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  • 1.
    Aarnio, Mikko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Visualization of Peripheral Pain Generating Processes and Inflammation in Musculoskeletal Tissue using [11C]-D-deprenyl PET2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An objective visualization and quantification of pain-generating processes in the periphery would alter pain diagnosis and represent an important paradigm shift in pain research. Positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [11C]-D-deprenyl has shown an elevated uptake in painful inflammatory arthritis and whiplash-associated disorder. However, D-Deprenyl’s molecular binding target and uptake mechanism in inflammation and musculoskeletal injuries are still unknown. The present thesis aimed to gain insight into the mechanisms of D-deprenyl binding and uptake and to verify whether pain-associated sites and inflammation in acute musculoskeletal injury could be visualized, objectively quantified and followed over time with [11C]-D-deprenyl PET-computed tomography (PET/CT).

    To identify the D-deprenyl binding target, a high-throughput analysis and competitive radioligand binding studies were performed. D-deprenyl inhibited monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) activity by 55%, MAO-B activity by 99% and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) by 70%, which identified these enzymes as higher-affinity targets. Furthermore, radioligand receptor binding assays pointed favorably towards the concept of MAO-B as the primary target. To investigate the biochemical characteristics of the binding site, we used radioligand binding assays to assess differences in the binding profile in inflamed human synovial membranes exhibiting varying levels of inflammation. D-deprenyl bound to a single, saturable population of membrane-bound protein in synovial membrane homogenates and the level of inflammation correlated with an increase in D-deprenyl binding affinity.

    To verify whether D-deprenyl can visualize pain-generating processes, patients with musculoskeletal injuries were investigated and followed-up with [11C]-D-deprenyl PET/CT. In the study of eight patients with ankle sprain, the molecular aspects of inflammation and tissue injury could be visualized, objectively quantified and followed over time with [11C]-D-deprenyl PET/CT. The pain coexisted with increased [11C]-D-deprenyl uptake. In the study of 16 whiplash patients, an altered [11C]-D-deprenyl uptake in the cervical bone structures and facet joints was associated with subjective pain levels and self-rated disability.

    To further evaluate D-Deprenyl’s usefulness as a marker of inflammation, three PET tracers were compared in an animal PET/CT study. Preliminary findings showed that [11C]-D-deprenyl had an almost identical uptake pattern when compared with [11C]-L-deprenyl. The two deprenyl enantiomers showed no signs of specific binding or trapping and therefore may not be useful to study further in models of inflammatory pain, surgical pain, or both.

    This thesis demonstrates that D-deprenyl visualizes painful inflammation in musculoskeletal injuries and that the probable underlying mechanism of [11C]-D-deprenyl uptake is binding to MAO.

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  • 2.
    Abad-Gurumeta, A.
    et al.
    Dept Anaesthesia, Hosp Univ la Paz, Madrid, Spain.
    Ripolles-Melchor, J.
    Dept Anaesthesia, Hosp Univ Infanta Leonor, Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Casans-Frances, R.
    Dept Anaesthesia, Hosp Clin Univ Lozano Blesa, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Espinosa, A.
    Dept Anaesthesia, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Martinez-Hurtado, E.
    Dept Anaesthesia, Hosp Univ Infanta Leonor, Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Fernandez-Perez, C.
    Dept Consultant Prevent Med & Publ Hlth, Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Ramirez, J. M.
    Dept Colorectal Surg, Univ Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Lopez-Timoneda, F.
    Hosp Clin San Carlos, Dept Anaesthesia, Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Calvo-Vecino, J. M.
    Hosp Univ Infanta Leonor, Dept Anaesthesia, Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    A systematic review of sugammadex vs neostigmine for reversal of neuromuscular blockade2015In: Anaesthesia, ISSN 0003-2409, E-ISSN 1365-2044, Vol. 70, no 12, p. 1441-1452Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We reviewed systematically sugammadex vs neostigmine for reversing neuromuscular blockade. We included 17 randomised controlled trials with 1553 participants. Sugammadex reduced all signs of residual postoperative paralysis, relative risk (95% CI) 0.46 (0.29-0.71), p=0.0004 and minor respiratory events, relative risk (95% CI) 0.51 (0.32-0.80), p=0.0034. There was no difference in critical respiratory events, relative risk (95% CI) 0.13 (0.02-1.06), p=0.06. Sugammadex reduced drug-related side-effects, relative risk (95% CI) 0.72 (0.54-0.95), p=0.02. There was no difference in the rate of postoperative nausea or the rate of postoperative vomiting, relative risk (95% CI) 0.94 (0.79-1.13), p=0.53, and 0.87 (0.65-1.17), p=0.36 respectively.

  • 3.
    Abbott, Tom E. F.
    et al.
    Queen Mary Univ London, England.
    Pearse, Rupert M.
    Queen Mary Univ London, England.
    Chew, Michelle
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping (ANOPIVA).
    Prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications in the hypoxaemic patient - gathering the evidence for noninvasive respiratory support2020In: European Journal of Anaesthesiology, ISSN 0265-0215, E-ISSN 1365-2346, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 263-264Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 4.
    Abdelrahman, Islam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Plastic Surgery Unit, Surgery Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Elmasry, Moustafa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Plastic Surgery Unit, Surgery Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, ANOPIVA US.
    Lidocaine infusion has a 25% opioid-sparing effect on background pain after burns: A prospective, randomised, double-blind, controlled trial2020In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 465-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The pain of a burn mainly results from the inflammatory cascade that is induced by the injured tissue, and is classified as background, breakthrough, procedural and postoperative pain. High doses of opioids are usually needed to treat background pain, so its management includes a combination of types of analgesia to reduce the side effects. Lidocaine given intravenously has been shown in two small, uncontrolled studies to have an appreciable effect on pain after burns.

    Objectives

    In this prospective double-blind controlled trial we aimed to examine and quantify the opioid-sparing effect of a continuous infusion of lidocaine for the treatment of background pain during the early period after a burn.

    Methods

    Adult patients injured with burns of >10 total body surface area burned (TBSA%) and treated with a morphine based patient-controlled analgesia device (PCA) were randomised to have either lidocaine infusion starting with a bolus dose (1 mg lidocaine/kg) followed by continuous infusion (180 mg lidocaine/hour) or a placebo infusion, for seven consecutive days. Total daily consumption of opioids (mg) and amount of pain (visual analogue score, VAS) were recorded.

    Results

    We included 19 patients, 10 of whom were given a lidocaine infusion. There were no differences between groups in VAS, TBSA%, time of enrolment to the study since the initial burn, or duration of hospital stay. The opioid consumption in the lidocaine group declined by roughly 25% during the period of the study.

    Conclusion

    An intravenous infusion of lidocaine was safe and had an opioid-sparing effect when treating background pain in burns.

  • 5.
    Abdelrahman, Islam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Suez Canal Univ, Surg Dept, Plast Surg Unit, Ismailia, Egypt.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Mossaad, Bassem
    Plastic Surgery Unit, Surgery Department Suez, Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Elmasry, Moustafa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Evaluation of Glandular Liposculpture as a Single Treatment for Grades I and II Gynaecomastia2018In: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, ISSN 0364-216X, E-ISSN 1432-5241, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 1222-1230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Gynaecomastia is a benign enlargement of the male breast, of which the psychological burden on the patient can be considerable, with the increased risk of disorders such as depression, anxiety, and social phobia. Minimal scarring can be achieved by liposuction alone, though it is known to have a limited effect on the dense glandular and fibroconnective tissues. We know of few studies published on “liposuction alone”, so we designed this study to evaluate the outcome of combining liposuction with glandular liposculpturing through two axillary incisions as a single treatment for the management of grades I and II gynaecomastia.

    Methods

    We made a retrospective analysis of 18 patients with grade I or II gynaecomastia who were operated on by combined liposuction and glandular liposculpturing using a fat disruptor cannula, without glandular excision, during the period 2014–2016. Patient satisfaction was assessed using the Breast Evaluation Questionnaire (BEQ), which is a 5-point Likert scale (1 = very dissatisfied; 2 = dissatisfied; 3 = neither; 4 = satisfied; 5 = very satisfied). The post-operative aesthetic appearance of the chest was evaluated by five independent observers on a scale from 1 to 5 (5 = considerable improvement).

    Results

    The patient mean (SD) overall satisfaction score was 4.7 (0.7), in which 92% of the responders were “satisfied” to “very satisfied”. The mean (SD) BEQ for all questions answered increased from 2.1 (0.2) “dissatisfied” preoperatively to 4.1 (0.2) “satisfied” post-operatively. The observers’ mean (SD) rate for the improvement in the shape of the front chest wall was 4.1 (0.7). No haematomas were recorded, one patient developed a wound infection, and two patients complained of remnants of tissue. The median (IQR) body mass index was 27.4 (26.7–29.4), 11 patients had gynaecomastia grade I, and 7 patients grade II. The median (IQR) volume of aspirated fat was 700 ml (650–800), operating time was 67 (65–75) minutes, 14 patients had general anaesthesia, and hospital charges were US$ 538 (481–594).

    Conclusions

    Combined liposuction and liposculpturing using the fat disruptor cannula resulted in satisfied patients and acceptable outcomes according to the observers’ ratings. It could be a useful alternative with an outcome that corresponds to that of more expensive methods.

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  • 6.
    Abdelrahman, Islam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Vieweg, Rosa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, ANOPIVA US.
    Irschik, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, ANOPIVA US.
    Elmasry, Moustafa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Development of delirium: Association with old age, severe burns, and intensive care2020In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 797-803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Delirium is defined as a disturbance of attention and awareness that develops over a short period of time, is a change from the baseline, and typically fluctuates over time. Burn care involves a high prevalence of known risk factors for delirium such as sedation, inflammation, and prolonged stay in hospital. Our aim was to explore the extent of delirium and the impact of factors associated with it for adult patients who have been admitted to hospital with burns. Methods In this retrospective study, all adult patients who had been admitted with burns during a four-year period were studied, including both those who were treated with intensive care and intermediate care only (no intensive care). Daily records of the assessment of delirium using the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (Nu-DESC) were analysed together with age, sex, the percentage of total body surface area burned, operations, and numbers of wound care procedures under anaesthesia, concentrations of plasma C-reactive protein, and other clinical variables. Logistic regression was used to analyse factors that were associated with delirium and its effect on mortality, and linear regression was used to analyse its effect on the duration of hospital stay. Results Fifty-one patients (19%) of the total 262 showed signs of delirium (Nu-DESC score of 2 or more) at least once during their stay in hospital. Signs of delirium were recorded in 42/89 patients (47%) who received intensive care, and in 9/173 (5%) who had intermediate care. Independent factors for delirium in the multivariable regression were: age over 74 years; number of operations and wound care procedures under anaesthesia; and the provision of intensive care (area under the curve 0.940, 95% CI 0.899–0.981). Duration of hospital stay, adjusted for age and burn size, was 13.2 (95% CI 7.4–18.9, p < 0.001) days longer in the group who had delirium. We found no independent effects of delirium on mortality. Conclusion We found a strong association between delirium and older age, provision ofr intensive care, and number of interventions under anaesthesia. A further 5% of patients who did not receive intensive care also showed signs of delirium, which is a finding that deserves to be thoroughly investigated in the future.

  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Methodological aspects on microdialysis sampling and measurements2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:     The microdialysis (MD) technique is widely spread and used both experi­mentally and in clinical practice. The MD technique allows continuous collection of small molecules such as glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol. Samples are often analysed using the CMA 600 analyser, an enzymatic and colorimetric analyser.  Data evaluating the performance of the CMA 600 analysis system and associated sample han­dling are sparse. The aim of this work was to identify sources of variability related to han­dling of microdialysis samples and sources of error associated with use of the CMA 600 analyser. Further, to develop and compare different application techniques of the micro­dialysis probes both within an organ and on the surface of an organ.

     Material and Methods:  Papers I and II are mainly in vitro studies with the exception of the No Net Flux calibration method in paper I where a pig model (n=7) was used to exam­ine the true concen­tration of glucose and urea in subcutaneous tissue. Flow rate, sampling time, vial and caps material and performance of the analyser device (CMA 600) were examined. In papers III and IV normoventilated anaesthetised pigs (n=33) were used. In paper III, heart ischemia was used as intervention to compare microdialysis measurements in the myocardium with corresponding measurements on the heart surface. In paper IV, microdialysis measurements in the liver parenchyma were compared with measurements on the liver surface in associa­tion with induced liver ischemia. All animal studies were approved by the Animal Experi­mental Ethics Committee at Umeå University Sweden.

    Results:  In paper I we succeeded to measure true concentrations of glucose (4.4 mmol/L) and Urea (4.1 mmol/L) in subcutaneous tissue. Paper II showed that for a batch analyse of 24 samples it is preferred to store microdialysis samples in glass vials with crimp caps. For reliable results, samples should be centrifuged before analysis. Paper III showed a new application area for microdialysis sampling from the heart, i.e. surface sampling. The sur­face probe and myocardial probe (in the myocardium) showed a similar pattern for glucose, lactate and glycerol during baseline, short ischemic and long ischemic interventions. In paper IV, a similar pattern was observed as in paper III, i.e. data obtained from the probe on the liver surface showed no differences compared with data from the probe in liver paren­chyma for glucose, lactate and glycerol concentrations during baseline, ischemic and reperfusion interven­tions.

    Conclusion:  The MD technique is adequate for local metabolic monitoring, but requires methodological considerations before starting a new experimental serie. It is important to consider factors such as flow rate, sampling time and handling of samples in association with the analysis device chosen. The main finding in this thesis is that analyses of glucose, lactate and glycerol in samples from the heart surface and liver surface reflect concentra­tions sampled from the myocardium and liver parenchyma, respectively.

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  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    An assessment of calibration and performance of the microdialysis system2005In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 39, no 3-4, p. 730-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the reliability of microdialysis measurements of tissue concentrations of metabolic substances, this study was designed to test both the performance and the internal validity of the microdialysis methods in the hands of our research group. The stability of the CMA 600 analyser was tested with a known glucose solution in 72 standard microvials and in 48 plastic vials. To evaluate if variation in sampling time makes any difference in sample concentration (recovery), sampling times of 10, 20 and 30 min were compared in vitro with a constant flow rate of 1 microl/min. For testing of sampling times at different flow rates, an in vitro study was performed in which a constant sample volume of 10 microl was obtained. With the no net flux method, the actual concentration of glucose and urea in subcutaneous tissue was measured. The CMA 600 glucose analysis function was accurate and stable with a coefficient of variability (CV) of 0.2-0.55%. There was no difference in recovery for the CMA 60 catheter for glucose when sampling times were varied. Higher flow rates resulted in decreased recovery. Subcutaneous tissue concentrations of glucose and urea were 4.4 mmol/l and 4.1 mmol/l, respectively. To conclude, this work describes an internal validation of our use of the microdialysis system by calibration of vials and catheters. Internal validation is necessary in order to be certain of adequate sampling times, flow rates and sampling volumes. With this in mind, the microdialysis technique is useful and appropriate for in vivo studies on tissue metabolism.

  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Åberg, Anna-Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Haney, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Blind, Per-Jonas
    Kirurgi, Skåne Universitets sjukhus, Lund.
    Comparison between outcome of  surface and intraparenchymatous sampling using microdialysis in an experimental liver ischemia modelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. We recently have shown that samples from MD probes placed on the surface of the heart reflect metabolic events in the myocardium. This new interesting observation challenges us to consider whether surface application of MD applies to other parenchymatous organs and their surfaces.

    Material and methods.  In thirteen anesthetized pigs transient liver ischemia was achieved by occlusion of arterial and venous inflow to the liver. Two probes on liver surface, and two in parenchyma were perfused with a flow rate of 1 µL/min (n=13). An identical set up was used for probes with a flow rate of 2 µL/min (n=9). Samples were collected for every 15 minute period during 60 minutes of baseline, 45 minutes of ischemia and 60 minutes of reperfusion. Lactate, glucose, pyruvate and glycerol were analysed in MD samples. We focused on relative changes in the present paper.

    Results. There was a strong agreement in relative lactate and glucose levels between probes placed on liver surface and parenchyma. No significant differences in relative changes of lactate and glucose levels were seen between samples from surface probes and probes in liver parenchyma during equilibration, baseline, ischemia or reperfusion with a flow rate of 1 µL/min.

    Conclusion. MD sampling applied on the liver surface is a new application area for the MD technique, and may be used to monitor liver metabolism both during physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  • 10.
    Acosta, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Univ Nacl Mar Del Plata, Hosp Privado Comunidad, Dept Anaesthesiol, Mar Del Plata, Argentina.
    Lopez Vargas, Maria Paz
    Univ Nacl Mar Del Plata, Hosp Privado Comunidad, Dept Anaesthesiol, Mar Del Plata, Argentina.
    Oropel, Facundo
    Univ Nacl Mar Del Plata, Hosp Privado Comunidad, Dept Anaesthesiol, Mar Del Plata, Argentina.
    Valente, Lisandro
    Univ Nacl Mar Del Plata, Hosp Privado Comunidad, Dept Anaesthesiol, Mar Del Plata, Argentina.
    Ricci, Lila
    Univ Nacl Mar Del Plata, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Dept Math, Mar Del Plata, Argentina.
    Natal, Marcela
    Univ Nacl Mar Del Plata, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Dept Math, Mar Del Plata, Argentina.
    Suarez Sipmann, Fernando
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory. Univ Autonoma Madrid, Hosp Univ Princesa, Inst Carlos III, CIBERES, Madrid, Spain; Univ Autonoma Madrid, Hosp Univ Princesa, Dept Crit Care, Madrid, Spain.
    Tusman, Gerardo
    Univ Nacl Mar Del Plata, Hosp Privado Comunidad, Dept Anaesthesiol, Mar Del Plata, Argentina.
    Prevention of atelectasis by continuous positive airway pressure in anaesthetised children: A randomised controlled study2021In: European Journal of Anaesthesiology, ISSN 0265-0215, E-ISSN 1365-2346, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND 

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) prevents peri-operative atelectasis in adults, but its effect in children has not been quantified.

    OBJECTIVE 

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CPAP in preventing postinduction and postoperative atelectasis in children under general anaesthesia.

    DESIGN 

    A randomised controlled study.

    SETTING 

    Single-institution study, community hospital, Mar del Plata. Argentina.

    PATIENTS 

    We studied 42 children, aged 6 months to 7 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I, under standardised general anaesthesia.

    INTERVENTIONS 

    Patients were randomised into two groups: Control group (n = 21): induction and emergence of anaesthesia without CPAP; and CPAP group (n = 21): 5 cmH2O of CPAP during induction and emergence of anaesthesia. Lung ultrasound (LUS) imaging was performed before and 5 min after anaesthesia induction. Children without atelectasis were ventilated in the same manner as the Control group with standard ventilatory settings including 5 cmH2O of PEEP. Children with atelectasis received a recruitment manoeuvre followed by standard ventilation with 8 cmH2O of PEEP. Then, at the end of surgery, LUS images were repeated before tracheal extubation and 60 min after awakening.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES 

    Lung aeration score and atelectasis assessed by LUS.

    RESULTS 

    Before anaesthesia, all children were free of atelectasis. After induction, 95% in the Control group developed atelectasis compared with 52% of patients in the CPAP group (P < 0.0001). LUS aeration scores were higher (impaired aeration) in the Control group than the CPAP group (8.8 ± 3.8 vs. 3.5 ± 3.3 points; P < 0.0001). At the end of surgery, before tracheal extubation, atelectasis was observed in 100% of children in the Control and 29% of the CPAP group (P < 0.0001) with a corresponding aeration score of 9.6 ± 3.2 and 1.8 ± 2.3, respectively (P < 0.0001). After surgery, 30% of children in the Control group and 10% in the CPAP group presented with residual atelectasis (P < 0.0001) also corresponding to a higher aeration score in the Control group (2.5 ± 3.1) when compared with the CPAP group (0.5 ± 1.5; P < 0.01).

    CONCLUSION 

    The use of 5 cmH2O of CPAP in healthy children of the studied age span during induction and emergence of anaesthesia effectively prevents atelectasis, with benefits maintained during the first postoperative hour.

    TRIAL REGISTRY 

    Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03461770.

  • 11.
    Acosta, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Hosp Privado Comunidad Mar Del Plata, Dept Anesthesiol, Mar Del Plata, Argentina..
    Poliotto, Sergio
    Hosp Privado Comun, Dept Pediat Surg, Mar Del Plata, Argentina..
    Abrego, Diego
    Hosp Privado Comun, Dept Pediat Surg, Mar Del Plata, Argentina..
    Bradley, Dolores
    Hosp Privado Comunidad Mar Del Plata, Dept Anesthesiol, Mar Del Plata, Argentina..
    de Esteban, Santiago
    Hosp Privado Comunidad Mar Del Plata, Dept Anesthesiol, Mar Del Plata, Argentina..
    Mir, Francisco
    Hosp Privado Comunidad Mar Del Plata, Dept Anesthesiol, Mar Del Plata, Argentina..
    Ricci, Lila
    Univ Nacl Mar Del Plata, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Dept Math, Mar Del Plata, Argentina..
    Natal, Marcela
    Univ Nacl Mar Del Plata, Fac Ciencias Exactas, Dept Math, Mar Del Plata, Argentina..
    Wallin, Mats
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Solna Stockholm, Sweden.;Getinge Crit Care AB, Solna, Sweden..
    Hallbäck, Magnus
    Getinge Crit Care AB, Solna, Sweden..
    Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Hedenstierna laboratory. CIBERES Network Biomed Res Ctr, Madrid, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Madrid, Hosp Univ La Princesa, Dept Crit Care, Madrid, Spain..
    Tusman, Gerardo
    Hosp Privado Comunidad Mar Del Plata, Dept Anesthesiol, Mar Del Plata, Argentina.;Hosp Privado Comunidad Mar Del Plata, Dept Anesthesia, Cordoba 4545, RA-7600 Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Effect of an Individualized Lung Protective Ventilation on Lung Strain and Stress in Children Undergoing Laparoscopy: An Observational Cohort Study2024In: Anesthesiology, ISSN 0003-3022, E-ISSN 1528-1175, Vol. 140, no 3, p. 430-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exaggerated lung strain and stress could damage lungs in anesthetized children. The authors hypothesized that the association of capnoperitoneum and lung collapse in anesthetized children increases lung strain-stress. Their primary aim was to describe the impact of capnoperitoneum on lung strain-stress and the effects of an individualized protective ventilation during laparoscopic surgery in children.

    Methods: The authors performed an observational cohort study in healthy children aged 3 to 7 yr scheduled for laparoscopic surgery in a community hospital. All received standard protective ventilation with 5 cm H2O of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Children were evaluated before capnoperitoneum, during capnoperitoneum before and after lung recruitment and optimized PEEP (PEEP adjusted to get end-expiratory transpulmonary pressure of 0), and after capnoperitoneum with optimized PEEP. The presence of lung collapse was evaluated by lung ultrasound, positive Air-Test (oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry 96% or less breathing 21% O2 for 5 min), and negative end-expiratory transpulmonary pressure. Lung strain was calculated as tidal volume/end-expiratory lung volume measured by capnodynamics, and lung stress as the end-inspiratory transpulmonary pressure.

    Results: The authors studied 20 children. Before capnoperitoneum, mean lung strain was 0.20 ± 0.07 (95% CI, 0.17 to 0.23), and stress was 5.68 ± 2.83 (95% CI, 4.44 to 6.92) cm H2O. During capnoperitoneum, 18 patients presented lung collapse and strain (0.29 ± 0.13; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.35; P < 0.001) and stress (5.92 ± 3.18; 95% CI, 4.53 to 7.31 cm H2O; P = 0.374) increased compared to before capnoperitoneum. During capnoperitoneum and optimized PEEP, children presenting lung collapse were recruited and optimized PEEP was 8.3 ± 2.2 (95% CI, 7.3 to 9.3) cm H2O. Strain returned to values before capnoperitoneum (0.20 ± 0.07; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.22; P = 0.318), but lung stress increased (7.29 ± 2.67; 95% CI, 6.12 to 8.46 cm H2O; P = 0.020). After capnoperitoneum, strain decreased (0.18 ± 0.04; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.20; P = 0.090), but stress remained higher (7.25 ± 3.01; 95% CI, 5.92 to 8.57 cm H2O; P = 0.024) compared to before capnoperitoneum.

    Conclusions: Capnoperitoneum increased lung strain in healthy children undergoing laparoscopy. Lung recruitment and optimized PEEP during capnoperitoneum decreased lung strain but slightly increased lung stress. This little rise in pulmonary stress was maintained within safe, lung-protective, and clinically acceptable limits.

  • 12.
    Acosta, Stefan
    et al.
    Vascular Center, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Block, Tomas
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Steinarr
    Vascular Center, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Resch, Timothy
    Vascular Center, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Björck, Martin
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Clinical Chemistry, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Diagnostic pitfalls at admission in patients with acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion2012In: Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0736-4679, E-ISSN 1090-1280, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 635-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion leads to acute intestinal ischemia and is associated with high mortality. Early diagnosis is often missed, and confounding factors leading to diagnostic delays need to be highlighted.

    OBJECTIVES: To identify potential diagnostic laboratory pitfalls at admission in patients with acute SMA occlusion.

    METHODS: Fifty-five patients with acute SMA occlusion were identified from the in-hospital register during a 4-year period, 2005-2009.

    RESULTS: The median age was 76 years; 78% were women. The occlusion was embolic in 53% and thrombotic in 47% of patients. At admission, troponin I was above the clinical decision level (> 0.06 μg/L) for acute ischemic myocardial injury in 9/19 (47%) patients with embolic occlusion. Elevated pancreas amylase and normal plasma lactate were found in 12/45 and 13/27, respectively. A troponin I (TnI) above the clinical decision level was associated with a high frequency of referrals from the general surgeon to a specialist in internal medicine (p = 0.011) or a cardiologist (p = 0.024). The diagnosis was established after computed tomography angiography in 98% of the patients. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 33%. Attempting intestinal revascularization (n = 43; p < 0.001), with a 95% frequency rate of completion control of the vascular procedure, was associated with a higher survival rate, whereas referral to the cardiologist was associated with a higher mortality rate (p = 0.018).

    CONCLUSION: Elevated TnI was common in acute SMA occlusion, and referral to the cardiologist was found to be associated with adverse outcome. Elevated pancreas amylase and normal plasma lactate values are also potential pitfalls at admission in patients with acute SMA occlusion.

  • 13.
    Adamopoulos, Stamatis
    et al.
    Onassis Cardiac Surg Ctr, Greece.
    Bonios, Michael
    Onassis Cardiac Surg Ctr, Greece.
    Ben Gal, Tuvia
    Tel Aviv Univ, Israel.
    Gustafsson, Finn
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Abdelhamid, Magdy
    Cairo Univ, Egypt.
    Adamo, Marianna
    Univ Brescia, Italy.
    Bayes-Genis, Antonio
    Hlth Sci Res Inst Germans Trias i Pujol, Spain; Inst Salud Carlos III, Spain; Germans Trias i Pujol Univ Hosp, Spain.
    Boehm, Michael
    Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Chioncel, Ovidiu
    Emergency Inst Cardiovasc Dis Prof CC Iliescu, Romania; Univ Med & Pharm Carol Davila, Romania.
    Cohen-Solal, Alain
    Hosp Lariboisiere, France.
    Damman, Kevin
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Di Nora, Concetta
    Univ Trieste, Italy.
    Hashmani, Shahrukh
    Cleveland Clin Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.
    Hill, Loreena
    Queens Univ, North Ireland.
    Jaarsma, Tiny
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jankowska, Ewa
    Wroclaw Med Univ, Poland.
    Lopatin, Yury
    Volgograd State Med Univ, Russia.
    Masetti, Marco
    IRCCS Azienda Osped Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Mehra, Mandeep R.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, MA USA; Harvard Med Sch, MA USA.
    Milicic, Davor
    Univ Zagreb, Croatia; Univ Hosp Ctr Zagreb, Croatia.
    Moura, Brenda
    Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Mullens, Wilfried
    Ziekenhuis Oost Limburg, Belgium.
    Nalbantgil, Sanem
    Ege Univ, Turkiye.
    Panagiotou, Chrysoula
    Onassis Cardiac Surg Ctr, Greece.
    Piepoli, Massimo
    IRCCS Policlin San Donato, Italy; Univ Milan, Italy.
    Rakisheva, Amina
    Sci Res Inst Cardiol & Internal Med, Kazakhstan.
    Ristic, Arsen
    Univ Belgrade, Serbia.
    Rivinius, Rasmus
    Heidelberg Univ Hosp, Germany; German Ctr Cardiovasc Res DZHK, Germany.
    Savarese, Gianluigi
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Thum, Thomas
    Hannover Med Sch, Germany; Hannover Med Sch, Germany.
    Tocchetti, Carlo Gabriele
    Univ Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Tops, Laurens F.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Van Laake, Linda W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Volterrani, Maurizio
    IRCCS San Raffaele, Italy.
    Seferovic, Petar
    Univ Belgrade, Serbia.
    Coats, Andrew
    Heart Res Inst, Australia.
    Metra, Marco
    Univ Brescia, Italy.
    Rosano, Giuseppe
    St Georges Hosp NHS Trust London, England.
    Right heart failure with left ventricular assist devices: Preoperative, perioperative and postoperative management strategies. A clinical consensus statement of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC2024In: European Journal of Heart Failure, ISSN 1388-9842, E-ISSN 1879-0844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Right heart failure (RHF) following implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a common and potentially serious condition with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations with an unfavourable effect on patient outcomes. Clinical scores that predict the occurrence of right ventricular (RV) failure have included multiple clinical, biochemical, imaging and haemodynamic parameters. However, unless the right ventricle is overtly dysfunctional with end-organ involvement, prediction of RHF post-LVAD implantation is, in most cases, difficult and inaccurate. For these reasons optimization of RV function in every patient is a reasonable practice aiming at preparing the right ventricle for a new and challenging haemodynamic environment after LVAD implantation. To this end, the institution of diuretics, inotropes and even temporary mechanical circulatory support may improve RV function, thereby preparing it for a better adaptation post-LVAD implantation. Furthermore, meticulous management of patients during the perioperative and immediate postoperative period should facilitate identification of RV failure refractory to medication. When RHF occurs late during chronic LVAD support, this is associated with worse long-term outcomes. Careful monitoring of RV function and characterization of the origination deficit should therefore continue throughout the patient's entire follow-up. Despite the useful information provided by the echocardiogram with respect to RV function, right heart catheterization frequently offers additional support for the assessment and optimization of RV function in LVAD-supported patients. In any patient candidate for LVAD therapy, evaluation and treatment of RV function and failure should be assessed in a multidimensional and multidisciplinary manner.

  • 14.
    Adamski, Jan
    et al.
    Satakunta Cent Hosp, Dept Intens Care Med, Sairaalantie 3,PL 317, FIN-28500 Pori, Finland..
    Weigl, Wojciech
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Lahtinen, Pasi
    Kuopio Univ Hosp, Dept Anaesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Kuopio, Finland..
    Reinikainen, Matti
    Kuopio Univ Hosp, Dept Anaesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Kuopio, Finland.;Univ Eastern Finland, Fac Hlth Sci, Sch Med, Inst Clin Med, Kuopio, Finland..
    Kaminski, Tadeusz
    Cent Hosp Middle Ostrobothnia, Dept Intens Care Med, Kokkola, Finland..
    Pietiläinen, Laura
    Kuopio Univ Hosp, Dept Anaesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Kuopio, Finland..
    Musialowicz, Tadeusz
    Kuopio Univ Hosp, Dept Anaesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Kuopio, Finland..
    Intensive care patient survival after limiting life-sustaining treatment-The FINNEOL* national cohort study2020In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 1144-1153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Few studies have examined survival in intensive care unit (ICU) patients after the restriction of life-sustaining treatment (LST). We aimed to analyse independent factors associated with hospital and 12-month survival rates in ICU patients after treatment restrictions. Methods This retrospective observational study examined all patients treated in adult ICUs from 1 January 2016 until 31 December 2016 included in the Finnish ICU Registry. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to explain the effect on survival. Results Decisions to limit LST were made for 2444 patients (13.7%; 95% CI 13.2-14.2). ICU, hospital, and 12-month survival rates were 71% (95% CI 69-73), 49% (95% CI 47-51), and 24% (95% CI 22-26), respectively. In patients for whom life support was withheld, increased 12-month survival rates were associated with admission from the operating theatre (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4), good pre-hospital physical fitness (OR 4.7, 95% Cl 1.2-16.8) and being housed at home (OR 2.0, 95% Cl 1.4-2.8). Decreased survival rates were associated with admission from a hospital ward (OR 0.67, 95% Cl 0.5-0.9), higher comorbidity (OR 0.6, 95% Cl 0.4-0.9), cancer (OR 0.4, 95%CI 0.2-0.9), greater illness severity (SAPS II; OR 0.98, 95% Cl 0.98-0.99), and higher care intensity (TISS-76; OR 0.93, 95% Cl 0.92-0.95). Conclusion Survival among ICU patients with limited treatment was higher than expected. Advanced age was not associated with higher mortality, potentially because treatment restrictions may be set more easily for older patients.

  • 15.
    Adamski, Jan
    et al.
    Univ Warmia & Mazury, Fac Med Sci, Dept Anaesthesiol & Intens Care, Ul Warszawska 30, PL-10082 Olsztyn, Poland..
    Weigl, Wojciech
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Musialowicz, Tadeusz
    Kuopio Univ Hosp, Dept Anaesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Kuopio, Finland..
    Lahtinen, Pasi
    Cent Hosp South Ostrobothnia, Anaesthesiol & Intens Care Dept, Seinajoki, Finland..
    Reinikainen, Matti
    Kuopio Univ Hosp, Dept Anaesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Kuopio, Finland.;Univ Eastern Finland, Fac Hlth Sci, Sch Med, Inst Clin Med, Kuopio, Finland..
    Predictors of treatment limitations in Finnish intensive care units2022In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 526-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Few studies have examined the factors that predict the limitations of life-sustaining treatment (LST) to patients in intensive care units (ICUs). We aimed to identify variables associated with the decision of withholding of life support (WHLS) at admission, WHLS during ICU stay and the withdrawal of ongoing life support (WDLS). Methods This retrospective observational study comprised 17,772 adult ICU patients who were included in the nationwide Finnish ICU Registry in 2016. Factors associated with LST limitations were identified using hierarchical logistic regression. Results The decision of WHLS at admission was made for 822 (4.6%) patients, WHLS during ICU stay for 949 (5.3%) patients, and WDLS for 669 (3.8%) patients. Factors strongly predicting WHLS at admission included old age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for patients aged 90 years or older in reference to those younger than 40 years was 95.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 47.2-193.5), dependence on help for activities of daily living (OR, 3.55; 95% CI, 3.01-4.2), and metastatic cancer (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 3.16-5.95). A high severity of illness predicted later decisions to limit LST. Diagnoses strongly associated with WHLS at admission were cardiac arrest, hepatic failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Later decisions were strongly associated with cardiac arrest, hepatic failure, non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, head trauma and stroke. Conclusion Early decisions to limit LST were typically associated with old age and chronic poor health whereas later decisions were related to the severity of illness. Limitations are common for certain diagnoses, particularly cardiac arrest and hepatic failure.

  • 16.
    Adielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Anaesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Danielsson, Christian
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Pathol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Forkman, Pontus
    Mora Hosp, Dept Adult Psychiat, Mora, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Univ Gothenburg, Hlth Metr Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Pettersson, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Herlitz, Johan
    Univ Coll Borås, Ctr Prehosp Res Western Sweden, Borås, Sweden..
    Lundin, Stefan
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Anaesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Outcome prediction for patients assessed by the medical emergency team: a retrospective cohort study2022In: BMC Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1471-227X, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Medical emergency teams (METs) have been implemented to reduce hospital mortality by the early recognition and treatment of potentially life-threatening conditions. The objective of this study was to establish a clinically useful association between clinical variables and mortality risk, among patients assessed by the MET, and further to design an easy-to-use risk score for the prediction of death within 30 days.

    Methods: Observational retrospective register study in a tertiary university hospital in Sweden, comprising 2,601 patients, assessed by the MET from 2010 to 2015. Patient registry data at the time of MET assessment was analysed from an epidemiological perspective, using univariable and multivariable analyses with death within 30 days as the outcome variable. Predictors of outcome were defined from age, gender, type of ward for admittance, previous medical history, acute medical condition, vital parameters and laboratory biomarkers. Identified factors independently associated with mortality were then used to develop a prognostic risk score for mortality.

    Results: The overall 30-day mortality was high (29.0%). We identified thirteen factors independently associated with 30-day mortality concerning; age, type of ward for admittance, vital parameters, laboratory biomarkers, previous medical history and acute medical condition. A MET risk score for mortality based on the impact of these individual thirteen factors in the model yielded a median (range) AUC of 0.780 (0.774-0.785) with good calibration. When corrected for optimism by internal validation, the score yielded a median (range) AUC of 0.768 (0.762-0.773).

    Conclusions: Among clinical variables available at the time of MET assessment, thirteen factors were found to be independently associated with 30-day mortality. By applying a simple risk scoring system based on these individual factors, patients at higher risk of dying within 30 days after the MET assessment may be identified and treated earlier in the process.

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  • 17.
    af Klinteberg, Ingvar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Airway management and safety aspects during induction of anaesthesia. - A comparison between Rapid sequence induction and Target controlled infusion in non-cardiac surgery2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Ahl, Rebecka
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sarani, Babak
    Department of Surgery, Center for Trauma and Critical Care, George Washington University, Washington, USA.
    Sjölin, Gabriel
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Mohseni, Shahin
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Surgery.
    The Association of Intracranial Pressure Monitoring and Mortality: A Propensity Score-Matched Cohort of Isolated Severe Blunt Traumatic Brain Injury2019In: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock, ISSN 0974-2700, E-ISSN 0974-519X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 18-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common. Yet, its efficacy varies between studies, and the actual effect on the outcome is debated. This study investigates the association of ICP monitoring and clinical outcome in patients with an isolated severe blunt TBI.

    Patients and Methods: Patients were recruited from the American College of Surgeons-Trauma Quality Improvement Program database during 2014. Inclusion criteria were limited to adult patients (>= 18 years) who had a sustained isolated severe intracranial injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] head of >= 3 and Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] of <= 8) following blunt trauma to the head. Patients with AIS score >0 for any extracranial body area were excluded. Patients' demographics, injury characteristics, interventions, and outcomes were collected for analysis. Patients receiving ICP monitoring were matched in a 1:1 ratio with controls who were not ICP monitored using propensity score matching.

    Results: A total of 3289 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 601 (18.3%) were ICP monitored. After propensity score matching, 557 pairs were available for analysis with a mean age of 44 (standard deviation 18) years and 80.2% of them were male. Median GCS on admission was 4[3,7], and a third of patients required neurosurgical intervention. There were no statistical differences in any variables included in the analysis between the ICP-monitored group and their matched counterparts. ICP-monitored patients required significantly longer intensive care unit and hospital length of stay and had an increased mortality risk with odds ratio of 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.1-2.5, P = 0.038).

    Conclusion: ICP monitoring is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in patients with an isolated severe TBI. Further investigation into which patients may benefit from this intervention is required.

  • 19.
    Ahlberg, Hans
    et al.
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (Östersund).
    Wallgren, Daniel
    Department of Surgical and € Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (Sunderbyn).
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Myrberg, Tomi
    Department of Surgical and € Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (Sunderbyn).
    Johansson, Joakim
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (Östersund).
    Less use of rescue morphine when a combined PSP/IPP-block is used for postoperative analgesia in breast cancer surgery: A randomised controlled trial2023In: European Journal of Anaesthesiology, ISSN 0265-0215, E-ISSN 1365-2346, Vol. 40, no 9, p. 636-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Surgery for breast cancer is common, and intravenous opioids are often used to control postoperative pain. Recently, pectoralis-2 (PECS-2) block has emerged as a promising regional anaesthetic alternative. With nomenclature recently proposed, this block is termed combined PSP/IPP-block (pectoserratus plane block/interpectoral plane block).

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the need for postoperative rescue morphine between the intervention group that received a pre-operative combined PSP/IPP-block and a control group that received peri-operative long-acting opioids for postoperative analgesia.

    DESIGN: A randomised controlled study.

    SETTING: Operating theatres of two Swedish hospitals. The patients were recruited between May 2017 and October 2020.

    PATIENTS: Among the 199 women scheduled to undergo breast cancer surgery (sector resection or radical mastectomy) who were enrolled in the study, 185 were available for follow up.

    INTERVENTION: All patients received general anaesthesia. The intervention group received a combined PSP/IPP-block before surgery. The control group received intravenous morphine 30 min before emergence from anaesthesia.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary endpoint was the cumulative need for intravenous rescue morphine to reach a predefined level of pain control (visual analogue scale score <40 mm) during the first 48 h after surgery.

    RESULTS: Data from 92 and 93 patients in the intervention and control groups, respectively, were analysed. The amount of rescue morphine administered in the 48 h after surgery was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (median: 2.25 vs 3.0 mg, P  = 0.021). The first measured pain score was lower in the intervention group than in the control group (35 vs. 40 mm, P  = 0.035). There was no significant difference in the incidence of nausea between the groups (8.7 vs. 12.9%, P  = 0.357).

    CONCLUSION: The use of a combined PSP/IPP-block block before breast cancer surgery reduces the need for postoperative rescue morphine, even when compared with the use of intra-operative morphine.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03117894.

  • 20.
    Ahlstrand, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medicine.
    Cajander, Sara
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Cajander, Per
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Ingberg, Edvin
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, Department of Infectious Diseases, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Löf, Erika
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wegener, Matthias
    Department of Radiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lidén, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Radiology.
    Visual scoring of chest CT at hospital admission predicts hospitalization time and intensive care admission in Covid-192021In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 622-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chest CT is prognostic in Covid-19 but there is a lack of consensus on how to report the CT findings. A chest CT scoring system, ÖCoS, was implemented in clinical routine on 1 April 2020, in Örebro Region, Sweden. The ÖCoS-severity score measures the extent of lung involvement. The objective of the study was to evaluate the ÖCoS scores as predictors of the clinical course of Covid-19.

    METHODS: Population based study including data from all hospitalized patients with Covid-19 in Örebro Region during March to July 2020. We evaluated the correlations between CT scores at the time of admission to hospital and intensive care in relation to hospital and intensive care length of stay (LoS), intensive care admission and death. C-reactive protein and lymphocyte count were included as covariates in multivariate regression analyses.

    RESULTS: In 381 included patients, the ÖCoS-severity score at admission closely correlated to hospital length of stay, and intensive care admission or death. At admission to intensive care, the ÖCoS-severity score correlated with intensive care length of stay. The ÖCoS-severity score was superior to basic inflammatory biomarkers in predicting clinical outcomes.

    CONCLUSION: Chest CT visual scoring at admission to hospital predicted the clinical course of Covid-19 pneumonia.

  • 21.
    Ahlstrand, Rebecca
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Effects of anasthesia on esophageal sphincters2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The esophageal sphincters constitute the anatomical protection against pulmonary aspiration. The aim of this thesis was to study the esophageal sphincters and how they are affected by different components of emergency anesthesia using high-resolution solid-state manometry.

    The effect of propofol (0.3 mg/kg) was studied in young and elderly volunteers. Propofol can be given as an anxiolytic agent for manometric studies of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) without affecting the results. However, propofol is not recommended for studies of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES).

    The effects of cricoid pressure (CP) and peripheral pain were studied in awake volunteers, with and without remifentanil infusion (5 ng/ml). Pain did not affect pressure in the LES, but CP or remifentanil induced a significant decrease in LES pressure. However, neither CP nor remifentanil affected the barrier pressure (LES-intra gastric pressure). When CP was applied during ongoing remifentanil infusion, no further decrease in LES pressure was measured. CP induced high pressures in the area of the UES independent of remifentanil infusion, indicating that CP is effective in preventing gastroesophageal regurgitation.

    Barrier pressure was also studied in anesthetized patients after rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) administration and no decrease was measured. In addition, alfentanil (20 μ/kg) added during anesthesia induction with propofol did not decrease the barrier pressure.

    In conclusion, CP seems to be effective in preventing regurgitation and does not affect barrier pressure. Muscle relaxation with rocuronium does not risk gastro-esophageal integrity. In addition, opioids can be integrated, even during emergency anethesia, without increasing the risk for pulmonary aspiration.

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  • 22.
    Ahlstrand, Rebecca
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Magnuson, Anders
    Thörn, Sven-Egron
    Dahlkvist, Anette
    Wattvil, Magnus
    Integrity of the esophagogastric junction during propofol induction with and without remifentanil: a double-blind,randomized, crossover study in volunteersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Practice varies regarding the use of opioids during rapid sequence induction. Controversy exists as to whether opioids may increase the risk of pulmonary aspiration by decreasing the barrier pressure (lower oesophageal sphincter pressure – intragastric pressure).

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects of adding alfentanil during anaesthesia induction with propofol with respect to the barrier pressure in the oesophagogastric junction.

    Participants and Setting: Seventeen healthy volunteers (11 males and 6 females) participated in a double-blind, randomised, crossover trial at the University Hospital in Örebro, Sweden.

    Interventions and outcome measures: The volunteers were anaesthetised on two different occasions, randomly assigned to receive either alfentanil 20 g kg ˉ1 or an equivalent amount of saline, administered intravenously, one minute before induction with propofol 2 mg kg ˉ1. One minute after propofol administration, a cricoid pressure of 30N was applied. The primary outcome was the difference in the change in barrier pressure between the alfentanil and the placebo occasion one minute after propofol administration. The secondary outcomes were differences in the changes in barrier pressure one minute after alfentanil or placebo administration and during ongoing cricoid pressure application.

    Results: There were no statistically significant differences in barrier pressure, at any time point, between anaesthesia induction with alfentanil and propofol compared with induction with placebo and propofol. The barrier pressure never decreased to less than 2.4 mmHg in any volunteer.

    Conclusion: Our study showed no increased risk regarding the integrity of the gastrooesophageal junction when alfentanil is added during an induction with propofol in volunteers. This supports the practice of adding opioids as adjuvants during rapid sequence induction.

  • 23.
    Ahlstrand, Rebecca
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Savilampi, Johanna
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Thörn, Sven-Egron
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wattwil, Magnus
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Effects of cricoid pressure and remifentanil on the esophageal sphincters using high-resolution solid-state manometry2011In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 209-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cricoid pressure has been shown to decrease the pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), increasing the risk of aspiration. Whether this reaction is due to pain associated with the application of cricoid pressure has not been studied. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cricoid pressure with those of peripheral pain on pressures in the LES, and to study whether remifentanil influences these effects. Data from the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) are also described.

    METHODS: Continuous solid-state manometry was performed in 14 healthy volunteers. Initially, the effect of remifentanil (target-controlled infusion with a plasma target concentration of 5.0 ng/ml) was studied, and thereafter, the effects of cricoid pressure and peripheral pain stimulation (cold stimulation). Finally, these two interventions were repeated under ongoing remifentanil infusion.

    RESULTS: Remifentanil decreased the LES pressure significantly [ΔP-6.5 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -1.7 to -11.2]. Cricoid pressure application decreased the LES pressure significantly (ΔP-3.7 mmHg, 95% CI -1.4 to 6.1), whereas peripheral pain did not (ΔP 1.2 mmHg, 95% CI -3.5 to 1.1). Under ongoing remifentanil infusion, no cricoid pressure-induced LES relaxation was observed. Cricoid pressure induced high pressures in the area of the UES, 215.7 (±91.2) mmHg without remifentanil vs. 219.4 (±74.2) mmHg with remifentanil.

    CONCLUSIONS: Remifentanil as well as cricoid pressure per se induced decreases in LES pressure. However, cricoid pressure-induced changes of the barrier pressure were not significant whether induced with or without an infusion of remifentanil.

  • 24.
    Ahlstrand, Rebecca
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Thörn, Sven-Egron
    Wattvil, Magnus
    High resolution solid-state manometry of the effect of rocuronium on esophagogastric junction integrityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is partly dependent on striated muscles derived from the crural portion of the diaphragm. The effect of neuromuscular blockade on the integrity of the esophagogastric junction is not well studied. We conducted a prospective interventional study to determine the effect of rocuronium on the pressure in the LES and the barrier pressure (LES pressure – intra gastric pressure). We also studied the effect of positive pressure ventilation on the barrier pressure after neuromuscular blockade with rocuronium.

    Methods: Fourteen patients classified as ASA I or II (aged 18-75 years) who presented for elective surgery (11 cholecystectomy, 3 inguinal hernia) participated in the study. Esophageal manometry was performed after anesthetization with propofol, fentanyl and sevoflurane. After the insertion of a laryngeal mask airway, the patients breathed spontaneously for one minute. Rocuronium was administrated and the patients observed during the onset of apnea and during one minute of apnea and complete neuromuscular blockade. Volume controlled positive pressure ventilation followed.

    Results: Muscle relaxation with rocuronium showed no significant changes in barrier pressure comparing the pressure immediately before rocuronium administration with the pressure obtained at the time point of 0% TOF. Conversion to positive pressure ventilation did not change the barrier pressure with inspiration or expiration. The greatest decrease in barrier pressure was measured after inducing anesthesia when comparing pressures during inspiration (P< 0.01)

  • 25.
    Ahlström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    The epidemiology of risk factors and short and long-term outcome in the Swedish intensive care cohort2021Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissertation presented at Uppsala University to be publicly examined on Zoom: https://uu-se.zoom.us/j/7214327760, Tuesday, 11 May 2021 at 13:00 for the degree of Licentiate of Philosophy (Faculty of Medicine). The examination will be conducted in English and Swedish. Chairman of the Examining committee: Professor Karl Michaëlsson (Medical epidemiology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala) 

    Abstract Ahlström, B. 2021. The epidemiology of risk factors and short- and long-term out-come in the Swedish intensive care cohort. 76 pp.  

    Severe sepsis and septic shock, linked to persistent organ dysfunctions, have poor short- and long-term mortality outcomes. These conditions also adversely affect health-related quality of life. After intensive care with severe sepsis and septic shock, memory and other cognitive functions have shown deterioration. In addition, there are indications of an increased risk of dementia. Yet, whether severe sepsis and septic shock are independently linked to dementia or dementia development is linked to more general severe illness remains unclear. In the Swedish intensive care cohort we compared 16 115 one-year sepsis survivors without previous dementia to 194 219 patients (controls) admitted to intensive care for other reasons using a Cox proportional hazards model. The crude risk of dementia was increased in the severe sepsis and septic shock group. However, after adjustment for demographics, comorbidities and factors reflecting the severity of acute illness, severe sepsis and septic shock was found not to be a significant risk factor of incident dementia with a haz-ard ratio of 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.91-1.11). Thus, we concluded that although the incidence of dementia is high after intensive care, severe sepsis or septic shock is not causative.  

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has put a tremendous strain on the healthcare system in general and intensive care, in particular, since its emergence in Wuhan, China, in late 2019. Risk factors of ICU admission and mortality from COVID-19 were reported early during the pandemic, but only as univariate variables. Under the hypothesis that there are several independent risk factors of critical COVID-19, we used statistical models to explore demographic characteristics and comorbidi-ties in the first 1 981 ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19 in Sweden. On the risk of ICU admission, we also included matched population controls in a 1:4 ratio. Hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, asthma, obesity, solid organ transplant recipient and immunosuppressant medications were independent risk factors of ICU admission. Oral anticoagulants were associated with a protective effect. Stroke, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors were independent risk factors of ICU mortality. Treatment with statins was protective. Our findings suggest that there are several independent risk factors of ICU admission and ICU mortality in COVID-19.

    Björn Ahlström, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Uppsala University, SE-75185 Uppsala, Sweden  

    and  Centre of clinical research, Region Dalarna, SE-79182 Falun, Sweden. 

  • 26.
    Ahlström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    The epidemiology of risk factors and short- and long-term outcome in the Swedish intensive care cohort2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The sepsis syndrome is present in ¼ to ⅓ of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. The short-term prognosis is grim, with a 30-day mortality of 30–35%; however, the long- term outcomes are now being explored, as multi-professional follow-up after ICU care is increasingly being implemented. In 2020 the first and second waves of another severe infection, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) hit Sweden. The number of ICU beds were scaled up by several hundred percent while we simultaneously tried to understand the disease. Reports on risk factors for adverse outcomes in Covid-19 started to appear, but we needed to know more. Thus, we initiated this project aiming at assessing sepsis as an independent risk factor for later morbidity and mortality. Subsequently, with the onset of the pandemic, our focus shifted to identifying risk factors for adverse outcomes in Covid-19 and describing the functional recovery after severe Covid-19. We used the Swedish Intensive Care Registry and several governmental registries to this end.

    In Cox regression, we compared one-year ICU sepsis survivors without previous dementia with ICU patients without sepsis, finding no increased risk of dementia during follow- up. In a similar cohort, we assessed the impact of sepsis on long-term mortality and causes of death in a series of Cox and multinomial models. We found a surprisingly small overall association between sepsis and mortality and a persistently increased risk of infectious causes of death in sepsis patients. We compared the prevalence of several common comorbidities and medications as risk factors for ICU admission and mortality in ICU patients with Covid-19 with that of age- and sex-matched population controls and in patients discharged alive with those that were deceased at discharge. We found associations between several comorbidities and medications with these adverse outcomes. To better understand the meaning of these comorbidities as risk factors for short-term mortality, we compared them in logistic regression models on patients with Covid-19, sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We found very similar impacts from the comorbidities; however, greater age was more associated with mortality in Covid-19 than in either sepsis or ARDS. Finally, we investigated the long-term functional recovery in ICU patients with Covid-19 compared to hospital-admitted patients with Covid-19 and population controls matched to the ICU group. The ICU patients had a markedly impeded recovery that was not explained by demographics or comorbidities in statistical models.

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  • 27.
    Ahlström, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Frithiof, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Hedenstierna laboratory.
    Hultström, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Larsson, Ing-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Strandberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Lipcsey, Miklós
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Hedenstierna laboratory.
    One-year functional recovery from severe Covid-19 is severely affected in the Swedish intensive care and hospital admitted working age cohortManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Ahlström, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Frithiof, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Hultström, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Larsson, Ing-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Strandberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Lipcsey, Miklós
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory.
    The swedish covid-19 intensive care cohort: Risk factors of ICU admission and ICU mortality2021In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 525-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies have recently addressed factors associated with severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, some medications and comorbidities have yet to be evaluated in a large matched cohort. We therefore explored the role of relevant comorbidities and medications in relation to the risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality.

    Methods: All ICU COVID-19 patients in Sweden until 27 May 2020 were matched to population controls on age and gender to assess the risk of ICU admission. Cases were identified, comorbidities and medications were retrieved from high-quality registries. Three conditional logistic regression models were used for risk of ICU admission and three Cox proportional hazards models for risk of ICU mortality, one with comorbidities, one with medications and finally with both models combined, respectively.

    Results: We included 1981 patients and 7924 controls. Hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, asthma, obesity, being a solid organ transplant recipient and immunosuppressant medications were independent risk factors of ICU admission and oral anticoagulants were protective. Stroke, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors (RAASi) were independent risk factors of ICU mortality in the pre-specified primary analyses; treatment with statins was protective. However, after adjusting for the use of continuous renal replacement therapy, RAASi were no longer an independent risk factor.

    Conclusion: In our cohort oral anticoagulants were protective of ICU admission and statins was protective of ICU death. Several comorbidities and ongoing RAASi treatment were independent risk factors of ICU admission and ICU mortality.

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  • 29.
    Ahlström, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Ctr Clin Res Dalarna, Reg Dalarna, Nissers Vag 3, S-79182 Falun, Sweden..
    Larsson, Ing-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Strandberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Lipcsey, Miklós
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory. Uppsala Univ, Dept Surg Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, CIRRUS, Dept Surg Sci, Hedenstierna Lab,Anesthesiol & Intens Care, Uppsala, Sweden..
    A nationwide study of the long-term prevalence of dementia and its risk factors in the Swedish intensive care cohort2020In: Critical Care, ISSN 1364-8535, E-ISSN 1466-609X, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundDeveloping dementia is feared by many for its detrimental effects on cognition and independence. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that sepsis is a risk factor for the later development of dementia. We aimed to investigate whether intensive care-treated sepsis is an independent risk factor for a later diagnosis of dementia in a large cohort of intensive care unit (ICU) patients.MethodsWe identified adult patients admitted to an ICU in 2005 to 2015 and who survived without a dementia diagnosis 1year after intensive care admission using the Swedish Intensive Care Registry, collecting data from all Swedish general ICUs. Comorbidity, the diagnosis of dementia and mortality, was retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Registry, the Swedish Dementia Registry, and the Cause of Death Registry. Sepsis during intensive care served as a covariate in an extended Cox model together with age, sex, and variables describing comorbidities and acute disease severity.ResultsOne year after ICU admission 210,334 patients were alive and without a diagnosis of dementia; of these, 16,115 (7.7%) had a diagnosis of sepsis during intensive care. The median age of the cohort was 61years (interquartile range, IQR 43-72). The patients were followed for up to 11years (median 3.9years, IQR 1.7-6.6). During the follow-up, 6312 (3%) patients were diagnosed with dementia. Dementia was more common in individuals diagnosed with sepsis during their ICU stay (log-rank p<0.001), however diagnosis of sepsis during critical care was not an independent risk factor for a later dementia diagnosis in an extended Cox model: hazard ratio (HR) 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.91-1.11, p=0.873). Renal replacement therapy and ventilator therapy during the ICU stay were protective. High age was a strong risk factor for later dementia, as was increasing severity of acute illness, although to a lesser extent. However, the severity of comorbidities and the length of ICU and hospital stay were not independent risk factors in the model.ConclusionAlthough dementia is more common among patients treated with sepsis in the ICU, sepsis was not an independent risk factor for later dementia in the Swedish national critical care cohort.Trial registrationThis study was registered a priori with the Australian and New Zeeland Clinical Trials Registry (registration no. ACTRN12618000533291).

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  • 30.
    Ahlström, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Larsson, Ing-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Strandberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Lipcsey, Miklós
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Hedenstierna laboratory.
    Association of sepsis with long-term mortality and causes of death in the Swedish intensive care cohortManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Ahlström, Katarina
    et al.
    Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Biber, Björn
    Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Åberg, Anna-Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Abrahamsson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Ronquist, Gunnar
    Department of Medical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Waldenström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Haney, Michael F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Exogenous carbon monoxide does not affect cell membrane energy availability assessed by sarcolemmal calcium fluxes during myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion in the pig2011In: European Journal of Anaesthesiology, ISSN 0265-0215, E-ISSN 1365-2346, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 356-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon monoxide is thought to be cytoprotective and may hold therapeutic promise for mitigating ischaemic injury. The purpose of this study was to test low-dose carbon monoxide for protective effects in a porcine model of acute myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion.

    In acute open-thorax experiments in anaesthetised pigs, pretreatment with low-dose carbon monoxide (5% increase in carboxyhaemoglobin) was conducted for 120 min before localised ischaemia (45 min) and reperfusion (60 min) was performed using a coronary snare. Metabolic and injury markers were collected by microdialysis sampling in the ventricular wall. Recovery of radio-marked calcium delivered locally by microperfusate was measured to assess carbon monoxide treatment effects during ischaemia/reperfusion on the intracellular calcium pool.

    Coronary occlusion and ischaemia/reperfusion were analysed for 16 animals (eight in each group). Changes in glucose, lactate and pyruvate from the ischaemic area were observed during ischaemia and reperfusion interventions, though there was no difference between carbon monoxide-treated and control groups during ischaemia or reperfusion. Similar results were observed for glycerol and microdialysate Ca recovery.

    These findings show that a relatively low and clinically relevant dose of carbon monoxide did not seem to provide acute protection as indicated by metabolic, energy-related and injury markers in a porcine myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion experimental model. We conclude that protective effects of carbon monoxide related to ischaemia/reperfusion either require higher doses of carbon monoxide or occur later after reperfusion than the immediate time frame studied here. More study is needed to characterise the mechanism and time frame of carbon monoxide-related cytoprotection.

  • 32.
    Akca, Ozan
    et al.
    Univ Louisville, Dept Anesthesiol & Perioperat Med, Neurosci ICU, Louisville, KY 40292 USA..
    Ball, Lorenzo
    Univ Genoa, IRCCS AOU San Martino IST, Dept Surg Sci & Integrated Diagnost, Genoa, Italy..
    Belda, F. Javier
    Univ Valencia, Hosp Clin Univ, Dept Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Biro, Peter
    Univ Hosp Zurich, Inst Anesthesiol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Cortegiani, Andrea
    Univ Palermo, Policlin Paolo Giaccone, Sect Anesthesia Analgesia Intens Care & Emergency, Dept Biopathol & Med Biotechnol DIBIMED, Palermo, Italy..
    Eden, Arieh
    Lady Davis Carmel Med Ctr, Dept Anesthesiol Crit Care & Pain Med, Haifa, Israel..
    Ferrando, Carlos
    Univ Valencia, Hosp Clin Univ, Dept Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Gattinoni, Luciano
    Gottingen Univ, Dept Anesthesiol Emergency & Intens Care Med, Gottingen, Germany..
    Goldik, Zeev
    Gregoretti, Cesare
    Univ Palermo, Policlin Paolo Giaccone, Sect Anesthesia Analgesia Intens Care & Emergency, Dept Biopathol & Med Biotechnol DIBIMED, Palermo, Italy..
    Hachenberg, Thomas
    Otto von Guericke Univ, Dept Anaesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Magdeburg, Germany..
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Hopf, Harriet W.
    Univ Utah, Dept Anesthesiol, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Hunt, Thomas K.
    Univ Calif San Francisco, Div Gen Surg, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA..
    Pelosi, Paolo
    Univ Genoa, IRCCS AOU San Martino IST, Dept Surg Sci & Integrated Diagnost, Genoa, Italy..
    Qadan, Motaz
    Harvard Univ, Dept Surg, Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Sessler, Daniel I.
    Cleveland Clin, Inst Anesthesiol, Dept Outcomes Res, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Soro, Marina
    Univ Valencia, Hosp Clin Univ, Dept Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Sentürk, Mert
    Istanbul Univ, Istanbul Sch Med, Dept Anaesthesiol & Reanimat, Istanbul, Turkey..
    WHO Needs High FIO2?2017In: TURKISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIOLOGY AND REANIMATION, ISSN 2149-0937, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 181-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    World Health Organization and the United States Center for Disease Control have recently recommended the use of 0.8 FIO2 in all adult surgical patients undergoing general anaesthesia, to prevent surgical site infections. This recommendation has arisen several discussions: As a matter of fact, there are numerous studies with different results about the effect of FIO2 on surgical site infection. Moreover, the clinical effects of FIO2 are not limited to infection control. We asked some prominent authors about their comments regarding the recent recommendations

  • 33.
    Akerlund, Emma
    et al.
    Inst för Experimentell och Klinisk medicin, Linköping.
    Huss, Fredrik R M
    Inst för Experimentell och Klinisk medicin, Linköping.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Inst för Experimentell och Klinisk medicin, Linköping.
    Burns in Sweden: an analysis of 24,538 cases during the period 1987-2004.2007In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 31-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burn care is always progressing, but there is little epidemiological information giving a clear picture of the current number of treated burns in Sweden. This study was conducted to provide an update of patients admitted to hospital with burns in Sweden. Data were obtained for all patients who were admitted to hospitals with a primary or secondary diagnosis of burns (ICD-9/10 codes) from 1 January 1987 to 31 December 2004; 24,538 patients were found. Most of the patients were male (69%), giving a male:female ratio of 2.23:1. Children in the age-group 0-4 years old predominated, and accounted for 27% of the study material. The median length of stay was 3 days. Throughout the period 740 patients (3%) died of their burns. Significant reductions in mortality, incidence, and length of stay were seen during the study, which correlates well with other studies. However, most of the reductions were in the younger age-groups. Men accounted for the improved mortality, as female mortality did not change significantly. We think that the improvement in results among patients admitted to hospital after burns is a combination of preventive measures, improved treatment protocols, and an expanding strategy by which burned patients are treated as outpatients.

  • 34.
    Akkurt, Amanuel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology.
    Helmersson, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology.
    Anestesisjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att smärtlindra vuxna patienter med svår smärta prehospitalt2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Anestesisjuksköterskans roll prehospitalt är att vårda den kritiskt skadade patienten. De kan bidra till prehospital vård med goda kunskaper i avancerad luftvägshantering, vana att använda potent analgetika, anestesimedel och innehar erfarenhet av avancerad smärtbehandling. Ambulanser i Sverige idag är främst bemannade med specialistsjuksköterskor inom ambulanssjukvård, men även grundutbildade sjuksköterskor förekommer. De har uttryckt efterfrågan efter mer utbildning och resurser vad det gäller smärtlindring prehospitalt. Flera studier har påvisat att smärtlindring prehospitalt som bristfällig. Bristfällig smärtlindring kan leda till svåra komplikationer för patienten. Anestesisjuksköterskan har ett ansvar att jobba utifrån patientens unika behov, förbereda och hantera de utmaningar som kan manifesteras. Syfte: Att beskriva anestesisjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att smärtlindra vuxna patienter med svår smärta prehospitalt. Metod: En intervjustudie med kvalitativ ansats med beskrivande design genom semistrukturerade intervjuer användes i denna studie. Intervjuerna analyserades genom manifest innehållsanalys. Resultat: Intervjuerna resulterade i tre kategorier – bedömning och anpassning av smärta, kompetens och erfarenhet påverkar den smärtlindring som patienten erhåller, smärtlindringens emotionella och psykologiska aspekt– med nio subkategorier. Slutsats: Anestesisjuksköterskor som deltog i denna studie beskriver att de besitter kompetens och har erfarenhet att möta de utmaningar som finns med prehospital smärtlindring. De tillämpar ett personcentrerat förhållningssätt och utgår från patientens behov och aktuella situation vid smärtlindring. Anestesisjuksköterskor kan med sin kompetens och kunskap bidra med utbildning och utveckling i prehospitala verksamheter för att på sätt förbättra omhändertagandet av patienten. 

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  • 35.
    Al Dabbagh, Z.
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jansson, K. Å.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stiller, C. O.
    Department of Medicine, Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Montgomery, Scott
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Weiss, R. J.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Long-term pattern of opioid prescriptions after femoral shaft fractures2016In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 634-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The use of opioids in non-cancer-related pain following skeletal trauma is controversial due to the presumed risk of dose escalation and dependence. We therefore examined the pattern of opioid prescriptions, that is, those actually dispensed, in patients with femoral shaft fractures.

    Methods: We analysed data from the Swedish National Hospital Discharge Register and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register between 2005 and 2008.

    Results: We identified 1471 patients with isolated femoral shaft fractures. The median age was 75 (16-102) years and 56% were female. In this cohort, 891 patients (61%) received dispensed opioid prescriptions during a median follow-up of 20 months (interquartile range 11-32). In the age- and sex-matched comparison cohort (7339 individuals) without fracture, 25% had opioid prescriptions dispensed during the same period. The proportions of patients receiving opioid analgesics at 6 and 12 months after the fracture were 45% (95% CI 42-49) and 36% (32-39), respectively. The median daily morphine equivalent dose (MED) was between 15 and 17 mg 1-12 months post-fracture. After 3 months, less than 5% used prescription doses higher than 20 mg MED per day. Older age (≥ 70 compared with < 70 years) was a significant predictor of earlier discontinuation of opioid use (Hazard ratio [HR] 1.9).

    Conclusion: A notable proportion of patients continued to receive dispensed prescriptions for opioids for over 6 months (45%) and more than a third of them (36%) continued treatment for at least 12 months. However, the risk of dose escalation seems to be small in opioid-naïve patients.

  • 36.
    Al Dabbagh, Zewar
    et al.
    Dept Mol Med & Surg, Sect Orthopaed & Sports Med, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jansson, Karl-Åke
    Dept Mol Med & Surg, Sect Orthopaed & Sports Med, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stiller, Carl-Olav
    Dept Med, Clin Pharmacol Unit, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Montgomery, Scott
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Dept Med, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, University College London (UCL), London, England .
    Weiss, Rudiger J.
    Dept Mol Med & Surg, Sect Orthopaed & Sports Med, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    No signs of dose escalations of potent opioids prescribed after tibial shaft fractures: a study of Swedish National Registries2014In: BMC Anesthesiology, ISSN 1471-2253, E-ISSN 1471-2253, Vol. 14, p. 4-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The pattern of opioid use after skeletal trauma is a neglected topic in pain medicine. The purpose of this study was to analyse the long-term prescriptions of potent opioids among patients with tibial shaft fractures.

    Methods: Data were extracted from the Swedish National Hospital Discharge Register, the National Pharmacy Register, and the Total Population Register, and analysed accordingly. The study period was 2005-2008.

    Results: We identified 2,571 patients with isolated tibial shaft fractures. Of these, 639 (25%) collected a prescription for opioids after the fracture. The median follow-up time was 17 (interquartile range [IQR] 7-27) months. Most patients with opioid prescriptions after fracture were male (61%) and the median age was 45 (16-97) years. The leading mechanism of injury was fall on the same level (41%). At 6 and 12 months after fracture, 21% (95% CI 17-24) and 14% (11-17) were still being treated with opioids. Multiple Cox regression-analysis (adjusted for age, sex, type of treatment, and mechanism of injury) revealed that older patients (age >50 years) were more likely to end opioid prescriptions (Hazard ratio 1.5 [95% CI 1.3-1.9]). During follow-up, the frequency of patients on moderate and high doses declined. Comparison of the daily morphine equivalent dose among individuals who both had prescriptions during the first 3 months and the 6th month indicated that the majority of these patients (11/14) did not have dose escalations.

    Conclusions: We did not see any signs in registry-data of major dose escalations over time in patients on potent opioids after tibial shaft fractures.

  • 37.
    Albert, Christian
    et al.
    Otto von Guericke Univ, Univ Clin Cardiol & Angiol, Med Fac, Magdeburg, Germany.;Diaverum Renal Serv Germany, MVZ Neuen Garten 11, D-14469 Potsdam, Germany..
    Zapf, Antonia
    Univ Med Ctr Hamburg Eppendorf, Dept Med Biometry & Epidemiol, Hamburg, Germany..
    Haase, Michael
    Otto von Guericke Univ, Fac Med, Magdeburg, Germany.;Diaverum Renal Serv Germany, MVZ Neuen Garten 11, D-14469 Potsdam, Germany..
    Rover, Christian
    Univ Med Ctr Gottingen, Dept Med Stat, Gottingen, Germany..
    Pickering, John W.
    Univ Otago Christchurch, Dept Med, Christchurch, New Zealand.;Christchurch Hosp, Emergency Dept, Christchurch, New Zealand..
    Albert, Annemarie
    Diaverum Renal Serv Germany, MVZ Neuen Garten 11, D-14469 Potsdam, Germany.;Klinikum Ernst von Bergmann, Dept Nephrol & Endocrinol, Potsdam, Germany..
    Bellomo, Rinaldo
    Austin Hosp, Dept Intens Care, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Ctr Integrated Crit Care, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Breidthardt, Tobias
    Univ Hosp Basel, Dept Internal Med, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Hosp Basel, Dept Nephrol, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Hosp Basel, Dept Cardiol, Basel, Switzerland..
    Camou, Fabrice
    CHU Bordeaux, Hop St Andre, Serv Reanimat Med, Bordeaux, France..
    Chen, Zhongquing
    Southern Med Univ, Nanfang Hosp, Dept Crit Care Med, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Chocron, Sidney
    Univ Hosp Jean Minjoz, Dept Thorac & Cardiovasc Surg, Besancon, France..
    Cruz, Dinna
    Univ Calif San Diego, Div Nephrol Hypertens, San Diego, CA 92103 USA..
    de Geus, Hilde R. H.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Intens Care, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Devarajan, Prasad
    Univ Cincinnati, Div Nephrol & Hypertens, Cincinnati Childrens Hosp, Cincinnati, OH USA..
    Di Somma, Salvatore
    Univ Rome, Dept Med Surg Sci & Translat Med, Emergency Med, S Andrea Hosp, Rome, Italy..
    Doi, Kent
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Emergency & Crit Care Med, Tokyo, Japan..
    Endre, Zoltan H.
    Univ New South Wales, Prince Wales Hosp, Dept Nephrol, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ New South Wales, Clin Sch, Dept Nephrol, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Garcia-Alvarez, Mercedes
    Hosp Santa Creu Sant & Pau, Dept Anesthesiol, Barcelona, Spain..
    Hjortrup, Peter B.
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Dept Intens Care, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Hur, Mina
    Konkuk Univ, Dept Lab Med, Sch Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Karaolanis, Georgios
    Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Med Sch, Laiko Gen Hosp, Vasc Unit,Dept Surg 1, Athens, Greece..
    Kavalci, Cemil
    Baskent Univ, Emergency Dept, Fac Med, Ankara, Turkey..
    Kim, Hanah
    Konkuk Univ, Dept Lab Med, Sch Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Lentini, Paolo
    San Bassiano Hosp, Dept Nephrol & Dialysis, Bassano Del Grappa, Italy..
    Liebetrau, Christoph
    Kerckhoff Clin, Dept Cardiol, Bad Nauheim, Germany..
    Lipcsey, Miklós
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Martensson, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Sect Anaesthesia & Intens Care Med, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mueller, Christian
    Univ Hosp Basel, Dept Internal Med, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Hosp Basel, Dept Nephrol, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Hosp Basel, Dept Cardiol, Basel, Switzerland..
    Nanas, Serafim
    Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Evangelismos Gen Hosp, Crit Care Dept 1, Athens, Greece..
    Nickolas, Thomas L.
    Columbia Univ, Vagelos Coll Phys & Surg, New York, NY USA..
    Pipili, Chrysoula
    Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Evangelismos Gen Hosp, Crit Care Dept 1, Athens, Greece..
    Ronco, Claudio
    Univ Padua, Nephrol Dialysis & Transplantat, Padua, Italy.;San Bortolo Hosp, Int Renal Res Inst, Vicenza, Italy..
    Rosa-Diez, Guillermo J.
    Hosp Italiano Buenos Aires, Dept Nephrol Dialysis & Transplantat, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Ralib, Azrina
    Int Islamic Univ Malaysia, Dept Anaesthesiol & Intens Care, Pahang, Malaysia..
    Soto, Karina
    Hosp Fernando Fonseca, Dept Nephrol, Amadora, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, Ctr Estat & Aplicacoes, CEAUL, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Braun-Dullaeus, Ruediger C.
    Otto von Guericke Univ, Univ Clin Cardiol & Angiol, Med Fac, Magdeburg, Germany..
    Heinz, Judith
    Univ Med Ctr Gottingen, Dept Med Stat, Gottingen, Germany..
    Haase-Fielitz, Anja
    Univ Potsdam, Brandenburg Med Sch Theodor Fontane, Immanuel Diakonie Bernau, Heart Ctr Brandenburg,Dept Cardiol,Fac Hlth Sci, Potsdam, Germany..
    Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Measured on Clinical Laboratory Platforms for the Prediction of Acute Kidney Injury and the Associated Need for Dialysis Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis2020In: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, ISSN 0272-6386, E-ISSN 1523-6838, Vol. 76, no 6, p. 826-+Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale & Objective: The usefulness of measures of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in urine or plasma obtained on clinical laboratory platforms for predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) and AKI requiring dialysis (AKI-D) has not been fully evaluated. We sought to quantitatively summarize published data to evaluate the value of urinary and plasma NGAL for kidney risk prediction.

    Study Design: Literature-based meta-analysis and individual-study-data meta-analysis of diagnostic studies following PRISMA-IPD guidelines.

    Setting & Study Populations: Studies of adults investigating AKI, severe AKI, and AKI-D in the setting of cardiac surgery, intensive care, or emergency department care using either urinary or plasma NGAL measured on clinical laboratory platforms.

    Selection Criteria for Studies: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and congress abstracts ever published through February 2020 reporting diagnostic test studies of NGAL measured on clinical laboratory platforms to predict AKI.

    Data Extraction: Individual-study-data meta analysis was accomplished by giving authors data specifications tailored to their studies and requesting standardized patient-level data analysis.

    Analytical Approach: Individual-study-data meta analysis used a bivariate time-to-event model for interval-censored data from which discriminative ability (AUC) was characterized. NGAL cutoff concentrations at 95% sensitivity, 95% specificity, and optimal sensitivity and specificity were also estimated. Models incorporated as confounders the clinical setting and use versus nonuse of urine output as a criterion for AKI. A literature-based meta-analysis was also performed for all published studies including those for which the authors were unable to provide individual-study data analyses.

    Results: We included 52 observational studies involving 13,040 patients. We analyzed 30 data sets for the individual-study-data meta-analysis. For AKI, severe AKI, and AKI-D, numbers of events were 837, 304, and 103 for analyses of urinary NGAL, respectively; these values were 705, 271, and 178 for analyses of plasma NGAL. Discriminative performance was similar in both meta-analyses. Individual-study-data meta-analysis AUCs for urinary NGAL were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.73-0.76) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.79-0.81) for severe AKI and AKI-D, respectively; for plasma NGAL, the corresponding AUCs were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.790.81) and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.84-0.8 6). Cutoff concentrations at 95% specificity for urinary NGAL were >580 ng/mL with 27% sensitivity for severe AKI and >589 ng/mL with 24% sensitivity for AKI-D. Corresponding cutoffs for plasma NGAL were >364 ng/mL with 44% sensitivity and >546 ng/mL with 26% sensitivity, respectively.

    Limitations: Practice variability in initiation of dialysis. Imperfect harmonization of data across studies. Conclusions: Urinary and plasma NGAL concentrations may identify patients at high risk for AKI in clinical research and practice. The cutoff concentrations reported in this study require prospective evaluation.

  • 38.
    Ali, Mustafa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Uslu, Ahmed
    Baskent Univ, Ankara Hosp, Dept Anaesthesia & Intens Care, Ankara, Turkiye..
    Bodin, Lars
    Uppsala Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Andersson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Modiri, Ali-Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Frykholm, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Effects of caloric and nutrient content of oral fluids on gastric emptying in volunteers: a randomised crossover study2024In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 132, no 2, p. 260-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies demonstrated conflicting results regarding the determinants of gastric emptying for fluids. Our aim was to compare gastric emptying times of fluids with different caloric and nutrient content.

    Methods: Healthy adult volunteers underwent gastric ultrasound assessment for 4 h after consuming beverages with different caloric and nutrient content using a crossover design (oat drink with 3% fat [310 kcal], mango juice [310 kcal], oat drink with 0.5% fat [185 kcal], and blackcurrant juice [175 kcal]). Gastric emptying time, gastric content volume, and the area under the curve (AUC) of gastric content volume -time profiles were calculated.

    Results: Eight females and eight males completed the study protocol. The mean (SD) gastric emptying times were 89 (32) min for blackcurrant juice, 127 (54) min for oat drink with 0.5% fat, 135 (36) min for mango juice, and 152 (40) min for oat drink with 3% fat. Gastric emptying times were slower for oat drink with 3% fat (P=0.007) and mango juice (P=0.025) than for blackcurrant juice. At 1 h after ingestion, gastric content volume was greater for mango juice (P=0.021) and oat drink with 3% fat (P=0.003) than for blackcurrant juice. The AUC was greater for oat drink with 3% fat than mango juice (P=0.029), oat drink with 0.5% fat (P=0.004), and blackcurrant juice (P=0.002), and for mango juice than blackcurrant juice (P=0.019).

    Conclusions: Caloric and nutrient content significantly affected gastric emptying times. A high-calorie fruit juice (mango) exhibited delayed emptying times compared with a low-calorie fruit juice (blackcurrant).

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  • 39.
    Alkaissi, Aidah
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Postoperative Symptoms After Gynaecological Surgery: How They Are Influenced by Prophylactic Antiemetics Sensory Stimulation (P6-Acupressure)2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Symptoms after surgery and anaesthesia influence the patient´s ability to resume daily activities. If postoperative symptoms are controlled rehabilitation may be accelerated. The aims of this dissertation were to identify disturbing symptoms reported by patients after gynaecological surgery, to investigate what effect prohylactic treatment with antiemetics has on these symptoms and whether or not sensory simulation of the P6-acupressure has an effect on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and motion sickness.

    Methods: Total 1138 women participated in three clinical trials (Studies I, II, III) and one experimental study (Study IV). A questionnaire investigating postoperative symptoms was constructed and validated. The questionnaire was used in a prospective, consecutive, doubleblind, randomised, multicentre, and controlled study to identify incidence, and intensity of postoperative symptoms and the effect of common antiemetics (droperidol and granisetron) (Study III). The patients were followed for 24 h. In two studies (I, II) P6-acupressure was compared (prospective, double-blind, ransomised, controlled) with placebo acupressure and a reference group where the effect on PONV was followed over 24 h. The effect of P6-acupressure and placebo acupressure on motion sickness induced by a nauseogenic motion challenge was studied (Study III).

    Results: A high incidence and severity of postoperative symptoms were found after gynaecological surgery in a group with a high risk (>30%) for PONV. Sixty-four per cent (107/165) of the patients experienced disturbing symptoms after surgery and 46 % (76/165) scored their symptoms as moderate to very severe. Fourty-eight per cent (79/165) had two or more symptoms. A higher incidence of symptoms were reported in the groups with prophylactic treatment, granisetron 74% (123/165) and droperidol 80% (133/165) compared to the control group 41% (69/165) (P <0.05). The relative risk reduction for PONV with granisetron or droperidol prophylaxis is 27% respective 22%. The relative risk increase for headache is 63% after granisetron, and 44% for difficulty with accommodation after droperidol. Less PONV was seen after P6-acupressure, 33% (44/135) compared to reference group 46% (63/136) (p = 0.019), number needed to treat (NNT) was 7 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4- 6]. When comparing laparoscopic and vaginal surgery (subgroup analysis) the main effect was in the vaginal group (day-case surgery), 36% (27/75) in the reference group to 27% (23/86) in the placebo group and to 20% (17/84) in the P6-acupressure group, (P = 0.017), NNT for the vaginal group was 6 [95% CI 3-18]. P6-acupressure increased time to nausea after a laboratory motion challenge and reduced the total number of symptoms reported (p <0.009).

    Conclusions: There is no clinical efficacy in the form of reduced postoperative symptoms after prophylactic antiemetics (droperidol and granisetron) in females with a high risk (>30%) for PONV undergoing gynaecological surgery. P6-acupressure reduces the incidence of PONV after gynaecological surgery in females with a high (>30%) risk for PONV. The effect seems to be most prominent after vaginal surgery. P6-acupressure increased tolerance to experimental nausogenic stimuli and reduced the total number of symptoms reported in females with a history of motion sickness.

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  • 40.
    Allisson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    När återhämtar patienten sig snabbast?: Jämförlse mellan inhalationsanestesi och total intravenös anestesi.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    General anesthesia includes both inhalations anesthesia and total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). After any anesthetic technique a de sirable characteristics is a predictably rapid emergence and sustained alertness. There is a clinical and scientific debate about which anesthetic technique who gives the most rapid emergence in the early postoperative recovery. The aim of this study was to compare patients early postoperative recovery after inhalations anesthesia and after total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). The methods are based on 15 research articles. They where analysized from the questionnaire: which anesthetic technique gives the most rapid emergence in the early postoperative recovery. The results showed that inhalations anesthesia gave the most rapid emergence in the earky postoperative recovery. The nurse anesthetist handling, planning and experience affect the patients awakening. Therefore further research instead could compare these anesthetic techniques in another way. The time after the nurse anesthetist has extubate the patient until the patient is adequate orientated, could be measured to find a more comparable result.

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  • 41.
    Alm, Fredrik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hälsorisker för personal i operationsrum som yrkesexponeras för anestesigaser2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 42.
    Alm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.
    Stalfors, Joacim
    Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Ajman, United Arab Emirates.
    Nerfeldt, Pia
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Patient reported pain-related outcome measures after tonsil surgery: an analysis of 32,225 children from the National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden 2009–20162017In: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, ISSN 0937-4477, E-ISSN 1434-4726, Vol. 274, no 10, p. 3711-3722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to describe factors affecting pain after pediatric tonsil surgery, using patient reported pain-related outcome measures (pain-PROMs) from the National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden. In total, 32,225 tonsil surgeries on children (1 to\18 years) during 2009–2016 were included; 13,904 tonsillectomies with or without adenoidectomy (TE ± A), and 18,321 tonsillotomies with or without adenoidectomy (TT ± A). Adjustments were made for variables included in the register to compensate for contributable factors in the analysis. When compared to TE ± A for surgical indication obstruction, TT ± A resulted in lower pain-PROMs, shorter use of postoperative analgesics, earlier return to regular food intake, and lower risk for contact with health care services due to pain. Children who underwent TE ± A because of obstruction problems stopped taking painkillers and returned to normal eating habits sooner, compared to children who underwent TE ± A for infectious indications. In both indication groups, TE ± A performed with hot rather than cold technique (dissection and haemostasis) generally resulted in higher pain-PROMs. Older children reported more days on analgesics and a later return to regular food intake after TE ± A than younger ones. No clinically relevant difference between sexes was found. Between 2012 and 2016 (pre-and post-implementation of Swedish national guidelines for pain treatment), the mean duration of postoperative analgesic use had increased. In conclusion, TE ± A caused considerably higher ratings of pain-related outcome measures, compared to TT ± A. For TE ± A, cold surgical techniques (dissection and haemostasis) were superior to hot techniques in terms of pain-PROMs. Older children reported higher pain-PROMs after TE ± A than younger ones.

  • 43.
    Al-Melh, M. A.
    et al.
    Department of Developmental and Preventive Sciences, Kuwait University, Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait.
    Badr, H.
    Department of Community Medicine, Kuwait University, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait.
    Andersson, Lars
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Comparison between Topical and Injection Anesthetics on Pain Related to Orthodontic Miniscrew Placement: A Split-mouth Study2021In: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, E-ISSN 1526-3711, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 637-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives: The aims of this study were to compare the anesthetic effect of a lidocaine/prilocaine (L/P) topical anesthetic with placebo on pain from needle sticks and to compare the anesthetic effect of the L/P topical anesthetic with an infiltrative anesthetic on pain from orthodontic miniscrew placement. Materials and methods: Pain elimination was analyzed from two interventions: (a) needle stick and (b) miniscrew insertion. When assessing pain from needle stick, one side of the mandible received 2.5% lidocaine/2.5% prilocaine topical anesthetic, and the other side received placebo. When evaluating pain from miniscrew placement, one side of the mandible received L/P topical anesthetic and the other side received infiltrative anesthetic. The findings were recorded on a Visual Analogue Scale after needle stick and after miniscrew placement. Subjective assessment was analyzed by a questionnaire. Results: The L/P topical anesthetic significantly eliminated the pain from needle stick (Mann–Whitney test of medians, 29.0 vs 0.0, respectively, p<0.001). However, the injection anesthetic eliminated the pain from the miniscrew placement better than the L/P topical anesthetic (Mann–Whitney test of medians, 0.0 vs 5.5, respectively, p<0.001). Eighty percent of the subjects felt more comfortable with L/P topical anesthetic than injection anesthetic. Pain from needle stick pain was reported to be the most uncomfortable part of the study. Conclusion: The L/P topical anesthetic efficiently eliminated pain from needle stick. The L/P topical anesthetic did not completely eliminate pain from miniscrew placement as the injection anesthesia, but it did reduce pain to tolerable levels. Clinical significance: L/P topical anesthetics can significantly eliminate pain from needle stick injections, and L/P topical anesthetics can reduce pain from orthodontic miniscrew placement to tolerable levels. © Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. 2021 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and non-commercial reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated

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  • 44. Almerud, S
    et al.
    Alapack, R.J.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Växjö University.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Växjö University.
    Beleuguered by technology: Care in technologically intense environments2008In: Nursing Philosophy, ISSN 1466-7681, E-ISSN 1466-769X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 55-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern technology has enabled the use of new forms of information in the care of critically ill patients. In intensive care units (ICUs), technology can simultaneously reduce the lived experience of illness and magnify the objective dimensions of patient care. The aim of this study, based upon two empirical studies, is to find from a philosophical point of view a more comprehensive understanding for the dominance of technology within intensive care. Along with caring for critically ill patients, technology is part of the ICU staff's everyday life. Both technology and caring relationships are of indispensable value. Tools are useful, but technology can never replace the closeness and empathy of the human touch. It is a question of harmonizing the demands of subjectivity with objective signs. The challenge for caregivers in ICU is to know when to heighten the importance of the objective and measurable dimensions provided by technology and when to magnify the patients’ lived experiences, and to live and deal with the ambiguity of the technical dimension of care and the human side of nursing.

  • 45. Almerud, S
    et al.
    Alapack, R.J.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Växjö University.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Växjö University.
    Of vigilance and invisibility: being a patient in technologically intense environments2007In: Nursing in Critical Care, ISSN 1362-1017, E-ISSN 1478-5153, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 151-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equipment and procedures developed during the past several decades have made the modern intensive care unit (ICU) the hospital’s most technologically advanced environment. In terms of patient care, are these advances unmitigated gains? This study aimed to develop a knowledge base of what it means to be critically ill or injured and cared for in technologically intense environments. A lifeworld perspective guided the investigation. Nine unstructured interviews with intensive care patients comprise its data. The qualitative picture uncovered by a phenomenological analysis shows that contradiction and ambivalence characterized the entire care episode. The threat of death overshadows everything and perforates the patient’s existence. Four inter-related constituents further elucidated the patients’ experiences: the confrontation with death, the encounter with forced dependency, an incomprehensible environment and the ambiguity of being an object of clinical vigilance but invisible at the personal level. Neglect of these issues lead to alienating ‘moments’ that compromised care. Fixed at the end of a one-eyed clinical gaze, patients described feeling marginalized, subjected to rituals of power, a stranger cared for by a stranger. The roar of technology silences the shifting needs of ill people, muffles the whispers of death and compromises the competence of the caregivers. This study challenges today’s caregiving system to develop double vision that would balance clinical competence with a holistic, integrated and comprehensive approach to care. Under such vision, subjectivity and objectivity would be equally honoured, and the broken bonds re-forged between techne, ‘the act of nursing’, and poesis, ‘the art of nursing’.

  • 46.
    Almqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Piteå Hospital, Lasarettsvägen 14, 94150 Piteå, Sweden.
    Norberg, David
    Department of Surgery, Skellefteå lasarett, Lasarettsvägen 29, 93141 Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Larsson, Fanny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Nursing and Medical Technology.
    Gustafsson, Silje Rysst
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Nursing and Medical Technology.
    Strategies for a safe interhospital transfer with an intubated patient or where readiness for intubation is needed: A critical incidents study2023In: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, E-ISSN 1532-4036, Vol. 74, article id 103330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The number of interhospital transports with intubated patients or where intubation readiness is required is increasing in Sweden and globally. Specialist nurses are often responsible for these transports, which involve numerous risks for critically ill patients.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe nurse anaesthetists’ and intensive care nurses’ strategies for safe interhospital transports with intubated patients or where intubation readiness is required.

    Method: A qualitative study was conducted using the critical incident technique. During March and April 2020, 12 semi-structured interviews were conducted with nurse anaesthetists and intensive care nurses. Data were analysed according to the critical incident technique, and a total of 197 critical incidents were identified. The analysis revealed five final strategies for safe interhospital transport.

    Results: Participants described the importance of ensuring clear and adequate information transfers between caregivers to obtain vital patient information that enables the nurse in charge to identify risks and problems in advance and create an action plan. Stabilising and optimising the patient's condition before departure and preparing drugs and equipment were other strategies described by the participants, as well as requesting assistance or support if questions or complications arose during transport.

    Conclusion: Transports with intubated patients or where intubation readiness is required are complex and require systematic patient-safety work to ensure that strategies for increasing patient safety and decreasing risks are visible to the nurses in charge, that they are applied, and that they are, indeed, effective.

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  • 47.
    Alström, Ulrica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Platelet Inhibition and Bleeding in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A substantial number of patients undergoing cardiac surgery are on dual anti-platelet treatment with clopidogrel and aspirin. A disadvantage with this treatment is increased risk of bleeding. Bleeding is a complication of major concern associated with adverse outcome for the patient and increased hospital resource utilization. Great variability in individual response to clopidogrel has been reported. If in vitro measurements of platelet reactivity would correlate with clinical bleeding parameters, potential bleeders could be identified preoperatively.

    The aims of this thesis were: (1) to describe the degree of pre-operative platelet inhibition in patients scheduled for primary isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery; (2) to prospectively investigate whether the pre-operative platelet inhibition correlated with intra- and postoperative bleeding and transfusion requirements; and (3) to test the ability of clinically relevant risk factors to predict re-exploration for bleeding. (4) In addition, a cost analysis was performed on patients re-explored for bleeding, to analyse the magnitude of added resource utilization and costs. Based on this, a cost model of prophylactic treatment with haemostatic drugs was calculated.

    Platelet function tests investigated were: (1) flow cytometry, (2) VASP, (3) VerifyNowSystem, (4) PlateletMapping (a modified TEG), and (5) PFA-100.

    Clinical risk factors for re-exploration and the influence of antiplatelet and antifibrinolytic therapy were evaluated in a retrospective analysis. Cost analysis at three cardiothoracic centres was performed in a case-control study.

    In conclusion, there was no clinically useful correlation between preoperative assessment of platelet inhibition and blood loss or transfusion requirements during coronary artery bypass surgery. Furthermore, there was only modest agreement between the methods evaluating ADP-receptor blockade.

    Pre-operative treatment with the P2Y12-receptor inhibitor clopidogrel was an essential risk factor for re-exploration due to bleeding. Except for clopidogrel, no strong clinical factor to predict the risk of re-exploration was identified.

    The resource utilisation costs were 47% higher in patients requiring re-exploration due to bleeding than in those not requiring re-exploration. Prolonged stay in the ICU and recovery ward accounted for half of the added cost, a third was due to the costs of surgery, one fifth due to increased cost of transfusions, and <2% was due to haemostatic drug treatment.

     

     

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  • 48.
    Aléx, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Uppstu, Tom
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    The opinions of ambulance personnel regarding using a heated mattress for patients being cared for in a cold climate - An intervention study in ambulance care2017In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 76, article id 1379305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to describe the opinions of ambulance personnel regarding differences between using a heated mattress and a standard ambulance mattress. This study was an intervention study with pre- and post-evaluation. Evaluations of the opinions of personnel regarding the standard unheated mattress were conducted initially. After the intervention with new heated mattresses, follow-up evaluations were conducted. Ambulance personnel (n=64) from an ambulance station in northern Sweden took part in the study, which ran from October 2014 until February 2016. There were differences in opinions regarding the standard unheated mattress and the new heated mattress. The evaluation of the proxy ratings by the personnel showed that the heated mattress was warmer than the standard mattress, more pleasant to lie on and that patients were happier and more relaxed than when the standard mattress was used. The ambulance personnel in this study rated the experience of working with the heated mattress as very positive and proxy rated that it had a good effect on patient comfort. A heated mattress can be recommended for patients in ambulance care, even if more research is needed to receive sufficient evidence.

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  • 49.
    Anand, K J S
    et al.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; Department of Anestheslogy, Neurobiology, and Pharmacology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.
    Hall, R Whit
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.
    Desai, Nirmala
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY.
    Shephard, Barbara
    Department of Pediatrics, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA.
    Bergqvist, Lena L
    Neonatal Research Unit, Karolinska Institute, Astrid Lindgren's Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Young, Thomas E
    Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Wake Medical Center, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Boyle, Elaine M
    Simpson Memorial Maternity Pavilion, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Carbajal, Ricardo
    Service de Pédiatrie et Médecine Néonatale, Centre Hospitaller Poissy Saint Germain, Poissy, France.
    Bhutani, Vinod K
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania and Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Moore, Mary Beth
    Department of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.
    Kronsberg, Shari S
    Maryland Medical Research Institute, Baltimore, MD.
    Barton, Bruce A
    Maryland Medical Research Institute, Baltimore, MD.
    Effects of morphine analgesia in ventilated preterm neonates: primary outcomes from the NEOPAIN randomised trial2004In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 363, no 9422, p. 1673-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Opioid analgesia is commonly used during neonatal intensive care. We undertook the Neurologic Outcomes and Pre-emptive Analgesia in Neonates (NEOPAIN) trial to investigate whether pre-emptive morphine analgesia decreases the rate of a composite primary outcome of neonatal death, severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), and periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) in preterm neonates.

    METHODS: Ventilated preterm neonates (n=898) from 16 centres were randomly assigned masked placebo (n=449) or morphine (n=449) infusions. After a loading dose (100 microg/kg), morphine infusions (23-26 weeks of gestation 10 microg kg(-1) h(-1); 27-29 weeks 20 microg kg(-1) h(-1); 30-32 weeks 30 microg kg(-1) h(-1)) were continued as long as clinically justified (maximum 14 days). Open-label morphine could be given on clinical judgment (placebo group 242/443 [54.6%], morphine group 202/446 [45.3%]). Analyses were by intention to treat.

    FINDINGS: Baseline variables were similar in the randomised groups. The placebo and morphine groups had similar rates of the composite outcome (105/408 [26%] vs 115/419 [27%]), neonatal death (47/449 [11%] vs 58/449 [13%]), severe IVH (46/429 [11%] vs 55/411 [13%]), and PVL (34/367 [9%] vs 27/367 [7%]). For neonates who were not given open-label morphine, rates of the composite outcome (53/225 [24%] vs 27/179 [15%], p=0.0338) and severe IVH (19/219 [9%] vs 6/189 [3%], p=0.0209) were higher in the morphine group than the placebo group. Placebo-group neonates receiving open-label morphine had worse rates of the composite outcome than those not receiving open-label morphine (78/228 [34%] vs 27/179 [15%], p<0.0001). Morphine-group neonates receiving open-label morphine were more likely to develop severe IVH (36/190 [19%] vs 19/219 [9%], p=0.0024).

    INTERPRETATION: Pre-emptive morphine infusions did not reduce the frequency of severe IVH, PVL, or death in ventilated preterm neonates, but intermittent boluses of open-label morphine were associated with an increased rate of the composite outcome. The morphine doses used in this study decrease clinical signs of pain but can cause significant adverse effects in ventilated preterm neonates.

  • 50.
    Ander, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Magnuson, Anders
    Berggren, Lars
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ahlstrand, Rebecca
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    de Leon, Alex
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Effects of Esmolol on the Esophagogastric Junction: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Crossover Study on 14 Healthy Volunteers2017In: Anesthesia and Analgesia, ISSN 0003-2999, E-ISSN 1526-7598, Vol. 125, no 4, p. 1184-1190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Passive regurgitation may occur throughout the perioperative period, increasing the risk for pulmonary aspiration and postoperative pulmonary complications. Hypnotics and opioids, especially remifentanil, that are used during anesthesia have been shown to decrease the pressure in the esophagogastric junction (EGJ), that otherwise acts as a barrier against passive regurgitation of gastric contents. Esmolol, usually used to counteract tachycardia and hypertension, has been shown to possess properties useful during general anesthesia. Like remifentanil, the beta-1-adrenoreceptor antagonist may be used to attenuate the stress reaction to tracheal intubation and to modify perioperative anesthetic requirements. It may also reduce the need for opioids in the postoperative period. Its action on the EGJ is however unknown. The aim of this trial was to compare the effects of esmolol and remifentanil on EGJ pressures in healthy volunteers, when administrated as single drugs.

    METHODS: Measurements of EGJ pressures were made in 14 healthy volunteers using high resolution solid-state manometry. Interventions were administered in a randomized sequence and consisted of esmolol that was given IV as a bolus dose of 1 mg/kg followed by an infusion of 10 mu g.kg(-1).minute(-1) over 15 minutes, and remifentanil with target-controlled infusion of 4 ng/mL over 15 minutes. Interventions were separated by a 20-minute washout period. Analyses of EGJ pressures were performed at baseline, and during drug administration at 2 (T2) and 15 minutes (T15). The primary outcome was the inspiratory EGJ augmentation, while the inspiratory and expiratory EGJ pressures were secondary outcomes.

    RESULTS: There was no effect on inspiratory EGJ augmentation when comparing remifentanil and esmolol (mean difference -4.0 mm Hg [-9.7 to 1.7]; P = .15). In contrast, remifentanil significantly decreased both inspiratory and expiratory pressures compared to esmolol (-12.2 [-18.6 to 5.7]; P = .003 and 8.0 [-13.3 to 2.8]; P = .006).

    CONCLUSIONS: Esmolol, compared with remifentanil, does not affect EGJ function. This may be an advantage regarding passive regurgitation and esmolol may thus have a role to play in anesthesia where maintenance of EGJ barrier function is of outmost importance.

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