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  • 1. Abbaszadeh, A
    et al.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Effect of extraction conditions on yield and purity of citrus pectin by sulfuric and hydrochloric acids2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2. Abedinifar, Sorahi
    et al.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Khanahmadi, Morteza
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizapus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation2009In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 828-833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rice straw was successfully converted to ethanol by separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hydrolysis temperature and pH of commercial cellulase and beta-glucosidase enzymes were first investigated and their best performance obtained at 45 degrees C and pH 5.0. The pretreatment of the straw with dilute-acid hydrolysis resulted in 0.72 g g (1) sugar yield during 48 h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was higher than steam-pretreated (0.60 g g (1)) and untreated straw (0.46 g g(-1)). Furthermore, increasing the concentration of the dilute-acid pretreated straw from 20 to 50 and 100 g L-1 resulted in 13% and 16% lower sugar yield, respectively. Anaerobic cultivation of the hydrolyzates with M. indicus resulted in 0.36-0.43 g g(-1) ethanol, 0.11-0.17 g g(-1) biomass, and 0.04-0.06 g g(-1) glycerol, which is comparable with the corresponding yields by S. cerevisiae (0.37-0.45 g g(-1) ethanol, 0.04-0.10 g g(-1) biomass and 0.05-0.07 glycerol). These two fungi produced no other major metabolite from the straw and completed the cultivation in less than 25 h. However, R. oryzae produced lactic acid as the major by-product with yield of 0.05-0.09 g g(-1). This fungus had ethanol, biomass and glycerol yields of 0.33-0.41, 0.06-0.12, and 0.03-0.04 g g(-1), respectively. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Agnihotri, Swarnima
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yin, D M
    Institute of Urban and Rural Mining, Changzhou University, Changzhou, China.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sapmaz, Tugba
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Varjani, S
    Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gandhinagar, India.
    Qiao, W
    Institute of Urban and Rural Mining, Changzhou University, Changzhou, China.
    Koseoglu-Imer, D Y
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A Glimpse of the World of Volatile Fatty Acids Production and Application: A review2022In: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1249-1275Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable provision of chemicals and materials is undoubtedly a defining factor in guaranteeing economic, environmental, and social stability of future societies. Among the most sought-after chemical building blocks are volatile fatty acids (VFAs). VFAs such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids have numerous industrial applications supporting from food and pharmaceuticals industries to wastewater treatment. The fact that VFAs can be produced synthetically from petrochemical derivatives and also through biological routes, for example, anaerobic digestion of organic mixed waste highlights their provision flexibility and sustainability. In this regard, this review presents a detailed overview of the applications associated with petrochemically and biologically generated VFAs, individually or in mixture, in industrial and laboratory scale, conventional and novel applications.

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  • 4.
    Ahlström, Peter
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Gebäck, Tobias
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Johansson, Erik
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Water absorption in polymers2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work two different examples of water absorbtion in polymers are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. Both of them are of large technical and commercial impotance. The first example is the water absorption in polyethylene cables where the water absorption plays a crucial role in the degradation of the cable insulation and thus should be as low as possible. The second example is bio-based superabsorbents made from denatured protein where water absorption capability is the prime desired property. Methods Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo simulations [1] were used to study the hydration of polymers. All simulations are performed with two boxes, one of which is filled with water at the start of the simulation, whereas the other contains polymer molecules and possible ions. The polymer molecules are not allowed to swap boxes whereas the water molecules are allowed to do so thus constituting an osmotic Gibbs ensemble [2]. For the polyethylene a connectivity-altering algorithm was used whereas the protein molecules were simulated using a side-chain regrowth model in addition to traditional Monte Carlo moves. For the polyethylene, the TraPPE [3] force field was used and the protein molecules, the Amber force field [4] was used. Water was modelled using simple point charge models [5]. Electrostatic interactions are treated using Ewald summation methods. The protein molecules were of different amino acid compositions and in different conformations, e.g., β-turns and random coils obtained using the amorphous cell method[6]. Studies were made with different degrees of charging on, e.g., lysine side chains mimicking different ionization states. Results The studies of polyethylene revealed the importance of ions left from the polymerisation catalyst for the absorbtion of water and the concomitant degradation of polyethylene cable insulation. Also the absorption properties of the protein molecules is strongly related to the presence of charged groups and fully charged protein molecules absorb large amounts of water. However, neither native nor denatured protein molecules show superabsorbing properties (i.e. absorbing hundreds of times their own mass) as they show in experimental studies and the reasons for this discrepancy will be discussed. References 1. A.Z. Panagiotopoulos, Mol. Phys. 61, 813 (1987). 2. E. Johansson, K. Bolton, D.N. Theodorou, P. Ahlström, J. Chem. Phys., 126, 224902 (2007). 3. M.G. Martin, and J.I. Siepmann, J. Phys. Chem. B, 103, 4508-4517 (1999). 4. W.D. Cornell, P. Cieplak, C.I. Bayly, I.R. Gould, K.M. Merz Jr, D.M. Ferguson, D.C. Spellmeyer, T. Fox, J.W. Caldwell, P.A. Kollman (1995). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 5179–5197. 5. H. J. C. Berendsen, J. P. M. Postma and W. F. van Gunsteren, in Intermolecular Forces, B. Pullman, ed. (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1981) p. 331; H. J. C. Berendsen, J. R. Grigera and T. P. Straatsma, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 6269 (1987). 6. D.N. Theodorou, U.W. Suter, Macromolecules, 18, 1467 (1985).

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  • 5.
    Alm, Tove
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Interaction engineered three-helix bundle domains for protein recovery and detection2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    HTML clipboard The great advances in DNA technology, e.g. sequencing and recombinant DNA techniques, have given us the genetic information and the tools needed to effectively produce recombinant proteins. Recombinant proteins are valuable means in biotechnological applications and are also emerging as alternatives in therapeutic applications. Traditionally, monoclonal antibodies have been the natural choice for biotechnological and therapeutic applications due to their ability to bind a huge range of different molecules and their natural good affinity. However, the large size of antibodies (150 kDa) limits tissue penetration and the recombinant expression is complicated. Therefore, alternative binders with smaller sizes have been derived from antibodies and alternative scaffolds.

    In this thesis, two structurally similar domains, Zbasic and ABDz1, have been used as purification tags in different contexts. They are both three-helical bundles and derived from bacterial surface domains, but share no sequence homology. Furthermore, by redesign of the scaffold used for ABDz1, a molecule intended for drug targeting with extended in-vivo half-life has been engineered. In Papers I and II, the poly-cationic tag Zbasic is explored and evaluated. Paper I describes the successful investigation of Zbasic as a purification handle under denaturating conditions. Moreover, Zbasic is evaluated as an interaction domain in matrixassisted refolding. Two different proteins were successfully refolded using the same setup without individual optimization. In Paper II, Zbasic is further explored as a purification handle under non-native conditions in a multi-parallel setup. In total, 22 proteins with varying characteristics are successfully purified using a multi-parallel protein purification protocol and a robotic system. Without modifications, the system can purify up to 60 proteins without manual handling. Paper I and II clearly demonstrate that Zbasic can be used as an interaction domain in matrix-assisted refolding and that it offers a good alternative to the commonly used His6-tag under denaturating conditions. In paper III, the small bifunctional ABDz1 is selected from a phage display library. Endowed with two different binding interfaces, ABDz1 is capable of binding both the HSA-sepharose and the protein A-derived MabSelect SuRe-matrix. The bifunctionality of the domain is exploited in an orthogonal affinity setup. Three target proteins are successfully purified using the HSA-matrix and the MabSelect SuRe-matrix. Furthermore, the purity of the target proteins is effectively improved by combining the two chromatographic steps. Thus, paper III shows that the small ABDz1 can be used as an effective purification handle and dual affinity tag without target specific optimization. Paper IV describes the selection and affinity maturation of small bispecific drug-targeting molecules. First generation binders against tumor necrosis factor-α are selected using phage display. Thereafter on-cell surface display and flow cytometry is used to select second-generation binders. The binding to tumor necrosis factor-α is improved up to 30 times as compared to the best first generation binder, and a 6-fold improvement of the binding strength was possible with retained HSA affinity. Paper III and IV clearly demonstrate that dual interaction surfaces can successfully be grafted on a small proteinaceous domain, and that the strategy in paper IV can be used for dual selection of bifunctional binders.

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  • 6.
    Almquist, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Electrochemical synthesis of electroactive polymers for drugrelease for bio scaffolds.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stem cell based therapy has the potential to treat several severe diseases; Parkinson’s

    disease is one well- known example. Transplantation of stem cell derived cells into

    animal models is unfortunately often associated with tumour formation or- uncontrolled

    growth of the transplanted cells. One strategy to suppress this tumour formation might be

    to induce differentiation of these cells, which in turn would prevent them from dividing.

     

    Neuroblastoma tumors are known to demonstrate the complete transition from an

    undifferentiated state to a completely harmful, differentiated appearance and derived cells

    can be used as a model for cell differentiation and tumor suppression.

     

    In this Master Thesis’s the conducting polymers PEDOT and PPy, that upon formation

    can be doped with biologically active compounds which in- turn can be released in a

    controlled manner through electrical stimulation, were formed together with various

    drugs (e.g. Methotrexate and Mycophenolic Acid), here shown to have effect on

    Neuroblastoma cells. Neuroblastoma- derived cell line SH- SY5Y was used as a model

    system for neuronal differentiation and tumour inhibition. Release profiles of

    neuroblastoma active drugs following electrical stimulation were evaluated and the

    effects from electrochemical processes on simultaneously growing SH- SY5Y cells were

    investigated.

     

    The methods to deposit and release the drugs were based on electropolymerization and

    electrochemically controlled release, respectively. Controlled release of various drugs

    and compounds was monitored using Vis- and UV- spectroscopy and on some occasions

    using HPLC.

     

    The electrochemically controlled release of a biologically inactive compound that can be

    used as a negative control for electrochemical release in future experiments was shown

    and that resulting electrochemical processes have negative effects on neuroblastoma cell

    growth.

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  • 7.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Structural modeling of membrane transporter proteins2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental process of all living organisms - the transport of molecules across cellular membranes through membrane transport proteins - is investigated.

    After a brief review of general properties of biological membranes follows a recollection of the major methods of membrane transport that Nature utilizes (Chapter 1). This is followed by a description of important experimental (Chapter 2) and theoretical methods (Chapter 3) for structural studies of membrane proteins. The findings on membrane protein transport in papers I-IV are then summarized (Chapter 4) and important findings are discussed. The remaining text is a discussion on relevant theoretical and experimental methods.

  • 8.
    Altgärde, Noomi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Local release of lithium from sol-gel coated orthopaedic screws: an in vitro and in vivo study2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    In orthopaedic practice, fractures are usually stabilised with metal screws or rods. This is done in order to keep the fracture parts in place during the rather slow healing process. The healing time can potentially be reduced by local- or systemic treatment with different bone promoting drugs. In later years, lithium, otherwise used to treat bipolar disease, has shown promise to be such a drug.

     

    The aim of this master thesis was to find a way to coat metal bone screws with lithium and to characterise the coating. The coating was to be designed in such a way that it could release lithium to the surrounding bone tissue.

     

    Lithium chloride was incorporated into a titanate sol-gel and attached to silicon wafers and stainless steel screws by dip coating. Wafers were used for initial in vitro studies of how lithium changed coating characteristics. This was studied using ellipsometry, AFM and SEM. Lithium is most probably physisorbed and not incorporated into the network building up the sol-gel. Coating structure is changed as more lithium is incorporated. For large amounts of lithium, the nanoparticles normally formed when curing the sol-gel are inhibited. One effect of this is reduced bioactivity, seen as a reduced ability for calcium phosphate crystals to nucleate on the coating when immersed in simulated body fluid.

    Lithium release was investigated using AAS. Lithium is released from the coating, showing a burst effect. By changing the number of coating layers used, the release profile can be partly altered. The coating was also applied to screws, showing good attachment, and the lithium release profile was similar to the one seen from wafers.

    Finally, a screw model was used in rats to assess the effect of local lithium treatment from screws and systemic lithium treatment on fracture healing. In the model, a screw was inserted in tibia, mimicking a fracture. When the bone around the screw was healed, a pullout test was performed, giving information about the strength of the bone surrounding the screw. No significant difference could be found for either local- or systemic lithium treatment compared to control. However, when evaluating the strength of intact bone in a similar way, a positive effect of systemic lithium treatment could be seen. Therefore, it is still likely that lithium has a positive effect on bone and further studies are needed to fully evaluate its role in fracture healing.

     

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  • 9.
    Andersen, Malin
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Computational and experimental approaches to regulatory genetic variation2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic variation is a strong risk factor for many human diseases, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, depression, autoimmunity and asthma. Most of the disease genes identified so far alter the amino acid sequences of encoded proteins. However, a significant number of genetic variants affecting complex diseases may alter the regulation of gene transcription. The map of the regulatory elements in the human genome is still to a large extent unknown, and it remains a challenge to separate the functional regulatory genetic variations from linked neutral variations.

    The objective of this thesis was to develop methods for the identification of genetic variation with a potential to affect the transcriptional regulation of human genes, and to analyze potential regulatory polymorphisms in the CD36 glycoprotein, a candidate gene for cardiovascular disease.

    An in silico tool for the prediction of regulatory polymorphisms in human genes was implemented and is available at www.cisreg.ca/RAVEN. The tool was evaluated using experimentally verified regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) collected from the scientific literature, and tested in combination with experimental detection of allele specific expression of target genes (allelic imbalance). Regulatory SNPs were shown to be located in evolutionary conserved regions more often than background SNPs, but predicted transcription factor binding sites were unable to enrich for regulatory SNPs unless additional information linking transcription factors with the target genes were available.

    The in silico tool was applied to the CD36 glycoprotein, a candidate gene for cardiovascular disease. Potential regulatory SNPs in the alternative promoters of this gene were identified and evaluated in vitro and in vivo using a clinical study for coronary artery disease. We observed association to the plasma concentrations of inflammation markers (serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein) in myocardial infarction patients, which highlights the need for further analyses of potential regulatory polymorphisms in this gene.

    Taken together, this thesis describes an in silico approach to identify putative regulatory polymorphisms which can be useful for directing limited laboratory resources to the polymorphisms most likely to have a phenotypic effect.

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  • 10.
    Anderson, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Development of Electroacoustic Sensors for Biomolecular Interaction Analysis2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomolecular interaction analysis to determine the kinetics and affinity between interacting partners is important for the fundamental understanding of biology, as well as for the development of new pharmaceutical substances. A quartz crystal microbalance instrument suitable for kinetics and affinity analyses of interaction events was developed. The functionality of the sensor system was demonstrated by development of an assay for relative affinity determination of lectin-carbohydrate interactions.

    Sensor surfaces allowing for effective immobilization of one interacting partner is a key functionality of a biosensor. Here, three different surfaces and immobilization methods were studied. First, optimized preparation conditions for sensor surfaces based on carboxyl-terminated self assembled monolayers were developed and were demonstrated to provide highly functional biosensor surfaces with low non-specific binding. Second, a method allowing for immobilization of very acidic biomolecules based on the use of an electric field was developed and evaluated. The electric field made it possible to immobilize the highly acidic C-peptide on a carboxylated surface. Third, a method for antibody immobilization on a carboxyl surface was optimized and the influence of immobilization pH on the immobilization level and antigen binding capacity was thoroughly assessed. The method showed high reproducibility for a set of antibodies and allowed for antibody immobilization also at low pH.

    Three broadly different strategies to increase the sensitivity of electroacoustic sensors were explored. A QCM sensor with small resonator electrodes and reduced flow cell dimensions was demonstrated to improve the mass transport rate to the sensor surface. The use of polymers on QCM sensor surfaces to enhance the sensor response was shown to increase the response of an antibody-antigen model system more than ten-fold. Moreover, the application of high frequency thin film bulk acoustic resonators for biosensing was evaluated with respect to sensing range from the surface. The linear detection range of the thin film resonator was determined to be more than sufficient for biosensor applications involving, for instance, antibody-antigen interactions. Finally, a setup for combined frequency and resistance measurements was developed and was found to provide time resolved data suitable for kinetics determination.

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  • 11.
    Anderson, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Wingqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Weissbach, Thomas
    Attana AB, Stockholm.
    Wallinder, Daniel
    Attana AB, Stockholm.
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Ingemarsson, Björn
    Attana AB, Stockholm.
    Systematic investigation of biomolecular interactions using combined frequency and motional resistance measurements2011In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 153, no 1, p. 135-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The resonance frequency of acoustic biosensors is today used as a label-free technique for detecting mass changes on sensor surfaces. In combination with an appropriate continuous flow system it has earlier been used for affinity and kinetic rate determination. Here, we assess the potential of a modified acoustic biosensor, monitoring also the real-time dissipation through the resistance of the sensor, to obtain additional kinetic information related to the structure and conformation of the molecules on the surface. Actual interaction studies, including an attempt to determine avidity, are presented along with thorough verification of the experimental setup utilizing true viscous load exposure together with protein and DNA immobilizations. True viscous loads show a linear relationship between resistance and frequency as expected. However, in the interaction studies between antibodies and proteins, as well as in the immobilization of DNA and proteins, higher surface concentrations of interacting molecules led to a decrease (i.e. deviation from the linear trend) in the differential resistance to frequency ratio. This is interpreted as increased surface rigidity at higher surface concentrations of immobilized molecules. Consequently, studies that aim at obtaining biological binding information, such as avidity, from real-time resistance and dissipation data should be conducted at low surface concentrations. In addition, the differential resistance to frequency relationship was found to be highly dependent on the rigidity of the preceding layer(s) of immobilized molecules. This dependence can be utilized to obtain a higher signal-to-noise ratio for resistance measurement by using low surface densities of immobilized interaction partners.

  • 12.
    Andersson Schönn, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Borg, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Bunpuckdee, Benja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Gioeli, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Holdar, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Odlingsmedium: Att ersätta fetalt kalvserum med ett kemiskt definierat substitut2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SammanfattningProjektgrupp 14-X5 avser med denna rapport att ge avdelningen Bioreagens på Thermo Fisher Scientific ett underlag för att på sikt kunna byta ut fetalt kalvserum (FCS) mot ett kemiskt definierat suplement vid odling av mushybridomceller för produktion av monoklonala antikroppar. Thermo Fisher Scientific är ett världsomspännande bioteknikföretag som utvecklar blodtestsystem som stöd för klinisk diagnos och uppföljning av allergier, astma och autoimmuna sjukdomar.

    Fetalt kalvserum är en tillsats i många odlingsmedier som ofta är nödvändig för att cellerna ska växa. Det finns dock många problem med FCS. Det är en biprodukt av köttindustrin och produceras på ett etiskt tveksamt sätt, variation mellan olika batcher förekommer och då det är en animalisk produkt finns en risk för kontamination av bland annat bakterier, virus och prioner. Av dessa anledningar vill man byta ut FCS mot ett kemiskt definierat, serumfritt supplement. Vi har utrett vilka ämnen eller grupper av ämnen som har störst potential att vara bra substitut för FCS, samt rangordnat dessa. Genom våra artikelstudier har vi kommit fram till att man kan dela in alternativen i tre grupper: lipider, tillväxtfaktorer och små biomolekyler. Bland lipiderna är det linol- och oljesyra som i flera artiklar har visats ha god effekt på både celltillväxt och antikroppsproduktion. Kolesterol har även visats ha positiva effekter. Tillväxtfaktorerna som har valts är epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), interleukin-2 (IL-2) och interleukin-6 (IL-6). Dessa har främst en positiv effekt på cellernas antikroppsproduktion. Bland de små biomolekyler som har valts ut finns en mängd olika ämnen som på olika sätt kan bidra till att skapa en bra miljö för hybridomceller i ett serumfritt medium.

    För att få en klarare bild av de olika förslagen har de jämförts. Vi menar att de ämnen som är komponenter i det basala mediet Ham F-12 bör prioriteras då det används som standard vid odling av en bred grupp av celltyper. Denna grupp inkluderar linolsyra, putrescin, tymidin, hypoxantin samt liponsyra. Därefter anser vi att återstående lipider (oljesyra och kolesterol) ska prioriteras då de har visats kunna öka både hybridomcellers tillväxt och antikroppsproduktion i ett serumfritt medium. Tillväxtfaktorer, som främst ökar antikroppsproduktionen hos cellerna  och i vissa fall även deras livslängd placerar vi på tredje plats i vår rangordning. Övriga ämnen i gruppen “Små biomolekyler” (paraaminobensoesyra och glutation) prioriterar vi sist då de inte är komponenter i Ham F-12 och de inte explicit visats påverka celltillväxten ellerantikroppsproduktionen, men har identifierats i det serumfria mediet IBL media III.

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    Slutrapport_14-X5
  • 13.
    Anfelt, Josefine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Kaczmarzyk, Danuta
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Shabestary, Kiyan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Renberg, Björn
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Rockberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Nielsen, Jens
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. Tech Univ Denmark.
    Hudson, Elton P.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Genetic and nutrient modulation of acetyl-CoA levels in Synechocystis for n-butanol production2015In: Microbial Cell Factories, E-ISSN 1475-2859, Vol. 14, article id 167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a strong interest in using photosynthetic cyanobacteria as production hosts for biofuels and chemicals. Recent work has shown the benefit of pathway engineering, enzyme tolerance, and co-factor usage for improving yields of fermentation products. Results: An n-butanol pathway was inserted into a Synechocystis mutant deficient in polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis. We found that nitrogen starvation increased specific butanol productivity up to threefold, but cessation of cell growth limited total n-butanol titers. Metabolite profiling showed that acetyl-CoA increased twofold during nitrogen starvation. Introduction of a phosphoketolase increased acetyl-CoA levels sixfold at nitrogen replete conditions and increased butanol titers from 22 to 37 mg/L at day 8. Flux balance analysis of photoautotrophic metabolism showed that a Calvin-Benson-Bassham-Phosphoketolase pathway had higher theoretical butanol productivity than CBB-Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas and a reduced butanol ATP demand. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that phosphoketolase overexpression and modulation of nitrogen levels are two attractive routes toward increased production of acetyl-CoA derived products in cyanobacteria and could be implemented with complementary metabolic engineering strategies.

  • 14.
    Antonopoulou, Io
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Development of biocatalytic processes for selective antioxidant production2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Feruloyl esterases (FAEs, EC 3.1.1.73) represent a subclass of carboxylic acid esterases that under normal conditions catalyze the hydrolysis of the ester bond between hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid) and sugar residues in plant cell walls. Based on their specificity towards monoferulates and diferulates, substitutions on the phenolic ring and on their amino acid sequence identity, they have been classified into four types (A-D) while phylogenetic analysis has resulted in classification into thirteen subfamilies (SF1-13). Under low water content, these enzymes are able to catalyze the esterification of hydroxycinnamic acids or the transesterification of their esters (donor) with alcohols or sugars (acceptor) resulting in compounds with modified lipophilicity, having a great potential for use in the tailor-made modification of natural antioxidants for cosmetic, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical industries. The work described in this thesis focused on the selection,characterization and application of FAEs for the synthesis of bioactive esters with antioxidant activity in non-conventional media. The basis of the current classification systems was investigated in relation with the enzymes’ synthetic and hydrolytic abilities while the developed processes were evaluated for their efficiency and sustainability.

    Paper I was dedicated to the screening and evaluation of the synthetic abilities of 28 fungal FAEs using acceptors of different lipophilicity at fixed conditions in detergentless microemulsions. It was revealed that FAEs classified in phylogenetic subfamilies related to acetyl xylan esterases (SF5 and 6) showed increased transesterification rates and selectivity. In general, FAEs showed preference on more hydrophilic alcohol acceptors and in descending order to glycerol > 1-butanol > prenol. Homology modeling and small molecule docking simulations were employed as tools for the identification of a potential relationship between the predicted surface and active site properties of selected FAEs and the transesterification selectivity.

    Papers II- IV focused on the characterization of eight promising FAEs and the optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of two bioactive esters (prenyl ferulate and L-arabinose ferulate) in detergentless microemulsions. The effect of the medium composition, the donor and acceptor concentration, the enzyme load, the pH, the temperature and the agitation on the transesterification yield and selectivity were investigated. It was observed that the acceptor concentration and enzyme load were crucial parameters for selectivity. Fae125 (Type A, SF5) iiexhibited highest prenyl ferulate yield (81.1%) and selectivity (4.685) converting 98.5% of VFA to products after optimization at 60 mM VFA, 1.5 M prenol, 0.04 mg FAE mL-1, 40oC, 24 h, 53.4:43.4:3.2 v/v/v n-hexane: t-butanol: 100 mM MOPS-NaOH pH 8.0. On the other hand, FaeA1 (Type A, SF5) showed highest L-arabinose ferulate yield (52.2 %) and selectivity (1.120) at 80 mM VFA, 55 mM L-arabinose, 0.02 mg FAE mL-1, 50oC, 8 h, 19.8: 74.7: 5.5 v/v/v n-hexane: t-butanol: 100 mM MOPS-NaOH pH 8.0.

    In paper V, the effect of reaction media on the enzyme stability and transesterification yield and selectivity was studied in different solvents for the synthesis of two bioactive esters: prenyl ferulate and L-arabinose ferulate. The best performing enzyme (Fae125) was used in the optimization of reaction conditions in the best solvent (n-hexane) via response surface methodology. Both bioconversions were best described by a two-factor interaction model while optimal conditions were determined as the ones resulting in highest yield and selectivity.Highest prenyl ferulate yield (87.5%) and selectivity (7.616) were observed at 18.56 mM prenol mM-1VFA, 0.04 mg FAE mL-1, 24.5 oC, 24.5 h, 91.8: 8.2 v/v n-hexane: 100 mM sodium acetate pH 4.7. Highest L-arabinose ferulate yield (56.2%) and selectivity (1.284) were observed at 2.96 mM L-arabinose mM-1VFA, 0.02 mg FAE mL-1, 38.9 oC, 12 h, 90.5: 5.0: 4.5 v/v/v n-hexane: dimethyl sulfoxide: 100 mM sodium acetate pH 4.7. The enzyme could be reused for six consecutive reaction cycles maintaining 66.6% of its initial synthetic activity. The developed bioconversions showed exceptional biocatalyst productivities (> 300 g product g-1FAE) and the waste production was within the range of pharmaceutical processes.

    Paper VI focused on the investigation of the basis of the type A classification of a well-studied FAE from Aspergillus niger(AnFaeA) by comparing its activity towards methyl and arabinose hydroxycinnamic acid esters. For this purpose, L-arabinose ferulateand caffeate were synthesized enzymatically. kcat/Kmratios revealed that AnFaeA hydrolyzed arabinose ferulate 1600 times and arabinose caffeate 6.5 times more efficiently than methyl esters. This study demonstrated that short alkyl chain hydroxycinnamate esters which are used nowadays for FAE classification can lead to activity misclassification, while L-arabinose esters could potentially substitute synthetic esters in classification describing more adequately the enzyme specificitiesin the natural environment.

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  • 15.
    Atasoy, Merve
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Eyice, O.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    A comprehensive study of volatile fatty acids production from batch reactor to anaerobic sequencing batch reactor by using cheese processing wastewater2020In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 311, article id 123529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) has great potential for closed-loop production in dairy industries via resource recovery from waste-streams. In the current study, the transition of VFA production from batch reactor to anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) by using cheese industry wastewater under alkali pH was evaluated with respect to seed sludge structure, microbial diversity and reactor type. The transition from the batch reactor to the ASBR demonstrated that the maximum VFA production yield (g COD/g SCOD) was comparable in two reactors (batch: 0.97; ASBR: 0.94), whereas, the dominant acid type was different (batch: 49% lactic acid; ASBR: 80% propionic acid). There was a significant correlation between the productions of butyric acid with Gracilibacteraceae and Desulfovibrionaceae; propionic acid with Desulfovibrionaceae and Synergistaceae; lactic acid with Pseudomonadaceae and Rhodocyclaceae. The high VFA production efficiency can be achieved by long term reactor operation, which enables the shift from industrial waste-streams to biorefineries.

  • 16.
    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar
    et al.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, China.
    Kumar, Vinay
    Department of Community Medicine, Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Thandalam 602105, India.
    Hellwig, Coralie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    Harirchi, Sharareh
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sar, Taner
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wainaina, Steven
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sindhu, Raveendran
    Binod, Parameswaran
    Zhang, Zengqiang
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Filamentous fungi for sustainable vegan food production systems within a circular economy: Present status and future prospects2023In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 164, article id 112318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filamentous fungi serve as potential candidates in the production of different value-added products. In the context of food, there are several advantages of using filamentous fungi for food. Among the main advantages is that the fungal biomass used food not only meets basic nutritional requirements but that it is also rich in protein, low in fat, and free of cholesterol. This speaks to the potential of filamentous fungi in the production of food that can substitute animal-derived protein sources such as meat. Moreover, life-cycle analyses and techno-economic analyses reveal that fungal proteins perform better than animal-derived proteins in terms of land use efficiency as well as global warming. The present article provides an overview of the potential of filamentous fungi as a source of food and food supplements. The commercialization potential as well as social, legal and safety issues of fungi-based food products are discussed.

  • 17.
    Ayoglu, Burcu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Affinity Proteomics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Affinity Proteomics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Schwenk, Jochen M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Affinity Proteomics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Multiplexed antigen bead arrays for the assessment of antibody selectivity and epitope mapping2018In: Epitope Mapping Protocols, Humana Press Inc. , 2018, p. 239-248Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing number of binding reagents for affinity-based investigations of the human proteome, high-throughput tools for the characterization of the used reagents become essential. For the analysis of binding selectivity, bead-based antigen arrays offer a miniaturized and parallelized assay platform to meet such needs, as they enable two-dimensional multiplexing to analyze up to 384 samples against up to 500 analytes in a single round of analysis. In this chapter, we describe our protocols for the generation of multiplex bead arrays built on immobilized protein fragments, as well as biotinylated peptides. Combined together, these two versions of antigen arrays offer a versatile approach for multiplexed characterization of antibody binding selectivity, off-target interactions, as well as mapping for the amino acids of epitopes involved in antibody binding.

  • 18.
    Babolanimogadam, Nima
    et al.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Tehran Tehran Iran.
    Gandomi, Hassan
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Tehran Tehran Iran.
    Akhondzadeh Basti, Afshin
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Tehran Tehran Iran.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nutritional, functional, and sensorial properties of oat milk produced by single and combined acid, alkaline, α‐amylase, and sprouting treatments2022In: Food Science & Nutrition, E-ISSN 2048-7177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the effects of different treatments of the oat slurry on the nutritional, functional, and sensorial properties of oat milk were evaluated. The sprouting and sprouting–acidic treatments have the highest oat milk yield (91.70%) and protein extraction yield (82.74%), respectively. The protein concentrations of alkali, sprouting–acidic, and α-amylase–alkali treatments were significantly (p < .05) higher than other treatments. The alkali treatments showed higher fat content (0.66%). In addition, acidic and alkali treatments in single or combined with other treatments showed the highest dry matter and energy value. The carbohydrate content of α-amylase–alkali treatment (4.35%) was higher than other treatments and also, all acidic treatments showed higher ash content (>1) compared to the other treatments. Furthermore, the sprouting–α-amylase and acidic–α-amylase showed the lowest starch (0.28%) and the highest reducing sugar content (3.15%) compared to the other treatments, respectively. Moreover, the α-amylase–alkali treatment showed the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity (342.67 mg GAE/L and 183.08 mg BHT eq/L, respectively). Furthermore, sensory evaluation of most treatments showed acceptable scores (≥7) for consumers, especially in the case of α-amylase, sprouting, and α-amylase–sprouting treatments. Results show that the different treatments had different effects on the nutritional, functional, and sensorial properties of oat milk. In conclusion, from the nutritional and functional point of view, the two-stage treatments were more effective than singular treatments on investigated factors proposing their application in functional plant milk preparation. 

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  • 19. Balzani, D.
    et al.
    Holzapfel, Gerhard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Biomechanics. Graz University of Technology, Institute of Biomechanics, Center of Biomedical Engineering.
    Brinkhues, S.
    Modeling of damage in soft biological tissues and application to arterial walls2011In: Computational Plasticity XI - Fundamentals and Applications, 2011, p. 764-775Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new material model is proposed for the description of stress-softening observed in cyclic tension tests performed on soft biological tissues. The modeling framework is based on the concept of internal variables introducing a scalar-valued variable for the representation of fiber damage. Remanent strains in fiber direction can be represented as a result of microscopic damage of the fiber crosslinks. Particular internal variables are defined able to capture the nature of soft biological tissues that no damage occurs in the physiological loading domain. A specific model is adjusted to experimental data taking into account the supra-physiological loading regime. For the description of the physiological domain polyconvex functions are used which also take into account fiber dispersion in a phenomenological approach. The applicability of the model in numerical simulations is shown by a representative example where the damage distribution in an arterial cross-section is analyzed.

  • 20.
    Barkenäs, Emelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Automation of a solid-phase proximity ligation assay for biodefense applications2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The extent of devastation caused by a biological warfare attack is highly correlated to the time from release to detection. As a step towards lowering the detection time the international project TWOBIAS was launched. Here, the main goal is to develop an automated, specific and sensitive combined detection and identification instrument capable of identifying a biological threat within an hour. The identification unit is comprised of a sample preparation module, an amplification module and a detection module and utilizes a proximity ligation assay in combination with circle-to-circle amplification in order to detect a biological threat. This thesis describes the automation of the sample preparation steps of the assay and the integration with the downstream units. The functionality of the sample preparation module was verified by subjecting it to biological samples in a laboratory and at a real-life location. The results showed that the sample preparation module was capable of preparing a sample collected in a complex environment with the same results as a sample prepared in a laboratory. 

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  • 21. Beigi, H.M.
    et al.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Effects of temperature, pH and glucose concentration on bioethanol production by Mucor indicus2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22. Benedikt Maria Köhnlein, M.
    et al.
    Abitbol, T.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Materials and Surfaces, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Osório Oliveira, A.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Magnusson, M. S.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, K. H.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Sofie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hakkarainen, M.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bioconversion of food waste to biocompatible wet-laid fungal films2022In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 216, article id 110534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fungus Rhizopus delemar was grown on bread waste in a submerged cultivation process and wet-laid into films. Alkali or enzyme treatments were used to isolate the fungal cell wall. A heat treatment was also applied to deactivate biological activity of the fungus. Homogenization of fungal biomass was done by an iterative ultrafine grinding process. Finally, the biomass was cast into films by a wet-laid process. Ultrafine grinding resulted in densification of the films. Fungal films showed tensile strengths of up to 18.1 MPa, a Young's modulus of 2.3 GPa and a strain at break of 1.4%. Highest tensile strength was achieved using alkali treatment, with SEM analysis showing a dense and highly organized structure. In contrast, less organized structures were obtained using enzymatic or heat treatments. A cell viability assay and fluorescent staining confirmed the biocompatibility of the films. A promising route for food waste valorization to sustainable fungal wet-laid films was established. © 2022 The Authors

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  • 23. Bidgoli, Hossein
    et al.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Effect of carboxymethylation conditions on water binding capacity of chitosan-based superabsorbents2010In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 345, no 18, p. 2683-2689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) from chitosan was provided via carboxymethylation of chitosan, followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and freeze-drying. This work was focused on an investigation of the effects of monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), sodium hydroxide, and reaction time on preparation of carboxymethylchitosan (CMCS). The CMCS products were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, and their degrees of substitution (DS) were measured using conductimetry and FTIR analysis. The highest DS value was obtained when the carboxymethylation reaction was carried out using 1.75 g MCAA and 1.75 g NaOH per g of chitosan in 4 h. The water solubilities of the CMCS products at various pHs were also evaluated, and the results indicated a significant impact of the reaction parameters on the solubility of CMCS. The CMCSs with the highest DS value resulted in SAPs having the highest water-binding capacity (WBC). TheWBCof the best SAP measured after 10 minexposure in distilled water, 0.9% NaCl solution, synthetic urine, and artificial blood was 104, 33, 30, and 57 g/g, respectively. The WBC of this SAP at pH 2–9 passed a maximum at pH 6.

  • 24.
    Brancoli, Pedro
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Makishi, Fausto
    Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Avenida Universitária 1000, Montes Claros 39404-547, MG, Brazil.
    Lima, Paula Garcia
    Department of Management, Development and Technology, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rua Domingos da Costa Lopes, 780-Jd. Itaipu-Tupã, Sao Paulo 17602-496, SP, Brazil.
    Rousta, Kamran
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Compositional Analysis of Street Market Food Waste in Brazil2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 12, article id 7014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current understanding of food waste quantities in the Brazilian retail sector is limited. In order to develop efficient measures for food waste prevention and valorisation, reliable data on waste generation and composition are necessary. In this study, a compositional analysis of street market waste was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. In total, 4.1 tonnes of waste were sorted into 27 waste fractions, categorised using a three-level approach. The average waste generation in the studied street markets was 23.7 kg per stall, of which 12.8 kg was classified as unavoidable food waste, 3.6 kg as packaging waste, and 7.4 kg as avoidable waste. The results show large amounts of unavoidable food waste, comprised of coconut, sugarcane bagasse, and peels. A large share of the avoidable food waste is comprised of single leaves, tomatoes, oranges, and bananas. Large variations were observed among the street markets analysed, both in terms of the food waste generation rate, and composition. The results from scaling up the data at the city level indicated a total wastage of 59,300 tonnes per year, of which 18,400 tonnes are classified as avoidable food waste.

  • 25.
    Bruns, Volker
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Holland, Dan
    Jon M. Huntsman School of Business, Utah State University, United States .
    Shepherd, Dean A.
    Kelley School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Department of Entrepreneurship and Emerging Enterprises, Whitman School of Management, Syracuse University, United States.
    The role of human capital in loan officers' decision policies2016In: Decision making in entrepreneurship: selected joint papers of Dean A. Shepherd / [ed] Dean A Shepherd, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 315-336Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a human-capital perspective and the similarity-attraction paradigm, we examine the role of general and specific human capital in the decision policies of 114 Swedish loan officers in their assessments of small-business loan requests. We found that human capital characteristics had marginal impact on decision policy contingencies and that specific human capital had no significant influence on the probability of loan approval. However, we did find that the similarity between the loan officers’ human capital and the pplicants’ human capital was a significant indicator of loan approval. The findings offer interesting insight into the heterogeneity of loan decision processes and outcomes and future research opportunities are suggested.

  • 26.
    Bruns, Volker
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Holland, Dan
    Shepherd, Dean
    Wiklund, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    The role of human capital in loan officers' decision policies2008In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 485-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a human-capital perspective and the similarity-attraction paradigm, we examine the role of general and specific human capital in the decision policies of 114 Swedish loan officers in their assessments of small-business loan requests. We found that human capital characteristics had marginal impact on decision policy contingencies and that specific human capital had no significant influence on the probability of loan approval. However, we did find that the similarity between the loan officers’ human capital and the pplicants’ human capital was a significant indicator of loan approval. The findings offer interesting insight into the heterogeneity of loan decision processes and outcomes and future research opportunities are suggested.

  • 27.
    Bulkan, Gülru
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Valorization Of Whole Stillage With Filamentous Fungi Cultivation Using Membrane Bioreactors2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A significant by-product of bioethanol plants is whole stillage, commonly used to produce animal feed due to its nutritious value, has a potential to be used to produce various value-added products while eliminating a costly process step is an alternative approach. In this study, production and separation of additional ethanol, fungal biomass and enzyme were successfully achieved with the cultivation in membrane bioreactors in batch process condition. Process optimization studies regarding fermentation and filtration conditions were carried out. Up to 10.4 g/l ethanol per litre of used whole stillage can be produced in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) condition without any pH adjustment and additional pretreatment step. Also, 50% diluted whole stillage provided 87% higher ethanol production comparing to non-diluted medium. Moreover, 71 % higher biomass production was obtained with the filtrate of 50% diluted whole stillage comparing to 25% diluted one. Considering the achieved results, a two-stage cultivation using SHF (Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation) strategy in membrane bioreactors for separation of ethanol, lignin-rich stream, protein-rich fungal biomass and enzymes was proposed. The present thesis showed that the integration of filamentous fungi with membrane bioreactors can increase the range of products that can be produced from whole stillage.

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  • 28.
    Bulkan, Gülru
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sitaresmi, Sitaresmi
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Yudhanti, Gerarda Tania
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Millati, Ria
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Enhancing or inhibitory effect of fruit or vegetable bioactive compound on Aspergillus niger and A. oryzae2022In: Journal of Fungi, ISSN 2309-608X, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruit and vegetable processing wastes are global challenges but also suitable sources with a variety of nutrients for different fermentative products using bacteria, yeast or fungi. The interaction of microorganisms with bioactive compounds in fruit waste can have inhibitory or enhancing effect on microbial growth. In this study, the antimicrobial effect of 10 bioactive compounds, including octanol, ellagic acid, (−)-epicatechin, quercetin, betanin, ascorbic acid, limonene, hexanal, car-3-ene, and myrcene in the range of 0–240 mg/L on filamentous fungi Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger were investigated. These fungi were both found to be resistant to all compounds except octanol, which can be used as a natural antifungal agent, specifically against A. oryzae and A. niger contamination. On the contrary, polyphenols (quercetin and ellagic acid), ascorbic acid, and hexanal enhanced A. niger biomass yield 28%, 7.8%, 16%, and 6%, respectively. Furthermore, 240 mg/L car-3-ene was found to increase A. oryzae biomass yield 8%, while a 9% decrease was observed at lower concentration, 24 mg/L. Similarly, up to 17% decrease of biomass yield was observed from betanin and myrcene. The resistant nature of the fungi against FPW bioactive compounds shows the potential of these fungi for further application in waste valorization. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 29.
    Caldwell, Karin D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Janson, Jan-Christer
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    The Origin of Sepahdex2006In: GIT Laboratory Journal: Europe, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 18-20Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 30.
    Carlesso, Antonio
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Svizzera Italiana USI, Fac Biomed Sci, Euler Inst, Via G Buffi 13, CH-6900 Lugano, Switzerland.;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Pharmacol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Delgado, Raquel
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Isant, Oriol Ruiz
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Uwangue, Owens
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Valli, Dylan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Bill, Roslyn M.
    Aston Univ, Coll Hlth & Life Sci, Birmingham B4 7ET, W Midlands, England..
    Hedfalk, Kristina
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Yeast as a tool for membrane protein production and structure determination2022In: FEMS yeast research (Print), ISSN 1567-1356, E-ISSN 1567-1364, Vol. 22, no 1, article id foac047Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the majority of eukaryotic MEMBRANE PROTEIN structures are DERIVED FROM PROTEINS produced in HEK293 and insect cells, the authors show here the importance of yeast as a production host and its role as an essential player in the production of eukaryotic membrane proteins for structural and functional analysis. Membrane proteins are challenging targets to functionally and structurally characterize. An enduring bottleneck in their study is the reliable production of sufficient yields of stable protein. Here, we evaluate all eukaryotic membrane protein production experiments that have supported the deposition of a high-resolution structure. We focused on the most common yeast host systems, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris. The first high-resolution structure of a membrane protein produced in yeast was described in 1999 and today there are 186 structures of alpha-helical membrane proteins, representing 101 unique proteins from 37 families. Homologous and heterologous production are equally common in S. cerevisiae, while heterologous production dominates in P. pastoris, especially of human proteins, which represent about one-third of the total. Investigating protein engineering approaches (78 proteins from seven families) demonstrated that the majority contained a polyhistidine tag for purification, typically at the C-terminus of the protein. Codon optimization and truncation of hydrophilic extensions were also common approaches to improve yields. We conclude that yeast remains a useful production host for the study of alpha-helical membrane proteins.

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  • 31.
    Cengic, Ivana
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hudson, Elton P.
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Surface Display of Small Affinity Proteins on Synechocystis sp Strain PCC 6803 Mediated by Fusion to the Major Type IV Pilin PilA12018In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 200, no 16, article id e00270-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional surface display of small affinity proteins, namely, affibodies (6.5 kDa), was evaluated for the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 through anchoring to native surface structures. These structures included confirmed or putative subunits of the type IV pili, the S-layer protein, and the heterologous Escherichia coli autotransporter antigen 43 system. The most stable display system was determined to be through C-terminal fusion to PilA1, the major type IV pilus subunit in Synechocystis, in a strain unable to retract these pili (Delta pilT1). Type IV pilus synthesis was upheld, albeit reduced, when fusion proteins were incorporated. However, pilus-mediated functions, such as motility and transformational competency, were negatively affected. Display of affibodies on Synechocystis and the complementary anti-idiotypic affibodies on E. coli or Staphylococcus carnosus was able to mediate interspecies cell-cell binding by affibody complex formation. The same strategy, however, was not able to drive cell-cell binding and aggregation of Synechocystis-only mixtures. Successful affibody tagging of the putative minor pilin PilA4 showed that it locates to the type IV pili in Synechocystis and that its extracellular availability depends on PilA1. In addition, affibody tagging of the S-layer protein indicated that the domains responsible for the anchoring and secretion of this protein are located at the N and C termini, respectively. This study can serve as a basis for future surface display of proteins on Synechocystis for biotechnological applications. IMPORTANCE Cyanobacteria are gaining interest for their potential as autotrophic cell factories. Development of efficient surface display strategies could improve their suitability for large-scale applications by providing options for designed microbial consortia, cell immobilization, and biomass harvesting. Here, surface display of small affinity proteins was realized by fusing them to the major subunit of the native type IV pili in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. The display of complementary affinity proteins allowed specific cell-cell binding between Synechocystis and Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus carnosus. Additionally, successful tagging of the putative pilin PilA4 helped determine its localization to the type IV pili. Analogous tagging of the S-layer protein shed light on the regions involved in its secretion and surface anchoring.

  • 32.
    Chandolias, Konstantinos
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sugianto, Laurenz Alan Ricardo
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    Izazi, Nurina
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    Millati, Ria
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Niklasson, Claes
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Protective effect of a reverse membrane bioreactor against toluene and naphthalene in anaerobic digestion2021In: Biotechnology and applied biochemistry, ISSN 0885-4513, E-ISSN 1470-8744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Raw syngas contains tar contaminants including toluene and naphthalene, which inhibit its conversion to methane. Cell encasement in a hydrophilic reverse membrane bioreactor (RMBR) could protect the cells from hydrophobic contaminants. This study aimed to investigate the inhibition of toluene and naphthalene and the effect of using RMBR. In this work, toluene and naphthalene were added at concentrations of 0.5?1.0 and 0.1?0.2 g/L in batch operation. In continuous operation, concentration of 0?6.44 g/L for toluene and 0?1.28 g/L for naphthalene were studied. The results showed that no inhibition was observed in batch operation for toluene and naphthalene at concentrations up to 1 and 0.2 g/L, respectively. In continuous operation of free cell bioreactors (FCBRs), inhibition of toluene and naphthalene started at 2.05 and 0.63 g/L, respectively. When they were present simultaneously, inhibition of toluene and naphthalene occurred at concentrations of 3.14 and 0.63 g/L, respectively. In continuous RMBRs, no inhibition for toluene and less inhibition for naphthalene were observed, resulting in higher methane production from RMBR than that of FCBR. These results indicated that RMBR system gave a better protection effect against inhibitors compared with FCBR.

  • 33.
    Chandolias, Konstantinos
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sugianto, Laurenz Alan Ricardo
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Izazi, Nurina
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Millati, Ria
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Claes
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Protective effect of a reverse membrane bioreactor against toluene and naphthalene in anaerobic digestion.2022In: Biotechnology and applied biochemistry, ISSN 0885-4513, E-ISSN 1470-8744, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 1267-1274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Raw syngas contains tar contaminants including toluene and naphthalene, which inhibit its conversion to methane. Cell encasement in a hydrophilic reverse membrane bioreactor (RMBR) could protect the cells from hydrophobic contaminants. This study aimed to investigate the inhibition of toluene and naphthalene and the effect of using RMBR. In this work, toluene and napthalene were added at concentrations of 0.5 - 1.0 and 0.1 - 0.2 g/L in batch operation. In continuous operation, concentration of 0 - 6.44 g/L for toluene and 0 - 1.28 g/L for napthalene were studied. The results showed that no inhibition was observed in batch operation for toluene and naphthalene at concentrations up to 1 and 0.2 g/L, respectively. In continuous operation of free cell bioreactors (FCBR), inhibition of toluene and naphthalene started at 2.05 g/L and 0.63 g/L, respectively. When they were present simultaneously, inhibition of toluene and naphthalene occurred at concentrations of 3.14 g/L and 0.63 g/L, respectively. In continuous RMBRs, no inhibition for toluene and less inhibition for naphthalene were observed, resulting in higher methane production from RMBR than that of FCBR. These results indicated that RMBR system gave a better protection effect against inhibitors compared to FCBR. 

  • 34.
    Changtor, Phanupong
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Naresuan University, Thailand.
    Rodriguez Mateos, Pablo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Buddhachat, Kittisak
    Wattanachaiyingcharoen, Wandee
    Iles, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Kerdphon, Sutthichat
    Yimtragool, Nonglak
    Pamme, Nicole
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Integration of IFAST-based nucleic acid extraction and LAMP for on-chip rapid detection of Agroathelia rolfsii in soil2024In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 250, article id 116051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agroathelia rolfsii (A. rolfsii) is a fungal infection and poses a significant threat to over 500 plant species worldwide. It can reduce crop yields drastically resulting in substantial economic losses. While conventional detection methods like PCR offer high sensitivity and specificity, they require specialized and expensive equipment, limiting their applicability in resource -limited settings and in the field. Herein, we present an integrated workflow with nucleic acid extraction and isothermal amplification in a lab -on -a -chip cartridge based on immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension (IFAST) to detect A. rolfsii fungi in soil for point -of -need application. Our approach enabled both DNA extraction of A. rolfsii from soil and subsequent colorimetric loop -mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to be completed on a single chip, termed IFAST-LAMP. LAMP primers targeting ITS region of A. rolfsii were newly designed and tested. Two DNA extraction methods based on silica paramagnetic particles (PMPs) and three LAMP assays were compared. The best -performing assay was selected for on -chip extraction and detection of A. rolfsii from soil samples inoculated with concentrations of 3.75, 0.375 and 0.0375 mg fresh weight per 100-g soil (%FW). The full on -chip workflow was achieved within a 1-h turnaround time. The platform was capable of detecting as low as 3.75 %FW at 2 days after inoculation and down to 0.0375 %FW at 3 days after inoculation. The IFAST-LAMP could be suitable for field -applicability for A. rolfsii detection in low -resource settings.

  • 35. Chen, G.
    et al.
    Ning, Z.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Nanostructured solar cells2016In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 6, no 8, article id 145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are glad to announce the Special Issue “Nanostructured Solar Cells”, published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  • 36.
    Chen, Genqiang
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China.
    Wu, Guochao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Alriksson, Björn
    Wang, Wei
    Hong, Feng F.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bioconversion of waste fiber sludge to bacterial nanocellulose and use for reinforcement of CTMP paper sheets2017In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 9, no 9, article id 458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilization of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) for large-scale applications is restricted by low productivity in static cultures and by the high cost of the medium. Fiber sludge, a waste stream from pulp and paper mills, was enzymatically hydrolyzed to sugar, which was used for the production of BNC by the submerged cultivation of Komagataeibacter xylinus. Compared with a synthetic glucose-based medium, the productivity of purified BNC from the fiber sludge hydrolysate using shake-flasks was enhanced from 0.11 to 0.17 g/(L x d), although the average viscometric degree of polymerization (DPv) decreased from 6760 to 6050. The cultivation conditions used in stirred-tank reactors (STRs), including the stirring speed, the airflow, and the pH, were also investigated. Using STRs, the BNC productivity in fiber-sludge medium was increased to 0.32 g/(L x d) and the DPv was increased to 6650. BNC produced from the fiber sludge hydrolysate was used as an additive in papermaking based on the chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) of birch. The introduction of BNC resulted in a significant enhancement of the mechanical strength of the paper sheets. With 10% (w/w) BNC in the CTMP/BNC mixture, the tear resistance was enhanced by 140%. SEM images showed that the BNC cross-linked and covered the surface of the CTMP fibers, resulting in enhanced mechanical strength.

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  • 37.
    Cheng, Wing-Shing
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Immunology.
    TARP Promoter-Based Prostate Cancer Gene Therapy: From Development to Application2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer is one leading cause of cancer-related death among men in Western countries. The standard therapies for localized prostate cancer include radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy. Such measures are relatively effective in the short term, but many patients ultimately relapse. These patients may benefit from a combination of standard therapy and oncolytic virus therapy. My work aimed to develop viruses for this purpose.

    TARP is a protein that in males is specifically expressed in prostate epithelial and cancer cells. In my thesis, I characterized the TARP promoter and showed that TARP expression is regulated at the transcriptional level by testosterone through binding of the androgen receptor in the proximal TARP promoter. I further developed TARP promoter-based regulatory sequences for prostate-specific gene expression. A sequence comprising a PSA enhancer, a PSMA enhancer and the TARP promoter was constructed and designated PPT. An adenoviral vector containing the PPT sequence shielded from transcriptional interference by an H19 insulator showed high prostate-specific transcriptional activity in human cells both in the presence and absence of testosterone. However, in experimental murine prostate cancer the PPT sequence is not active. Therefore, a two-step transcriptional amplification (TSTA) system was used together with the PPT sequence to develop an adenovirus that confers prostate-specific transgene expression also in murine cells.

    I constructed a conditionally replicating adenovirus where the E1A gene expression is controlled by an H19 insulator-shielded PPT regulatory sequence, Ad[I/PPT-E1A]. This virus exhibited absolute prostate specificity in terms of E1A expression, viral replication and cytolysis in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, our virus is active both in the presence and absence of testosterone, which may prove beneficial for patients treated by hormonal withdrawal.

    Hopefully, my work will improve existing gene therapy strategies for prostate cancer and in the long term improve the prognosis for patients with prostate cancer.

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  • 38.
    Conradsson, Oliver
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ljungberg, David
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Optimization of sterilization method for cultivation of filamentous fungi on lemon waste2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption of citrus fruits and citrus juice production creates wastes, which could be valorized by using it for cultivating fungi. Before cultivation, the medium needs to be sterilized though autoclavation. Larger volumes used when autoclaving requires longer heating cycles and therefore runs the risk of degrading the medium to a greater extent. This research examines the effects of the volume lemon waste medium used while sterilizing. The aim is to find the largest volume still providing good growth for the filamentous fungus used, Rhizopus Delemar. Lemon waste was provided by Herrljunga Musteri AB and was pre-treated at 45°C for 2h. The liquid was strained and autoclaved in different volumetric series ranging from 200 – 10 000 mL, that was then used in 200 mL shake flask cultivations.  A scale up in two 3,5 L bubble column reactors was also performed from the 10 000 mL autoclaved medium, after not observing severe impacts on growth. Testing was done by weighing biomass and HPLC analysis of sugars. The yield of the biomass in the shake flasks ranged from 0,11 – 0,14 g/g sugars and the biomass concentration ranged between 2,4 - 3,0 g/L. Overall, the volume of autoclavation seems to not too be of great concern when cultivating R. Delemar on lemon waste medium in the analyzed ranges.

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  • 39.
    Dahl, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Selector Technology: For Multiplex DNA Analysis2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of methods for identifying sequences in the human genome involve target sequence amplification through PCR. This work presents novel methods for amplifying circularized DNA and presents solutions for some major limitations of PCR.

    We have developed a novel method to amplify circularized DNA molecules based on a serial rolling-circle replication reaction, called circle to circle amplification (C2CA). Amplified DNA circles can be detected in array-based analyses or in real-time using molecular beacons. The amplification mechanism allows higher precision in quantification than in exponential amplification methods like PCR, and more products can be generated than in PCR.

    A major limitation of PCR is that amplification artifacts arise when large numbers of specific primer pairs are simultaneously added to a reaction. We have developed a solution to this problem that enables multiplex PCR amplification of specific target sequences without producing amplification artifacts. The procedure is based on oligonucleotide constructs, called selectors. The selectors identify defined target nucleic acid sequences, and they act as ligation templates to direct circularization of these targets. The selectors contain a general primer-pair motif that allows the circularized targets to be amplified in multiplex using a universal PCR primer pair. We also developed a computer program, PieceMaker, that finds an optimal design of selector probes for a given selector application. We demonstrate the method by performing a 96-plex PCR of specific DNA sequences with high success-rate and reproducibility.

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  • 40.
    Dehkhoda, Anahita
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Brandberg, Tomas
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Comparison of vacuum and high pressure evaporated wood hydrolyzate for ethanol production by repeated fed-batch using flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae2009In: BioResources, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 309-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparison of vacuum and high pressure evaporated wood hydrolyzate for ethanol production by repeated fed-batch using flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • 41.
    Devanthi, Putu Virgina Partha
    et al.
    Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences, Pulomas Barat Kavling 88, Jakarta 13210, Indonesia.
    Pratama, Ferren
    Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences, Pulomas Barat Kavling 88, Jakarta 13210, Indonesia.
    Kho, Katherine
    Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences, Pulomas Barat Kavling 88, Jakarta 13210, Indonesia.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Aslanzadeh, Solmaz
    Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences, Pulomas Barat Kavling 88, Jakarta 13210, Indonesia.
    The Effect of Dekkera bruxellensis Concentration and Inoculation Time on Biochemical Changes and Cellulose Biosynthesis by Komagataeibacter intermedius2022In: Journal of Fungi, E-ISSN 2309-608X, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 1206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial Cellulose (BC) is a biopolymer with numerous applications. The growth of BC-producing bacteria, Komagataeibacter intermedius, could be stimulated by Dekkera bruxellensis, however, the effect on BC yield needs further investigation. This study investigates BC production and biochemical changes in the K. intermedius-D. bruxellensis co-culture system. D. bruxellensis was introduced at various concentrations (103 and 106 CFU/mL) and inoculation times (days 0 and 3). BC yield was ~24% lower when D. bruxellensis was added at 103 CFU/mL compared to K. intermedius alone (0.63 ± 0.11 g/L). The lowest BC yield was observed when 103 CFU/mL yeast was added on day 0, which could be compromised by higher gluconic acid production (10.08 g/L). In contrast, BC yields increased by ~88% when 106 CFU/mL D. bruxellensis was added, regardless of inoculation time. High BC yield might correlate with faster sugar consumption or increased ethanol production when 106 CFU/mL D. bruxellensis was added on day 0. These results suggest that cell concentration and inoculation time have crucial impacts on species interactions in the co-culture system and product yield.

  • 42.
    Dey, Bonoshree
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Jenny, Karlsson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Yacoub, Nicole
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Eklund, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Jonsson, Matilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Alternativa Detektionsmetoder för Microarrays2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    di Sessa, Giancarlo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Optimization of transfection media for rAAV production in HEK293 cells2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gene therapy is the treatment of a genetic disease through the transfer of genetic material to a pa tient, aiming to obtain long-lasting expression of the transferred gene, with enough intensity to cause therapeutic effects. Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are one of the most distinguishable vectors for gene therapy, but despite of its eminent clinical success, vector production is still a bottleneck.

    In this work, several amino acids were tested as supplements for transient transfection media. The experiments were done at small scale, with volumes of 5 mL, to screen multiple parameters in parallel. We evaluated the variation on cultures’ viability and cell-density throughout 72 hours post transfection (hpT) in different media compositions. Moreover, transfection efficiency is analysed via GFP production by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscope. Finally, rAAV production titres were quantified using ELISA.

    The results endorse the strategy of optimization of transient transfection and cultivation media as a way to enhance the yield of AVV particles production in HEK293 cells. We discuss important limitations on the method’s reproducibility and propose new approaches to improve even more the study in fu ture experiments.

  • 44.
    Dincbas-Renqvist, Vildan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Biotechnology.
    Lendel, Christofer
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Dogan, Jakob
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Biotechnology.
    Wahlberg, Elisabet
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Biotechnology.
    Härd, Torleif
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Thermodynamics of folding, stabilization, and binding in an engineered protein-protein complex2004In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 126, no 36, p. 11220-11230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyzed the thermodynamics of a complex protein-protein binding interaction using the (engineered) Z(SPA-1) affibody and it's Z domain binding partner as a model. Free Z(SPA-1) exists in an equilibrium between a molten-globule-like (MG) state and a completely unfolded state, wheras a well-ordered structure is observed in the Z:Z(SPA-1) complex. The thermodynamics of the MG state unfolding equilibrium can be separated from the thermodynamics of binding and stabilization by combined analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry data and a separate van't Hoff analysis of thermal unfolding. We find that (i) the unfolding equilibrium of free Z(SPA-1) has only a small influence on effective binding affinity, that (ii) the Z:Z(SPA-1) interface is inconspicuous and structure-based energetics calculations suggest that it should be capable of supporting strong binding, but that (iii) the conformational stabilization of the MG state to a well-ordered structure in the Z:Z(SPA-1) complex is associated with a large change in conformational entropy that opposes binding.

  • 45.
    Ding, Sunjia
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.
    Liu, Xiaoqing
    Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.
    Hakulinen, Nina
    Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu 80130, Finland.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wang, Yaru
    State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.
    Wang, Yuan
    State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.
    Qin, Xing
    State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.
    Wang, Xiaolu
    State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.
    Yao, Bin
    State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.
    Luo, Huiying
    State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.
    Tu, Tao
    State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.
    Boosting enzymatic degradation of cellulose using a fungal expansin: Structural insight into the pretreatment mechanism2022In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 358, article id 127434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass greatly hinders its enzymatic degradation. Expansins induce cell wall loosening and promote efficient cellulose utilization; however, the molecular mechanism underlying their action is not well understood. In this study, TlEXLX1, a fungal expansin from Talaromyces leycettanus JCM12802, was characterized in terms of phylogeny, synergy, structure, and mechanism of action. TlEXLX1 displayed varying degrees of synergism with commercial cellulase in the pretreatment of corn straw and filter paper. TlEXLX1 binds to cellulose via domain 2, mediated by CH–π interactions with residues Tyr291, Trp292, and Tyr327. Residues Asp237, Glu238, and Asp248 in domain 1 form hydrogen bonds with glucose units and break the inherent hydrogen bonding within the cellulose matrix. This study identified the expansin amino acid residues crucial for cellulose binding, and elucidated the structure and function of expansins in cell wall networks; this has potential applications in biomass utilization.

  • 46.
    Ding, Zheli
    et al.
    Haikou Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS), Haikou, Hainan Province 571101, China.
    Ge, Yu
    School of Tropical Crops, Yunnan Agricultural University, Pu’er, Yunnan 665000, China.
    Sar, Taner
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kumar, Vinay
    Ecotoxicity and Bioconversion Laboratory, Department of Community Medicine, Saveetha Medical College & Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha Nagar, Thandalam, Chennai 602105, India.
    Harirchi, Sharareh
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Binod, Parameswaran
    Microbial Processes and Technology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR-NIIST), Trivandrum 695 019, Kerala, India.
    Sirohi, Ranjna
    School of Health Sciences and Technology, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 248001, Uttarakhand, India.
    Sindhu, Raveendran
    Department of Food Technology, TKM Institute of Technology, Kollam 691 505, Kerala, India.
    Wu, Peicong
    Haikou Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS), Haikou, Hainan Province 571101, China.
    Lin, Fei
    Haikou Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS), Haikou, Hainan Province 571101, China.
    Zhang, Zengqiang
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, China.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, China.
    Valorization of tropical fruits waste for production of commercial biorefinery products: A review2023In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 374, article id 128793Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tropical fruit wastes (TFW) are considered as the major source of food and nutrition in the topical countries. In the recent years, modernization of agriculture has increased the tropical fruit production. Higher fruit production led to an increasing abundance in the tropical fruit waste. In general, the tropical fruit waste has no economic value and ends up in landfill. But in recent years it was observed that the tropical fruit waste can be valorized to produce value-added products ranging from compost, phytochemicals, and food products to biofuels. The tropical fruit waste has great potential to produce useful products in tropical areas. This review literature is an endeavor to understand the major tropical fruit wastes and their composition. The review presents a detailed investigation on tropical fruit waste composition, its conversion potential, role of microbes in waste valorization, production of commercially valuable products and future perspectives in waste valorization.

  • 47.
    Ding, Zheli
    et al.
    Haikou Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS), Haikou, Hainan Province 571101, China.
    Kumar Awasthi, Sanjeev
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China.
    Kumar, Manish
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020, Maharashtra, India.
    Kumar, Vinay
    Department of Community Medicine, Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Thandalam 602105, India.
    Mikhailovich Dregulo, Andrei
    Institute for Problems of Regional Economics RAS, 38 Serpukhovskaya str, 190013, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
    Yadav, Vivek
    State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China.
    Sindhu, Raveendran
    Department of Food Technology, T K M Institute of Technology, Kollam 691505, Kerala, India.
    Binod, Parameswaran
    Microbial Processes and Technology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR-NIIST), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695019, India.
    Sarsaiya, Surendra
    Key Laboratory of Basic Pharmacology and Joint International Research Laboratory of Ethnomedicine of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou, China.
    Pandey, Ashok
    Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow 226 001, India; Sustainability Cluster, School of Engineering, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 248 007, Uttarakhand, India; Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Lucknow 226 029, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rathour, Rashmi
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020, Maharashtra, India.
    Singh, Lal
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020, Maharashtra, India.
    Zhang, Zengqiang
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China.
    Lian, Zihao
    Haikou Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS), Haikou, Hainan Province 571101, China.
    Kumar Awasthi, Mukesh
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China.
    A thermo-chemical and biotechnological approaches for bamboo waste recycling and conversion to value added product: Towards a zero-waste biorefinery and circular bioeconomy2023In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 333, article id 126469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast growth of bamboo species make them a suitable candidate for eco-restoration, while its lignocellulosic substrate could be used for production of high-value green products such as biofuels, chemicals, and biomaterials. Within these frameworks, this review comprehensively explored the thermochemical and biological conversion of bamboo biomass to value-added fuels and chemicals. Additionally, this review stretches an in-depth understanding of bamboo biomass lignin extraction technologies and bioengineered methodologies, as well as their biorefinery conversion strategies. Additionally, bamboo biomass often utilized in biorefineries are mostly constituted of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, along with proteins, lipids, and a few micronutrients which are not utilized efficientely by current bioengineered techniques. The results indicates that the potential for producing high-value products from bamboo biomass has not been adequately explored. However, enormous potential is still available to make bamboo biorefinery technologies cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable, which are discussed in the current review comprehensively. Furthermore, processes such as pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation are essential to obtain final high-value bio-based products from bamboo biomass, therefore, this review critically designed to explore the current state of the art of these technologies. Overall, the current review establishes a zero-waste suastainable approachs for the reformation of bamboo biomass into chemicals, biofuels, and value-added products.

  • 48.
    Dissanayake, Kanchana
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gunawardane, S. D.
    Department of Textile and Apparel Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Katubedda, Moratuwa, 10400, Sri Lanka.
    Weerasinghe, Dakshitha
    School of Engineering and IT, University of New South Wales, Northcott Dr, Campbell, ACT, 2612, Australia.
    Tissera, Nadeeka
    Institute of Technology, University of Moratuwa, Diyagama Road, Homagama, 10200, Sri Lanka.
    Mohotti, Damith
    School of Engineering and IT, University of New South Wales, Northcott Dr, Campbell, ACT, 2612, Australia.
    Mechanical Recycling and Valorisation of Disposable Face Masks: A Potential Solution to the COVID-19 Waste Issue2023In: ICSBE 2022: Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, vol 362, 2023, Vol. 362, p. 101-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid spread of COVID-19 disease worldwide resulted in a dramatic increase in face mask consumption. Single-used surgical face masks are manufactured using plastic fibres such as polypropylene (PP) or polyester, which cause severe environmental concerns when accumulated in landfills, primarily due to their non-degradability. Furthermore, plastic fibres are derived from petroleum, a depleting resource at an alarming rate, due to which preserving is highly recommended. Massive consumption and subsequent disposal of single-use surgical face masks urge seeking alternative solutions to conserve resources and manage the ever-growing waste issue. This study investigates the feasibility of recycling surgical facemasks. Single-use surgical face masks were subjected to mechanical recycling through melt extrusion. FTIR and TGA tests were conducted to establish the raw material’s chemical composition and thermolytic properties. Facemasks were initially shredded and melt-extruded to obtain filaments, which were subsequently pelletised. The pellets were hot-pressed using the compression moulding technique to make sheet-like panels. Tensile testing of the recycled sheet-like material exhibited failure stress of ~23 MPa and a failure strain of ~2.2%. While the failure stress was similar to the virgin PP material, the failure strain reduced significantly upon recycling. The material’s thermal conductivity was measured to be 0.404 W m−1 K−1 using Lee’s Disc Method. Thermal conductivity was increased significantly than the virgin PP material. The recycled material can be used in sheet form for applications such as thermal insulation and partition boards with further improved strength and thickness. Additionally, recycled pellets have the potential to be used as 3D printing feedstock, thereby enabling utilisation in bulk quantities.

  • 49.
    Dogan, Jakob
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Structural and thermodynamical basis for molecular recognition between engineered binding proteins2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural determination of interacting proteins, both as individual proteins and in their complex, complemented by thermodynamical studies are vital in order to gain in-depth insights of the phenomena leading to the highly selective protein-protein interactions characteristic of numerous life processes. This thesis describes an investigation of the structural and thermodynamical basis for molecular recognition in two different protein-protein complexes, formed between so-called affibody proteins and their respective targets. Affibody proteins are a class of engineered binding proteins, which can be functionally selected for binding to a given target protein from large collections (libraries) constructed via combinatorial engineering of 13 surface-located positions of the 58-residue three-helix bundle Z domain derived from Staphylococcal protein (SPA).

    In a first study, an affibody:target protein pair consisting of the ZSPA-1 affibody and the parental Z domain, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of approximately 1 µM, was investigated. ZSPA-1 was in its free state shown to display molten globule-like characteristics. The enthalpy change on binding between Z and ZSPA-1 as measured by isothermal titration calorimetry, was found to be a non-linear function of temperature. This nonlinearity was found to be due to the temperature dependent folded-unfolded equilibrium of ZSPA-1 upon binding to the Z domain and, the energetics of the unfolding equilibrium of the molten globule state of ZSPA-1 could be separated from the binding thermodynamics. Further dissection of the binding entropy revealed that a significant reduction in conformational entropy resulting from the stabilization of the molten globule state of ZSPA-1 upon complex formation could be a major reason for the moderate binding affinity.

    A second studied affibody:target complex (Kd ~ 0.1 µM) consisted of the ZTaq affibody protein originally selected for binding to Taq DNA polymerase and the anti-ZTaq affibody protein, selected for selective binding to the ZTaq affibody protein, thus constituting an "anti-idiotypic" affinity protein pair. The structure of the ZTaq:anti-ZTaq affibody complex as well as the free state structures of ZTaq and anti-ZTaq were determined using NMR spectroscopy. Both ZTaq and anti-ZTaq are well defined three helix bundles in their free state and do not display the same molten globule-like behaviour of ZSPA-1. The interaction surface was found to involve all of the varied positions in helices 1 and 2 of the anti-ZTaq, the majority of the corresponding side chains in ZTaq, and also several non-mutated residues. The total buried surface area was determined to about 1670 Å2 which is well inside the range of what is typical for many protein-protein complexes, including antibody:antigen complexes. Structural rearrangements, primarily at the side chain level, were observed to take place upon binding. There are similarities between the ZTaq:anti-ZTaq and the Z:ZSPA-1 structure, for instance, the binding interface area in both complexes has a large fraction of non-polar content, the buried surface area is of similar size, and certain residues have the same positioning. However, the relative orientation between the subunits in ZTaq:anti-ZTaq is markedly different from that observed in Z:ZSPA-1. The thermodynamics of ZTaq:anti-ZTaq association were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry. A dissection of the entropic contributions showed that a large and favourable desolvation entropy of non-polar surface is associated with the binding reaction which is in good agreement with hydrophobic nature of the binding interface, but as in the case for the Z:ZSPA-1 complex a significant loss in conformational entropy opposes complex formation.

    A comparison with complexes involving affibody proteins or SPA domains suggests that affibody proteins inherit intrinsic binding properties from the original SPA surface. The structural and biophysical data suggest that although extensive mutations are carried out in the Z domain to obtain affibody proteins, this does not necessarily affect the structural integrity or lead to a significant destabilization.

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  • 50.
    Dogan, Jakob
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Lendel, Christofer
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Härd, Torleif
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    NMR assignments of the free and bound-state protein components of an anti-idiotypic affibody complex2006In: Journal of Biomolecular NMR, ISSN 0925-2738, E-ISSN 1573-5001, Vol. 36, p. (Electronic publication ahead of print Feb. 6; doi:10.1007/s10858-005-5350-8)Article in journal (Refereed)
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