgery which is a definitive treatment and can safely be performed during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. 

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  • 14.
    Adam, Sumaiya
    et al.
    Univ Pretoria, Fac Hlth Sci, Sch Med, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Pretoria, South Africa.;Univ Pretoria, Fac Hlth Sci, Diabet Res Ctr, Pretoria, South Africa..
    McIntyre, Harold David
    Univ Queensland, Mater Hlth, Mater Hlth Campus, South Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Tsoi, Kit Ying
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Dept Med & Therapeut, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Kapur, Anil
    World Diabet Fdn, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Ma, Ronald C.
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Dept Med & Therapeut, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.;Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong Inst Diabet & Obes, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Dias, Stephanie
    South African Med Res Council, Biomed Res & Innovat Platform BRIP, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Okong, Pius
    St Francis Hosp Nsambya, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Kampala, Uganda..
    Hod, Moshe
    Helen Schneider Hosp Women, Rabin Med Ctr, Petah Tiqwa, Israel.;Tel Aviv Univ, Sackler Fac Med, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Poon, Liona C.
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Prince Wales Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Smith, Graeme N.
    Queens Univ, Kingston Hlth Sci Ctr, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Kingston, ON, Canada..
    Bergman, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Clinical Obstetrics. Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Gothenburg, Sweden; Stellenbosch Univ, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Algurjia, Esraa
    World Assoc Trainees Obstet & Gynecol WATOG, Paris, France.;Elwya Matern Hosp, Baghdad, Iraq..
    O'Brien, Patrick
    UCL, Inst Womens Hlth, London, England..
    Medina, Virna P.
    Univ Valle, Univ Libre, Fac Hlth, Dept Obstet & Gynecol,Clin Imbanaco Quiron Salud, Cali, Colombia..
    Maxwell, Cynthia, V
    Univ Toronto, Maternal Fetal Med, Sinai Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Womens Coll Hosp, Ontario, ON, Canada..
    Regan, Lesley
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Rosser, Mary L.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Irving Med Ctr, New York, NY USA..
    Jacobsson, Bo
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Genet & Bioinformat, Domain Hlth Data & Digitalisat, Oslo, Norway..
    Hanson, Mark A.
    Univ Hosp Southampton, Inst Dev Sci, Southampton, Hants, England.;Univ Southampton, NIHR Southampton Biomed Res Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England..
    O'Reilly, Sharleen L.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Natl Matern Hosp, UCD Perinatal Res Ctr, Sch Med, Dublin, Ireland.;Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Agr & Food Sci, Dublin, Ireland..
    McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Natl Matern Hosp, UCD Perinatal Res Ctr, Sch Med, Dublin, Ireland..
    Pregnancy as an opportunity to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus: FIGO Best Practice Advice2023In: International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, ISSN 0020-7292, E-ISSN 1879-3479, Vol. 160, no S1, p. 56-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gestational diabetes (GDM) impacts approximately 17 million pregnancies worldwide. Women with a history of GDM have an 8-10-fold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and a 2-fold higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with women without prior GDM. Although it is possible to prevent and/or delay progression of GDM to type 2 diabetes, this is not widely undertaken. Considering the increasing global rates of type 2 diabetes and CVD in women, it is essential to utilize pregnancy as an opportunity to identify women at risk and initiate preventive intervention. This article reviews existing clinical guidelines for postpartum identification and management of women with previous GDM and identifies key recommendations for the prevention and/or delayed progression to type 2 diabetes for global clinical practice.

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  • 15.
    Adlers, Ann-Cathrine
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Att främja normal förlossning: Barnmorskans främsta uppgift2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pregnancy and childbirth are in most cases a normal life event. Over the past decades the rate of instrumental birth and caesarean sections has increased at the expense of normal birth. Despite more interventions no difference is seen in the maternal or perinatal morbidity or mortality. The midwife’s work encompasses the normal pregnancy and labour. The aim of this study was to describe how the midwife can promote normal birth. The study was conducted as a literature study in which 13 scientific articles, with both quantitative and qualitative approach, were analyzed. Three categories emerged that explained how the midwife promotes normal birth. The midwife creates through closeness a positive relationship to the woman and gives guidance. By using herself as a source of knowledge, the midwife’s senses, experiences from previous labours and formal knowledge, contribute to make correct decisions. The midwife supports and confirms the normalcy, from the woman’s individual needs, and thereby creates a safe environment for the woman that prevents her from unnecessary interventions. As there is a medical culture within the maternity care, the midwife’s work with normal birth needs to be strengthened. Since the organization has an impact on the midwife’s promoting work, further research is needed in this area.

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  • 16.
    Adlers, Ann-Cathrine
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Att verka som lots - Ett sätt för barnmorskan att främja normal förlossning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the majority of all pregnancies are assessed as normal, the interventions during labourprocess increase, where caesarean section without medical reason is one part. One reason may be that care for women with uncomplicated pregnancy is conducted at the same level as a complicated pregnancy. A caesarean section may result in increased risk of health problem for both the woman and the child. The midwife´s work encompasses the normal, uncomplicated pregnancy and labour. The midwife also has the possibility within the working range to promote women’s health. The aim of this study was to gain an increased understanding of how midwives promote the normal labourprocess. A non-participation observational study, of a total of four midwives in duty at a labour ward, was conducted at two hospitals. Grounded Theory was used for data collection and analysis. As a result emerged the core category to act as a pilot with four subcategories. The midwife primarily creates and anchors a relationship with the woman. Through the different stages of labour, the midwife assesses, facilitates and confirms the labourprocess individually, concerning the woman´s needs. The categories together form a model that describes what the midwife performs; in verbal and silent communication and in acting or refraining from acting, to promote a normal birth. There is a need for further research about what in the midwife´s management that promotes the normal birth. It is also essential with research at an organizational level since it has an impact on how the midwife promotes normal birth.    

     

  • 17. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Miscarriage: women’s experience and its cumulative incidence2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many women experience miscarriage every year. Every fourth woman who has given birth reports that she has previous experience of miscarriage. In a study of all women in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1983-2003, we found that the number of cases of self reported miscarriage had increased in Sweden during this 21 year period. This increase can be explained by the introduction of sensitive pregnancy tests around 1990, as well as an increase in the mean age of the mothers, by approximately 3 years, during the observation period. The risk of miscarriage is 13% with the first child. With subsequent pregnancies, the risk of miscarriage is 8%, 6% and 4% with the second, third and fourth child, respectively.

    Thirteen of these women who had suffered a recent miscarriage were interviewed four months later, and their feelings of guilt and emptiness were explored. Their experience was that they wanted their questions to be answered, and that they wanted others to treat them as the mothers to be that they felt themselves to be. They also experienced the need for time to grieve their loss.

    Measurement of grief by means of the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) is used in research but has also been proposed for clinical use. We have translated this psychological instrument to Swedish, back-translated and tested it in a small pilot study. In a randomized controlled study, women with early miscarriage were allocated, either to a structured visit (study group) or a regular visit (control group) to a midwife. The structured visit was conducted according to the Swanson caring theory. We could conclude that the structured visit had no significant effect on grief compared to the regular visit, as measured using the PGS. However, women with the sub-diagnosis missed abortion have significantly more grief four months after early miscarriage, regardless of visit type.

    We also performed a content analysis of the tape-recorded structured follow-up visit. The code-key used was Bonanno and Kaltman’s general grief categorization. Women’s expression of grief after miscarriage was found to be very similar to the grief experienced following the death of a relative. Furthermore, the grief was found to be independent of number of children, women’s age, or earlier experience of miscarriage.

    Conclusions: Every fourth woman who gives birth reports that she has also experienced early miscarriage. The experience of these women is that they have suffered a substantial loss and their reaction is grief similar to that experienced following the death of a relative.

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    Kappa
  • 18.
    Adolfsson, Ann-Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Miscarriage: Women’s Experience and its Cumulative Incidence2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many women experience miscarriage every year. Every fourth woman who has given birth reports that she has previous experience of miscarriage. In a study of all women in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1983-2003, we found that the number of cases of self reported miscarriage had increased in Sweden during this 21 year period. This increase can be explained by the introduction of sensitive pregnancy tests around 1990, as well as an increase in the mean age of the mothers, by approximately 3 years, during the observation period. The risk of miscarriage is 13% with the first child. With subsequent pregnancies, the risk of miscarriage is 8%, 6% and 4% with the second, third and fourth child, respectively.

    Thirteen of these women who had suffered a recent miscarriage were interviewed four months later, and their feelings of guilt and emptiness were explored. Their experience was that they wanted their questions to be answered, and that they wanted others to treat them as the mothers to be that they felt themselves to be. They also experienced the need for time to grieve their loss.

    Measurement of grief by means of the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) is used in research but has also been proposed for clinical use. We have translated this psychological instrument to Swedish, back-translated and tested it in a small pilot study. In a randomized controlled study, women with early miscarriage were allocated, either to a structured visit (study group) or a regular visit (control group) to a midwife. The structured visit was conducted according to the Swanson caring theory. We could conclude that the structured visit had no significant effect on grief compared to the regular visit, as measured using the PGS. However, women with the sub-diagnosis missed abortion have significantly more grief four months after early miscarriage, regardless of visit type.

    We also performed a content analysis of the tape-recorded structured follow-up visit. The code-key used was Bonanno and Kaltman’s general grief categorization. Women’s expression of grief after miscarriage was found to be very similar to the grief experienced following the death of a relative. Furthermore, the grief was found to be independent of number of children, women’s age, or earlier experience of miscarriage.

    Conclusions: Every fourth woman who gives birth reports that she has also experienced early miscarriage. The experience of these women is that they have suffered a substantial loss and their reaction is grief similar to that experienced following the death of a relative.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 19.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. The Centre for Women’s, Family and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud & Vestfold University, Kongsberg, Norway.
    Arbhede, Emelie
    Department Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Marklund, Elisabeth
    Women’s Clinic, Highland Distric County Hospital, Eksjö, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Berg, Marie
    Institutes of Health and Care Science, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Miscarriage: Evidence Based Information for the Web and Its Development Procedure2015In: Advances in Sexual Medicine, ISSN 2164-5191, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 89-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the process of developing web information on miscarriage based on scientific evidence, for women and couples in Sweden experiencing miscarriage. Method: A participatory design was used which included researchers, professional  xperts and users. A participatory design was used involving researchers, professional experts and users. The information was developed in six stages: 1) identifying the needs of information; 2) identifying and constructing the main areas of information and its paths; 3) identifying and inviting experts for revision; 4) developing the text; 5) reviewing the text; 6) design and structuring for adaption to website. Results: The text of information developed gradually based on the seven steps. The final text comprised three parts: 1) what is miscarriage; 2) experiences of miscarriage; 3) processing and lanning for new pregnancy. Conclusion: Using participatory design was time and resource consuming, however it was functional for producing appropriate information for the target group. The developed evidence based facts text is assumed to be a complement to the information that is provided by the health care system.

  • 20.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden; Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Division of Nursing Science, Department of Medicine and Care, Faculty of Health Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden; Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Effect of a structured follow-up visit to a midwife on women with early miscarriage: a randomized study2006In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 85, no 3, p. 330-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women's grief after miscarriage is substantial and important. Women who experience early miscarriage do not constitute a homogenous group. The aim of this study is to measure whether a structured follow-up visit to a midwife (group 1) at 21-28 days after early miscarriage could reduce the women's grief, measured using the perinatal grief scale Swedish short version (PGS) after a further 3 months (i.e. 4 months after the miscarriage), compared to a regular follow-up visit to a midwife (group 2).

    Methods: We performed an open randomized study of women who experienced early miscarriage (n = 88). The midwife's attitude in group 1 came from Swanson science theory of midwifery. In group 2, the women were offered only the ordinary type of consultation at a regular visit. A questionnaire with the PGS was used in both groups. Four months after the miscarriage, a second questionnaire with the same perinatal grief scale was sent by post.

    Results: There was a 30% greater reduction in grief in group 1 than that in group 2, when comparing the first and second measurements (not significant). The biggest differences were in the subscales active grief and difficulty in coping. Women with the subdiagnosis missed abortions had, as a group, significantly higher PGS scores at both visits, especially in active grief and difficulty in coping, regardless of the type of follow-up visit.

    Conclusions: A structured follow-up visit did not, in comparison with a regular follow-up visit, imply any significant reduction in grief as measured using the PGS scale. However, the subgroup missed abortion had more extensive grief than the other women with miscarriage. Structured follow-up visits are not imperative for all women with early miscarriage.

  • 21.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgssjukhus Skövde, Sweden.
    Effekten av strukturerat återbesök till barnmorska för kvinnor med tidiga missfall: en randomiserad studie2004In: , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgs sjukhus, Skövde, Sweden.
    The effect of structured second visit to midwifes in women with early miscarriage: a randomized study2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgs sjukhus Skövde, Sweden.
    The effect of structured second visit to midwifes in women with early miscarriage: a randomized study2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hogström, Lars
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marianne
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Janson, Per Olof
    Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berg, Marie
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Francis, Jynfiaf
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sogn, Jan
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital, Uddevalla, Sweden.
    Hellström, Anna-Lena
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Livskvalitet bland par i Sverige efter adoption, efter IVF och efter spontan befruktning och förlossning2011In: Svenska barnmorskeförbundet 300 år. Stockholm Abstrakt bok, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Applicability of general grief theory to Swedish women's experience after early miscarriage, with factor analysis of Bonanno's taxonomy, using the Perinatal Grief Scale2010In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 115, no 3, p. 201-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Grief is a normal phenomenon but showing great variation depending on cultural and personal features. Bonanno and Kaltman have nonetheless proposed five aspects of normal grief. The aim of this study was to investigate if women with miscarriage experience normal grief.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Content analyses of 25 transcribed conversations with women 4 weeks after their early miscarriages were classified depending on the meaning-bearing units according to Bonanno and Kaltman's categories. In the factor analyses, these categories were compared with the Perinatal Grief Scale and women's age, number of children and number of miscarriages, and gestational weeks.

    RESULTS: Women with miscarriage fulfill the criteria for having normal grief according to Bonanno and Kaltman. All of the 25 women had meaning-bearing units that were classified as cognitive disorganization, dysphoria, and health deficits, whereas disrupted social and occupational functioning and positive aspects of bereavement were represented in 22 of 25 women. From the factor analysis, there are no differences in the expression of the intensity of the grief, irrespective of whether or not the women were primiparous, younger, or had suffered a first miscarriage.

    CONCLUSION: Women's experience of grief after miscarriage is similar to general grief after death. After her loss, the woman must have the possibility of expressing and working through her grief before she can finish her pregnancy emotionally. The care-giver must facilitate this process and accept that the intensity of the grief is not dependent on the woman's age, or her number of earlier miscarriages.

  • 26.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgs sjukhus, Skövde, Sweden.
    Kvinnors sorg efter missfall kan minska med ändrade vårdrutiner2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgssjukhus Skövde, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, Sweden.
    Missfall: kvinnans upplevelser2004In: , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Tullander-Tjörnstrand, Karin
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Decreased need for emergency services after changing management for suspected miscarriage2011In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 90, no 8, p. 921-923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effect of a changed routine to identify women with a nonviable pregnancy, in order to utilize health care resources more efficiently during office hours rather than relying on emergency care services. From hospital register data about where and when women with miscarriages were treated, there was a significant trend during a nine-year period for miscarriages to be more rarely diagnosed (p-value<0.001) in the emergency ward after office hours. The proportion of miscarriages that were diagnosed and handled at the emergency ward decreased from 31% in 2001 to 17% in 2009. Furthermore, the number of women showing up with bleeding at the emergency ward, but who also had a normal viable pregnancy, declined during the same period (p-value<0.01). Women with suspected miscarriage benefit from structured information and standardized management and can effectively be scheduled for day-time assessment including ultrasound with a concomitant reduced need for emergency services.

  • 29.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital Skövde.
    Tullander-Tjörnstrand, Karin
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital Skövde.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital Skövde.
    Decreased need for emergency services after changing management for suspected miscarriage2011In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 90, no 8, p. 921-923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effect of a changed routine to identify women with a nonviable pregnancy, in order to utilize health care resources more efficiently during office hours rather than relying on emergency care services. From hospital register data about where and when women with miscarriages were treated, there was a significant trend during a nine-year period for miscarriages to be more rarely diagnosed (p-value<0.001) in the emergency ward after office hours. The proportion of miscarriages that were diagnosed and handled at the emergency ward decreased from 31% in 2001 to 17% in 2009. Furthermore, the number of women showing up with bleeding at the emergency ward, but who also had a normal viable pregnancy, declined during the same period (p-value<0.01). Women with suspected miscarriage benefit from structured information and standardized management and can effectively be scheduled for day-time assessment including ultrasound with a concomitant reduced need for emergency services.

  • 30. Adolfsson, Emma
    Preserving female fertility2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31. Adolfsson, Emma
    What does poor embryo development mean, and how does it influence subsequent cycles?2018In: Practical problems in assisted conception / [ed] Ying Cheong; Togas Tulandi; Tin-Chui Li, Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 169-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Adolfsson, Emma
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Andershed, Anna Nowosad
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Morphology vs morphokinetics: a retrospective comparison of inter-observer and intra-observer agreement between embryologists on blastocysts with known implantation outcome2018In: Jornal Brasileiro de Reproducao Assistida, ISSN 1517-5693, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 228-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Our primary aim was to compare the morphology and morphokinetics on inter- and intra-observer agreement for blastocyst with known implantation outcome. Our secondary aim was to validate the morphokinetic parameters' ability to predict pregnancy using a previous published selection algorithm, and to compare this to standard morphology assessments.

    METHODS: Two embryologists made independent blinded annotations on two occasions using time-lapse images and morphology evaluations using the Gardner Schoolcraft criteria of 99 blastocysts with known implantation outcome. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was calculated and compared using the two methods. The embryos were grouped based on their morphological score, and on their morphokinetic class using a previous published selection algorithm. The implantation rates for each group was calculated and compared.

    RESULTS: There was moderate agreement for morphology, with agreement on the same embryo score in 55 of 99 cases. The highest agreement rate was found for expansion grade, followed by trophectoderm and inner cell mass. Correlation with pregnancy was inconclusive. For morphokinetics, almost perfect agreement was found for early and late embryo development events, and strong agreement for day-2 and day-3 events. When applying the selection algorithm, the embryo distributions were uneven, and correlation to pregnancy was inconclusive.

    CONCLUSIONS: Time-lapse annotation is consistent and accurate, but our external validation of a previously published selection algorithm was unsuccessful.

  • 33.
    Adolfsson, Emma
    et al.
    University Hospital of Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nowosad Andershed, Anna
    University Hospital of Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Improved accuracy of embryo scoring using morphokinetic compared with strict morphology2015In: Human reproduction: Abstracts of the 31st Annual Meeting of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology / [ed] J.L.H. Evers; E. Somigliana; R. Sharpe, 2015, p. i333-i333Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Adolphson, Katja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Högberg, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Midwives' experiences of working conditions, perceptions of professional role and attitudes towards mothers in Mozambique2016In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 40, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: low- and middle-income countries still have a long way to go to reach the fifth Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality. Mozambique has accomplished a reduction of maternal mortality since the 1990s, but still has among the highest in the world. A key strategy in reducing maternal mortality is to invest in midwifery. AIM: the objective was to explore midwives' perspectives of their working conditions, their professional role, and perceptions of attitudes towards mothers in a low-resource setting. SETTING: midwives in urban, suburban, village and remote areas; working in central, general and rural hospitals as well as health centres and health posts were interviewed in Maputo City, Maputo Province and Gaza Province in Mozambique. METHOD: the study had a qualitative research design. Nine semi-structured interviews and one follow-up interview were conducted and analysed with qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: two main themes were found; commitment/devotion and lack of resources. All informants described empathic care-giving, with deep engagement with the mothers and highly valued working in teams. Lack of resources prevented the midwives from providing care and created frustration and feelings of insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: the midwives perceptions were that they tried to provide empathic, responsive care on their own within a weak health system which created many difficulties. The great potential the midwives possess of providing quality care must be valued and nurtured for their competency to be used more effectively.

  • 35.
    Agder, Terese
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences.
    Bobeck, Sabina
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences.
    Kvinnors kunskap och förståelse om hemförlossning i Sverige: En kvalitativ hermeneutisk textanalys2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research shows that the choice of place of birth is important for the woman's birth experience. Home birth in a low-risk pregnancy is a safe alternative to giving birth in a hospital, however, interest in home birth is low in Sweden. In order for women to be able to make an active choice, an awareness of the alternatives available is required. The authors ask themselves whether women in Sweden know that home birth exists. Aim: To shed light on women's knowledge and understanding of home birth in Sweden. Aim: To shed light on women's knowledge and understanding of home birth in Sweden. Method: Questionguide analyzed with a qualitative hermeneutic text analysis. Results: Knowledge about home birth has been shown to vary. The result shows 4 main themes and 8 sub-themes. The main themes consist of "Women's interest in home birth varies", "The importance of information for decision-making", "Obstacles to home birth in Sweden" and "Home birth as a right".Conclusion: The study shows that there is risk that women do not know that homebirth exists. It also shows greater obstacles to the possibility of making an active choice of place of birth and undergoing a homebirth. 

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  • 36.
    Ageheim, Mårten
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Department of Women's and Children's Health Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Department of Women's and Children's Health Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden.
    Bergman, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Department of Women's and Children's Health Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden.
    Iliadis, Stavros
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Department of Women's and Children's Health Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden.
    Lampa, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden.
    Lindström, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Department of Women's and Children's Health Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden.
    Oberg, Anna Sara
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden.
    Fetal growth after fresh and frozen embryo transfer and natural conception: A population‐based register study2024In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Agha, Hassan
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    The Multifaceted Effects of Male Circumcision: An Integrative Review of Physical, Psychological, and Cultural Impacts2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Male circumcision is a widely practiced procedure with significant implications for sexual and reproductive health. Debates over its benefits and harms span various fields, necessitating a comprehensive review.

    Aim: This review aims to identify recent trends in adult circumcision research, focusing on its impact on sexual health and function, psychological and emotional effects, and cultural and social influences.

    Methodology: An integrative review of 17 articles from PubMed and PsycInfo was conducted using keywords related to male circumcision and its psychological, trauma, and health effects. The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools were used for quality assessment.

    Results: The findings are synthesized into three main themes: sexual health and function, psychological and emotional effects, and cultural and social influences. Significant medical benefits of circumcision include reduced rates of sexually transmitted infections and improvements in specific sexual conditions. Psychological impacts are noted in a small group of men, often influenced by negative societal norms.

    Conclusions: Circumcision affects individuals beyond the physical procedure, influencing psychological well-being and cultural identity. The review emphasizes the need for personalized medical advice and psychological support to address both the benefits and impacts. Future research and policies should consider these multifaceted effects for acomprehensive understanding of male circumcision.

  • 38. Aghajanova, L.
    et al.
    Altmae, S.
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Giudice, L. C.
    Stanniocalcin-1 in Human Endometrium2015In: Fertility and Sterility, ISSN 0015-0282, E-ISSN 1556-5653, Vol. 103, no 2, p. E6-E7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39. Aghajanova, Lusine
    et al.
    Mahadevan, S
    Altmäe, Signe
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Regan, L
    Sebire, N
    Dixon, P
    Fisher, R A
    Van den Veyver, I B
    No evidence for mutations in NLRP7, NLRP2 or KHDC3L in women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss or infertility2015In: Human Reproduction, ISSN 0268-1161, E-ISSN 1460-2350, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 232-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY QUESTION: Are mutations in NLRP2/7 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 2/7) or KHDC3L (KH Domain Containing 3 Like) associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) or infertility?

    SUMMARY ANSWER: We found no evidence for mutations in NLRP2/7 or KHDC3L in unexplained RPL or infertility.

    WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mutations in NLRP7 and KHDC3L are known to cause biparental hydatidiform moles (BiHMs), a rare form of pregnancy loss. NLRP2, while not associated with the BiHM pathology, is known to cause recurrent Beckwith Weidemann Syndrome (BWS).

    STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, AND DURATION: Ninety-four patients with well characterized, unexplained infertility were recruited over a 9-year period from three IVF clinics in Sweden. Blood samples from 24 patients with 3 or more consecutive miscarriages of unknown etiology were provided by the Recurrent Miscarriage Clinic at St Mary's Hospital, London, UK.

    PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Patients were recruited into both cohorts following extensive clinical studies. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and subject to Sanger sequencing of NLRP2, NLRP7 and KHDC3L. Sequence electropherograms were analyzed by Sequencher v5.0 software and variants compared with those observed in the 1000 Genomes, single nucleotide polymorphism database (dbSNP) and HapMap databases. Functional effects of non-synonymous variants were predicted using Polyphen-2 and sorting intolerant from tolerant (SIFT).

    MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: No disease-causing mutations were identified in NLRP2, NLRP7 and KHDC3L in our cohorts of unexplained infertility and RPL.

    LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Due to the limited patient size, it is difficult to conclude if the low frequency single nucleotide polymorphisms observed in the present study are causative of the phenotype. The design of the present study therefore is only capable of detecting highly penetrant mutations.

    WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The present study supports the hypothesis that mutations in NLRP7 and KHDC3L are specific for the BiHM phenotype and do not play a role in other adverse reproductive outcomes. Furthermore, to date, mutations in NLRP2 have only been associated with the imprinting disorder BWS in offspring and there is no evidence for a role in molar pregnancies, RPL or unexplained infertility.

    STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This study was funded by the following sources: Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (Grant SF0180044s09), Enterprise Estonia (Grant EU30020); Mentored Resident research project (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine); Imperial NIHR Biomedical Research Centre; Grant Number C06RR029965 from the National Center for Research Resources (NCCR; NIH). No competing interests declared.

  • 40. Aghakhani, Nader
    et al.
    Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. University of Turku, Finland.
    Sheikhan, Fatemeh
    Khoei, Merghati
    Iranian women's experiences of infertility: A qualitative study2020In: International journal of reproductive biomedicine, ISSN 2476-4108, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 65-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are concerns and diverse experiences related to infertility and childlessness. The lived experience of infertile people from various cultures needs to be explored. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Iranian women experiences of their infertility. Materials and Methods: The data comprised interviews about fertility issues in the Persian language with eighteen women, aged 17-45 yr old, who agreed to be interviewed at the Mottahari Infertility Treatment Clinic, affiliated to the Urmia University of Medical Sciences about their fertility problems. They were approached by the researchers at the time of their first visit. The verbatim transcribed interviews were analyzed using deductive conventional content analysis. Results: The experiences of the informants were conceptualized into four major themes: 1) Shock (subthemes: Disbelief and Denial); 2) Reaction (subthemes: Distress, Guilt, Loss of self-esteem and Sexual reluctance); 3) Processing (subthemes: Internal processing, Avoidance, Marriage at risk, External processing, Stigma caused by the family and Stigma caused by the community) and 4) Reorientation (subthemes: Forgetting, Marriage to saving marriage and Sexual consent). Conclusion: Infertility can be a challenging condition. Considering that infertility-related issues affect Iranian women more contextual factors is necessary. So, culturally sensitive and gender specific protocols are suggested to provide suitable and about culturally sensitive and gender-specific protocols is a necessity in order to provide suitable care to infertile women.

  • 41.
    Ahangari, Alebtekin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Umeå Neurosteroid Research Center, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Umeå Neurosteroid Research Center, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Innala, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Umeå Neurosteroid Research Center, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Umeå Neurosteroid Research Center, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Turkmen, Sahruh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Umeå Neurosteroid Research Center, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Acute intermittent porphyria symptoms during the menstrual cycle2015In: Internal medicine journal (Print), ISSN 1444-0903, E-ISSN 1445-5994, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 725-731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), a life-threatening form of the disease, is accompanied by several pain, mental and physical symptoms.

    Aims: In this study, we evaluated the cyclicity of AIP and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms in 32 women with DNA-diagnosed AIP during their menstrual cycles, in northern Sweden.

    Methods: The cyclicity of AIP symptoms and differences in them between the follicularand luteal phases, and the cyclicity of each symptom in each individual woman indifferent phases of her menstrual cycle were analysed with a prospective daily ratingquestionnaire. PMS symptoms were also evaluated in the patients on a daily rating scale.

    Results: Of the 32 women, 30 showed significant cyclicity in at least one AIP or PMS symptom (P < 0.05–0.001). Back pain (10/32) was the most frequent AIP pain symptomand sweet craving (10/15) was the most frequent PMS symptom. Pelvic pain (F = 4.823,P = 0.036), irritability (F = 7.399, P = 0.011), cheerfulness (F = 5.563, P = 0.025), sexualdesire (F = 8.298, P = 0.007), friendliness (F = 6.157, P = 0.019), breast tenderness (F =21.888, P = 0.000) and abdominal swelling (F = 16.982, P = 0.000) showed significantcyclicity. Pelvic pain and abdominal swelling (rs= 0.337, P < 0.001) showed the strongest correlation. The age of women with latent AIP was strongly correlated with abdominal swelling during the luteal phase (rs= 0.493, P < 0.01).

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that the symptoms of AIP patients change during their menstrual cycles.

  • 42. Ahlberg, M.
    et al.
    Nordlund, E.
    Weichselbraun, M.
    Wiklund, Ingela
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital.
    Good obstetric care requires interdisciplinary collaboration2015In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43. Ahlberg, M.
    et al.
    Nordlund, E.
    Weichselbraun, M.
    Wiklund, Ingela
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital.
    Svenska barnmorskeförbundet: God förlossningsvård kräver tvärprofessionellt samarbete2015In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 112, no 20-21Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44. Ahlberg, Mia
    et al.
    Ekéus, Cecilia
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Birth by vacuum extraction delivery and school performance at 16 years of age2013In: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0002-9378, E-ISSN 1097-6868, Vol. 210, no 4, p. 361.e1-361.e8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective 

    The aim of the present study was to investigate cognitive competence, as indicated by school performance, at 16 years of age, in children delivered by vacuum extraction.

    Study design 

    This was a register study of a national cohort of 126,032 16 year olds born as singletons, with a vertex presentation, at a gestational age of 34 weeks or older, with Swedish-born parents, delivered between 1990 and 1993 without major congenital malformations. Linear regression was used to analyze mode of delivery in relation to mean scores from national tests in mathematics (40.2; scale, 10-75; SD, 14.9) and mean average grades (223.8; scale, 10-320; SD, 52.3), with adjustment for perinatal and sociodemographic confounders.

    Results

    Children delivered by vacuum extraction (-0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.76 to 0.26) as well as by nonplanned cesarean section (-0.51; 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.20) had slightly lower mean mathematics test scores than children born vaginally without instruments, after adjustment for major confounders. Mean average grades in children delivered by vacuum extraction were -1.05 (95% CI, -1.87 to -0.23) and -1.20 (95% CI,-2.24 to -0.16) in children delivered by nonplanned cesarean section compared with children born vaginally.

    Conclusion

    Children delivered by vacuum extraction had slightly lower grades at age 16 years compared with those born by noninstrumental vaginal delivery but very similar to those delivered by nonplanned cesarean. This suggests that vacuum extraction and nonplanned cesarean are equivalent alternatives for terminating deliveries with respect to cognitive outcomes.

  • 45. Ahlborg, Liv
    et al.
    Hedman, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Murkes, Daniel
    Westman, Bo
    Kjellin, Ann
    Fellander-Tsai, Li
    Enochsson, Lars
    Visuospatial ability correlates with performance in simulated gynecological laparoscopy2011In: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, ISSN 0301-2115, E-ISSN 1872-7654, Vol. 157, no 1, p. 73-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyze the relationship between visuospatial ability and simulated laparoscopy performed by consultants in obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN). Study design: This was a prospective cohort study carried out at two community hospitals in Sweden. Thirteen consultants in obstetrics and gynecology were included. They had previously independently performed 10-100 advanced laparoscopies. Participants were tested for visuospatial ability by the Mental Rotations Test version A (MRT-A). After a familiarization session and standardized instruction, all participants subsequently conducted three consecutive virtual tubal occlusions followed by three virtual salpingectomies. Performance in the simulator was measured by Total Time, Score and Ovarian Diathermy Damage. Linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between visuospatial ability and simulated laparoscopic performance. The learning curves in the simulator were assessed in order to interpret the relationship with the visuospatial ability. Results: Visuospatial ability correlated with Total Time (r = -0.62; p = 0.03) and Score (r = 0.57; p = 0.05) in the medium level of the virtual tubal occlusion. In the technically more advanced virtual salpingectomy the visuospatial ability correlated with Total Time (r = -0.64; p = 0.02), Ovarian Diathermy Damage (r = -0.65; p = 0.02) and with overall Score (r = 0.64; p = 0.02). Conclusions: Visuospatial ability appears to be related to the performance of gynecological laparoscopic procedures in a simulator. Testing visuospatial ability might be helpful when designing individual training programs.

  • 46. Ahlborg, Liv
    et al.
    Hedman, Leif
    Nisell, Henry
    Felländer-Tsai, Li
    Enochsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training (CAMST), Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Simulator training and non-technical factors improve laparoscopic performance among OBGYN trainees2013In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 92, no 10, p. 1194-1201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how simulator training and non-technical factors affect laparoscopic performance among residents in obstetrics and gynecology. DESIGN: In this prospective study, trainees were randomized into three groups. The first group was allocated to proficiency-based training in the LapSimGyn(®) virtual reality simulator. The second group received additional structured mentorship during subsequent laparoscopies. The third group served as control group. At baseline an operation was performed and visuospatial ability, flow and self-efficacy were assessed. All groups subsequently performed three tubal occlusions. Self-efficacy and flow were assessed before and/or after each operation. SETTING: Simulator training was conducted at the Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training, Karolinska University Hospital. Sterilizations were performed at each trainee's home clinic. POPULATION: Twenty-eight trainees/residents from 21 hospitals in Sweden were included. METHODS/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visuospatial ability was tested by the Mental Rotation Test-A. Flow and self-efficacy were assessed by validated scales and questionnaires. Laparoscopic performance was measured as the duration of surgery. Visuospatial ability, self-efficacy and flow were correlated to the laparoscopic performance using Spearman's correlations. Differences between groups were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: No differences across groups were detected at baseline. Self-efficacy scores before and flow scores after the third operation were significantly higher in the trained groups. Duration of surgery was significantly shorter in the trained groups. Flow and self-efficacy correlate positively with laparoscopic performance. CONCLUSIONS: Simulator training and non-technical factors appear to improve the laparoscopic performance among trainees/residents in obstetrics and gynecology.

  • 47.
    Ahlborg, Liv
    et al.
    Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training (CAMST), Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Södertälje Hospital, 152 86 Södertälje, Sweden.
    Hedman, Leif R
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training (CAMST), Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rasmussen, Carsten
    Divisions of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Felländer-Tsai, Li
    Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training (CAMST), Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Divisions of Orthopaedics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Enochsson, Lars
    Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training (CAMST), Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Divisions of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Non-technical factors influence laparoscopic simulator performance among OBGYN residents2012In: Gynecological Surgery, ISSN 1613-2076, E-ISSN 1613-2084, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 415-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to technical skills, nontechnical factors appear to influence surgical results. This study aims to analyze how visuospatial ability, self-efficacy, and flow are associated with simulated laparoscopic performance of residents in obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN). In this cohort study, 28 residents in obstetrics and gynecology were tested for visuospatial ability and self-efficacy prior to simulator training. All participants subsequently conducted a basic set of tasks in the simulator. Self-efficacy, once again, and flow were assessed after training. Nineteen of the subjects then completed a 2-day course with identical simulator tasks, although now to a predefined credential level. Visuospatial ability correlated with simulator performance in the technically most advanced simulator task in the basic set ("total time," r=-0.40, p=0.039). Flow correlated with: "right instrument pathway"(r=-0.40, p=0.004) in that same task and with the 2-day overall training results (r=-0.56, p=0.017). Self-efficacy correlated with the 2-day result (r=-0.56, p=0.013) and significantly improved after training (p=0.011). When constructing a curriculum for OBGYN residents, visuospatial abilities and non-technical factors like flow and self-efficacy should be considered.

  • 48.
    Ahlqvist, Kerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Pingel, Ronnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Schlager, Angela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Nilsson-Wikmar, Lena
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Physiotherapy, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Kristiansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    The Association of Self-Reported Generalized Joint Hypermobility with pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study2020In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is common during pregnancy but the causes remain poorly understood. Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is an inherited trait, with joint mobility beyond normal limits and is assumed to be related with PGP. The aim of this project was to study the association between self-reported GJH and the presence of PGP during pregnancy. Methods In this cohort study, 4884 Swedish-speaking women were consecutively recruited at their first visit for registration in the national antenatal screening programme in Sweden. We used the five-part questionnaire (5PQ) to assess GJH and pain drawings to identify PGP. Our primary outcome was the presence of PGP during the entire pregnancy and secondary outcomes were PGP in each trimesters. We tested the associations with logistic regression analysis, and adjusted for age and ethnicity. Results In all,2455 (50.3%) women responded to both questionnaires. The prevalence of self-reported GJH was 28.7%. A higher proportion of women with GJH than women without GJH reported PGP during the entire pregnancy (47.9% vs. 41.0%), particularly in trimester 1 (31.6% vs. 22.0%). Thus, women with GJH also had higher odds of PGP during the entire pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.27: 95% CI 1.11-1.47) and in trimester 1 (aOR 1.54: 95% CI 1.20-1.96), but the associations were not statistically significant in trimester 2 (aOR 1.24: 95% CI 0.82-1.88) or trimester 3 (aOR 1.20: 95% CI 0.99-1.45). The odds of PGP in pregnancy increased with increasing numbers of positive answers to the 5PQ (pfor linear trend < 0.001) for the entire pregnancy and in trimester 1 (pfor linear trend < 0.001), but not in trimesters 2 or 3 (p = 0.13 andp = 0.06, respectively). Conclusions Compared to women with normal joint mobility, women with GJH had higher odds of reporting PGP during pregnancy and the odds increased with number of positive responses to the 5PQ. The associations were present in trimester 1 but did not reach statistical significance in trimester 2 and 3.

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  • 49.
    Ahlqvist, Viktor H.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, S-11365 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ekström, Lucas D.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, S-11365 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Clin Epidemiol Div, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jónsson-Bachmann, Egill
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP. Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, S-11365 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tynelius, Per
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, S-11365 Stockholm, Sweden.;Reg Stockholm, Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Madley-Dowd, Paul
    Univ Bristol, Ctr Acad Mental Hlth, Bristol Med Sch, Populat Hlth Sci, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Neovius, Martin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Clin Epidemiol Div, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, S-11365 Stockholm, Sweden.;Reg Stockholm, Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Berglind, Daniel
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, S-11365 Stockholm, Sweden.;Reg Stockholm, Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Caesarean section and its relationship to offspring general cognitive ability: a registry-based cohort study of half a million young male adults2022In: Evidence-Based Mental Health, ISSN 1362-0347, E-ISSN 1468-960X, Vol. 25, p. 7-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A relationship between caesarean section and offspring cognitive ability has been described, but data are limited, and a large-scale study is needed.

    Objective: To determine the relationship between mode of delivery and general cognitive ability.

    Methods: A cohort of 579 244 singleton males, born between 1973 and 1987 who conscripted before 2006, were identified using the Swedish population-based registries. Their mode of delivery was obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth registry. The outcome measure was a normalised general cognitive test battery (mean 100, SD 15) performed at military conscription at around age 18.

    Findings: Males born by caesarean section performed poorer compared with those born vaginally (mean score 99.3 vs 100.1; adjusted mean difference -0.84; 95% CI -0.97 to -0.72; p<0.001). Both those born by elective (99.3 vs 100.2; -0.92; 95% CI -1.24 to -0.60; p<0.001) and non-elective caesarean section (99.2 vs 100.2; -1.03; 95% CI -1.34 to -0.72; p=0.001), performed poorer than those born vaginally. In sibling analyses, the association was attenuated to the null (100.9 vs 100.8; 0.07; 95% CI -0.31 to 0.45; p=0.712). Similarly, neither elective nor non-elective caesarean section were associated with general cognitive ability in sibling analyses.

    Conclusion: Birth by caesarean section is weakly associated with a lower general cognitive ability in young adult males. However, the magnitude of this association is not clinically relevant and seems to be largely explained by familial factors shared between siblings.

    Clinical implication: Clinicians and gravidas ought not to be concerned that the choice of mode of delivery will impact offspring cognitive ability.

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  • 50. Ahlqvist, Viktor H.
    et al.
    Persson, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Berglind, Daniel
    Elective and nonelective cesarean section and obesity among young adult male offspring: A Swedish population-based cohort study2019In: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 16, no 12, article id e1002996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that cesarean section (CS) is associated with offspring overweight and obesity. However, few studies have been able to differentiate between elective and nonelective CS, which may differ in their maternal risk profile and biological pathway. Therefore, we aimed to examine the association between differentiated forms of delivery with CS and risk of obesity in young adulthood.

    Methods and findings: Using Swedish population registers, a cohort of 97,291 males born between 1982 and 1987 were followed from birth until conscription (median 18 years of age) if they conscripted before 2006. At conscription, weight and height were measured and transformed to World Health Organization categories of body mass index (BMI). Maternal and infant data were obtained from the Medical Birth Register. Associations were evaluated using multinomial and linear regressions. Furthermore, a series of sensitivity analyses were conducted, including fixed-effects regressions to account for confounders shared between full brothers. The mothers of the conscripts were on average 28.5 (standard deviation 4.9) years old at delivery and had a prepregnancy BMI of 21.9 (standard deviation 3.0), and 41.5% of the conscripts had at least one parent with university-level education.

    Out of the 97,291 conscripts we observed, 4.9% were obese (BMI ≥ 30) at conscription. The prevalence of obesity varied slightly between vaginal delivery, elective CS, and nonelective CS (4.9%, 5.5%, and 5.6%, respectively), whereas BMI seemed to be consistent across modes of delivery. We found no evidence of an association between nonelective or elective CS and young adulthood obesity (relative risk ratio 0.96, confidence interval 95% 0.83–1.10, p = 0.532 and relative risk ratio 1.02, confidence interval 95% 0.88–1.18, p = 0.826, respectively) as compared with vaginal delivery after accounting for prepregnancy maternal BMI, maternal diabetes at delivery, maternal hypertension at delivery, maternal smoking, parity, parental education, maternal age at delivery, gestational age, birth weight standardized according to gestational age, and preeclampsia. We found no evidence of an association between any form of CS and overweight (BMI ≥ 25) as compared with vaginal delivery. Sibling analysis and several sensitivity analyses did not alter our findings. The main limitations of our study were that not all conscripts had available measures of anthropometry and/or important confounders (42% retained) and that our cohort only included a male population.

    Conclusions: We found no evidence of an association between elective or nonelective CS and young adulthood obesity in young male conscripts when accounting for maternal and prenatal factors. This suggests that there is no clinically relevant association between CS and the development of obesity. Further large-scale studies are warranted to examine the association between differentiated forms of CS and obesity in young adult offspring.

    Trial registration: Registered as observational study at ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03918044.

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