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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Alireza
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Lindqvist-Reis, Patric
    Eriksson, Lars
    Sandström, Dick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Lidin, Sven
    Persson, Ingmar
    Sandström, Magnus
    Highly hydrated cations: Deficiency, mobility and coordination of water in crystalline nonahydrated scandium(III), yttrium(III) and lanthanoid(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate2005In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 11, no 14, p. 4065-4077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trivalent lanthanide-like metal ions coordinate nine water oxygen atoms, which form a tricapped trigonal prism in a large number of crystalline hydrates. Water deficiency, randomly distributed over the capping positions, was found for the smallest metal ions in the isomorphous nonahydrated trifluoromethanesulfonates, [M(H2O)(n)]CF3SO3)(3), in which M=Sc-III, Lu-III, Yb-III, Tm-III or Er-III. The hydration number n increases (n=8.0(1), 8.4(1), 8.7(1), 8.8(1) and 8.96(5), respectively) with increasing ionic size. Deuterium (H-2) solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealed fast positional exchange between the coordinated capping and prism water molecules; this exchange started at temperatures higher than about 280 K for lutetium(m) and below 268 K for scandium(m). Similar positional exchange for the fully nonahydrated yttrium(m) and lanthanum(m) compounds started at higher temperatures, over about 330 and 360 K, respectively. An exchange mechanism is proposed that can exchange equatorial and capping water molecules within the restrictions of the crystal lattice, even for fully hydrated lanthanoid(III) ions. Phase transitions occurred for all the water-deficient compounds at; 185 K. The hydrated scandium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate transforms reversibly (Delta H degrees= -0.80(1) kJ mol(-1) on cooling) to a trigonal unit cell that is almost nine times larger, with the scandium ion surrounded by seven fully occupied and two partly occupied oxygen atom positions in a distorted capped trigonal prism. The hydrogen bonding to the trifluoromethanesulfonate anions stabilises the trigonal prism of water ligands, even for the crowded hydration sphere of the smallest metal ions in the series. Implications for the Lewis acid catalytic activity of the hydrated scandium(III) and lanthanoid(III) trifluoromethanesulfonates for organic syntheses performed in aqueous media are discussed.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Sherman, Philip M.
    University of Toronto, Canada .
    Editorial Material: Multifaceted Effects of Human Milk Oligosaccharides2014In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, E-ISSN 1537-6613, Vol. 209, no 3, p. 323-324Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 3.
    Agmo Hernández, Víctor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Karlsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Edwards, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Intrinsic Heterogeneity in Liposome Suspensions Caused by the Dynamic Spontaneous Formation of Hydrophobic Active Sites in Lipid Membranes2011In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 4873-4883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spontaneous, dynamic formation of hydrophobic active sites in lipid bilayer membranes is studied and characterized. It is shown that the rates of formation and consumption of these active sites control at least two important properties of liposomes: their affinity for hydrophobic surfaces and the rate by which they spontaneously release encapsulated molecules. The adhesion and spreading of liposomes onto hydrophobic polystyrene nanoparticles and the spontaneous leakage of an encapsulated fluorescent dye were monitored for different liposome compositions employing Cryo-TEM, DLS, and fluorescence measurements. It was observed that an apparently homogeneous, monodisperse liposome suspension behaves as if composed by two different populations: a fast leaking population that presents affinity for the hydrophobic substrate employed, and a slow leaking population that does not attach immediately to it. The results reported here suggest that the proportion of liposomes in each population changes over time until a dynamic equilibrium is reached. It is shown that this phenomenom can lead to irreproducibility in, for example, spontaneous leakage experiments, as extruded liposomes leak much faster just after preparation than 24 h afterward. Our findings account for discrepancies in several experimental results reported in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study addressing the issue of an existing intrinsic heterogeneity of liposome suspensions.

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  • 4. Ahmed, Mona
    et al.
    Baumgartner, Roland
    Aldi, Silvia
    Dusart, Philip
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Cellular and Clinical Proteomics.
    Hedin, Ulf
    Gustafsson, Bjorn
    Caidahl, Kenneth
    Human serum albumin-based probes for molecular targeting of macrophage scavenger receptors2019In: International Journal of Nanomedicine, ISSN 1176-9114, E-ISSN 1178-2013, Vol. 14, p. 3723-3741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inflammation and accumulation of macrophages are key features of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. The ability of macrophages to take up molecular probes can be exploited in new clinical imaging methods for the detection of unstable atherosclerotic lesions. We investigated whether modifications of human serum albumin (HSA) could be used to target macrophages efficiently in vitro. Materials and methods: Maleylated and aconitylated HSA were compared with unmodified HSA. Fluorescent or radiolabeled (Zr-89) modified HSA was used in in vitro experiments to study cellular uptake by differentiated THP-1 cells and primary human macrophages. The time course of uptake was evaluated by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, real-time microscopy and radioactivity measurements. The involvement of scavenger receptors (SR-Al, SR-B2, LOX-1) was assessed by knockdown experiments using RNA interference, by blocking experiments and by assays of competition by modified low-density lipoprotein. Results: Modified HSA was readily taken up by different macrophages. Uptake was mediated nonexclusively via the scavenger receptor SR-Al (encoded by the MSR1 gene). Knockdown of CD36 and ORL1 had no influence on the uptake. Modified HSA was preferentially taken up by human macrophages compared with other vascular cell types such as endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Conclusions: Modified Zr-89-labeled HSA probes were recognized by different subsets of polarized macrophages, and maleylated HSA may be a promising radiotracer for radio-nuclide imaging of macrophage-rich inflammatory vascular diseases.

  • 5. Ahrenstedt, O
    et al.
    Knutson, L
    Hällgren, R
    Gerdin, Bengt
    Increased luminal release of hyaluronan in uninvolved jejunum in active Crohn's disease but not in inactive disease or in relatives.1992In: Digestion, ISSN 0012-2823, E-ISSN 1421-9867, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 6-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently obtained data suggest that there is a subclinic inflammatory activity in the apparently uninvolved intestinal mucosa in Crohn's disease (CD). As CD is characterized by an activation of connective tissue and fibrosis, we investigated the extent to which hyaluronan (HA), an essential component of the connective tissue, was released into the lumen of an isolated jejunal segment in CD patients and in relatives. Patients with active CD of the terminal ileum (CD activity index, CDAI, > 150; n = 14), patients with CD in remission (CDAI < 150 n = 10), first-degree relatives of the CD patients (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 43) were orally intubated with a catheter allowing occlusion and perfusion of a segment of the proximal jejunum. The jejunal fluid concentration of HA was 65 +/- 45 micrograms/l in patients with active CD in the terminal ileum, significantly higher than the value for 43 healthy controls (42 +/- 23 micrograms/l; p < 0.05), and the corresponding values for patients in remission (42 +/- 23 micrograms/l) and for first-degree relatives of the CD patients (53 +/- 52 micrograms/l), were not increased compared to the control group. To localize HA in the tissue, small bowel biopsies were taken during surgery from patients with CD and from controls and affinity stained for HA. There was an intense staining for HA in the lamina propria of the villi, both in biopsies from patients with CD and from controls, but no staining in the epithelium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • 6.
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polypeptide-Based Nanoscale Materials2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembly has emerged as a promising technique for fabrication of novel hybrid materials and nanostructures. The work presented in this thesis has been focused on developing nanoscale materials based on synthetic de novo designed polypeptides. The polypeptides have been utilized for the assembly of gold nanoparticles, fibrous nanostructures, and for sensing applications.

    The 42-residue polypeptides are designed to fold into helix-loop-helix motifs and dimerize to form four-helix bundles. Folding is primarily driven by the formation of a hydrophobic core made up by the hydrophobic faces of the amphiphilic helices. The peptides have either a negative or positive net charge at neutral pH, depending on the relative abundance of Glu and Lys. Charge repulsion thus prevents homodimerization at pH 7 while promoting hetero-dimerization through the formation of stabilising salt bridges. A Cys incorporated in position 22, located in the loop region, allowed for directed, thiol-dependent, immobilization on planar gold surfaces and gold nanoparticles. The negatively charged (Glu-rich) peptide formed homodimers and folded in solution at pH < 6 or in the presence of certain metal ions, such as Zn2+. The folding properties of this peptide were retained when immobilized directly on gold, which enabled reversible assembly of gold nanoparticles resulting in aggregates with well-defined interparticle separations. Particle aggregation was found to induce folding of the immobilized peptides but folding could also be utilized to induce aggregation of the particles by exploiting the highly specific interactions involved in both homodimerization and hetero-association. The possibility to control the assembly of polypeptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles was utilized in a colorimetric protein assay. Analyte binding to immobilized ligands prevented the formation of dense particle aggregates when subjecting the particles to conditions normally causing extensive aggregation. Analyte binding could hence easily be distinguished by the naked eye. Moreover, the peptides were utilized to assemble gold nanoparticles on planar gold and silica substrates.

    Fibrous nanostructures were realized by linking monomers through a disulphide-bridge. The disulphide-linked peptides were found to spontaneously assemble into long and extremely thin peptide fibres as a result of a propagating association mediated by folding into four-helix bundles.

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  • 7.
    Aili, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enander, Karin
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nesterenko, Irina
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baltzer, Lars
    Division of Organic Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, BMC, Box 599, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Controlled Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles using De Novo Designed Polypeptide Scaffolds2008In: Proceedings SPIE, Vol. 6885, Photonic Biosensing and Microoptics, 2008, p. 688506-1-688506-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterodimerization between designed helix-loop-helix polypeptides was utilized in order to assemble gold nanoparticles on planar substrates. The peptides were designed to fold into four-helix bundles upon dimerization. A Cys-residue in the loop region was used to immobilize one of the complementary peptides on a maleimide containing SAM on planar gold substrates whereas the second peptide was immobilized directly on gold nanoparticles. Introducing the peptide decorated particles over a peptide functionalized surface resulted in particle assembly. Further, citrate stabilized particles were assembled on amino-silane modified glass and silicon substrates. By subsequently introducing peptides and gold nanoparticles, particle-peptide hybrid multi layers could be formed.

  • 8.
    Aili, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enander, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nesterenko, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baltzer, Lars
    Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, BMC, Box 599, Uppsala UniVersity, SE-751 24 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Folding Induced Assembly of Polypeptide Decorated Gold Nanoparticles2008In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 130, no 17, p. 5780-5788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reversible assembly of gold nanoparticles controlled by the homodimerization and folding of an immobilized de novo designed synthetic polypeptide is described. In solution at neutral pH, the polypeptide folds into a helix–loop–helix four-helix bundle in the presence of zinc ions. When immobilized on gold nanoparticles, the addition of zinc ions induces dimerization and folding between peptide monomers located on separate particles, resulting in rapid particle aggregation. The particles can be completely redispersed by removal of the zinc ions from the peptide upon addition of EDTA. Calcium ions, which do not induce folding in solution, have no effect on the stability of the peptide decorated particles. The contribution from folding on particle assembly was further determined utilizing a reference peptide with the same primary sequence but containing both D and L amino acids. Particles functionalized with the reference peptide do not aggregate, as the peptides are unable to fold. The two peptides, linked to the nanoparticle surface via a cysteine residue located in the loop region, form submonolayers on planar gold with comparable properties regarding surface density, orientation, and ability to interact with zinc ions. These results demonstrate that nanoparticle assembly can be induced, controlled, and to some extent tuned, by exploiting specific molecular interactions involved in polypeptide folding.

  • 9.
    Aili, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tai, Feng-I
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enander, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baltzer, Lars
    Department of Biochemistry andOrganic Chemistry Uppsala University, BMC, Box 576, 75123 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Self-Assembly of Fibers and Nanorings from Disulfide-Linked Helix–Loop–Helix Polypeptides2008In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 47, no 30, p. 5554-5556Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Aili, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enander, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baltzer, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aggregation-Induced Folding of a de novo Designed Polypeptide Immobilized on Gold Nanoparticles2006In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 128, no 7, p. 2194 -2195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This communication reports the first steps in the construction of a novel, nanoparticle-based hybrid material for biomimetic and biosensor applications. Gold nanoparticles were modified with synthetic polypeptides to enable control of the particle aggregation state in a switchable manner, and particle aggregation was, in turn, found to induce folding of the immobilized peptides.

  • 11.
    Alexander, Michelle
    et al.
    Univ York, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England.;Univ Aberdeen, Sch Geosci, Dept Archaeol, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, Scotland..
    Ho, Simon Y. W.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Molak, Martyna
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, PL-00679 Warsaw, Poland..
    Barnett, Ross
    Palaeogen & Bioarchaeol Res Network, Res Lab Archaeol, Oxford OX1 3QY, England..
    Carlborg, Örjan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dorshorst, Ben
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Virginia Tech, Dept Anim & Poultry Sci, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA..
    Honaker, Christa
    Virginia Tech, Dept Anim & Poultry Sci, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA..
    Besnier, Francois
    Inst Marine Res, Sect Populat Genet, N-5024 Bergen, Norway..
    Wahlberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Dobney, Keith
    Univ Aberdeen, Sch Geosci, Dept Archaeol, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, Scotland..
    Siegel, Paul
    Virginia Tech, Dept Anim & Poultry Sci, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA..
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Larson, Greger
    Palaeogen & Bioarchaeol Res Network, Res Lab Archaeol, Oxford OX1 3QY, England..
    Mitogenomic analysis of a 50-generation chicken pedigree reveals a rapid rate of mitochondrial evolution and evidence for paternal mtDNA inheritance2015In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 20150561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondrial genomes represent a valuable source of data for evolutionary research, but studies of their short-term evolution have typically been limited to invertebrates, humans and laboratory organisms. Here we present a detailed study of 12 mitochondrial genomes that span a total of 385 transmissions in a well-documented 50-generation pedigree in which two lineages of chickens were selected for low and high juvenile body weight. These data allowed us to test the hypothesis of time-dependent evolutionary rates and the assumption of strict maternal mitochondrial transmission, and to investigate the role of mitochondrial mutations in determining phenotype. The identification of a non-synonymous mutation in ND4L and a synonymous mutation in CYTB, both novel mutations in Gallus, allowed us to estimate a molecular rate of 3.13 x 10(-7) mutations/site/year (95% confidence interval 3.75 x 10(-8)-1.12 x 10(-6)). This is substantially higher than avian rate estimates based upon fossil calibrations. Ascertaining which of the two novel mutations was present in an additional 49 individuals also revealed an instance of paternal inheritance of mtDNA. Lastly, an association analysis demonstrated that neither of the point mutations was strongly associated with the phenotypic differences between the two selection lines. Together, these observations reveal the highly dynamic nature of mitochondrial evolution over short time periods.

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  • 12.
    Alfawaz, Maya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Akne: Kan dosreduktion av isotretinoin minskabiverkningar och samtidigt ge god effekt mot olikasvårighetsgrader till akne?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Isotretinoin är en av de mest använda vid behandling av medelsvår till svår akne. Läkemedlet används främst när mildare behandlingar såsom lokalbehandling och antibiotika inte är tillräckligt aktiva vid behandling av akne. Nittio procent av alla tonåringar i världen lider av akne som kallas just för akne vulgaris. En tredjedel av tonåringar lider av just måttlig och svår akne och behöver därför behandlas med ett effektivt behandling.

    Flera vetenskapliga studier har bekräftat att standarddos (0,5 -1,0 mg/kg/dag) av isotretinoin är den mest effektiva behandling vid akne. Däremot har studierna bekräftat att behandlingen med standarddos isotretinoin leder till allvarliga biverkningar såsom teratogena effekter (fosterskador) och därför väljer en stor del av patienterna att inte behandlas med standarddos isotretinoin.

    Syftet med detta arbete var att undersöka om ersättning av standarddos isotretinoin (0,5-1,0 mg/kg/dag) med lågdos isotretinoin (0,2-0,4mg/kg/dag) som monoterapi eller i kombination med en annan behandling såsom laser som kan minska svårighetsgraden av akne och samtidigt minska av biverkningar. 

    Fem vetenskapliga studier som besvarar studiens frågeställningar har valts med hjälp av databasen Pubmed. Alla fem studier visade att lågdos isotretinoin är effektiv behandling vid måttlig till svår akne. Färre biverkningar noterades vid användning av lågdos isotretinoin (0,25-0,5 mg/kg/dag) jämfört med standarddoser (0,5-1 mg/kg/dag).

    Slutsatsen som dras från detta litteraturarbete är att lågdos isotretinoin (< 0,5 mg/kg/dag) är en effektiv och säker behandling vid mild till svår akne. Färre biverkningar noterades vid användning av låg dos isotretinoin jämfört med standard dos isotretinoin (0,5-1 mg/kg/dag) som ger allvarliga biverkningar. Lågdos isotretinoin, både som monoterapi och som kombinationsbehandling har visat sig vara lika effektiv som standarddos. 

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  • 13.
    Alfredsson, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The Manufacture of a Vegetarian Smoothie2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986 and cancer rates in Sweden, a 25-year follow up2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The current research aimed to study the association between exposure to low-dose radiation fallout after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and the incidence of cancer in Sweden.

    Methods: A nationwide study population, selecting information from nine counties out of 21 in Sweden for the period from 1980 – 2010.

    In the first study, an ecological design was defined for two closed cohorts from 1980 and 1986. A possible exposure response pattern between the exposure to 137Cs on the ground and the cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (n=2.2 million). The activity of 137Cs at the county, municipality and parish level in 1986 was retrieved from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSI) and used as a proxy for received dose of ionizing radiation. Information about diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1958 – 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry, National Board of Health and Welfare (368,244 cases were reported for the period 1958 to 2009). The incidence rate ratios were calculated by using Poisson Regression for pre-Chernobyl (1980 – 1986) and post-Chernobyl (1986 – 2009) using average deposition of 137Cs at three geographical levels: county (n=9), municipality (n=95), and parish level (n=612). Also, a time trend analysis with age standardized cancer incidence in the study population and in the general Swedish population was drawn from 1980 – 2009.

    In the second study, a closed cohort was defined as all individuals living in the three most contaminated counties in mid-Sweden in 1986. Fallout of 137Cs was retrieved as a digital map from the Geological Survey of Sweden, demographic data from Statistics Sweden, and cancer diagnosis from the Swedish Cancer Registry, National Board of Health and Welfare. Individuals were assigned an annual 137Cs exposure based on their place of residence (1986 through 1990), from which 5-year cumulative 137Cs exposures were calculated, accounting for the physical decay of 137Cs and changing residencies. Hazard ratios for having cancer during the follow-up period, adjusted for age, sex, rural/non-rural residence, and pre-Chernobyl total cancer incidence, were calculated.

    Results: No obvious exposure-response pattern in the age-standardized total cancer incidence rate ratios could be seen in the first study. However, a spurious association between the fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the lowest incidence of cancer before the accident coincidentally had the lowest fallout of cesium-137. Increasing the geographical resolution of exposure from the average values of nine counties to the average values of 612 parishes resulted in two to three times higher degree of variance explanation by regression model. There was a secular trend, with an increase in age standardized incidence of cancer from 1980 – 2009. This trend was stronger in the general Swedish population compared to the nine counties of the present study.

    In the second study, 734,537 people identified were divided into three exposure categories: the first quartile was low exposure (0.0 to 45.4 kBq/m2), the second and third quartiles were intermediate exposure (45.41 to 118.8 kBq/m2), and the fourth quartile was highest exposure (118.81 to 564.71 kBq/m2). Between 1991 and 2010, 82,495 cancer cases were registered in the three counties. Adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.03 (1.01 to 1.05) for intermediate exposure, and 1.05 (1.03 to 1.07) for the highest exposure, when comparing to the reference exposure.

    Conclusion: Using the ecological data, there was no exposure response trend; however, after refining the data to the individual level of exposure, there was an overall exposure response pattern. Nonetheless, due to the time dependency, these results were restricted to the age group of 25 – 49 among males. Using register-based data only, for determining the association between low-dose exposure to radiation and the risk of developing cancer, is difficult since we cannot control for other significant factors that are associated with cancer.

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  • 15.
    Allbrand, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Gene expression of inflammatory markers and growth factors in placenta in relation to maternal obesity and foetal and postnatal growth2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Maternal obesity is a growing health problem, that contributes to obstetrical complications in pregnancy, as well as neonatal morbidity and mortality. The placenta serves for gas and nutrient exchange between the mother and the foetus, and obesity may influence and modify placental growth and function. The aims of this thesis were to investigate associations between maternal obesity without associated morbidity and gene expression of inflammatory markers and growth factors in the placenta, as well as offspring birth weight and postnatal growth. 

    Study I and III were designed as matched case-control studies including 32 obese women with an early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35.0 kg/m2, study II was an experimental study examining twelve placentas of normal weight women, and study IV was a cohort study including 109 obese women with a BMI ≥ 34.5 kg/m2. In studies I-IV analyses of gene expression were performed and in study III additionally cord blood concentrations were determined. 

    No difference was found in the occurrence of placental gene expression of inflammatory markers or growth factors between obese and normal weight women, nor did the sampling site in placentas of normal weight women influence gene expression of these markers, except for leptin gene (LEP) and insulin receptor gene (INSR) expression. Ghrelin gene (GHRL) and LEP expression, as well as cord blood ghrelin and adiponectin levels, was not altered in maternal obesity, and a negatively U-shaped relationship between LEP expression and infant birth weight (BW) z-scores was observed in the placentas of obese women.

    In conclusion, no statistically significant difference in gene expressions of inflammatory markers and growth factors in the placenta between severely obese and normal weight women was found. These results are in contrast with earlier studies and could be due to the fact that we examined mainly healthy obese women. The correlations we found between gene expression of leptin in the placenta and the birth weight of the infants warrants further studies.

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  • 16.
    Allbrand, Marianne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Eklund, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Åman, Jan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Lodefalk, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Gene expression of leptin, leptin receptor isoforms, and inflammatory cytokines in placentas of obese women: associations to birth weight and foetal sexManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Almgren, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Garamus, Vasil M
    Nordstierna, Lars
    Luc-Blin, Jean
    Stébé, Marie-José
    Nonideal mixed micelles of fluorinated and hydrogenous surfactants in aqueous solution: NMR and SANS studies of anionic and nonionic systems.2010In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 5355-5363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrast variation SANS and (19)F chemical shifts were measured for three mixed equimolar micelle systems: sodium perfluorooctanoate (SPFO) and sodiumdecylsulfate (SDeS) in 200 mM NaCl, lithium perfluorononanate (LiPFN) and lithium dodecylsulfate (LiDS) in 200 mM LiCl, and a nonionic system C(8)F(17)C(2)H(4)(OC(2)H(4))(9) and C(12)H(25)(OC(2)H(4))(8) in water, all at 25 degrees C. The chemical shift measurements allow the calculation of the average fraction of nearest neighbors of each kind around the reporter group (the trifluoromethyl group). A preference for like neighbors were found in all systems, smallest in the SDeS/SPFO system and largest in the nonionic system, but in all cases substantially smaller than expected at critical conditions. From the SANS measurements the width of the micelle composition distribution was obtained. For the ionic systems similar values were obtained, showing a broadening compared to ideal mixtures, but not broad enough for demixing or clearly bimodal distributions. In the nonionic system the width was estimated as sigma = 0.18 and 0.22 using two different evaluation methods. These values suggest that the system is close to critical conditions. The lower value refers to a direct modeling of the system, assuming an ellipsoidal shape and a Gaussian composition distribution. The modeling showed the nonionic mixed micelles to be prolate ellipsoids with axial ratio 2.2 and an aggregation number larger than 100, whereas the two ionic systems fitted best to oblate shapes (axial ratios 0.8 and 0.65 for SDeS/SPFO and LiDS/LiPFN, respectively) and aggregation numbers of 60 for both.

  • 18.
    Alrosan, Shifaa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Hur effektivt är esketamin för behandling av depression hos patienter jämfört med en placebogrupp?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Bakgrund: Major depressiv disorder (MDD) är en psykisk störning som kan orsaka funktionshinder och ökad risk för dödlighet. När en tredjedel av MDD-patienterna inte har svarat på två eller flera antidepressiva läkemedel så de har klassificerats för att ha TRD (terapiresistent depression). Studier av bakomliggande orsak till MDD patogen har funnit abnormitet i glutamatergisk överföring, tillsammans med dendritisk och synaptisk atrofi i neurala kretsar i hjärnan, vilket har drivit vidare forskning om glutamatergisk Nmetyl-D-aspartat (NMDA) receptor-antagonist för att behandla TRD. Esketamin är en sådan substans, S-enantiomeren för ketamin. Den godkändes av FDA år 2019 för behandling av TRD hos vuxna. På grund av att intranasal esketamin är ett nytt godkänt läkemedel med en ny verkningsmekanism, är mycket fortfarande okänt angående desseffektivitet, användning, och säkerhet.

    Syfte: Att undersöka effekten av esketamin nasal beredning för behandling av depression hos vuxna patienter (över 18) i jämförelse med en placebogrupp.

    Metod: En systematisk litteratursökning gjordes i databaserna PubMed och PsycINFO. Sökningen gjordes utan avgränsning på datum för publicering till och med 24 september 2021. De inkluderade studier var kontrollerade randomiserade studier. SBU:s mall för relevansbedömning användes och följdes som metod (bilaga 1). Inkluderingskriterier för studierna bestäms enligt PICO.Resultat: Fem RCT inkluderade som jämförde intranasal Esketamin (n = 533) med placebo (n = 401) och som täcker 934 MDD/TRD patienter. Studiernas resultat har visat att intranasal esketamin har lett till en större minskning av MADRS poäng jämfört med en placebogrupp,effekten varar minst 28 dagar. Så väl som en högre andel patienter har uppnått remission och respons i esketaminsgruppen. De vanligaste rapporterade biverkningar i esketamin gruppen är illamående, yrsel, dissociation, huvudvärk, och dysgeusi.

    Slutsats: Intranasal esketamin verkar ha en snabb antidepressiv effekt hos patienter som har MDD/TRD. Emellertid behövs en storskalig randomiserad kontrollerad studie för att undersöka den långsiktiga terapeutiska effekten samt säkerheten av medlet. Dessutom ytterligare studier behövs genomföras för att bekräfta esketamins förmåga att minska självmordstankar.

  • 19.
    Ammar, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Immunohistochemical studies on small arteries from women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Focus on makers for endothelial dysfunction2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Metabolic syndrome predominate which may lead to impaired insulin sensitivity and development of type II diabetes and hypertension. Endothelial dysfunction together with pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic and pro-oxidant environment serves as initial phase for CVD complications. The research group performs functional studies on isolated arteries with focus on endothelium dependent relaxation from PCOS women and age matched controls and the aim of the presented project was to compare markers for endothelial dysfunction using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Small arteries were isolated from subcutaneous fat biopsies from patients and controls and fixed in O.C.T. compound (-70C dry ice). The biopsies were sectioned in 8µm thin slices for further staining with primary antibodies, DAB as a chromogen and Mayer´s Hematoxylin. The primary antibody was selected for endothelial cell adhesion molecules PECAM-1, P-selectin, vWF and VCAM-1.    There was a tendency for stronger expression of P-selectin in arteries from PCOS women compared with controls, while in the controls a tendency was seen towards stronger expression of VCAM-1 and a weaker staining for vWF if compared with PCOS. There was no obvious difference for other stained markers between the groups. There were differences between tested markers in control groups and the PCOS women whit IHC staining as well as earlier functional tests. Tested markers reflected that endothelial dysfunction were expressed in the endothelium of isolated arteries from PCOS and control women, however further functional studies and IHC studies were warranted to quantify their contribution.

  • 20. Amundsen, Brage Høyem
    et al.
    Ericsson, Madelene
    Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Seland, John Georg
    Pavlin, Tina
    Ellingsen, Øyvind
    Brekken, Christian
    A comparison of retrospectively self-gated magnetic resonance imaging and high-frequency echocardiography for characterization of left ventricular function in mice.2011In: Laboratory animals, ISSN 1758-1117, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 31-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-invasive imaging methods like echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are very valuable in longitudinal follow-up studies of cardiac function in small animals. To be able to compare results from studies using different methods, and explain possible differences, it is important to know the agreement between these methods. As both self-gated high-field MRI and high-frequency echocardiography (hf-echo) M-mode are potential methods for evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function in healthy mice, our aim was to assess the agreement between these two methods. Fifteen healthy female C57BL/6J mice underwent both self-gated MRI and hf-echo during the same session of light isoflurane anaesthesia. LV dimensions were estimated offline, and agreement between the methods and reproducibility for the two methods assessed using Bland-Altman methods. In summary, hf-echo M-mode had better inter-observer repeatability than self-gated MRI for all measured parameters. Compared with hf-echo, systolic posterior wall thicknesses were significantly higher when measured by MRI, while diastolic anterior wall thicknesses were found to be significantly smaller. MRI measurements of diastolic LV diameter were also higher using MRI, resulting in larger fractional shortening values compared with the values obtained by hf-echo. In conclusion, hf-echo M-mode is easy to apply, has high temporal and spatial resolution, and good reproducibility. Self-gated MRI might be advantageous in cases of abnormal LV geometry and heterogeneous regional myocardial function, especially with improvements in spatial resolution. The moderate agreement between the methods must be taken into account when comparing studies using the two modalities.

  • 21.
    Andaloussi, Mounir
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Henriksson, Lena M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Wieckowska, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Lindh, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Björkelid, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Larsson, Anna M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Suresh, Surisetti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Iyer, Harini
    Srinivasa, Bachally R.
    Bergfors, Terese
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Unge, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Mowbray, Sherry L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Larhed, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Jones, T. Alwyn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Karlén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Design, Synthesis, and X-ray Crystallographic Studies of alpha-Aryl Substituted Fosmidomycin Analogues as Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-Phosphate Reductoisomerase2011In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 54, no 14, p. 4964-4976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The natural antibiotic fosmidomycin acts via inhibition of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), an essential enzyme in the non-mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis. Fosmidomycin is active on Mycobacterium tuberculosis DXR (MtDXR), but it lacks antibacterial activity probably because of poor uptake. alpha-Aryl substituted fosmidomycin analogues have more favorable physicochemical properties and are also more active in inhibiting malaria parasite growth. We have solved crystal structures of MtDXR in complex with 3,4-dichlorophenyl substituted fosmidomycin analogues; these show important differences compared to our previously described forsmidomycin-DXR complex. Our best inhibitor has an IC(50) = 0.15 mu M on MtDXR but still lacked activity in a mycobacterial growth assay (MIC > 32 mu g/mL). The combined results, however, provide insights into how DXR accommodates the new inhibitors and serve as an excellent starting point for the design of other novel and more potent inhibitors, particularly against pathogens where uptake is less of a problem, such as the malaria parasite.

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  • 22. Andersen, Sonja
    et al.
    Ericsson, Madelene
    Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.
    Dai, Hong Yan
    Peña-Diaz, Javier
    Slupphaug, Geir
    Nilsen, Hilde
    Aarset, Harald
    Krokan, Hans E
    Monoclonal B-cell hyperplasia and leukocyte imbalance precede development of B-cell malignancies in uracil-DNA glycosylase deficient mice2005In: DNA Repair, ISSN 1568-7864, E-ISSN 1568-7856, Vol. 4, no 12, p. 1432-1441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ung-deficient mice have reduced class switch recombination, skewed somatic hypermutation, lymphatic hyperplasia and a 22-fold increased risk of developing B-cell lymphomas. We find that lymphomas are of follicular (FL) and diffuse large B-cell type (DLBCL). All FLs and 75% of the DLBCLs were monoclonal while 25% were biclonal. Monoclonality was also observed in hyperplasia, and could represent an early stage of lymphoma development. Lymphoid hyperplasia occurs very early in otherwise healthy Ung-deficient mice, observed as a significant increase of splenic B-cells. Furthermore, loss of Ung also causes a significant reduction of T-helper cells, and 50% of the young Ung(-/-) mice investigated have no detectable NK/NKT-cell population in their spleen. The immunological imbalance is confirmed in experiments with spleen cells where the production of the cytokines interferon gamma, interleukin 6 and interleukin 2 is clearly different in wild type and in Ung-deficient mice. This suggests that Ung-proteins, directly or indirectly, have important functions in the immune system, not only in the process of antibody maturation, but also for production and functions of immunologically important cell types. The immunological imbalances shown here in the Ung-deficient mice may be central in the development of lymphomas in a background of generalised lymphoid hyperplasia.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Caroline
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Bondesson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    En kvalitativ intervjustudie om implementeringsprocessen av ett projekt för att stärka stöd och rehabilitering efter förvärvad hjärnskada.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knowledge about implementation is important for new methods to be integrated with regular working methods and reach those who can benefit from them. In order to improve the long-term support for people with acquired brain injury, a collaboration project has been carried out in Stockholm for three years.

    Objective: With focus on Normalization Process Theory (NPT) describe managers’ and employees’ experiences of an implementation process in the project Hjärna Tillsammans.

    Method: A descriptive study with qualitative approach where interviews were used for data collection, and various workplaces in the project were represented. The analysis was done with a qualitative content analysis with a deductive approach where NPT constituted the theoretical framework.

    Result: The analysis resulted in twelve subcategories under the four main categories on which NPT is structured. The respondents described the project in different ways, but the majority described the project and the collaboration between different workplaces as valuable for the target group to get a better support in their illness. One difficulty in implementing the work was to reach the target group. For example, to involve employees, the project has been distributed at various meetings, but it was rarely done with a plan for the work.

    Conclusion: When implementing complex interventions, a coherence of those who are to implement the project is required. It may also be of value to have a plan for implementation and use methods that promote the implementation process.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Ken G.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Prot Technol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oroujeni, Maryam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Garousi, Javad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Mitran, Bogdan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Ståhl, Stefan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Prot Technol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Löfblom, John
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Prot Technol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Feasibility of imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor expression with ZEGFR: 2377 affibody molecule labeled with 99mTc using a peptide-based cysteine-containing chelator2016In: International journal of oncology, ISSN 1791-2423, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 2285-2293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in a number of malignant tumors and is a molecular target for several specific anticancer antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The overexpression of EGFR is a predictive biomarker for response to several therapy regimens. Radionuclide molecular imaging might enable detection of EGFR overexpression by a non-invasive procedure and could be used repeatedly. Affibody molecules are engineered scaffold proteins, which could be selected to have a high affinity and selectivity to predetermined targets. The anti-EGFR ZEGFR:2377 affibody molecule is a potential imaging probe for EGFR detection. The use of the generator-produced radionuclide 99mTc should facilitate clinical translation of an imaging probe due to its low price, availability and favorable dosimetry of the radionuclide. In the present study, we evaluated feasibility of ZEGFR:2377 labeling with 99mTc using a peptide-based cysteine-containing chelator expressed at the C-terminus of ZEGFR:2377. The label was stable in vitro under cysteine challenge. In addition, 99mTc-ZEGFR:2377 was capable of specific binding to EGFR-expressing cells with high affinity (274 pM). Studies in BALB/C nu/nu mice bearing A431 xenografts demonstrated that 99mTc-ZEGFR:2377 accumulates in tumors in an EGFR-specific manner. The tumor uptake values were 3.6±1 and 2.5±0.4% ID/g at 3 and 24 h after injection, respectively. The corresponding tumor-to-blood ratios were 1.8±0.4 and 8±3. The xenografts were clearly visualized at both time-points. This study demonstrated the potential of 99mTc-labeled ZEGFR:2377 for imaging of EGFR in vivo.

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  • 25. Aquilante, Francesco
    et al.
    Barone, V
    Roos, B O
    A theoretical investigation of valence and Rydberg electronic states of acrolein.2003In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 119, no 23, p. 12323-12334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main features of the ultraviolet spectrum of acrolein have been studied by a multireference perturbative treatment and by a time dependent density functional approach. The valence and Rydberg transition energies have been calculated and the assignment of the experimental bands has been clarified. The different relaxation trends of the three lowest singlet and triplet excited states have been analyzed by unconstrained geometry optimizations. This has allowed, in particular, the characterization of a twisted (3)(pipi*) state, which is crucial for the interesting photophysics and photochemistry of the acrolein molecule and, more generally, of the alpha,beta-enones. Solvatochromic shifts in aqueous solution have been investigated using a combined discrete/continuum approach based on the so called polarizable continuum model. The experimental trends are well reproduced by this approach and a closer degeneracy in the triplet manifold has been detected in solution with respect to gas phase.

  • 26. Aquilante, Francesco
    et al.
    Cossi, M
    Crescenzi, O
    Scalmani, G
    Barone, V
    Computation of the acetone ultraviolet spectrum in gas phase and in aqueous solution by a mixed discrete/continuum model.2003In: Molecular Physics, ISSN 0026-8976, E-ISSN 1362-3028, Vol. 101, no 13, p. 1945-1953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultraviolet spectrum of acetone in vacuum and in aqueous solution has been computed by different quantum mechanical methods coupled to the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for describing bulk solvent effects. The results in vacuo show that the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) approach using the PBE0 functional reproduces quite well the result obtained at the CASPT2 level. Supermolecule computations confirm that water molecules belonging to the first shell of polar groups ( here the carbonyl oxygen) must be explicitly included in the quantum mechanical treatment, whereas the effect of other solvent molecules ( which is far from being negligible) can be reliably described by the PCM. Moreover, statistical averaging effects have been taken into account by performing canonical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations followed by TDDFT quantum mechanical computations on representative clusters of increasing dimensions immersed in a polarizable continuum. The results show that the combined MD/DFT/PCM approach is reliable and effective, although the performances of the force field used in the MD simulations must be further investigated.

  • 27. Aquilante, Francesco
    et al.
    De Vito, Luca
    Ferré, Nicolas
    Chigo, Giovanni
    Malmqvist, Per-Åke
    Neogrády, Pavel
    Pedersen, Tjomas Bono
    Pitoňák, Michak
    Reiher, Markus
    Roos, Björn O
    Serrano-Andrés, Luis
    Miroslav, Urban
    Veryazov, Valera
    Lindh, Roland
    Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Lund University.
    Software news and update MOLCAS 7: The Next Generation2010In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 224-247Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the new unique features of the MOLCAS quantum chemistry package version 7 are presented in this report. In particular, the Cholesky decomposition method applied to some quantum chemical methods is described. This approach is used both in the context of a straight forward approximation of the two-electron integrals and in the generation of so-called auxiliary basis sets. The article describes how the method is implemented for most known wave functions models: self-consistent field, density functional theory, 2nd order perturbation theory, complete-active space self-consistent field multiconfigurational reference 2nd order perturbation theory, and coupled-cluster methods. The report further elaborates on the implementation of a restricted-active space self-consistent field reference function in conjunction with 2nd order perturbation theory. The average atomic natural orbital basis for relativistic calculations, covering the whole periodic table, are described and associated unique properties are demonstrated. Furthermore, the use of the arbitrary order Douglas-Kroll-Hess transformation for one-component relativistic calculations and its implementation are discussed. This section especially focuses on the implementation of the so-called picture-change-free atomic orbital property integrals. Moreover, the ElectroStatic Potential Fitted scheme, a version of a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics hybrid method implemented in MOLCAS, is described and discussed. Finally, the report discusses the use of the MOLCAS package for advanced studies of photo chemical phenomena and the usefulness of the algorithms for constrained geometry optimization in MOLCAS in association with such studies.

  • 28. Aquilante, Francesco
    et al.
    Jensen, K. P.
    Roos, Björn O.
    The allyl radical revisited: a theoretical study of the electronic spectrum.2003In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 380, no 5-6, p. 689-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this Letter, we report the electronic spectrum of the allyl radical, obtained with multiconfigurational perturbation theory (MS-CASPT2). The assignment of the spectrum is in accordance with experiment to within 0.2 eV. We have computed the complete first Rydberg series and the beginning of the second Rydberg series. A new valence-excited B-2(1) state has been found which has hitherto been hidden by Rydberg transitions. A rationalisation of the electronic spectrum is provided in terms of resonance forms in ground and excited states. This model shows that while a multiconfigurational wavefunction is necessary to qualitatively model the system, the large ionic character of the valence electronic states makes an accurate treatment of the dynamical correlation necessary for a quantitative description of the spectrum.

  • 29. Aquilante, Francesco
    et al.
    Malmqvist, Per-Åke
    Pedersen, Thomas Bondo
    Ghosh, Abhik
    Roos, Björn Olof
    Cholesky decomposition-based multiconfiguration second-order perturbation theory (CD-CASPT2): application to the spin-state energetics of Co-III(diiminato)(NPh).2008In: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, ISSN 1549-9618, E-ISSN 1549-9626, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 694-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structure and low-lying electronic states of a Co-III(diiminato)(NPh) complex have been studied using mulficonfigurational wave function theory (CASSCF/CASPT2) The results have been compared to those obtained with density functional theory. The best agreement with ab initio results is obtained with a modified B3LYP functional containing a reduced amount (15%) of Hartree-Fock exchange. A relativistic basis set with 869 functions has been employed in the most extensive ab initio calculations, where a Cholesky decomposition technique was used to overcome problems arising from the large size of the two-electron integral matrix. It is shown that this approximation reproduces results obtained with the full integral set to a high accuracy, thus opening the possibility to use this approach to perform multiconfigurational wave-function-based quantum chemistry on much larger systems relative to what has been possible until now.

  • 30. Aquilante, Francesco
    et al.
    Pedersen, Thomas Bondo
    Quartic scaling evaluation of canonical scaled opposite spin second-order Moller-Plesset correlation energy using Cholesky decompositions.2007In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 449, no 4-6, p. 354-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scaled opposite spin second-order Moller-Plesset (SOS-MP2) energy expression is reformulated using Cholesky decomposition of the amplitude matrix. The resulting algorithm requires an auxiliary basis or Cholesky representation of the two-electron integrals and shows fourth-order scaling with system size. Based on an analysis of operation counts, we estimate that the present approach is computationally advantageous compared to the analogous fourth-order algorithms that employ Laplace transforms.

  • 31. Aquilante, Francesco
    et al.
    Pedersen, Thomas Bondo
    Sanchez de Meras, Alfredo
    Koch, Henrik
    Fast noniterative orbital localization for large molecules.2006In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 125, no 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use Cholesky decomposition of the density matrix in atomic orbital basis to define a new set of occupied molecular orbital coefficients. Analysis of the resulting orbitals (”Cholesky molecular orbitals”) demonstrates their localized character inherited from the sparsity of the density matrix. Comparison with the results of traditional iterative localization schemes shows minor differences with respect to a number of suitable measures of locality, particularly the scaling with system size of orbital pair domains used in local correlation methods. The Cholesky procedure for generating orthonormal localized orbitals is noniterative and may be made linear scaling. Although our present implementation scales cubically, the algorithm is significantly faster than any of the conventional localization schemes. In addition, since this approach does not require starting orbitals, it will be useful in local correlation treatments on top of diagonalization-free Hartree-Fock optimization algorithms.

  • 32.
    Ardiles-Villegas, Karen
    et al.
    Universidad de Concepción, Chile.
    González-Acuña, Daniel
    Universidad de Concepción, Chile.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal bacteria isolated from Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis) and masked booby (Sula dactylatra) at remote Easter Island2011In: Avian diseases, ISSN 0005-2086, E-ISSN 1938-4351, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 486-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic use and its implications have been discussed extensively in the past decades. This situation has global consequences when antibiotic resistance becomes widespread in the intestinal bacterial flora of stationary and migratory birds. This study investigated the incidence of fecal bacteria and general antibiotic resistance, with special focus on extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates, in two species of seabirds at remote Easter Island. We identified 11 species of bacteria from masked booby (Sula dactylatra) and Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis); five species of gram-negative bacilli, four species of Streptococcus (Enterococcus), and 2 species of Staphylococcus. In addition, 6 types of bacteria were determined barely to the genus level. General antibiotic susceptibility was measured in the 30 isolated Enterobacteriaceae to 11 antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. The 10 isolates that showed a phenotypic ESBL profile were verified by clavulanic acid inhibition in double mixture discs with cefpodoxime, and two ESBL strains were found, one strain in masked booby and one strain in Christmas shearwater. The two bacteria harboring the ESBL type were identified as Serratia odorifera biotype 1, which has zoonotic importance. Despite minimal human presence in the masked booby and Christmas shearwater habitats, and the extreme geographic isolation of Easter Island, we found several multiresistant bacteria and even two isolates with ESBL phenotypes. The finding of ESBLs has animal and public health significance and is of potential concern, especially because the investigation was limited in size and indicated that antibiotic-resistant bacteria now are distributed globally.

  • 33. Arend, A
    et al.
    Aunapuu, M
    Masso, R
    Selstam, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Prostaglandins of the E-series inhibit connective tissue proliferation in the liver wound of the rat2005In: Annals of Anatomy, ISSN 0940-9602, E-ISSN 1618-0402, Vol. 187, no 1, p. 57-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was undertaken to relate wound heating of an internal organ to prostaglandins of the E and F series. A small liver wound was induced by a galvanic cauter via the abdominal route under general anesthesia and prostaglandin E-1, E-2 and F-2 alpha were injected twice daily at a dose of 250 mu g/kg. Proliferation of the connective tissue in the liver wound was estimated morphometrically 6 days after liver wound infliction. Levels of prostaglandins E-2 and F-2 alpha were measured in the liver wound as well as in normal liver tissue from adjacent lobes using radioimmunoassay. The results show that exogenous prostaglandins of the E-series suppress connective tissue proliferation. Three minutes after the last prostaglandin E-2 injection, high prostaglandin concentrations were measured both in the tiver wound and in the liver tissue of the adjacent lobe. Prostaglandin F-2 alpha injections had no effect on wound heating. We believe that the rat thermic liver wound model can be used for different studies on wound heating mechanisms and that prostaglandins of the E-series are involved in wound heating in the specific time period studied.

  • 34.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Biomechanical concepts of Achilles Tendon pathogenesis2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Arvidsson, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Skedung, Lisa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Aikala, Maiju
    Oy Keskuslaboratorio - Centrallaboratorium Ab (KCL), Espoo, Finland.
    Danerlöv, Katrin
    Institute for Surface Chemistry (YTK), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kettle, John
    Oy Keskuslaboratorio - Centrallaboratorium Ab (KCL), Espoo, Finland.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface Chemistry.
    Multidimensional psychophysics: surface feel of printing paper as a function of physical propertiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Asfaw Idosa, Berhane
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Inflammasome polymorphisms and the Inflammatory Response to Bacterial Infections2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    NLRP3 inflammasome; a key component of the innate immune system, can be activated by a number of pathogens and other threats of the body. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome triggers caspase-1 mediated maturationof IL-1β and IL-18. Polymorphisms Q705K and C10X are two gene variants of the NLRP3 inflammasome that combined or per se have been associated with higher risk and severity of chronic inflammation and excessive production of IL-1β. Host genetic factors have been found an important determinants of susceptibility of infectious diseases and disease outcome. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the association between polymorphisms Q705K and C10X with bacterial infections and the inflammatory response, moreover to determine the inflammasome activation state in healthy carriers of these polymorphisms. The data of the thesis show higher levels of IL-1β and IL-33 in healthy carriers of combined polymorphisms of Q705K and C10X as compared to non-carrier controls. This may provide individuals with combined polymorphisms a more robust innate immune response against pathogens, but could also lead to the onset of chronic inflammation, and excessive inflammation during acute infection. In addition, individuals with C10X polymorphism per se showed association with the presence of bacteremia as compared withhealthy blood donors. No association was found in severely ill patients with negative blood culture bottle. In addition, the results show that LOS of N. meningitidis is responsible for the priming and activating steps of the inflammasome. The non-LOS components were found to contribute to the priming step. A higher inflammatory response to N. meningitidis was found in individuals who were non-carriers of the polymorphisms than individuals with the Q705K and C10X per se or combined regardless of the strain of bacteria. Taken together, the gene variations of the NLRP3 inflammasome are of importance in explaining inter-individual variation in susceptibility to infectious diseases.

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  • 37.
    Asfaw Idosa, Berhane
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Jacobsson, Susanne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Kelly, Anne
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fredlund, Hans
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Persson, Alexander
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Särndahl, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Human gene variants that regulate the NLRP3 activity limit the production of Neisseria meningitidis-induced IL-1β and IL-18Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Asfaw Idosa, Berhane
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Persson, Alexander
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Jacobsson, Susanne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Demirel, Isak
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Fredlund, Hans
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Särndahl, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Kelly, Anne
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    LOS-dependent Neisseria meningitidis-induced caspase-1 activation in human neutrophilsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Aslani Asl, Ali
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Synthesis of new perchlorates from 4- nitropyridine 1-oxide by acylation and decarboxylation2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    4-Nitropyridine 1-oxide was reacted with bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate, carbonyl fluoride, methyland ethyl chloroformate. Of particular interest was to examine if denitrohalogenation occurs when 4-nitropyridine 1-oxide is treated with carbonyl fluoride which happens when 4-nitropyridine 1-oxidereacts with bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate. A reaction took place but what was formed is still amatter of question.

    Two new compounds, 1-(methyloxycarbonyloxy)- and 1-(ethyloxycarbonyloxy)-4-nitropyridiniumperchlorate were obtained when 4-nitropyridine 1-oxide and sodium perchlorate in acetonitrile werereacted with methyl and ethyl chloroformate, respectively.

    1-Ethyloxy-4-nitropyridinium perchlorate were formed when heating 1-(ethyloxy-carbonyloxy)-4-nitropyridinium perchlorate. The evolution of carbon dioxide ceased at 90 OC. The structuredetermination of the product was made by IR and1H-NMR spectroscopy. The methyl analogue onthe other hand was completely decarboxylated at 145 OC according to an IR spectrum. The finalstructure determination of the latter compound remains to be done. Both compounds are new.

    Experiments were also done in order to work out a simple method for synthesizing carbonyl fluoridefrom bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate and potassium fluoride using 18-crown-6 or tetrabutylammoniumbromide as phase transfer catalysts in several solvents, e.g. acetonitrile, nitromethane, propylenecarbonate. Carbonyl fluoride was formed but its purity remains to be settled.

  • 40.
    Axelsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Tellström, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Mobil hälsa (m-hälsa) genom användning av mobiltelefon som intervention för barn med övervikt eller fetma.: En systematisk litteraturstudie.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The presence of overweight and obesity among children is increasing in

    large parts of the world. Lack of physical activity is one of the causes of overweight and

    obesity. For children with obesity, small amounts of physical activity may have major

    positive health effects. There is a need to develop new effective strategies to increase the

    amount of physical activity among children with overweight or obesity. Mobile health

    (mHealth) is used as an umbrella term for health services transmitted by mobile devices

    and is defined as "medical or public health practice supported by mobile devices such as

    mobile phones, patient monitoring devices, personal digital assistants and other wireless

    devices." A potential strategy for influencing the amount of physical activity in children

    with overweight or obesity is mHealth through the use of mobile phones.

    Objective:

    To examine and describe what interventions with mHealth component

    through the use of mobile phones that evaluated physical activity or Body Mass Index

    (BMI) in children with overweight or obesity.

    Methods:

    A systematic literature study in which studies describing interventions with

    mHealth components for the target group of children 0-18 years of overweight or obesity

    were included. Search was conducted in three scientific databases.

    Results:

    The searches resulted in 649 studies, of which 16 met set inclusion criteria. In

    most studies, the mHealth component included the use of text messaging and in some

    studies the use of app. The function of the mHealth component was studied and divided

    into self-registration, communication, encouragement, education and reminder. The

    included studies reported different forms of BMI where two studies showed significant

    differences between the intervention and control group with the greatest reduction for

    the intervention group. Few studies reported objectively measured time in physical

    activity of moderate to high intensity.

    Conclusion:

    The most common intervention with mHealth component through the use

    of mobile phones among children with overweight or obesity was text messaging. In

    order to understand and compare how mHealth can be used, a framework for the

    description of these interventions would facilitate.

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  • 41.
    Aydin, Juhanes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Senthil, Kumar K
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Sayah, Mahmoud J
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Wallner, Olov A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Szabó, Kálmán J
    Synthesis and catalytic application of chiral 1,1'-Bi-2-naphthol- and biphenanthrol-based pincer complexes: selective allylation of sulfonimines with allyl stannane and allyl trifluoroborate.2007In: Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 72, no 13, p. 4689-4697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New easily accessible 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol- (BINOL-) and biphenanthrol-based chiral pincer complex catalysts were prepared for selective (up to 85% enantiomeric excess) allylation of sulfonimines. The chiral pincer complexes were prepared by a flexible modular approach allowing an efficient tuning of the selectivity of the catalysts. By employment of the different enantiomeric forms of the catalysts, both enantiomers of the homoallylic amines could be selectively obtained. Both allyl stannanes and allyl trifluoroborates can be employed as allyl sources in the reactions. The biphenanthrol-based complexes gave higher selectivity than the substituted BINOL-based analogues, probably because of the well-shaped chiral pocket generated by employment of the biphenanthrol complexes. The enantioselective allylation of sulfonimines presented in this study has important implications for the mechanism given for the pincer complex-catalyzed allylation reactions, confirming that this process takes place without involvement of palladium(0) species.

  • 42.
    Aydin, Juhanes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Szabó, Kálmán
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Palladium-pincer complex catalyzed C-C coupling of allyl nitriles with tosyl imines via regioselective allylic C-H bond functionalization2008In: Organic Letters, ISSN 1523-7060, Vol. 10, no 13, p. 2881-2884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mechanistically new palladium-pincer complex catalyzed allylation of sulfonimines is presented. This reaction involves C-H bond functionalization of allyl nitriles under mild conditions. The reaction proceeds with a high regioselectivity, without allyl rearrangement of the product. Modeling studies indicate that the carbon-carbon bond formation process proceeds via (η1-allyl)palladium pincer complex intermediates.

  • 43.
    B. Kumar, Ramakrishnan
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Sverige.
    Zhu, Lin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Structural Biotechnology.
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Structural Biotechnology. Karolinska institutet, Sverige.
    Jegerschöld, Caroline
    Karolinska institutet, Sverige.
    Method to Visualize and Analyze Membrane Interacting Proteins by Transmission Electron Microscopy2017In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 121, article id e55148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monotopic proteins exert their function when attached to a membrane surface, and such interactions depend on the specific lipid composition and on the availability of enough area to perform the function. Nanodiscs are used to provide a membrane surface of controlled size and lipid content. In the absence of bound extrinsic proteins, sodium phosphotungstate-stained nanodiscs appear as stacks of coins when viewed from the side by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This protocol is therefore designed to intentionally promote stacking; consequently, the prevention of stacking can be interpreted as the binding of the membrane-binding protein to the nanodisc. In a further step, the TEM images of the protein-nanodisc complexes can be processed with standard single-particle methods to yield low-resolution structures as a basis for higher resolution cryoEM work. Furthermore, the nanodiscs provide samples suitable for either TEM or non-denaturing gel electrophoresis. To illustrate the method, Ca2+-induced binding of 5-lipoxygenase on nanodiscs is presented.

  • 44. Backlund, Per
    et al.
    Heldal, Ilona
    Söderström, Ewa
    Lundberg, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Pre-hospital training and simulation initiative2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The pre-hospital process is a complex one involving aspects such as medical skills as well as care taking, team performance, inter-organizational cooperation and communication. This calls for novel training methods and technology support. Our review of literature (covering the areas of pre-hospital care, training simulator technologies and methods and process modelling) indicates that the different aspects are typically trained in isolation, e.g. medical skills using patient simulators.Objective The pre-hospital training center project addresses the overall complexity of the pre-hospital process by taking all of the aspects into account when designing scenarios and technology support for training the complete prehospital process (covering alarm, on-scene activities, transportation and hand-over). This is indeed a challenging task as we need to develop both training methods and technology support for a very complex training situation.Methods The project will develop a prototype scenario along with technology support to enact it. The training scenario will involve many of the aspects listed above and will be tested in a field experiment with ambulance personnel. Results The expected outcome of the project is a platform for establishing a pre-hospital simulation and training center. The initial technologies, research results and experiences will be used to form a consortium for further work and development. Conclusions We have identified a need for a pre-hospital training center with the unique and ambitious idea of covering the entire pre-hospital process as well as its many interacting aspects. To the best of our knowledge this approach is not at all common and we expect the complexity to be so high that it is a challenging enough research area that can only be addressed if we have a well-designed simulation and training center in place with all the different areas of knowledge represented, i.e. pre-hospital medicine as well as simulation and visualization technology.

  • 45.
    Baleani, Massimiliano
    et al.
    Laboratorio di Tecnologia Medica, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.
    Fognani, Roberta
    Laboratorio di Tecnologia Medica, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.
    Feresini, Chiara
    Centro Ceramico Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Öhman, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Spagnolo, Claudia
    Laboratorio di Tecnologia Medica, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.
    Baruffaldi, Fabio
    Laboratorio di Tecnologia Medica, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.
    Real wet density of bone tissue: Does it depend on tissue type and subject?2014In: Proceedings of 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Balian, Alien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine (WCMM), Sweden.
    Garcia Gonzalez, Javier
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine (WCMM), Sweden.
    Bastida, Nora
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Akhtar, Khadija-Tul Kubra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Borsa, Baris Ata
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine (WCMM), Sweden.
    Hernandez, Frank
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine (WCMM), Sweden.
    Kinetic Screening of Nuclease Activity using Nucleic Acid Probes2019In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 153, article id e60005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nucleases are a class of enzymes that break down nucleic acids by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bonds that link the ribose sugars. Nucleases display a variety of vital physiological roles in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, ranging from maintaining genome stability to providing protection against pathogens. Altered nuclease activity has been associated with several pathological conditions including bacterial infections and cancer. To this end, nuclease activity has shown great potential to be exploited as a specific biomarker. However, a robust and reproducible screening method based on this activity remains highly desirable. Herein, we introduce a method that enables screening for nuclease activity using nucleic acid probes as substrates, with the scope of differentiating between pathological and healthy conditions. This method offers the possibility of designing new probe libraries, with increasing specificity, in an iterative manner. Thus, multiple rounds of screening are necessary to refine the probes design with enhanced features, taking advantage of the availability of chemically modified nucleic acids. The considerable potential of the proposed technology lies in its flexibility, high reproducibility, and versatility for the screening of nuclease activity associated with disease conditions. It is expected that this technology will allow the development of promising diagnostic tools with a great potential in the clinic.

  • 47.
    Becker, Richard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Johnsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Berger, Helmuth
    Crystal Structure of the New Cobalt Tellurite Chloride Co5Te4O11Cl42007In: Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeines Chemie, ISSN 0044-2313, E-ISSN 1521-3749, Vol. 633, no 3, p. 422-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crystal structure of the new compound Co5Te4O11Cl4 is described. It crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P-1 with the unit cell parameters a = 822.26(8) pm, b = 1029.7(1) pm, c = 1031.1(1) pm, = 110.80(1)°, β = 97.950(9)°, = 98.260(9)° and Z = 2. The structure is layered along the bc–plane and built by [CoO5Cl], [CoO4Cl2] and [CoO4Cl] polyhedra sandwiched by [TeO3E] and [TeO4E] polyhedra. The layers can be regarded as infinite molecules without any net charge and only weak van der Waals forces connect them to each other. The halides and the lone-pair, E, of TeIV protrude from the layers.

  • 48.
    Beckman Sundh, Ulla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Studies on Phosphohistidine Phosphatase 1: What? Where? Why?2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphohistidine phosphatase 1 (PHPT1) is a small protein, consisting of 125 amino acids, that catalyzes the dephosphorylation of histidine but does not have any activity towards other phosphorylated amino acids. PHPT1 was identified in 2002, and is so far the only mammalian histidine phosphatase known, but still little is known about its physiological role. No mammalian histidine kinases have hitherto been identified.

    Phosphorylation is one of the most important ways in which the structure and activity of a protein may be changed after translation. Proteins are phosphorylated on the side chain of amino acid residues. When a hydroxyl is phosphorylated the result is a phosphoester and when a nitrogen is phosphorylated the result is a phosphoamidate. Histidine may be phosphorylated on either of the two nitrogens of the imidazole ring of the side chain. The resulting phosphoamidate bond is labile and rich in energy, which makes histidine phosphorylation highly reversible and flexible. However, histidine phosphorylation is less studied than that of the phosphoesters due to the acid lability of the phosphoamidate bond.

    The work described in this thesis was focused on further elucidating the physiological role of PHPT1. Amino acid residues of importance for the activity of PHPT1 were identified, and mutants with decreased phosphatase activity were produced. These mutants have been used in studies on the function of PHPT1. By using immunohistochemical methodology the localization of PHPT1 in both mouse and human tissues was determined, with mainly similar results. A general finding was that expression of PHPT1 was high in epithelial cells with short turnover time, indicating that PHPT1 may have an important role in proliferating cells. We have also developed a comparatively fast and simple screening method for determination of PHPT1 activity. Since research in this field has been hampered by the lack of efficient and practical methodology, hopefully this new method will be an asset in search of inhibitors for PHPT1, which in turn may be used for detection of the elusive mammalian histidine kinases, the finding of which may give major breakthroughs in the field.

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  • 49.
    Befekadu, Rahel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section for Clinical Immunology and Transfusion medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Grenegård, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Larsson, Anders
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Christensen, Kjeld
    Karlstad Central Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden; Department of Cardiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory C5:3, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ramström, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Clinical Chemistry, and Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Activation of the lectin complement pathway during and after ST segment elevation myocardial infarctionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Befekadu Wodajo, Rahel
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Analysis of new biomarkers and their kinetics in connection with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and percutaneous coronary intervention2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies different biomarkers in a cohort of patients suffering from ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who underwent Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in Örebro in 2011-2012. Blood samples were collected at three time points, at the arrival at the hospital, 1-3 days after PCI and for a smaller group of patients also 3 months after PCI. The study is a sub-study of the TASTE study, so half of the patients were also randomized to thrombus aspiration in conjunction with their PCI. For all patients, it was also recorded whether the culprit coronary vessel was totally occluded or partially patent. In total, there are samples from 165 patients, but not all markers have been measured in all patients, and 3-month samples are only available from those who had their follow-up in Örebro. The plasma levels of the biomarkers have also been measured in plasma from blood donors for comparison. In March 2019, a follow-up was made of the patients' survival, and the time of death was noted in cases where this had occurred.

    The markers studied are the lysosome protein Cathepsin S (Cat-S), the platelet granule protein thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1), the pentraxins C-reactive protein (CRP) and pentraxin 3 (PTX3), the endopeptidase neprilysin, the soluble forms of TNF-receptor 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2), markers showing activation of the lectin pathway for complement activation (MASP-1/AT, MASP-1/C1-INH, MASP-2/C1-INH, MASP-2/AT) and common activation markers for complement activation (C3a and sC5b-9).

    In summary, the thesis shows that the plasma levels of all markers, except neprilysin and sC5b-9, are elevated at the time of arrival compared to healthy blood donors. Neprilysin is at the same level, and sC5b-9 is lower compared to blood donors. 1-3 days after PCI, the levels for CRP, sTNFR1 and sC5b-9 have risen strongly (>50%) compared to the levels at arrival. MASP-1/AT and MASP-2/AT have fallen moderately (about 50%), Cat-S and TSP-1 have decreased strongly, while the remaining markers are relatively similar to the levels at arrival (± 25%). The levels for CRP, PTX3, sTNFR1, sTNFR2 and neprilysin decreased even further between 1-3 days and 3 months, sC5b-9 rises slightly while the other markers remain at roughly the same levels. At 3 months, most markers still show higher levels compared to corresponding levels in blood donors, only MASP-2/C1-INH has the same level, while neprilysin is slightly lower and TSP-1 much lower compared to blood donors (the latter presumably an effect of ongoing medication with platelet inhibitors in the patients). No relevant differences were observed between patients with and without thrombus aspiration, and few differences were seen between patients with occluded or partially patent vessels. This may indicate that these factors were of minor importance for the levels of the analyzed markers. In contrast, analysis of survival showed that individuals with plasma levels above the median value for PTX3, sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 at admission and/or at 1-3 days had a significantly increased mortality compared to those with levels below the median value, which indicates that these markers could be interesting for further studies in a material where also analysis of possible interfering factors can be implemented.

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