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  • 1.
    Aabel, Peder
    et al.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Med Biochem, Oslo, Norway;Akershus Univ Hosp, Ear Nose & Throat Dept, Div Surg, Lorenskog, Norway;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, Div Surg, Oslo, Norway.
    Utheim, Tor Paaske
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Med Biochem, Oslo, Norway;Univ Oslo, Inst Oral Biol, Fac Dent, Oslo, Norway.
    Olstad, Ole Kristoffer
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Med Biochem, Oslo, Norway.
    Rask-Andersen, Helge
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Dilley, Rodney James
    Ear Sci Inst Australia, Perth, WA, Australia;Univ Western Australia, Ear Sci Ctr, Nedlands, WA, Australia;Univ Western Australia, Ctr Cell Therapy & Regenerat Med, Nedlands, WA, Australia.
    von Unge, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Akershus Univ Hosp, Ear Nose & Throat Dept, Div Surg, Lorenskog, Norway;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, Div Surg, Oslo, Norway.
    Transcription and microRNA Profiling of Cultured Human Tympanic Membrane Epidermal Keratinocytes2018In: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, ISSN 1525-3961, E-ISSN 1438-7573, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 243-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human tympanic membrane (TM) has a thin outer epidermal layer which plays an important role in TM homeostasis and ear health. The specialised cells of the TM epidermis have a different physiology compared to normal skin epidermal keratinocytes, displaying a dynamic and constitutive migration that maintains a clear TM surface and assists in regeneration. Here, we characterise and compare molecular phenotypes in keratinocyte cultures from TM and normal skin. TM keratinocytes were isolated by enzymatic digestion and cultured in vitro. We compared global mRNA and microRNA expression of the cultured cells with that of human epidermal keratinocyte cultures. Genes with either relatively higher or lower expression were analysed further using the biostatistical tools g:Profiler and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Approximately 500 genes were found differentially expressed. Gene ontology enrichment and Ingenuity analyses identified cellular migration and closely related biological processes to be the most significant functions of the genes highly expressed in the TM keratinocytes. The genes of low expression showed a marked difference in homeobox (HOX) genes of clusters A and C, giving the TM keratinocytes a strikingly low HOX gene expression profile. An in vitro scratch wound assay showed a more individualised cell movement in cells from the tympanic membrane than normal epidermal keratinocytes. We identified 10 microRNAs with differential expression, several of which can also be linked to regulation of cell migration and expression of HOX genes. Our data provides clues to understanding the specific physiological properties of TM keratinocytes, including candidate genes for constitutive migration, and may thus help focus further research.

  • 2. Aahlin, Kristofer
    et al.
    Arvidsson, Per I.
    Huerta, Fernando
    Yngve, Ulrika.
    Preparation of 1-(4-(5-amino-6-(oxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-2-yl)pyrazin-2-yl)benzoyl)piperazine derivatives as glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors.2011Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Title compds. I [R1 = H or Me], and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, are prepd. and disclosed as glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitors. Thus, e.g., II was prepd. by cyclization of 3-amino-N-(4-hydroxypyridin-3-yl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide (prepn. given) to get intermediate 3-(oxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-2-yl)pyrazin-2-amine, which underwent bromination followed by Suzuki reaction with (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)(4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl)methanone. Compds. of the invention were tested for their selective inhibitory activity of GSK3β, e.g., II exhibited Ki value of 2.3 nM. The invention compds. are useful for the treatment of cognitive disorders, diabetes, cancer, etc. [on SciFinder(R)]

  • 3.
    Aakjær, Mia
    et al.
    Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Pharmacovigilance Research Center, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    De Bruin, Marie Louise
    Department of Pharmacy, Copenhagen Centre for Regulatory Science (CORS), University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS), Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Kulahci, Murat
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Andersen, Morten
    Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Pharmacovigilance Research Center, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Surveillance of Antidepressant Safety (SADS): Active Signal Detection of Serious Medical Events Following SSRI and SNRI Initiation Using Big Healthcare Data2021In: Drug Safety, ISSN 0114-5916, E-ISSN 1179-1942, Vol. 44, p. 1215-1230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The current process for generating evidence in pharmacovigilance has several limitations, which often lead to delays in the evaluation of drug-associated risks.

    Objectives In this study, we proposed and tested a near real-time epidemiological surveillance system using sequential, cumulative analyses focusing on the detection and preliminary risk quantification of potential safety signals following initiation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs).

    Methods We emulated an active surveillance system in an historical setting by conducting repeated annual cohort studies using nationwide Danish healthcare data (1996–2016). Outcomes were selected from the European Medicines Agency's Designated Medical Event list, summaries of product characteristics, and the literature. We followed patients for a maximum of 6 months from treatment initiation to the event of interest or censoring. We performed Cox regression analyses adjusted for standard sets of covariates. Potential safety signals were visualized using heat maps and cumulative hazard ratio (HR) plots over time.

    Results In the total study population, 969,667 new users were included and followed for 461,506 person-years. We detected potential safety signals with incidence rates as low as 0.9 per 10,000 person-years. Having eight different exposure drugs and 51 medical events, we identified 31 unique combinations of potential safety signals with a positive association to the event of interest in the exposed group. We proposed that these signals were designated for further evaluation once they appeared in a prospective setting. In total, 21 (67.7%) of these were not present in the current summaries of product characteristics.

    Conclusion The study demonstrated the feasibility of performing epidemiological surveillance using sequential, cumulative analyses. Larger populations are needed to evaluate rare events and infrequently used antidepressants.

  • 4.
    Aalto, K
    et al.
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Korhonen, L
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Uppsala University, Box 587, S-75123, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lahdenne, P
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pelkonen, P
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lindholm, D
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Uppsala University, Box 587, S-75123, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nerve growth factor in serum of children with systemic lupus erythematosus is correlated with disease activity2002In: Cytokine, ISSN 1043-4666, E-ISSN 1096-0023, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 136-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor, which is expressed both in the nervous system and in peripheral organs. NGF is also present in mast cells, and in B- and T-lymphocytes, and may play a role in the immune cell development and differentiation. Various cytokines have been shown to affect NGF expression, and NGF is elevated in inflammation and in some autoimmune diseases. Here we have studied NGF concentrations in serum of pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We have further correlated the levels of NGF to the inflammatory state of the disease. The mean value of serum NGF in SLE patients was significantly increased compared with controls (3346 vs 627 pg/ml). There was a correlation between the activity of SLE and the levels of NGF. The results show that NGF is elevated in childhood SLE and that the levels are correlated with disease activity. The present results suggest that NGF may play a role in the pathogenesis of SLE and may have a prognostic value in evaluating the course of the disease and in outlining the medication. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Aalto, Mervi Anneli
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Vill kunder handla receptfria läkemedel i dagligvaruhandeln?: - En enkätundersökning2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    I Sverige har det statliga apoteketsmonopolet ifrågasatts en längre tid och regeringen utreder nu möjligheten att konkurrensutsätta läkemedelsförsäljningen. Det har även föreslagits i den statliga utredningen (SOU 2008:4 del 2) att ett begränsat sortiment av OTC läkemedel (over the counter = receptfria läkemedel) ska få säljas i dagligvaruhandeln utan farmaceutiskt kompetenskrav. Vid korrekt användning och tillgång till rätt rådgivning kan OTC läkemedel vara till en stor hjälp för den enskilde individen vid egenvård och därigenom också bidra till avlastning på sjukvårdens resursers. Vid felanvändning av OTC läkemedel (över/underdosering, fel indikationsområde etc.), kan de istället få motsatt effekt. Syftet med denna enkätstudie var därför att utforska om konsumenter av OTC läkemedel i Sverige önskar få tillgång till dessa läkemedel i t ex livsmedelsbutiker, där de inte har tillgång till personlig farmaceutisk rådgivning, vidare var avsikten att undersöka hur de i dagligvaruhandeln önskade få läkemedelsinformation. I februari 2008 gjordes en enkätstudie i Västervik som inkluderade 48 deltagare varav 29 kvinnor och 19 män. Studien visade att 71 % av deltagarna hade en positiv inställning till att köpa OTC läkemedel i livsmedelsbutiker, 58 % skulle skaffa information genom läkemedelsförpackning och bipacksedel i kombination med att de tidigare använt läkemedlet. Önskan om tillgång till personlig rådgivning på inköpsstället var störst i åldern ≤ 35 år, där 38 % ansåg sig vilja det. Slutsats av studien är att majoriteten vill kunna handla OTC läkemedel i dagligvaruhandeln och information skulle de få främst från läkemedelsförpackning/bipacksedel i kombination med erfarenheter från tidigare användning.

    2008:F5

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  • 6.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Breath holds in spontaneous speech2019In: Eesti ja soome-ugri keeleteaduse ajakiri, ISSN 1736-8987, E-ISSN 2228-1339, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 13-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a first quantitative overview of the timing and volume-related properties of breath holds in spontaneous conversations. Firstly, we investigate breath holds based on their position within the coinciding respiratory interval amplitude. Secondly, we investigate breath holds based on their timing within the respiratory intervals and in relation to communicative activity following breath holds. We hypothesise that breath holds occur in different regions of the lung capacity range and at different times during the respiratory phase, depending on the conversational and physiological activity following breath holds. The results suggest there is not only considerable variation in both the time and lung capacity scales, but detectable differences are also present in breath holding characteristics involving laughter and speech preparation, while breath holds coinciding with swallowing are difficult to separate from the rest of the data based on temporal and volume information alone.

  • 7. Aare, Magnus
    et al.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Injuries from motorcycle- and moped crashes in Sweden from 1987 to 1999.2003In: Injury control and safety promotion, ISSN 1566-0974, E-ISSN 1744-4985, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 131-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to study injuries from motorcycle and moped crashes in Sweden from 1987 to 1999. Databases at the National Board for Health and Welfare and codes from both ICD9 and ICD10 systems were used, including patterns of age, gender, E-code and type of injury. Length of hospital stay, type of injuries and trends over time was evaluated. To get a more detailed picture of the age distribution, type of vehicle used and number of killed, data from the Swedish National Road Administration were also used. In Sweden, 27,122 individuals received in-patient care due to motorcycle and moped injuries between 1987 and 1999. The motorcycle and moped injury rate was reduced in the second half of the studied period and so were the total days of treatment per year. Males had eight times the incidence of injuries compared to females. Riders under the age of 26 and in particular those at an age of 15 had the highest incidence rate. Head injuries were the most frequent diagnosis, followed by fractures to the lower limbs. Concussion was the most frequent head injury. Focal and diffuse brain injuries combined showed the same frequency as concussion. It is concluded that more preventative strategies must be presented before the injury rate can be reduced.

  • 8.
    Aare, Sudhakar Reddy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Intensive Care Unit Muscle Wasting: Skeletal Muscle Phenotype and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute quadriplegic myopathy (AQM), or critical illness myopathy, is a common debilitating acquired disorder in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients characterized by generalized muscle wasting and weakness of limb and trunk muscles. A preferential loss of the thick filament protein myosin is considered pathognomonic of this disorder, but the myosin loss is observed relatively late during the disease progression. In attempt to explore the potential role of factors considered triggering AQM in sedated mechanically ventilated (MV) ICU patients, we have studied the early effects, prior to the myosin loss, of neuromuscular blockade (NMB), corticosteroids (CS) and sepsis separate or in combination in a porcine experimental ICU model. Specific interest has been focused on skeletal muscle gene/protein expression and regulation of muscle contraction at the muscle fiber level. This project aims at improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle specific differences in response to the ICU intervention and the role played by the different triggering factors.

    The sparing of masticatory muscle fiber function was coupled to an up-regulation of heat shock protein genes and down-regulation of myostatin are suggested to be key factors in the relative sparing of masticatory muscles. Up-regulation of chemokine activity genes and down-regulation of heat shock protein genes play a significant role in the limb muscle dysfunction associated with sepsis. The effects of corticosteroids in the development of limb muscle weakness reveals up-regulation of kinase activity and transcriptional regulation genes and the down-regulation of heat shock protein, sarcomeric, cytoskeletal and oxidative stress responsive genes. In contrast to limb and craniofacial muscles, the respiratory diaphragm muscle responded differently to the different triggering factors. MV itself appears to play a major role for the diaphragm muscle dysfunction. By targeting these genes, future experiments can give an insight into the development of innovative treatments expected at protecting muscle mass and function in critically ill ICU patients.

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  • 9. Aartsma-Rus, A.
    et al.
    Ferlini, A.
    McNally, E. M.
    Spitali, P.
    Sweeney, H. L.
    Al-Khalili Szigyarto, Cristina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Systems Biology.
    Bello, L.
    Bronson, A.
    Brown, K.
    Buccella, F.
    Chadwick, J.
    Frank, D.
    Hoffman, E.
    Larkindale, J.
    McClorey, G.
    Munschauer, R.
    Muntoni, F.
    Owens, J.
    Schara, U.
    Straub, V.
    Tinsley, J.
    Versnel, J.
    Vroom, E.
    Welch, E.
    226th ENMC International Workshop:: Towards validated and qualified biomarkers for therapy development for Duchenne muscular dystrophy 20–22 January 2017, Heemskerk, The Netherlands2018In: Neuromuscular Disorders, ISSN 0960-8966, E-ISSN 1873-2364, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 77-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Aasebo, Kristine
    et al.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway.
    Dragomir, Anca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology. Department of Pathology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sundström, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology. Department of Pathology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mezheyeuski, Artur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Edqvist, Per-Henrik D
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Eide, Geir Egil
    Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Lifestyle Epidemiol Grp, Bergen, Norway;Haukeland Hosp, Clin Res Ctr, Bergen, Norway.
    Pontén, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Pfeiffer, Per
    Odense Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol, Odense, Denmark.
    Glimelius, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sorbye, Halfdan
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway;Haukeland Hosp, Dept Oncol, Bergen, Norway.
    CDX2: A Prognostic Marker in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Defining a Better BRAF Mutated and a Worse KRAS Mutated Subgroup2020In: Frontiers in Oncology, E-ISSN 2234-943X, Vol. 10, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Survival of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients has improved, but mainly for trial patients. New predictive and prognostic biomarkers validated in the general mCRC population are needed. Caudal-type homeobox 2 (CDX2) is an intestine-specific transcription factor with potential prognostic and predictive effect, but the importance in mCRC has not been fully investigated. Methods: Immunohistochemistry analysis of CDX2 was performed in a Scandinavian population-based cohort of mCRC (n = 796). Frequency, clinical and tumor characteristics, response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival (OS) were estimated. Results: Loss of CDX2 expression was found in 87 (19%) of 452 stained cases, in 53% if BRAF mutated (BRAFmut) and in 9% if KRAS mutated (KRASmut). CDX2 loss was associated with microsatellite instability, BRAFmut, and poor differentiation and inversely associated with KRASmut. Patients with CDX2 loss received less first-line (53 vs. 64%, p = 0.050) and second-line (23 vs. 39%, p = 0.006) chemotherapy and secondary surgery (1 vs. 9%, p = 0.019). Median progression-free survival and OS for patients given first-line combination chemotherapy was 4 and 10 months if CDX2 loss vs. 9 and 24 months if CDX2 expressed (p = 0.001, p < 0.001). Immediate progression on first-line combination chemotherapy was seen in 35% of patients with CDX2 loss vs. 10% if CDX2 expressed (p = 0.003). Median OS in patients with BRAFmut or KRASmut and CDX2 expressed in tumor (both 21 months) was comparable to wild-type patients (27 months). However, if CDX2 loss, median OS was only 8 and 11 months in BRAFmut and KRASmut cases, respectively, and 10 months in double wild-type patients. In multivariate analysis, CDX2 loss (hazard ratio: 1.50, p = 0.027) and BRAFmut (hazard ratio: 1.62, p = 0.012) were independent poor prognostic markers for OS. Conclusion: In a population-based cohort of mCRC patients, CDX2 loss is an independent poor prognostic marker. Expression of CDX2 defines a new subgroup of BRAFmut cases with a much better prognosis. Loss of CDX2 defines a small group of KRASmut cases with a worse prognosis. Patients with CDX2 loss receive less palliative chemotherapy with less benefit and rarely reach secondary surgery.

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  • 11.
    Aaseth, Jan
    et al.
    Innlandet Hosp, Norway; Inland Norway Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    Alexander, Jan
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Norway.
    Alehagen, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Tinkov, Alexey
    Yaroslavl State Univ, Russia; IM Sechenov First Moscow State Med Univ Sechenov, Russia.
    Skalny, Anatoly
    IM Sechenov First Moscow State Med Univ Sechenov, Russia; KG Razumovsky Moscow State Univ Technol & Managem, Russia.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Crisponi, Guido
    Univ Cagliari, Italy.
    Nurchi, Valeria Marina
    Univ Cagliari, Italy.
    The Aging Kidney - As Influenced by Heavy Metal Exposure and Selenium Supplementation2021In: Biomolecules, E-ISSN 2218-273X, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 1078Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aging process in the kidneys has been well studied. It is known that the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) declines with age in subjects older than 50-60 years. However, there is still insufficient knowledge regarding the response of the aged kidney to environmental toxicants such as mercury, cadmium, and lead. Here, we present a review on the functional decline and proposed mechanisms in the aging kidney as influenced by metal pollutants. Due to the prevalence of these toxicants in the environment, human exposure is nearly unavoidable. Further, it is well known that acute and chronic exposures to toxic metals may be detrimental to kidneys of normal adults, thus it may be hypothesized that exposure of individuals with reduced GFR will result in additional reductions in renal function. Individuals with compromised renal function, either from aging or from a combination of aging and disease, may be particularly susceptible to environmental toxicants. The available data appear to show an association between exposure to mercury, cadmium and/or lead and an increase in incidence and severity of renal disease in elderly individuals. Furthermore, some physiological thiols, as well as adequate selenium status, appear to exert a protective action. Further studies providing improved insight into the mechanisms by which nephrotoxic metals are handled by aging kidneys, as well as possibilities of therapeutic protection, are of utmost importance.

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  • 12.
    Aaseth, Jan
    et al.
    Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway; Hedmark University of Appl Science, Norway.
    Alexander, Jan
    Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Science NMBU, Norway.
    Bjorklund, Geir
    Council Nutr and Environm Med, Norway.
    Hestad, Knut
    Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway; Hedmark University of Appl Science, Norway.
    Dusek, Petr
    Charles University of Prague, Czech Republic; Charles University of Prague, Czech Republic; Gen University Hospital Prague, Czech Republic.
    Roos, Per M.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; St Goran Hospital, Sweden.
    Alehagen, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Treatment strategies in Alzheimers disease: a review with focus on selenium supplementation2016In: Biometals, ISSN 0966-0844, E-ISSN 1572-8773, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 827-839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimers disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder presenting one of the biggest healthcare challenges in developed countries. No effective treatment exists. In recent years the main focus of AD research has been on the amyloid hypothesis, which postulates that extracellular precipitates of beta amyloid (A beta) derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) are responsible for the cognitive impairment seen in AD. Treatment strategies have been to reduce A beta production through inhibition of enzymes responsible for its formation, or to promote resolution of existing cerebral A beta plaques. However, these approaches have failed to demonstrate significant cognitive improvements. Intracellular rather than extracellular events may be fundamental in AD pathogenesis. Selenate is a potent inhibitor of tau hyperphosphorylation, a critical step in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Some selenium (Se) compounds e.g. selenoprotein P also appear to protect APP against excessive copper and iron deposition. Selenoproteins show anti-inflammatory properties, and protect microtubules in the neuronal cytoskeleton. Optimal function of these selenoenzymes requires higher Se intake than what is common in Europe and also higher intake than traditionally recommended. Supplementary treatment with N-acetylcysteine increases levels of the antioxidative cofactor glutathione and can mediate adjuvant protection. The present review discusses the role of Se in AD treatment and suggests strategies for AD prevention by optimizing selenium intake, in accordance with the metal dysregulation hypothesis. This includes in particular secondary prevention by selenium supplementation to elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

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  • 13.
    Abacan, MaryAnn
    et al.
    Univ Philippines Manila, Inst Human Genet, NIH, Manila, Philippines.
    Alsubaie, Lamia
    KASCH, King Abdulaziz Med City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Barlow-Stewart, Kristine
    Univ Sydney, Fac Med & Hlth, Northern Clin Sch, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Caanen, Beppy
    Maastricht Univ, Dept Clin Genet, Med Ctr, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Cordier, Christophe
    SYNLAB Genet, Dept Genet, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Courtney, Eliza
    Natl Canc Ctr, Div Med Oncol, Canc Genet Serv, Singapore, Singapore.
    Davoine, Emeline
    Lausanne Univ Hosp CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Edwards, Janice
    Univ South Carolina, Genet Counseling Program, Transnat Alliance Genet Counseling, Columbia, SC USA.
    Elackatt, Niby J.
    Cloudnine Hosp, Org Rare Dis India, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
    Gardiner, Kate
    LifeLabs Genet, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Guan, Yue
    Emory Univ, Rollins Sch Publ Hlth, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Huang, Lian-Hua
    China Med Univ, Sch Nursing, Taichung, Taiwan;Natl Taiwan Univ, Coll Med, Sch Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Ingvoldstad, Charlotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Lifestyle and rehabilitation in long term illness. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Ctr Fetal Med & Clin Genet, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kejriwal, Sahil
    Univ Washington, Inst Publ Hlth Genet, Seattle, WA USA.
    Kim, Hyon J.
    Ajou Univ, Med Sch, Suwon, South Korea;Konyang Univ, Grad Sch, Suwon, South Korea.
    Lambert, Deborah
    Natl Rare Dis Off, Dublin, Ireland.
    Lantigua-Cruz, Paulina Araceli
    Univ Med Sci Havana, Havana, Cuba.
    Lee, Juliana M. H.
    Natl Univ Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Lodahl, Marianne
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Rigshosp, Dept Clin Genet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lunde, Ashild
    Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway.
    Macaulay, Shelley
    Univ Witwatersrand, Fac Hlth Sci, Div Human Genet, Johannesburg, South Africa;Natl Hlth Lab Serv, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Macciocca, Ivan
    Victorian Clin Genet Serv, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Margarit, Sonia
    Clin Alemana Univ Desarrollo, Fac Med, Ctr Genet & Genom, Santiago, Chile.
    Middleton, Anna
    Soc & Eth Res Connecting Sci, Wellcome Genome Campus, Cambridge, England;Univ Cambridge, Fac Educ, Cambridge, England.
    Moldovan, Ramona
    Babes Bolyai Univ, Dept Psychol, Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    Ngeow, Joanne
    Natl Canc Ctr, Div Med Oncol, Canc Genet Serv, Singapore, Singapore.
    Obregon-Tito, Alexandra J.
    Univ Arkansas Med Sci, Little Rock, AR 72205 USA.
    Ormond, Kelly E.
    Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Dept Genet, Stanford, CA USA;Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Stanford Ctr Biomed Eth, Stanford, CA USA;Stanford Univ, Sch Med, 300 Pasteur Dr,MC 5208, Stanford, CA USA.
    Paneque, Milena
    Univ Porto, CGPP Ctr Predict & Prevent Genet, I3S, Porto, Portugal;Univ Porto, IBMC Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Porto, Portugal.
    Powell, Karen
    Cone Hlth Canc Ctr, Greensboro, NC USA.
    Sanghavi, Kunal
    Jackson Lab Genom Med, Farmington, CT USA.
    Scotcher, Diana
    Manchester Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, St Marys Hosp, Manchester Ctr Genom Med, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Scott, Jenna
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Juhe, Clara Serra
    Univ Pompeu Fabra, Dept Ciencies Expt & Salut, Inst Hosp Mar Invest Med, Ctr Invest Biomed Red Enfermedades Raras, Barcelona, Spain.
    Shkedi-Rafid, Shiri
    Hadassah Hebrew Univ, Med Ctr, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Wessels, Tina-Marie
    Univ Cape Town, Div Human Genet, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Yoon, Sook-Yee
    Natl Univ Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;Canc Res, Subang Jaya, Malaysia;Univ Malaya, Med Ctr, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Wicklund, Catherine
    Northwestern Univ, Feinberg Sch Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA.
    The Global State of the Genetic Counseling Profession2019In: European Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 1018-4813, E-ISSN 1476-5438, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 183-197Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The profession of genetic counseling (also called genetic counselling in many countries) began nearly 50 years ago in the United States, and has grown internationally in the past 30 years. While there have been many papers describing the profession of genetic counseling in individual countries or regions, data remains incomplete and has been published in diverse journals with limited access. As a result of the 2016 Transnational Alliance of Genetic Counseling (TAGC) conference in Barcelona, Spain, and the 2017 World Congress of Genetic Counselling in the UK, we endeavor to describe as fully as possible the global state of genetic counseling as a profession. We estimate that in 2018 there are nearly 7000 genetic counselors with the profession established or developing in no less than 28 countries.

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  • 14.
    Abad, Nadeem
    et al.
    aTrustlife Labs, Drug Research & Development Center, 34774 Istanbul, Turkiye.
    Buhlak, Shafeek
    aTrustlife Labs, Drug Research & Development Center, 34774 Istanbul, Turkiye.
    Hajji, Melek
    bResearch Unit: Electrochemistry, Materials and Environment, University of Kairouan, 3100 Kairouan, Tunisia.
    Saffour, Sana
    aTrustlife Labs, Drug Research & Development Center, 34774 Istanbul, Turkiye.
    Akachar, Jihane
    aTrustlife Labs, Drug Research & Development Center, 34774 Istanbul, Turkiye.
    Kesgun, Yunus
    aTrustlife Labs, Drug Research & Development Center, 34774 Istanbul, Turkiye.
    Al-Ghulikah, Hanan
    cDepartment of Chemistry, College of Science, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh 11671, Saudi Arabia, P.O. Box 84428.
    Hanashalshahaby, Essam
    aTrustlife Labs, Drug Research & Development Center, 34774 Istanbul, Turkiye.
    Turkez, Hasan
    dDepartment of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkiye.
    Mardinoglu, Adil
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Systems Biology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. fCentre for Host-Microbiome Interactions, Faculty of Dentistry, Oral & Craniofacial Sciences, King's College London, London, SE1 9RT, United Kingdom.
    Unveiling structural features, chemical reactivity, and bioactivity of a newly synthesized purine derivative through crystallography and computational approaches2024In: Journal of Molecular Structure, ISSN 0022-2860, E-ISSN 1872-8014, Vol. 1311, article id 138400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the synthesis and characterization of a novel purine derivative, 2-amino-6‑chloro-N,N-diphenyl-7H-purine-7-carboxamide. X-ray crystallography was utilized to elucidate its molecular and crystal structure. A comprehensive crystal packing analysis uncovered a network of diverse intermolecular interactions, including classical and unconventional hydrogen bonding. Remarkably, a unique halogen···π (C—Cl···π(ring)) interaction was identified and theoretically analyzed within a multi-approach quantum mechanics (QM) framework, revealing its lone-pair⋯π (n→π*) nature. Furthermore, insights into the electronic and chemical reactivity properties are provided by means of Conceptual Density Functional Theory (CDFT) at wB97X-D/aug-cc-pVTZ level. The compound's drug-likeness, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology profiles are assessed using ADMETlab 2.0. Finally, molecular docking simulations were conducted to evaluate its bioactivity as a potential cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. This study significantly advances our understanding of purine structure and reactivity, offering valuable insights for the development of targeted purine-based COX-2 inhibitors and anticancer therapeutics.

  • 15.
    Abada, Mariam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Vilka problem finns det med förfalskade läkemedel?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Världsmarknaden för läkemedlen beräknades år 2011 till 900 miljarder US$ enligt IMS-health. Marknaden för illegala läkemedel uppskattas vara värd mellan 75-200 miljarder dollar. I Sverige uppskattas den illegala läkemedelsmarknaden till motsvarande ≤0,5 %. Straffet för insmuggling av läkemedel till Sverige är böter eller max 2 års fängelse. Tullverket räknar med att man endast hittar 10 % av det som smugglas in. I andra länder kan straffet variera mellan böter (ekonomisk brottslighet i Afrika) till dödsstraff i Kina.

    I Utvecklingsländerna uppskattas 10-30 % av alla läkemedel som säljs vara förfalskade, jmf 1 % I-länderna. l. Förekomsten av förfalskade läkemedel har många allvarliga konsekvenser på människor som exempelvis, utebliven effekt, toxiska reaktioner, förgiftningar, som kan i värsta fall leda till döden. Ett annat alvarligt problem är resistensutveckling, ökad spridning av smittsamammasjukdomar som exempel, tuberkulos och/ eller HIV/AIDS.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att besvara frågan: Vilka problem ger den ökande förekomsten av förfalskade läkemedel i samhället. Undersökningen fokuserar på livstidsläkemedel, dvs ett läkemedel en person måste ta resten av sitt liv för behandling av sin kroniska sjukdom.

    För att komma till rätta med de problem, som förfalskade läkemedel, skapar krävs ett mer utvecklat samarbete mellan olika läkemedelsmyndigheter, läkemedelsföretag, internationella polisorganisationer, tull m.fl. Arbetet med att utveckla förpackningar som är svåra att förfalska bör intensifieras. Straffsatser bör kanske ses över. Det är viktigt att öka medvetandet bland allmänheten om risker med att köpa läkemedel utanför apotek (t ex via nätet).

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  • 16.
    Abas Hashmi, Zaynab
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Pettersson, Wilma
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Structural Brain Correlates of Psychopathy and Violent Crime2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathy is a frequently reported personality trait among violent offenders, and psychopaths have a higher rate of recidivism than inmates without psychopathic features. This systematic review aimed to investigate whether structural brain differences, measured with magnetic resonance imaging, are observed in violent offenders with psychopathy compared to violent offenders without psychopathy or healthy non-violent controls. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The search utilised the academic databases Web of Science and Medline EBSCO and included original peer-reviewed articles written in English and published between 2013 and 2023. Seven articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected for the review. The findings indicated that there are structural differences between violent psychopaths compared to non-violent psychopaths and healthy controls, such as reduced grey matter volume in the prefrontal cortical areas, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and striatal and limbic regions. Further, the degree of structural brain differences in psychopaths correlated with the degree of psychopathic traits. The structural differences found in the brains of violent psychopaths can provide insight into the neurobiological basis and neural mechanisms of psychopathy and elucidate how changes in brain morphology relate to antisocial behaviour and psychopathic personality traits. In addition, the evidence of structural abnormalities in the brain of psychopaths may help develop targeted treatments that could reduce the risk of psychopathic individuals turning to crime and violence or committing repeated violent crimes. 

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  • 17.
    Abass Abdulkadir, Sazan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    The Use of a Clinical Decision Support System to Identify Potential Drug-Related Problems: Focused on the Types of Alerts for Pediatric Patients2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sweden is among the top countries with the greatest use of e-prescriptions at a national level. A clinical decision support system called Electronic Expert Support (EES) is available at all pharmacies in Sweden to examine e-prescriptions in connection with the dispensing to prevent drug related problems (DRPs). DRPs result in patient suffering and substantial costs for society. The types of alerts generated for pediatric patients at Swedish pharmacies using EES-system has not been studied before, to the best of our knowledge. Aim: The aim of this research is to study the use of EES at pharmacies in Sweden for the pediatric population (ages 0-12 years), by describing what types of alerts for potential DRPs are generated, how they are handled and how the use of EES has changed over time. Method: Data on the number and categories of EES analyses, alerts, and resolved alerts was provided by the Swedish eHealth Agency. Results: The study shows that the use of EES has increased. The most common type of generated alert for a potential DRP among pediatric was high dose pediatric (30,3% of all alerts generated). The most common type of alert for a potential DRP that was resolved among pediatrics was therapy duplication (45,8%). The most common reason for closing an alert was dialogue with patient for verification of the treatment (66,3% of all closed alerts). Conclusion: Knowledge of which type of alerts that are the most common may contribute to increased prescriber awareness of important potential DRPs. Future studies should investigate the clinical relevance of the generated alerts for the pediatric population.

  • 18.
    Abass Abdulkadir, Sazan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Uppsala Univ, Fac Pharm, Dept Pharm, S-75237 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wettermark, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Uppsala Univ, Fac Pharm, Dept Pharm, S-75237 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hammar, Tora
    Linnaeus Univ, eHlth Inst, Dept Med & Optometry, S-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Potential Drug-Related Problems in Pediatric Patients-Describing the Use of a Clinical Decision Support System at Pharmacies in Sweden2023In: Pharmacy, E-ISSN 2226-4787, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clinical support system Electronic Expert Support (EES) is available at all pharmacies in Sweden to examine electronic prescriptions when dispensing to prevent drug-related problems (DRPs). DRPs are common, and result in patient suffering and substantial costs for society. The aim of this research was to study the use of EES for the pediatric population (ages 0-12 years), by describing what types of alerts are generated for potential DRPs, how they are handled, and how the use of EES has changed over time. Data on the number and categories of EES analyses, alerts, and resolved alerts were provided by the Swedish eHealth Agency. The study shows that the use of EES has increased. The most common type of alert for a potential DRP among pediatric patients was regarding high doses in children (30.3% of all alerts generated). The most common type of alert for a potential DRP that was resolved among pediatrics was therapy duplication (4.6% of the alerts were resolved). The most common reason for closing an alert was dialogue with patient for verification of the treatment (66.3% of all closed alerts). Knowledge of which type of alerts are the most common may contribute to increased prescriber awareness of important potential DRPs.

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  • 19.
    Abass, Ahmed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Syntes av MPro-inhibitor2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    December 2019 the new pandemic Covid-19 sweeps the world and impose unmatched challenges on modern humanity, the virus started from Wuhan China and in just a few months the virus had spread to other countries and WHO (World Health Organization) called the disease a pandemic, Covid-19 is caused by the virus SARS-CoV -2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus2), the virus is largely spread through human-to-human transmission, today more than 263 million people have been infected with the virus while more than 5 million have died.

    SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to other viruses of the genus Betacoronavirus such as bat coronavirus BatCoV RaTG13 (~ 96% sequence identity) and SARS-CoV (~ 80% sequence identity), Coronavirus such as SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV -2 need main protease MPro (3CLPro), MPro is interesting as there are no similar proteases in humans, and it is vital for virus survival as it has essential role in processing and replicating polyproteins of viral RNA.

    ML188 is a SARS-CoV MPro inhibitor, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV -2 have 80% sequence identity, ML188 can be used as a starting point to analyze and improve MPro inhibitors that can be used against SARS-CoV -2.

    In this study with the use of UGI reaction to synthesized and modified analog to ML188 by exchanging 3-pyridialkarboxaldehyd which is one of the 4 starting material the compound with 4-pyridilkarboxaldehyd. By changing the nitrogen position in the aromatic ring, we want to see if this change can increase or decrease the compound effectiveness and if it has deferent effect on SARS-CoV2.  

    TLC and LC-MS are analysis method that is used to monitor the reaction and determine the purity of the reaction, column chromatography is used to purify the reaction mixture, NMR analysis both proton and carbon NMR is used to confirm the structure of our synthesized product. Result from the LCMS-Analyze showed a clear high peak with the exact mass of our Sought product but it also showed that the purification of the mixture didn’t happen fully thus we still had some impurities in the mixture. both the proton and carbon NMR results data were consistent with our compound structure. Now we need to test if this new compound can result to better inhibition in SARS-CoV2.

  • 20.
    Abass, mariam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Mortalitet bland covid-19 antikoagulantia användare patienter och icke-antikoagulantia användare: en systematisk översikt2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Covid-19 is a serious infectious disease that was first discovered in China in 2019. The disease spread very quickly, infecting over 40 million globally and leading to more than a million deaths. The damage caused by the corona infection led to severe thromboembolic conditions that led to death. Therefore, anticoagulants were used in connection with corona to prevent the thromboembolic conditions. But has the use of anticoagulants in covid-19 patients really affected mortality?    Aim: To make a systematic review that explores whether anticoagulant use among COVID-19 patients affect mortality.    Methods: A systematic search was conducted September in 2022 of published studies on PubMed associated with mortality and use of anticoagulants in covid-19 patients. The articles reviewed were selected based on defined PICO and inclusion and exclusion criteria. Types of studies reviewed were cohort and case-control studies.    Results & conclusions:   A total of 20 different studies were studied and based on them it is concluded that anticoagulant treatment associated with lower mortality in severely ill covid-19 patients has been demonstrated. However, bleeding risk was observed in other covid-19 patients due to use of anticoagulants.

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  • 21.
    Abate, Ebba
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Gondar, Ethiopia.
    Belayneh, Meseret
    University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Idh, Jonna
    Vastervik Hospital, Sweden.
    Diro, Ermias
    University of Gondar, Ethiopia.
    Elias, Daniel
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Britton, Sven
    Karolinska Hospital, Sweden.
    Aseffa, Abraham
    Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Ethiopia.
    Stendahl, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Asymptomatic Helminth Infection in Active Tuberculosis Is Associated with Increased Regulatory and Th-2 Responses and a Lower Sputum Smear Positivity2015In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 9, no 8, article id e0003994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The impact of intestinal helminth infection on the clinical presentation and immune response during active tuberculosis (TB) infection is not well characterized. Our aim was to investigate whether asymptomatic intestinal helminth infection alters the clinical signs and symptoms as well as the cell mediated immune responses in patients with active TB.

    Methodology Consecutive, newly diagnosed TB patients and healthy community controls (CCs) were recruited in North-west Ethiopia. TB-score, body mass index and stool samples were analyzed. Cells from HIV-negative TB patients (HIV-/TB) and from CCs were analyzed for regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and cytokine responses using flow cytometry and ELISPOT, respectively.

    Results A significantly higher ratio of helminth co-infection was observed in TB patients without HIV (Helm+/HIV-/TB) compared to HIV negative CCs, (40% (121/306) versus 28% (85/306), p = 0.003). Helm+/HIV-/TB patients showed significantly increased IL-5 secreting cells compared to Helm-/HIV-/TB (37 SFU (IQR:13-103) versus 2 SFU (1-50); p = 0.02, n = 30). Likewise, levels of absolute Tregs (9.4 (3.2-16.7) cells/mu l versus 2.4 (1.1-4.0) cells/mu l; p = 0.041) and IL-10 secreting cells (65 SFU (7-196) versus 1 SFU (0-31); p = 0.014) were significantly higher in Helm+/HIV-/TB patients compared to Helm-/HIV-/TB patients. In a multivariate analysis, a lower rate of sputum smear positivity for acid fast bacilli, lower body temperature, and eosinophilia were independently associated with helminth infection in TB patients.

    Conclusions Asymptomatic helminth infection is associated with increased regulatory T-cell and Th2-type responses and a lower rate of sputum smear positivity. Further studies are warranted to investigate the clinical and immunological impact of helminth infection in TB patients.

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  • 22.
    Abawi, Akram
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    The effect of TGF-B1 and Fetal Bovine Serum on Sema 7A. Expression: An in Vitro study on Bone Marrow derived MSC from patients vith BCR-ABL negative Myeloproliferative neoplasms2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23. Abbara, Aula
    et al.
    Al-Harbat, Nizar
    Karah, Nabil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Abo-Yahya, Bashar
    El-Amin, Wael
    Hatcher, James
    Gabbar, Omar
    Antimicrobial Drug Resistance among Refugees from Syria, Jordan2017In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 885-886Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Abbas, Zaheer
    et al.
    Beijing Univ Chem Technol, Peoples R China.
    Soomro, Razium Ali
    Beijing Univ Chem Technol, Peoples R China; Beijing Univ Chem Technol, Peoples R China.
    Kalwar, Nazar Hussain
    Shah Abdul Latif Univ Khairpur, Pakistan.
    Tunesi, Mawada
    Beijing Univ Chem Technol, Peoples R China.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karakus, Selcan
    Istanbul Univ Cerrahpa Avcilar, Turkey.
    Kilislioglu, Ayben
    Istanbul Univ Cerrahpa Avcilar, Turkey.
    In Situ Growth of CuWO4 Nanospheres over Graphene Oxide for Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Immunosensing of Clinical Biomarker2020In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, SENSORS, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Procalcitonin (PCT) protein has recently been identified as a clinical marker for bacterial infections based on its better sepsis sensitivity. Thus, an increased level of PCT could be linked with disease diagnosis and therapeutics. In this study, we describe the construction of the photoelectrochemical (PEC) PCT immunosensing platform based on it situ grown photo-active CuWO4 nanospheres over reduced graphene oxide layers (CuWO4@rGO). The in situ growth strategy enabled the formation of small nanospheres (diameter of 200 nm), primarily composed of tiny self-assembled CuWO4 nanoparticles (2-5 nm). The synergic coupling of CuWO4 with rGO layers constructed an excellent photo-active heterojunction for photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing. The platform was then considered for electrocatalytic (EC) mechanism-based detection of PCT, where inhibition of the photocatalytic oxidation signal of ascorbic acid (AA), subsequent to the antibody-antigen interaction, was recorded as the primary signal response. This inhibition detection approach enabled sensitive detection of PCT in a concentration range of 10 pgmL(-1) to 50 ng.mL(-1) with signal sensitivity achievable up to 0.15 pgmL(-1). The proposed PEC hybrid (CuWO4@rGO) could further be engineered to detect other clinically important species.

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  • 25.
    Abbasi, Alireza
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Lindqvist-Reis, Patric
    Eriksson, Lars
    Sandström, Dick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Lidin, Sven
    Persson, Ingmar
    Sandström, Magnus
    Highly hydrated cations: Deficiency, mobility and coordination of water in crystalline nonahydrated scandium(III), yttrium(III) and lanthanoid(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate2005In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 11, no 14, p. 4065-4077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trivalent lanthanide-like metal ions coordinate nine water oxygen atoms, which form a tricapped trigonal prism in a large number of crystalline hydrates. Water deficiency, randomly distributed over the capping positions, was found for the smallest metal ions in the isomorphous nonahydrated trifluoromethanesulfonates, [M(H2O)(n)]CF3SO3)(3), in which M=Sc-III, Lu-III, Yb-III, Tm-III or Er-III. The hydration number n increases (n=8.0(1), 8.4(1), 8.7(1), 8.8(1) and 8.96(5), respectively) with increasing ionic size. Deuterium (H-2) solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealed fast positional exchange between the coordinated capping and prism water molecules; this exchange started at temperatures higher than about 280 K for lutetium(m) and below 268 K for scandium(m). Similar positional exchange for the fully nonahydrated yttrium(m) and lanthanum(m) compounds started at higher temperatures, over about 330 and 360 K, respectively. An exchange mechanism is proposed that can exchange equatorial and capping water molecules within the restrictions of the crystal lattice, even for fully hydrated lanthanoid(III) ions. Phase transitions occurred for all the water-deficient compounds at; 185 K. The hydrated scandium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate transforms reversibly (Delta H degrees= -0.80(1) kJ mol(-1) on cooling) to a trigonal unit cell that is almost nine times larger, with the scandium ion surrounded by seven fully occupied and two partly occupied oxygen atom positions in a distorted capped trigonal prism. The hydrogen bonding to the trifluoromethanesulfonate anions stabilises the trigonal prism of water ligands, even for the crowded hydration sphere of the smallest metal ions in the series. Implications for the Lewis acid catalytic activity of the hydrated scandium(III) and lanthanoid(III) trifluoromethanesulfonates for organic syntheses performed in aqueous media are discussed.

  • 26. Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood
    et al.
    Khan, Mir Ajab
    Khan, Nadeem
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Shah, Munir H
    Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important wild edible fruits species used by tribal communities of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan2013In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 148, no 2, p. 528-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Present survey was conducted to explore ethnomedicinal uses and cultural importance of wild edible fruits species by the inhabitants of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Materials and methods: Information was obtained through informed consent semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, market survey, focus group conversation, unceremonious dialogue and village walks with key informants. Cultural significance of each species was calculated based on use report by participants at each study site. Results: A total of 35 wild edible fruits belonging to 21 genera and 17 families were used for the treatment of various ailments and consumed. Rosaceae was found dominating family with (8 spp.), followed by Moraceae (6 spp.), Rhamnaceae (5 spp.), Palmae and Vitaceae (2 spp. each) and remaining families were represented by one species each. Fruits (48%) were found highly utilized plant parts, followed by leaves (34%), bark, flowers and seeds (4% each), branches, latex and roots (2% each). Water was used as a medium for preparation while milk, ghee, oil, egg and butter are used for application. Modes of preparation were fall into seven categories like fresh parts eaten raw (38%), powder (24%), decoction (20%), extract (12 %), paste (4%), juice and latex (2% each). Based on cultural important index (CI) Morus nigra was found most significant species within top ten fruit plants followed by Morus alba, Olea ferruginea, Berberis lycium, Pyrus pashia, Ficus carica, Ficus palmata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Diospyros lotus and Ziziphus nummularia. Conclusions: Traditional uses of wild edible plant depend mainly on socio-economic factors rather than climatic conditions or wealth of flora. Use reports and citation demonstrated that there is a common cultural heritage regarding the gathered food plants. Further investigation is required for Antioxidant study, essential and toxic components, pharmacological applications; dietary requirements and biotechnological techniques to improve yields.

    (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Abbasi Aval, Negar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Khati, Vamakshi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Layer-by-Layer cellulose nanofibril coating for spheroid formation combined with decellularized extracellular matrix for 3D tumor modelingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Abbasi Aval, Negar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Khati, Vamakshi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Influence of Decellularized Extra Cellular Matrix on 3D spheroids formed on Layer-by-Layer cellulose nanofibril/Polyelectrolytes coating as an in-vitro model for Hepatocellular CarcinomaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Abbasi, Mina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Translational aspects of unbound brain to plasma concentration ratios2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:  The unbound brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp,uu,brain) is one of the most important indicators for brain penetration in the area of CNS drug discovery and development. Kp,uu,brain can be calculated by combining the total brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp,brain),  the brain free fraction (fu,brain) and  the plasma free fraction (fu,p).

    Aim:  This study has three purposes, to calculate Kp,uu,brain from publications in humans,  to collect data regarding species differences in Kp,uu,brain and to see whether Kp,uu,brain in humans differs in different  brain regions or not.

    Materials and Methods:  The values of Kp, brain were derived from positron emission tomography (PET), MRS (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy), and brain surgery for tumor removal. fu,brain and fu,p were collected from brain homogenate, equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration studies.

    Results:  Data on Kp,brain was sparse in the literature. Kp,uu,brain was calculated for sixteen different drugs in humans. According to the calculation, nine of these sixteen compounds were found to be actively influxed into the brain, six were actively effluxed from the BBB and one had a passive diffusion. Depending on the compound, Kp,uu,brain was higher or smaller in humans compared to mice and rats.  Kp,uu,brain for five compounds were calculated for different brain regions. Four compounds had a higher Kp,uu,brain value in almost all other regions than the cerebellum and one had a higher Kp,uu,brain in cerebellum than in the other regions.

    Conclusions:  No definite conclusion on Kp,uu,brain in humans, species differences in Kp,uu,brain  or Kp,uu,brain  in different human brain regions could be reached in this study. In view of the importance of Kp,uu,brain  in CNS drug discovery and development, more studies on Kp,uu,brain in humans and in the other species are required.

  • 30.
    Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Bernier, Denise
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Kisely, Steve
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Town, Joel
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Sustained reduction in health care costs after adjunctive treatment of graded intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy in patients with psychotic disorders2015In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 228, no 3, p. 538-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the changes in symptom severity and long-term health care cost after intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) individually tailored and administered to patients with psychotic disorders undergoing standard psychiatric care. Eleven therapists with different levels of expertise delivered an average of 13 one-hour sessions of graded ISTDP to 38 patients with psychotic disorders. Costs for health care services were compiled for a one-year period prior to the start of ISTDP (baseline) along with four one-year periods after termination. Two validated self-report scales, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, were administered at intake and termination of ISTDP. Results revealed that health care cost reductions were significant for the one-year post-treatment period relative to baseline year, for both physician costs and hospital costs, and the reductions were sustained for the follow-up period of four post-treatment years. Furthermore, at treatment termination self-reported symptoms and interpersonal problems were significantly reduced. These preliminary findings suggest that this brief adjunctive psychotherapy may be beneficial and reduce costs in selected patients with psychotic disorders, and that gains are sustained in long-term follow-up. Future research directions are discussed. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rasic, Daniel
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Town, Joel M.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Long-term healthcare cost reduction with Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy in a tertiary psychiatric service2015In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 64, p. 114-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate whether a mixed population of patients treated with Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP) would exhibit reduced healthcare costs in long-term follow-up. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was employed in which data on pre- and post-treatment healthcare cost were compared for all ISTDP cases treated in a tertiary care service over a nine year period. Observed cost changes were compared with those of a control group of patients referred but never treated. Physician and hospital costs were compared to treatment cost estimates and normal population cost figures. Results: 1082 patients were included; 890 treated cases for a broad range of somatic and psychiatric disorders and 192 controls. The treatment averaged 7.3 sessions and measures of symptoms and interpersonal problems significantly improved. The average cost reduction per treated case was $12,628 over 3 follow-up years: this compared favorably with the estimated treatment cost of $708 per patient. Significant differences were seen between groups for follow-up hospital costs. Conclusions: ISTDP in this setting appears to facilitate reductions in healthcare costs, supporting the notion that brief dynamic psychotherapy provided in a tertiary setting can be beneficial to health care systems overall. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 32.
    Abberud, Madelene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Time to first antibiotic administration in The Alfred Emergency and Trauma Centre for suspected febrile neutropenia: a retrospective chart review2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a frequent complication of chemotherapy use in cancer patients. There is evidence to suggest that the time to antibiotic administration is associated with increase survival and effective clinical outcome. The Australian consensus guidelines for the management of FN in adult cancer patients recommends treatment within 30 minutes to patients with features of systemic compromise. A study performed at The Alfred Hospital in 2010 revealed a median time of 145 minutes to first antibiotic administration. A new guideline was therefore developed and education was implemented. This study was conducted to evaluate the intervention. Aim: To determine time to first antibiotic prescribing and administration for patients with suspected FN presenting to the Alfred Emergency and Trauma centre. Materials and Methods: The electronic medical record of 112 episodes of suspected FN presenting between March and August 2012 were reviewed.  Data were retrospective collected according to a FN data spreadsheet. An observational study were also performed at  The Alfred Emergency and Trauma centre during October and November 2012 to determine time to first antimicrobial prescribing, because this data could not be collected from the electronic medical record. Results: The median time from presentation to antibiotic prescribing was 68 minutes. The median time from presentation to antibiotic administration was 121 minutes. Conclusions: The implementation of the new guidelines has reduced the time with 16.6%, but the target first antibiotic administration within 30 minutes has not been reached.

  • 33.
    Abbood, Maab Mohammed Abbood
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Bildning av ett elektroaktivt lipiddubbelskikt för studie av membranfördelningsbeteendet hos joniska läkemedel_ En laborativ studie2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 34.
    Abd El-Wahed, Aida A.
    et al.
    Agr Res Ctr, Plant Protect Res Inst, Dept Bee Res, Giza 12627, Egypt..
    Farag, Mohamed A.
    Cairo Univ, Coll Pharm, Pharmacognosy Dept, Kasr El Aini St, Cairo 11562, Egypt.;Amer Univ Cairo, Sch Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, New Cairo 11835, Egypt..
    Eraqi, Walaa A.
    Cairo Univ, Fac Pharm, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Cairo 11562, Egypt..
    Mersal, Gaber A. M.
    Taif Univ, Coll Sci, Chem Dept, At Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia..
    Zhao, Chao
    Fujian Agr & Forestry Univ, Coll Food Sci, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian, Peoples R China..
    Khalifa, Shaden A. M.
    Stockholm Univ, Wenner Gren Inst, Dept Mol Biosci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    El-Seedi, Hesham
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Menoufia Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Chem, Shibin Al Kawm 32512, Egypt.;Jiangsu Univ, Int Res Ctr Food Nutr & Safety, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Unravelling the beehive air volatiles profile as analysed via solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and chemometrics2021In: JOURNAL OF KING SAUD UNIVERSITY SCIENCE, ISSN 1018-3647, Vol. 33, no 5, article id 101449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Beehive air therapy is recognized as a potential remedy for treating asthma, bronchitis, lung fibrosis, and respiratory tract infections. Developed countries in which beehive air therapy is currently authorized include Germany, Hungary, Slovenia, and Austria. However, scientific proof of its efficacy is lacking which warrants further chemical and biological analyses as a proof of concept. In this study, bee-hive air volatile profile was determined for the first time along with its individual components (bees, venom, honey, and beeswax).

    Methods: Volatile compounds were collected from beehive air using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antimicrobial assay of the air released from 4 beehive products was further performed against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and multi drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using the in vitro agar-well diffusion and microtiter plate assays.

    Results and conclusions: A total of 56 volatile compounds were identified from beehive air, venom, bee insect and wax air including 6 fatty acids, 6 alcohols, 10 aldehydes, 5 esters, 1 ether, 9 hydrocarbons, 1 phenol, 7 ketones, 1 nitrogenous compound and 10 terpenes. The most abundant constituents were short-chain fatty acids (26.32%) while the lowest were the nitrogenous compounds (0.82%). The principal component analysis (PCA) scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed the similarity of the beehive air to the insect bee's aroma profile. With regards to antimicrobial assay, beehive air and venom exerted the strongest antimicrobial activity among the examined bee products against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and MRSA in agar-well diffusion assay but failing to exert an effect using microtiter plate assay as in case of bee venom against the aforementioned bacteria.

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  • 35.
    Abd El-Wahed, Aida
    et al.
    Agr Res Ctr, Plant Protect Res Inst, Dept Bee Res, Giza 12627, Egypt.;Menoufia Univ, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Shibin Al Kawm 32512, Egypt..
    Yosri, Nermeen
    Menoufia Univ, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Shibin Al Kawm 32512, Egypt.;Jiangsu Univ, Sch Food & Biol Engn, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Sakr, Hanem H.
    Menoufia Univ, Dept Zool, Fac Sci, Shibin Al Kawm 32512, Egypt..
    Du, Ming
    Dalian Polytech Univ, Sch Food Sci & Technol, Natl Engn Res Ctr Seafood, Dalian 116034, Peoples R China..
    Algethami, Ahmed F. M.
    Alnahalaljwal Fdn Saudi Arabia, POB 617, Al Jumum 21926, Makkah, Saudi Arabia..
    Zhao, Chao
    Fujian Agr & Forestry Univ, Coll Food Sci, Fuzhou 350002, Peoples R China.;Univ Macau, Inst Chinese Med Sci, State Key Lab Qual Control Chinese Med, Taipa, Macao, Peoples R China..
    Abdelazeem, Ahmed H.
    Beni Suef Univ, Dept Med Chem, Fac Pharm, Bani Suwayf 62514, Egypt.;Riyadh Elm Univ, Dept Pharmaceut Sci, Coll Pharm, Riyadh 11681, Saudi Arabia..
    Tahir, Haroon Elrasheid
    Jiangsu Univ, Sch Food & Biol Engn, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Masry, Saad H. D.
    Abu Dhabi Food Control Author, Al Ain 52150, U Arab Emirates.;City Sci Res & Technol Applicat, Arid Lands Cultivat Res Inst ALCRI, Dept Plant Protect & Biomol Diag, Alexandria 21934, Egypt..
    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.
    Suez Canal Univ, Dept Pharmacol, Fac Vet Med, Ismailia 41522, Egypt..
    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam
    Univ Karachi, HEJ Res Inst Chem, Int Ctr Chem & Biol Sci, Karachi 75270, Pakistan..
    El-Garawani, Islam
    Menoufia Univ, Dept Zool, Fac Sci, Shibin Al Kawm 32512, Egypt..
    Kai, Guoyin
    Zhejiang Chinese Med Univ, Coll Pharm, Lab Med Plant Biotechnol, Hangzhou 310053, Peoples R China..
    Al Naggar, Yahya
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Biol, Gen Zool, Hoher Weg 8, D-06120 Halle, Saale, Germany.;Tanta Univ, Fac Sci, Zool Dept, Tanta 31527, Egypt..
    Khalifa, Shaden A. M.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mol Biosci, Wenner Gren Inst, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    El-Seedi, Hesham
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi. Menoufia Univ, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Shibin Al Kawm 32512, Egypt.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Mol Biosci, Wenner Gren Inst, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Jiangsu Univ, Int Res Ctr Food Nutr & Safety, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Wasp Venom Biochemical Components and Their Potential in Biological Applications and Nanotechnological Interventions2021In: Toxins, E-ISSN 2072-6651, Vol. 13, no 3, article id 206Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wasps, members of the order Hymenoptera, are distributed in different parts of the world, including Brazil, Thailand, Japan, Korea, and Argentina. The lifestyles of the wasps are solitary and social. Social wasps use venom as a defensive measure to protect their colonies, whereas solitary wasps use their venom to capture prey. Chemically, wasp venom possesses a wide variety of enzymes, proteins, peptides, volatile compounds, and bioactive constituents, which include phospholipase A2, antigen 5, mastoparan, and decoralin. The bioactive constituents have anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the limited quantities of wasp venom and the scarcity of advanced strategies for the synthesis of wasp venom's bioactive compounds remain a challenge facing the effective usage of wasp venom. Solid-phase peptide synthesis is currently used to prepare wasp venom peptides and their analogs such as mastoparan, anoplin, decoralin, polybia-CP, and polydim-I. The goal of the current review is to highlight the medicinal value of the wasp venom compounds, as well as limitations and possibilities. Wasp venom could be a potential and novel natural source to develop innovative pharmaceuticals and new agents for drug discovery.

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  • 36.
    Abdal Hadi, Jehan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hur skiljer sig traditionella från nyare generationer antipsykotika åt vad gäller biverkningen viktökning?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Antipsykotiska läkemedel är basen för behandling av schizofreni, en psykisk sjukdom som uppträder redan hos unga människor. Symtomen vid schizofreni brukar delas in i positiva symtom (hallucinationer, vanföreställningar, paranoida tankar), negativa symtom (koncentrationssvårigheter, nedsatt språk- och tankeförmåga, minskat intresse för omgivningen, och initiativlöshet), samt kognitiva symtom (minnesproblem, problem med uppmärksamhet och koncentration).

    Antipsykotiska läkemedel delas in i typiska (den äldre generationen) och atypiska (den nyare generationen) antipsykotika. För båda grupperna antipsykotiska läkemedel finns det risk för biverkningar. De vanligaste biverkningarna vid behandling med den äldre generationen antipsykotika är extrapyramidala biverkningar. En biverkning som förefaller mer specifik för de nya atypiska preparaten är viktökning, vilken även kan orsaka utveckling av många allvarliga sjukdomstillstånd.

    Syftet med detta arbete var att jämföra typiska och atypiska antipsykotiska läkemedel med avseende på utveckling av viktökning.

    För att få svar på min frågeställning har en litteraturstudie av fem vetenskapliga artiklar genomförts. De vetenskapliga artiklarna har hittats genom databassökningar i PubMed, medan övriga fakta har hämtats från andra källor.

    Resultatet av de vetenskapliga artiklarna visar att det finns skillnader mellan traditionella och nyare generationer antipsykotika vad gäller tendens att orsaka viktökning. Med några undantag, är flera antipsykotiska läkemedel, som tillhör den nyare generationen, associerade med högre risk för utveckling av viktökning jämfört med den äldre generationen antipsykotika. Viktökning orsakas mest av klozapin, följt av olanzapin och risperidon. Quetiapin orsakar, i likhet med haloperidol, mindre viktökning.

    På grund av detta faktum, forskar man numera kring orsakerna till denna skillnad för att förbättra biverkningsprofilen hos framtida antipsykotika.

    2008:F2

  • 37.
    Abdaljaleel, Ghofran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Tablettillverkning genom användning av torrgranulering (valspressning)2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 38.
    Abdalla, Souad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical and Translational Biology.
    HEALTH ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF FARICIMAB IN WET AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Abdalla, Souad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hjälpämnens påverkan på läkemedelsabsorption.2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hjälpämne definieras som de inaktiva ingredienserna som tillsätts till läkemedel och som inte är avsedda att utöva terapeutiska effekter. Majoriteten av läkemedelsprodukter innehåller hjälpämne där hjälpämnena utgör ca. 50% av totala vikten av de fasta beredningsformerna. Hjälpämnen används för att överkomma de begränsningar som den farmaceutiska substansen har men även för att möjliggör hantering och användning av en läkemedelsberedning samt underlätta frisättningsegenskaper. Forskning har visat att hjälpämne är mer än inerta komponenter, utan hjälpämne har förmågan att reagera med andra ingredienser i formuleringen och påverka läkemedelsabsorptionen. Syftet: Att beskriva med hjälp av exempel hur hjälpämne kan påverka läkemedelsabsorptionen. Uppsatsen kommer att fokusera på vissa delprocesser av absorptionen. Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie där 18 artiklar inkluderades. Analysen av artiklarna resulterade i teman. Resultat: Tre huvudteman formulerades. Hjälpämnes effekter på absorptionsvariabler utifrån dess egenskaper där studier har visat att egenskaper hos hjälpämne kan avspegla om dessa kommer att bidra till en förbättrad eller försämrad absorption. Hjälpämnes effekter på transportproteiner där det framkom att hjälpämne modulerar aktiviteter av en del effluxtransportörer. Koncentrationsberoende effekter av hjälpämne på läkemedelsabsorption där koncentrationen av hjälpämne är en avgörande faktor för en förbättrad respektive försämrad absorption. Diskussion: Hjälpämnens effekter kan inte generaliseras, även inom en viss läkemedelsklass. Mycket forskning i in-vivo är nödvändigt för att förbättra förståelsen och utveckling av hjälpämne samt deras inverkan på läkemedelsabsorption.

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  • 40.
    Abdallah, Nadia Younous
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Rekommenderade dygnsdoser för barn - Går det att beräkna?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Defined daily dose (DDD) is a unit that gives an estimate of drug utilization. The DDDs that are developed today are only based on adult’s drug use. That means that the DDDs for adults may not necessarily apply to children. 

    Aim: To calculate recommended daily dose for boys and girls in different ages and compare it with DDD for adults for paracetamol, phenoxymethylpenicillin, desloratadine and melatonin.  

    Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted September-October 2021. Boys and girls in ages 1, 5, 12 and 16 years were included. Data was retrieved from FASS.se, tillväxtkurvor.se and WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. 

    Results: The children’s daily doses are lower than DDD for adults for paracetamol for all ages, phenoxymethylpenicillin for ages 1, 5 and 12 and desloratadine for ages 1 and 5. The daily doses of phenoxymethylpenicillin aged 16 are higher than DDD for adults. Daily doses for melatonin and desloratadine age 12 and 16 were the same as DDD for adults. Paracetamol and phenoxymethylpenicillin have variations in the daily doses for the children. Girls in all ages except from 12 years and the youngest children had lowers doses. Desloratadine ages 1 and 5 had the same dose and ages 12 and 16 had the same dose. For melatonin the children received the same doses. 

    Conclusion: The calculated recommended daily doses for children are to some extent in line with WHO DDDs. In order to use WHO DDDs in children, it is important to have knowledge of which drugs and ages they can be applied for.  

     

     

     

  • 41. Abdallah, Qasem M. A.
    et al.
    Phillips, Roger M.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Cosentino, Laura
    Abdel-Rahman, Hamdy
    Etzad, Jasarat
    Wheelhouse, Richard T.
    Kiakos, Konstantinos
    Bingham, John P.
    Hartley, John A.
    Patterson, Laurence H.
    Pors, Klaus
    Minor structural modifications to alchemix influence mechanism of action and pharmacological activity2012In: Biochemical Pharmacology, ISSN 0006-2952, E-ISSN 1356-1839, Vol. 83, no 11, p. 1514-1522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alchemix is an exemplar of a class of anthraquinone with efficacy against multidrug resistant tumours. We have explored further the mechanism of action of alchemix and investigated the effect of extending its side arm bearing the alkylating functionality with regard to DNA binding and activity against multidrug resistant cancer cells. Increasing the distance between the intercalating chromophore and the alkylating functionality of ICT2901 (propyl), ICT2902 (butyl) and ICT2903 (pentyl), led to a higher number of DNA alkylation sites, more potent topoisomerase II inhibition and generated more apoptotic and necrotic cells when analysed in p53-proficient HCT116 cells. Intriguingly, alchemix, the compound with the shortest distance between its intercalative chromophore and alkylating functionality (ethyl), did not conform to this SAR. A different toxicity pattern against DNA repair defective CHO cell lines as well as arrest of cells in Cl supports a somewhat distinct mode of action by alchemix compared with its analogues. Importantly, both alchemix and ICT2901 demonstrated greater cytotoxic activity against anthraquinone-resistant MCF-7/adr cells than wild-type MCF-7 cells. Subtle synthetic modification in this anthraquinone series has led to significant changes to the stability of DNA-compound complexes and cellular activity. Given that the failure of chemotherapy in the clinic is often associated with MDR, the results of both alchemix and ICT2901 represent important advances towards improved therapies.

  • 42.
    Abdel Rehim, Abbi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Abdel Rehim, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Screening and determination of drugs in human saliva utilizing microextraction by packed sorbent and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry2013In: BMC Biomedical chromotography, ISSN 0269-3879, E-ISSN 1099-0801, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 1188-1191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a new method for collecting and handling saliva samples using an automated analytical microsyringe and microextraction by packed syringe (MEPS). The screening and determination of lidocaine in human saliva samples utilizing MEPS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were carried out. An exact volume of saliva could be collected. The MEPS C-8-cartridge could be used for 50 extractions before it was discarded. The extraction recovery was about 60%. The pharmacokinetic curve of lidocaine in saliva using MEPS-LC-MS/MS is reported.

  • 43.
    Abdeldaim, Guma M. K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Strålin, Kristoffer
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Örebro University Hospital.
    Kirsebom, Leif A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Olcén, Per
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Detection of Haemophilus influenzae in respiratory secretions from pneumonia patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction2009In: Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, ISSN 0732-8893, E-ISSN 1879-0070, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 366-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the omp P6 gene was developed to detect Haemophilus influenzae. Its specificity was determined by analysis of 29 strains of 11 different Haemophilus spp. and was compared with PCR assays having other target genes: rnpB, 16S rRNA, and bexA. The method was evaluated on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 166 adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia. When 104 DNA copies/mL was used as cutoff limit for the method, P6 PCR had a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 96.0% compared with the culture. Of 20 culture-negative but P6 PCR-positive cases, 18 were confirmed by fucK PCR as H. influenzae. Five (5.9%) of 84 nasopharyngeal aspirates from adult controls tested PCR positive. We conclude that the P6 real-time PCR is both sensitive and specific for identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions. Quantification facilitates discrimination between disease-causing H. influenzae strains and commensal colonization.

  • 44.
    Abdeldaim, Guma M. K.
    et al.
    Section of Clinical Bacteriology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Clinical Mycobacteriology, National Center for Diseases Control, Benghazi, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
    Strålin, Kristoffer
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olcén, Per
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Section of Clinical Virology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mölling, Paula
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Section of Clinical Bacteriology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Quantitative fucK gene polymerase chain reaction on sputum and nasopharyngeal secretions to detect Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia2013In: Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, ISSN 0732-8893, E-ISSN 1879-0070, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 141-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the fucK gene was developed for specific detection of Haemophilus influenzae. The method was tested on sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) from 78 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). With a reference standard of sputum culture and/or serology against the patient's own nasopharyngeal isolate, H. influenzae etiology was detected in 20 patients. Compared with the reference standard, fucK PCR (using the detection limit 10(5) DNA copies/mL) on sputum and NPA showed a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) in both cases, and specificities of 87.9% (51/58) and 89.5% (52/58), respectively. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sputum fucK PCR was found to be significantly superior to sputum P6 PCR for detection of H. influenzae CAP. NPA fucK PCR was positive in 3 of 54 adult controls without respiratory symptoms. In conclusion, quantitative fucK real-time PCR provides a sensitive and specific identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions.

  • 45.
    Abdeldaim, Guma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology. Benghazi Univ, Fac Med, Dept Med Microbiol & Parasitol, Benghazi, Libya..
    Svensson, Erik
    Statens Serum Inst, Int Reference Lab Mycobacteriol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Duplex detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and medically important non-tuberculosis mycobacteria by real-time PCR based on the rnpB gene2016In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 124, no 11, p. 991-995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A duplex real-time PCR based on the rnpB gene was developed for Mycobacterium spp. The assay was specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) and also detected all 19 tested species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The assay was evaluated on 404 clinical samples: 290 respiratory samples and 114 from tissue and other nonrespiratory body sites. M. tuberculosis was detected by culture in 40 samples and in 30 samples by the assay. The MTB assay showed a sensitivity similar to Roche Cobas Amplicor MTB-PCR (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA, USA). There were only nine samples with non-tuberculous mycobacteria detected by culture. Six of them were detected by the PCR assay.

  • 46. Abdelhak, Ahmed
    et al.
    Barba, Lorenzo
    Romoli, Michele
    Benkert, Pascal
    Conversi, Francesco
    D'Anna, Lucio
    Masvekar, Ruturaj R
    Bielekova, Bibiana
    Prudencio, Mercedes
    Petrucelli, Leonard
    Meschia, James F
    Erben, Young
    Furlan, Roberto
    De Lorenzo, Rebecca
    Mandelli, Alessandra
    Sutter, Raoul
    Hert, Lisa
    Epple, Varenka
    Marastoni, Damiano
    Sellner, Johann
    Steinacker, Petra
    Aamodt, Anne Hege
    Heggelund, Lars
    Dyrhol-Riise, Anne Margarita
    Virhammar, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Neurology.
    Fällmar, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Rostami, Elham
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Neurosurgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Acquired brain injury.
    Kumlien, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Neurology.
    Blennow, Kaj
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Tumani, Hayrettin
    Sacco, Simona
    Green, Ari J
    Otto, Markus
    Kuhle, Jens
    Ornello, Raffaele
    Foschi, Matteo
    Abu-Rumeileh, Samir
    Prognostic performance of blood neurofilament light chain protein in hospitalized COVID-19 patients without major central nervous system manifestations: an individual participant data meta-analysis.2023In: Journal of Neurology, ISSN 0340-5354, E-ISSN 1432-1459, Vol. 270, no 7, p. 3315-3328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To investigate the prognostic value of blood neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) levels in the acute phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

    METHODS: We conducted an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis after screening on MEDLINE and Scopus to May 23rd 2022. We included studies with hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients without major COVID-19-associated central nervous system (CNS) manifestations and with a measurement of blood NfL in the acute phase as well as data regarding at least one clinical outcome including intensive care unit (ICU) admission, need of mechanical ventilation (MV) and death. We derived the age-adjusted measures NfL Z scores and conducted mixed-effects modelling to test associations between NfL Z scores and other variables, encompassing clinical outcomes. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves (SROCs) were used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) for blood NfL.

    RESULTS: We identified 382 records, of which 7 studies were included with a total of 669 hospitalized COVID-19 cases (mean age 66.2 ± 15.0 years, 68.1% males). Median NfL Z score at admission was elevated compared to the age-corrected reference population (2.37, IQR: 1.13-3.06, referring to 99th percentile in healthy controls). NfL Z scores were significantly associated with disease duration and severity. Higher NfL Z scores were associated with a higher likelihood of ICU admission, need of MV, and death. SROCs revealed AUCs of 0.74, 0.80 and 0.71 for mortality, need of MV and ICU admission, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Blood NfL levels were elevated in the acute phase of COVID-19 patients without major CNS manifestations and associated with clinical severity and poor outcome. The marker might ameliorate the performance of prognostic multivariable algorithms in COVID-19.

  • 47.
    Abdellatif, Maysoon Sami
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Utvärdering av önskade och oönskade effekter av cannabisbaserade läkemedel vid multipel skleros, med fokus på Sativex®: – En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 48.
    Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S.
    et al.
    Taif Univ, Dept Microbiol, Coll Med, Al Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia; Beni Suef Univ, Fac Vet Med, Dept Virol, Bani Suwayf 62511, Egypt.
    Moore, Matthew D.
    Univ Massachusetts, Dept Food Sci, Amherst, MA 01003 USA.
    Naguib, Mahmoud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Anim Hlth Res Inst, Natl Lab Vet Qual Control Poultry Prod, Giza 12618, Egypt.
    Romalde, Jesus L.
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, CIBUS Fac Biol, Dept Microbiol & Parasitol, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain.
    Söderlund-Venermo, Maria
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Virol, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
    WSV 2019: The First Committee Meeting of the World Society for Virology2020In: Virologica Sinica, ISSN 1674-0769, E-ISSN 1995-820X, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 248-252Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Society for Virology (WSV) was founded and incorporated as a nonprofit organization in the United States in 2017. WSV seeks to strengthen and support both virological research and virologists who conduct research of viruses that affect humans, other animals, plants, and other organisms. One of the objectives of WSV is to connect virologists worldwide and support collaboration. Fulfilling this objective, virologists from fourteen countries in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East met on 25-27th August 2019 in Stockholm, Sweden at the Karolinska University Hospital for the first Committee Meeting of WSV. This meeting included compelling keynote and honorary speeches and a series of 18 scientific talks were given encompassing a diverse array of subjects within virology. Followed by the scientific session, a business session was held where multiple aspects and next steps of the society were discussed and charted out.

  • 49.
    Abdelrahim, Nada A.
    et al.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nile University, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Mohamed, Nahla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Section of Virology.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Section of Virology.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Fadl-Elmula, Imad M.
    Department of Pathology and Clinical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan; Assafa Academy, Kartoum, Sudan.
    Human herpes virus type-6 is associated with central nervous system infections in children in Sudan2022In: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine, ISSN 2225-2002, E-ISSN 2225-2010, Vol. 11, no 1, article id a1718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Human herpes virus type-6 (HHV-6) is increasingly recognised as a febrile agent in children. However, less is known in sub-Saharan African countries, including Sudan.

    Objective: We investigated the involvement of HHV-6 in paediatric central nervous system (CNS) infections in Khartoum, Sudan.

    Methods: Febrile patients aged up to 15 years with suspected CNS infections at Omdurman Hospital for Children from 01 December 2009 to 01 August 2010 were included. Viral DNA was extracted from leftover cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens and quantitatively amplified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at Umeå University in Sweden.

    Results: Of 503 CSF specimens, 13 (2.6%) were positive for HHV-6 (33.0% [13/40 of cases with proven infectious meningitis]). The median thermal cycle threshold for all HHV-6-positive specimens was 38 (range: 31.9-40.8). The median number of virus copies was 281.3/PCR run (1 × 105 copies/mL CSF; range: 30-44 × 103 copies/PCR run [12 × 103 - 18 × 106 copies/mL CSF]). All positive patients presented with fever and vomiting; 86.0% had seizures. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1; 50.0% were toddlers, 42.0% infants and 8.0% teenagers. Most (83.0%) were admitted in the dry season and 17.0% in the rainy season. Cerebrospinal fluid leukocytosis was seen in 33.0%, CSF glucose levels were normal in 86.0% and low in 14.0%, and CSF protein levels were low in 14.0% and high in 43.0%.

    Conclusion: Among children in Sudan with CNS infections, HHV-6 is common. Studies on the existence and spread of HHV-6 chromosomal integration in this population are needed.

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  • 50.
    Abdelrahim, Nada Abdelghani
    et al.
    Department of Pathology-Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Mohamed, Nahla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Fadl-Elmula, Imad Mohammed
    Department of Pathology & Clinical Genetics, Al-Neelain University & Assafa Academy, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Viral meningitis in Sudanese children: differentiation, etiology and review of literature2022In: Medicine, ISSN 0025-7974, E-ISSN 1536-5964, Vol. 101, no 46, article id e31588Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diagnosis of viral meningitis (VM) is uncommon practice in Sudan and there is no local viral etiological map. We therefore intended to differentiate VM using standardized clinical codes and determine the involvement of herpes simplex virus types-1 and 2 (HSV-1/2), varicella zoster virus, non-polio human enteroviruses (HEVs), and human parechoviruses in meningeal infections in children in Sudan. This is a cross-sectional hospital-based study. Viral meningitis was differentiated in 503 suspected febrile attendee of Omdurman Hospital for Children following the criteria listed in the Clinical Case Definition for Aseptic/Viral Meningitis. Patients were children age 0 to 15 years. Viral nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) were extracted from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens using QIAamp® UltraSens Virus Technology. Complementary DNA was prepared from viral RNA using GoScriptTM Reverse Transcription System. Viral nucleic acids were amplified and detected using quantitative TaqMan® Real-Time and conventional polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Hospital diagnosis of VM was assigned to 0%, when clinical codes were applied; we considered 3.2% as having VM among the total study population and as 40% among those with proven infectious meningitis. Two (0.4%) out of total 503 CSF specimens were positive for HSV-1; Ct values were 37.05 and 39.10 and virus copies were 652/PCR run (261 × 103/mL CSF) and 123/PCR run (49.3 × 103/mL CSF), respectively. Other 2 (0.4%) CSF specimens were positive for non-polio HEVs; Ct values were 37.70 and 38.30, and the approximate virus copies were 5E2/PCR run (~2E5/mL CSF) and 2E2/PCR run (~8E4/mL CSF), respectively. No genetic materials were detected for HSV-2, varicella zoster virus, and human parechoviruses. The diagnosis of VM was never assigned by the hospital despite fulfilling the clinical case definition. Virus detection rate was 10% among cases with proven infectious meningitis. Detected viruses were HSV-1 and non-polio HEVs. Positive virus PCRs in CSFs with normal cellular counts were seen.

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