Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet

Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 68
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change.
    Improving methane production using hydrodynamic cavitation as pre-treatment2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To develop anaerobic digestion (AD), innovative solutions to increase methane yields in existing AD processes are needed. In particular, the adoption of low energy pre-treatments to enhance biomass biodegradability is needed to provide efficient digestion processes increasing profitability. To obtain these features, hydrodynamic cavitation has been evaluated as an innovative solutions for AD of waste activated sludge (WAS), food waste (FW), macro algae and grass, in comparison with steam explosion (high energy pre-treatment). The effect of these two pre-treatments on the substrates, e.g. particle size distribution, soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biodegradability rate, have been evaluated. After two minutes of hydrodynamic cavitation (8 bar), the mean fine particle size decreased from 489- 1344 nm to 277- 381 nm (≤77% reduction) depending of the biomasses. Similar impacts were observed after ten minutes of steam explosion (210 °C, 30 bar) with a reduction in particle size between 40% and 70% for all the substrates treated.  In terms of BMP value, hydrodynamic cavitation caused significant increment only within the A. nodosum showing a post treatment increment of 44% compared to the untreated value, while similar values were obtained before and after treatment within the other tested substrates. In contrast, steam explosion allowed an increment for all treated samples, A. nodosum (+86%), grass (14%) and S. latissima (4%). However, greater impacts where observed with hydrodynamic cavitation than steam explosion when comparing the kinetic constant K. Overall, hydrodynamic cavitation appeared an efficient pre-treatment for AD capable to compete with the traditional steam explosion in terms om kinetics and providing a more efficient energy balance (+14%) as well as methane yield for A. nodosum.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Alderhell, William
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Halmstad university.
    Norstedt, David
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Halmstad university.
    Water & Cultivate2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Arvidsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Berglund, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Ehrenborg, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Ghiassi Tari, Parisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Ledent, Sofie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Nordstedt, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Nya dispenseringstekniker för feromoner: För ett hållbart jordbruk2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektets mål har varit att utveckla nya alternativa dispenseringstekniker för insektsferomoner som bekämpar skadeinsekter på fruktodlingar. Resultatet av projektet har gett tre teoretiskt möjliga förslag. Det första förslaget är en polymerbaserad feromondispensering som inte är baserad på någon nuvarande teknik. Förslaget är uppdelat i två koncept, antingen en polymer i gelform eller en gjuten polymer. Polymererna som ges i förslaget är biologiskt nedbrytbara och har egenskaper som inte finns i produkter på marknaden idag. Det andra förslaget grundar sig på vaxbaserad feromondispensering som är en nuvarande teknik. En vaxmassa blandas tillsammans med en specifik feromonlösing och appliceras direkt på ett bladverk eller i fällor. Genom att ha en definierad form på dispensrarna erhålls en bättre kontroll på utsöndring av feromon. Det tredje förslaget är en sprejbaserad feromondispensering även den grundas på nuvarande tekniker. Idén är att en sprejbehållare med tillhörande feromonlösning kan fjärrstyras genom att kopplas till ett kontrollsystem. Fördelen med tekniken är att en större kontroll över dispenseringen på fruktodlingsfältet kan uppnås utifrån information från en väderstation eller annan källa. Kontrollsystemet kan ställas in för att rätt mängd feromon skall släppas ut i olika väderförhållande.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Nya dispenseringstekniker för feromoner
  • 4.
    Atasoy, Merve
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Advanced butyric acid production: Bio-augmentation of mixed culture fermentation by Clostridium butyricum Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The most sustainable and environmentally friendly butyric acid production method is fermentation; however, low production yield and high substrate cost limit the competition with petrol-based production. The study is aimed to enhance butyric acid production via bioaugmentated mixed culture by Clostridium butyricum from dairy industry wastewater fermentation. The bioaugmentation of C. butyricum increased butyric acid production (mgCOD L-1) from 260±36 to 2889±180. The total VFA production (mgCOD L-1) was increased from 1434±217 to 4642±1778 in control and bioaugmented reactors, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the gene copies of C. butyricum with butyric, hexanoic, n-heptanoic, valeric acids production. The cycle analysis showed that 6 hours in the bioaugmented reactor, 14 hours in the control reactor would be sufficient for similar production efficiency. The study provides a fundamental solution to step forward to achieve next-generation biorefineries by using both monocultures modularity and mixed culture robustness and stability regarding. 

  • 5.
    Atasoy, Merve
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Advanced butyric acid production: Bio-augmentation of mixed culture fermentation by Clostridium butyricum In: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The most sustainable and environmentally friendly butyric acid production method is fermentation; however, low production yield and high substrate cost limit the competition with petrol-based production. The study is aimed to enhance butyric acid production via bioaugmentated mixed culture by Clostridium butyricum from dairy industry wastewater fermentation. The bioaugmentation of C. butyricum increased butyric acid production (mgCOD L-1) from 260±36 to 2889±180. The total VFA production (mgCOD L-1) was increased from 1434±217 to 4642±1778 in control and bioaugmented reactors, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the gene copies of C. butyricum with butyric, hexanoic, n-heptanoic, valeric acids production. The cycle analysis showed that 6 hours in the bioaugmented reactor, 14 hours in the control reactor would be sufficient for similar production efficiency. The study provides a fundamental solution to step forward to achieve next-generation biorefineries by using both monocultures modularity and mixed culture robustness and stability regarding. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    Paper III
  • 6.
    Atasoy, Merve
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Bioaugmentation as a strategy for tailor-made volatile fatty acid production2021In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 295, article id 113093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to develop a novel strategy for tailor-made volatile fatty acid (VFA) composition. For this purpose, the mixed microbial culture was bioaugmented by Propionibacterium acidipropionici. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactors were operated with cheese wastewater under alkali pH. While the maximum propionic acid production almost four times increased (3779 +/- 201 mgCODeq propionic acid/L in the bioaugmented reactor and 942 +/- 172 mgCODeq propionic acid/L in the control reactor), there was no significant difference in VFA composition. The gene copy number of P.acidipropionici increased 20 times after the bioaugmentation. Furthermore, the gene copy number of P.acidipropionici was positively correlated with total VFA and isovaleric acid concentration. The relative abundance of family Flavobacteriaceae increased in the bioaugmented reactor, which might be caused by the syntrophic relation between Flavobacteriaceae and P. acidipropionici. The cycle analysis results showed that the shorter cycle (6h) could ensure the same efficiency.

  • 7.
    Atasoy, Merve
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Bioaugmented Mixed Culture by Clostridium aceticum to Manipulate Volatile Fatty Acids Composition From the Fermentation of Cheese Production Wastewater2021In: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 12, article id 658494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of targeted volatile fatty acid (VFA) composition by fermentation is a promising approach for upstream and post-stream VFA applications. In the current study, the bioaugmented mixed microbial culture by Clostridium aceticum was used to produce an acetic acid dominant VFA mixture. For this purpose, anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (bioaugmented and control) were operated under pH 10 and fed by cheese processing wastewater. The efficiency and stability of the bioaugmentation strategy were monitored using the production and composition of VFA, the quantity of C. aceticum (by qPCR), and bacterial community profile (16S rRNA Illumina Sequencing). The bioaugmented mixed culture significantly increased acetic acid concentration in the VFA mixture (from 1170 +/- 18 to 122 +/- 9 mgCOD/L) compared to the control reactor. Furthermore, the total VFA production (from 1254 +/- 11 to 5493 +/- 36 mgCOD/L) was also enhanced. Nevertheless, the bioaugmentation could not shift the propionic acid dominancy in the VFA mixture. The most significant effect of bioaugmentation on the bacterial community profile was seen in the relative abundance of the Thermoanaerobacterales Family III. Incertae sedis, its relative abundance increased simultaneously with the gene copy number of C. aceticum during bioaugmentation. These results suggest that there might be a syntropy between species of Thermoanaerobacterales Family III. Incertae sedis and C. aceticum. The cycle analysis showed that 6 h (instead of 24 h) was adequate retention time to achieve the same acetic acid and total VFA production efficiency. Biobased acetic acid production is widely applicable and economically competitive with petroleum-based production, and this study has the potential to enable a new approach as produced acetic acid dominant VFA can replace external carbon sources for different processes (such as denitrification) in WWTPs. In this way, the higher treatment efficiency for WWTPs can be obtained by recovered substrate from the waste streams that promote a circular economy approach.

  • 8.
    Atasoy, Merve
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Bioaugmented mixed culture fermentation by Clostridium aceticum to enhance acetic acid dominant volatile fatty acids production from dairy industry wastewaterIn: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     By increasing volatile fatty acids (VFA) production efficiency via fermentation can lead to shifting from industrial wastewater treatment plants to biorefineries. In the current paper, acetic acid dominant VFA mixture production by bioaugmentation of mixed culture with Clostridium aceticum was aimed. The maximum acetic acid concentration was increased 10 times in the bioaugmented reactor (1170±18 mgCOD/L) than the control reactor (122±9 mgCOD/L). Additionally, the highest total VFA production was 5 times higher in bioaugmented reactor than the control reactor. Nevertheless, the bioaugmentation did not affect the propionic acid dominancy in the VFA mixture. The correlation analysis stated that the copy gene number of C. aceticum was highly correlated with acetic acid (p<0.05) and iso-valeric acid (p<0.01). The cycle analysis stated that 6 hours was adequate retention time to have the same acetic acid and total VFA production efficiency instead of 24 hours. 

  • 9.
    Atasoy, Merve
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Butyric acid dominant volatile fatty acids production: Bio-Augmentation of mixed culture fermentation by Clostridium butyricum2020In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 104496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most sustainable and environmentally friendly butyric acid production method is fermentation; however, low production yield and high substrate cost limit the competition with petrol-based production. The study is aimed to enhance butyric acid production via bioaugmentated mixed culture by Clostridium butyricum. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (bioaugmented and control) were operated under alkali pH (pH 10) at 35 °C and fed by dairy industry wastewater as substrate. The performance of bioaugmentation was monitored in three stages: before the application, during the application (C. butyricum was injected as %10 of active reactor volume on a daily basis for seven days), after bioaugmentation. The VFA concentration and composition (by GC-FID) with the copy gene number of C. butyricum (by Q-PCR) were monitored in the bioaugmented reactor during the operation. The bioaugmentation of C. butyricum increased butyric acid production (mgCOD L-1) from 260 ± 36 to 2889 ± 180. The total VFA production (mgCOD L-1) was increased from 1434 ± 217 to 4642 ± 1778 in control and bioaugmented reactors, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the gene copies of C. butyricum with butyric, hexanoic, n-heptanoic, valeric acids production. Furthermore, the bioaugmented mixed culture had better performance than pure culture regarding butyric acid production. The cycle analysis showed that the similar butyric acid production efficiency would be obtained in the first 6 h in the bioaugmented reactor, in the first 14 h in the control reactor of the cycle. The study provides a fundamental solution to step forward to achieve next-generation biorefineries by using both monocultures modularity and mixed culture robustness and stability regarding.

  • 10.
    Atasoy, Merve
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Enhanced propionic acid production via bioaugmented mixed culture fermentation by Propionibacterium acidipropionici In: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Propionic acid is one of the key chemicals for several industries, nevertheless, the major amount of the production depends on chemical synthesis because of low production efficiency and high substrate cost of fermentation. In this study, improvement of bio-based propionic acid production via bioaugmented mixed culture with Propionibacterium acidipropionici from dairy industry wastewater fermentation under alkali pH was aimed. The results stated that the propionic acid production (3779±201 mg COD/L) was increased more than 4 times than the control reactor. Besides, the total volatile fatty acids (VFA) production (5090±24 mg COD/L) was improved with bioaugmentation almost 4 times than the control reactor. The gene copy number of P.acidipropionici was increased 20 times after the bioaugmentation, which was also positively correlated with total VFA production (0.906) and iso-valeric acid (0.824), whereas, negatively correlated with butyric acid (-0.572). The cycle analysis results stated that 18h shorter cycle time could ensure the same efficiency. Consequently, the bioaugmentation strategy offers higher production and yield for the desired product in the fermentation mixture of waste-stream, which ensures a great opportunity to have bio-based production both in a sustainable and economical competitive way. 

  • 11.
    Bahena, Rodrigo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Energy recovery through anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and wastewater treatment sludge: A proposition of a water treatment and biogas plant for a floating island in Stockholm.2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The urge for more sustainable living motivated the Stockholm Tiny House Expo. The project aims to build a floating, sustainable, man-made island for living and working outside of Stockholm. This paper proposes a waste management method with possible energy recovery for the island. It introduces a comprehensive system that integrates decentralized wastewater treatment with energy generation through anaerobic treatment. A by-product of the wastewater treatment process, the sludge, is combined with food waste to generate energy through biogas. The island’s organic waste (wastewater and food waste) is thereby managed sustainably. The results of this report require further research. The energy supply from the biogas reactor was calculated to be 52.19 MWh. The wastewater treatment process was designed with an objective of 90% reduction of BOD5, to comply with the Swedish regulations for wastewater discharge to natural bodies of water, including the ocean. The system's total volume proposed is 11.25 m3, which is the sum of the volumes of all the reactors, or tanks, needed to complete the treatment. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Bajracharya, Suman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Aryal, Nabin
    Biological and Chemical Engineering, Aarhus University, Aarhus N, Denmark.
    Sonawane, Jayesh M.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Centre for Global Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Kharel, Suman
    Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Sharma, Shalik Ram
    Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pant, Deepak
    Separation and Conversion Technology, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Mol, Belgium.
    Prime Techniques for Pre- and Post-Treatments of Anaerobic Effluents and Solids2020In: Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology: Volume 1, Biovalorization of Solid Wastes and Wastewater Treatment / [ed] Anoop Singh; Shaili Srivastava; Dheeraj Rathore; Deepak Pant, Springer Nature, 2020, Vol. 1, p. 255-289Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several pre-treatment approaches have been explored to enhance the anaerobic fermentation kinetics and efficiency, which include thermal-alkaline treatment, free ammonia, sequential ultrasound techniques as well as grinding, and sieving. Additionally, valorization of mineralized compounds and production of reusable water can also be achieved via post-treatments. The post-treatment concept allows preserving or recovery of value-added byproducts in the form of manures, soil conditioners, and renewable energy. In this chapter, we explain the recent advancement in the pre-treatment and post-treatment of anaerobic digestate to enhance the anaerobic process and for the removal of undesirable compounds, recovery of energy, nutrients, and waste stabilization before disposal.

  • 13.
    Bauer, Torben
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Co-digestion of sewage sludge and wood fly ash2022In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 1853-1859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a new approach for the recycling of plant nutrients by co-digesting sewage sludgewith fly ash from a wood combustion. Sewage sludge and fly ash both are enriched with nutrientsof the wastewater resp. wood, which makes these products an enhanced source for recycledfertilizers. The effects of the ash addition to the anaerobic digestion are studied in several labscale experiments including effects on the gas production and microbial activity. Following that,the fertilizing qualities of the digestate are evaluated by plant growth experiments. The resultsshow that the fertilizing qualities of the digested sludge were improved by the ash addition.Next to this, gas production results show that the methane production was not affected by theash addition, while the total gas release was reduced. The sulphur addition by the ashstimulated sulphate reducing bacteria. The sulphate reducing bacteria did not markedly inhibitthe methanogens.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Berglund, Ella
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Gavefalk, Filip
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Linderstam, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Malm, Arvid
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Sjöbäck, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Svensk matkonsumtion och dess påverkan på ekosystemtjänster: Hur svenskens påverkan på ekosystemtjänster genom matkonsumtion förändrats sedan 1960-talet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an increasing global population and changes in diets the impact of food consumption on the world’s ecosystems and their services has become more significant. The purpose of this project has been to investigate how the impact on ecosystem services from Swedish food consumption has changed over time and if this development is sustainable or not. A quantitative assessment of six different environmental impact factors has been carried out for each food category. The project clarifies how Swedish food consumption has developed since the 1960s, the origin of the food that has been consumed, which processes that affect the environment as well as the consequences from these impacts. The result showed that Swedish food consumption has increased considering quantity, that the consumption pattern has changed, and that the import of goods has increased since the 1960s. The average Swede eats more animal-based products such as meat, cheese and cream, along with more vegetable-based products such as fruit and berries, and vegetables. Instead, products such as milk and soured based products has decreased, while products made from flour and grains has stayed unchanged. The project shows that animal-based products, especially from ruminant animals, has a significantly higher ecological footprint in comparison with vegetable-based products, concerning most of the categories mentioned above. Considering that the swedes eat more animal-based products today than in the 1960sthefollowing conclusion, that the Swedish impact on ecosystem services has increased since the 1960s even though food production has become more efficient, could be drawn.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Svensk matkonsumtion och dess påverkan på ekosystemtjänster
  • 15.
    Bo, Mattiasson
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Mårtensson, Lennart
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    FoU-strategi för biogas: ett uppdrag inom ramen för Skånes färdplan för biogas2014Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Broberg, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Lindahl, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Tamm, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Potentialstudie för biogassubstrat i Västra Götaland, Halland och Skåne2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of producing biogas by digestion from substrates in Västra Götaland, Halland and Skåne has in this study been estimated to approximately 5 900 GWh per year, of which 2 300 GWh are found in Västra Götaland, 650 GWh in Halland and 3 000 GWh in Skåne. The estimated potential is based on the current amounts of the substrate categories food waste, agricultural residues, manure, sludge from sewage treatment plants and industrial organic residues. For each of the three regions, the largest contributor to the current substrate potential is agricultural residues. This category contributes with approximately 3 900 GWh annually in total for the three regions. However, to be able to fully realize the potential of the agricultural residues there are logistic and technical challenges to be solved. Manure accounts for the second largest contribution to the potential, approximately 1 000 GWh per year for the three regions. The conditions to realize the manure potential are good with national production support in place for this substrate category.

    The study also includes a brief investigation of future substrate categories focused on marine substrates, grass and hay harvesting, industrial wastewater and biological methanation. From the future substrates, a contribution of a total of 3 600 GWh per year will be added to the estimated potential for the three regions. The largest addition is potential biological methanation of the carbon dioxide streams from the total substrate potential from the current categories, approximately 3 000 GWh annually. Thereafter, the largest contributing future substrate category is industrial wastewater. Including the future substrate flows, a total biogas potential of 9 500 GWh per year was estimated for Västra Götaland, Skåne and Halland together. To realize the potential, close cooperation between substrate owners, gas producers and municipalities are needed together as well as a long-term policy landscape.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Broman, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Värdeskapande av koldioxid frånbiogasproduktion: En kartläggning över lämpliga CCU-tekniker för implementeringpå biogasanläggningar i Sverige2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide from biogas production is currently considered to be without value and isbecause of this released into the atmosphere in the biogas upgrading process. The residualgas is a potential carbon source and can create value in the biogas manufacturing process.By finding a suitable value-creating process that utilizes carbon dioxide, it can be possibleto provide both economic and environmental incentives for companies to develop theiroperations. This project explored the possibility to create value from this CO2. Through anevaluation of the technical maturity of CCU technologies, a recommendation could be givenat the end of the project. An analysis of technical barriers, such as pollutants in the gas, aswell as barriers in the form of competence and corporate culture were examined in orderto provide a reasoned recommendation. The project mapped which value-creating systemswould be suitable for biogas producers in a Swedish context. This included established methaneand carbon dioxide upgrading techniques currently in use and suitable CCU techniquesthat can interact with the selected upgrading processes and serve as value creators. Based onthis survey, it was then possible to identify common, critical variables for these systems. Thereafter,a recommendation of an appropriate CCU technology could be given depending onthe CO2 composition produced. One conclusion from the study was that carbon dioxide concentrationsfrom the residual gas was often high (approx. 97-98 %) and did not contain anycorrosive or toxic components, and that this largely depends on how the digestion reactor ishandled in the production process. Thus, questions were raised about what the actual limitationsof the CCU are, as they did not seem to be technical. CCU techniques that proved to beof particular interest were pH regulation of sewage plants, CO2 as a nutrient substrate for thecultivation of microalgae, and manufacturing of dry-ice for refrigerated transports. All of thesetechnologies currently have a sufficiently high degree of technical maturity to be installedalready today. Other CCU techniques, such as "’Power to gas”, require a high CO2 concentrationand were discarded as the literature review did not suggest the economic potential forthem as they require additional CO2 upgrading steps. Instead, CCU techniques were chosenthat could be implemented directly with the existing CO2 quality. Furthermore, it was concludedthat one reason why CCU technologies have not been widely implemented is internalbarriers between distributors and manufacturers (or users) of CCU technologies. Thus, theuse of carbon dioxide from biogas production and implementation of CCU technologies canbe promoted by eliminating barriers in companies, such as a lack of both knowledge andfinancial incentives.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Carlquist Segell, Maja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Reptilförekomster och kopplingar till miljöfaktorer på Billingen: Inventering av reptilfauna med artificial cover objects på lokal nivå i Västsverige2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity loss is the most exceeded planetary boundary, and entails some of the largest threats against biosphere integrity. Reptiles are functional parts of ecosystems, but habitat loss and changes in land use and climate are causing global population declines. Ecological monitoring enables understanding of species’ conditions, and development of conservation measures. This occurrence study aims to investigate local reptile fauna, surveyed using artificial cover objects (ACOs), in two areas on Billingen, one of Western Sweden’s table mountains, in Skövde municipality 2021. Environmental, survey and weather data were collected, and relations between observations and environmental factors were tested with statistical t-test for positive differences between data groups. Zootoca vivipara, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix and Vipera berus, all regionally common reptile species, were observed in the investigated area. Nine observationswere made during 20 rain-free days in June and July, with temperatures above 18°C. Solarexposure, biotope qualities Forest edges and Nectar resources, and the open biotopes Pasture and Powerline corridor, occurred in significantly higher extent where observations were made, than on sites without observations. Soil moisture, Human presence, Natural values and Environmental protection did not exhibit any significance. The results correspond to other studies on the reptilespecies’ habitat, and may apply on a local scale despite a relatively small data amount. Effective conservation measures for local reptiles can imply maintaining and creating spaces with high solar radiation and structural complexity, continued but not extended low-intensity grazing, and increasing tree species mixture and edge zones in production forests. Knowledge on reptile ecology and population monitoring needs to increase. Further studies on reptiles and biodiversity conservation on local scales are recommended.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    et al.
    Istanbul Tech Univ, Fac Civil Engn, Dept Environm Engn.
    Akyol, Cagri
    Ince, Orham
    Coban, Halil
    Koksel, Gozde
    Oz, Nilgun Ayman
    Ince, Bahar
    Individual and combined inhibitory effects of methanol and toluene on acetyl-CoA synthetase expression level of acetoclastic methanogen, Methanosaeta concilii2015In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic solvents found in waste streams can be inhibitory to microbial communities in wastewater treatment plants. In this study, possible inhibitory effects of commonly used organic solvents, methanol and toluene, were investigated in batch anaerobic digestion tests. Anaerobic sludges were fed with acetate repeatedly and exposed to various concentrations of toluene, methanol and mixture of them. Expression level of the key enzyme of acetoclastic methanogenesis, acetyl-CoA synthetase 1 (Acs1), was determined by reverse transcriptase real time PCR. Additionally, active populations of Methanosaeta spp. were monitored and quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Transcript abundance of Acs1 was 1.31 x 10(6) mRNAs ml(-1) in the control reactors; whereas, singular methanol exposure of 0.1 M, 0.3 M, 0.5 M and 1.0 M and methanol + toluene combination of 1.0 M + 0.5 mM and 1.0 M + 1.5 mM did not cause any significant effect on the acetyl-CoA expression level. However, singular toluene-exposed serum bottle reactors were completely inhibited after 3rd exposure at all concentrations from 0.5 mM to 4.0 mM. FISH results for singular methanol and toluene additions as well as their combination in the ranges studied showed no particular effect on the relative abundance of Methanosaeta spp. cells. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 20. Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    et al.
    Ince, Bahar
    Anaerobic sulfamethoxazole degradation is driven by homoacetogenesis coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis2016In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, microbial community dynamics were assessed in two lab-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs). One of the reactors was fed by synthetic pharmaceutical industry wastewater with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) as the test reactor and the other without sulfamethoxazole as the control reactor. DNA based DGGE results indicated that Clostiridum sp. became dominant in the SMX reactor while the inoculum was dominated with Firmicutes (61%) and Methanomicrobiales (28%). However their abundances in active community decreased through the last phase. Also the abundance of hydro-genotrophs was high in each phase, while acetoclastic methanogens disappeared in the last phase. Q-PCR analysis revealed that there is a significant reduction in the bacterial community approximately 84%, while methanogens increased to 97% through the operation. Additionally an increase in the expression level of bacterial and methanogenic 16S rRNA (60% and 20%, respectively) was detected. Significant correlation between microbial community and the reactor operation data was found. The study demonstrated that the microbial community maintains the system stability under high antibiotic concentration and long-term operation by homoacetogenesis coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Conradsson, Oliver
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ljungberg, David
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Optimization of sterilization method for cultivation of filamentous fungi on lemon waste2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption of citrus fruits and citrus juice production creates wastes, which could be valorized by using it for cultivating fungi. Before cultivation, the medium needs to be sterilized though autoclavation. Larger volumes used when autoclaving requires longer heating cycles and therefore runs the risk of degrading the medium to a greater extent. This research examines the effects of the volume lemon waste medium used while sterilizing. The aim is to find the largest volume still providing good growth for the filamentous fungus used, Rhizopus Delemar. Lemon waste was provided by Herrljunga Musteri AB and was pre-treated at 45°C for 2h. The liquid was strained and autoclaved in different volumetric series ranging from 200 – 10 000 mL, that was then used in 200 mL shake flask cultivations.  A scale up in two 3,5 L bubble column reactors was also performed from the 10 000 mL autoclaved medium, after not observing severe impacts on growth. Testing was done by weighing biomass and HPLC analysis of sugars. The yield of the biomass in the shake flasks ranged from 0,11 – 0,14 g/g sugars and the biomass concentration ranged between 2,4 - 3,0 g/L. Overall, the volume of autoclavation seems to not too be of great concern when cultivating R. Delemar on lemon waste medium in the analyzed ranges.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Das, O.
    et al.
    Wood and Bionanocomposites, Material Science Division, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 97187, Sweden.
    Kim, N. K.
    Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Bhattacharyya, D.
    Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand.
    Johansson, E.
    Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Crop Production Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, 23053, Sweden.
    Xu, Q.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210014, China.
    Holder, Shima
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Naturally-occurring bromophenol to develop fire retardant gluten biopolymers2020In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 243, article id 118552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to impart fire retardancy in wheat gluten polymer through naturally-occurring additives such as lanosol. The fire properties of lanosol were compared with two other conventional brominated fire retardants (Tetrabromobisphenol A and Hexabromocyclododecane). Samples containing fire retardants and gluten were prepared through compression moulding process and then characterised for their fire and mechanical properties. All fire retardants enhanced the reaction-to-fire and thermal properties of gluten while generating V-0 (i.e. vertical position and self-extinguished) ratings in the UL-94 test. The presence of all the fire retardants increased the modulus of the gluten polymer but the fire retardant particles were detrimental for the tensile strength. Nevertheless, lanosol addition delayed ignition and lowered peak heat release rate of gluten by the maximum amount, thereby leading to relatively higher fire performance index (compared to the other fire retardants). Lanosol also allowed the gluten to create a dense char barrier layer during burning that impeded the transfer of heat and flammable volatiles. The fact that only 4 wt% lanosol was able to cause self-extinguishment under direct flame and reduce peak heat release rate by a significant 50% coupled with its inherent occurrence in nature, raises the question if lanosol can be a potential fire retardant in polymeric systems, although it is a bromophenol.

  • 23.
    Davidsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kjerstadius, Hamse
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Haghighatafshar, Salar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Olsson, Mikael Emil
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Wachtmeister, Hilla
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Cour Jansen, Jes la
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Effect of anaerobic digestion at 35, 55 and 60 °C ON pharmaceuticals and organic pollutants2013In: Presented at the 1st International IWA Conference on Holistic Sludge Management, Västerås, Sweden, May 6-8, 2013, 2013, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of treated sewage sludge on farmland is a suggested method for recycling nutrients and reducing demand for commercial fertilizer. However sludge needs to be rendered safe from possible contaminants which can cause acute and long-term health and environmental problems. Residual pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants in sludge are mentioned as emerging threats since wastewater treatment plants are not designed to degrade these substances thus yielding an accumulation in sludge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence, and reduction, of pharmaceuticals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during anaerobic digestion at 35, 55 and 60ºC and during pasteurization at 70°C. The substrate used was mixed primary and secondary sludge from a 300 000 person-equivalents municipal wastewater treatment plant in southern Sweden. In general no reduction of pharmaceuticals could be observed at any temperature or minimum exposure time, except for the beta-blocker Irbesartan and the antibiotic Trimethoprim. The results from pharmaceuticals in mesophilic sludge agreed with results in recent Swedish studies. Also, no reduction of PAHs during digestion or pasteurization (70°C – 1 hour) was seen, but for single PAHs digestion could lead to reduction.

  • 24.
    Donev, Evgeniy N.
    et al.
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Derba-Maceluch, Marta
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Yassin, Zakiya
    Enhet Produktionssystem och Material, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Växjö, Sweden.
    Gandla, Madhavi Latha
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sivan, Pramod
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience. Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Heinonen, Emilia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience.
    Kumar, Vikash
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    Enhet Produktionssystem och Material, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Växjö, Sweden.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Tönnersjöheden Experimental Forest, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Simlångsdalen, Sweden.
    Hertzberg, Magnus
    SweTree Technologies AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Björn
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hörnberg, Andreas
    RISE Processum AB, Örnsköldsvik, Sweden.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE Processum AB, Örnsköldsvik, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Mellerowicz, Ewa J.
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Field testing of transgenic aspen from large greenhouse screening identifies unexpected winners2023In: Plant Biotechnology Journal, ISSN 1467-7644, E-ISSN 1467-7652, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1005-1021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trees constitute promising renewable feedstocks for biorefinery using biochemical conversion, but their recalcitrance restricts their attractiveness for the industry. To obtain trees with reduced recalcitrance, large-scale genetic engineering experiments were performed in hybrid aspen blindly targeting genes expressed during wood formation and 32 lines representing seven constructs were selected for characterization in the field. Here we report phenotypes of five-year old trees considering 49 traits related to growth and wood properties. The best performing construct considering growth and glucose yield in saccharification with acid pretreatment had suppressed expression of the gene encoding an uncharacterized 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2OGD). It showed minor changes in wood chemistry but increased nanoporosity and glucose conversion. Suppressed levels of SUCROSE SYNTHASE, (SuSy), CINNAMATE 4-HYDROXYLASE (C4H) and increased levels of GTPase activating protein for ADP-ribosylation factor ZAC led to significant growth reductions and anatomical abnormalities. However, C4H and SuSy constructs greatly improved glucose yields in saccharification without and with pretreatment, respectively. Traits associated with high glucose yields were different for saccharification with and without pretreatment. While carbohydrates, phenolics and tension wood contents positively impacted the yields without pretreatment and growth, lignin content and S/G ratio were negative factors, the yields with pretreatment positively correlated with S lignin and negatively with carbohydrate contents. The genotypes with high glucose yields had increased nanoporosity and mGlcA/Xyl ratio, and some had shorter polymers extractable with subcritical water compared to wild-type. The pilot-scale industrial-like pretreatment of best-performing 2OGD construct confirmed its superior sugar yields, supporting our strategy.

  • 25.
    Eriksson, Elsa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Spridning av arsenik från rödfyrshögar till jord och gräs2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Burnt alum shale (Rödfyr) is a waste product from the historic mining and burning of alum shale, which have been placed in mounds in the vicinity of the nearby plateau mountains. The mound content is similar to weathered mining tailings and poses a risk to the environment due to the concentration of environmentally hazardous substances such as arsenic. Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that occurs naturally in the bedrock. High soil arsenic content poses a threat to human health and the environment. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency’s (Naturvårdsverket) general guidelines for sensitive land use identify arsenic soil concentrations exceeding 10 mg/kg dry weight pose a threat to human health. Arsenic concentrations in soil and grass samples were investigated at a distance of 0, 30, 60 and 90 meters from three mounds of burnt alum shale in Skaraborg, Sweden. All mounds had a previous MIFO-risk classification 2, and were placed in three different municipalities. Arsenic concentrations in soil samples varied from 7.9 to 79 mg/kg dry weight. Only one sample was below the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency’s guidelines. No statistically significant correlation was found between arsenic concentration in soil and distance from the mound (p = 0.10), but a weak trend could be discerned. More soil samples are needed for a statistically significant result. Higher arsenic concentrations were found in soil compared to grass but no statistically significant correlation was found between the two (p = 0.86). The grass bioconcentration factor was found to be 0.043 and the background concentration of arsenic could not be determined. This study shows that arsenic is dispersed from burnt alum shale mounds but that the amount varied markedly. At 90 meters the arsenic soil concentration was continuedly elevated from two mounds which makes it difficult to determine when the surrounding soil ceases to be contaminated. 

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Environmental technology assessment of natural gas compared to biogas2010In: Natural Gas / [ed] Potocnik, Primoz, Rijeka: INTECH, 2010, p. 127-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Garefelt, Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Machine learning-assisted image analysis and metabarcoding for monitoring of plankton in the seas surrounding Sweden2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental monitoring of the seas around Sweden, manual counting with microscopy is used to monitor the plankton communities and algal blooms. New techniques are currently being evaluated, including imaging flow cytometry and DNA metabarcoding, but it is not known how results from the different techniques relate to one another. Previous work has not compared imaging flow cytometry with metabarcoding, although both methods have been compared to traditional microscopy. In this project, samples for DNA metabarcoding and imaging flow cytometry with the Imaging FlowCytobot (IFCB) have been collected in parallel in the Baltic Proper, Öresund, Kattegat, and Skagerrak. To be able to process the large number of images from cytometry, an image classification algorithm based on convolutional neural networks and transfer learning was developed, which was used to classify the images collected. The results were compared to those obtained with 18S rRNA metabarcoding of the protist community. This new approach of comparing imaging flow cytometry with metabarcoding resulted in a strong (R>0.8) correlation for some diatom taxa, but discrepancies between the technologies were also observed. The discrepancies can be further studied to identify weaknesses in both techniques and refine them further.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Regler för hantering av rötrest2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Innehållsförteckning

    INLEDNING

    PROBLEM MED ATT TA TILLVARA RÖTREST

    Tungmetaller

    Smitta

    REGLERING AV ANVÄNDANDET AV RÖTREST SOM GÖDNING

    Certifiering av biogödsel

    Hygieniseringskrav för biogödsel

    Certifiering av rötslam

    Hygieniseringskrav för rötslam

    ACCEPTANS?

    MÖJLIGHETER OCH RISKER MED SAMRÖTNING

    REFERENSER

    Download full text (pdf)
    Hantering av rötrest
  • 29.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    WSP AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Stefan
    WSP AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Larsgöran
    KTH Industrial Ecology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Framework to benchmark sustainability of biomethane supply chains: Facilitating sustainability decision making in adopting biomethane as a public transportation fuel in Western Europe2016In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 759-766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a framework from a systems’ perspective to benchmark biomethane supply chains consisting of biogas upgrading, biomethane distribution, and refilling in the context of Western Europe.

    Compressed biomethane is already widely adopted as a vehicle fuel, whereas liquefied biomethane is also a vialble alternative. Distribution in gas grids is a feasible option only in short distances and large scale, whereas trucks with composite swap bodies is the preferable alternative otherwise. As a whole, liquefied biomethane supply chains manifests better attributes from both climate and cost perspectives, whereas compressed biomethane supply chains imply better energy intensity.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Haus, Sylvia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Ortiz, Carina A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Climate effects of bioenergy from forest residues in comparison to fossil energy2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 138, p. 36-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest residues can be left at the harvest site to gradually decompose, or can be collected for energy purposes. This study analyzes the primary energy and climate impacts of bioenergy systems where forest residues are collected and used for electricity, heat and transportation, compared to fossil-based energy systems where fossil fuels provide the same services while forest residues are left on site to decompose. Time profiles are elaborated of primary energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from various energy applications fulfilled by bioenergy or fossil energy systems. Different biological decay functions are considered based on process-based modeling and inventory data across various climate zones. For all scenarios, the changes in cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) are calculated over a 300-year period, to evaluate the short- and long-term contributions of forest residue to climate change mitigation. A life cycle perspective along the full energy chains is used to evaluate the overall effectiveness of each system. The results show largest primary energy and climate benefits when forest residues are collected and used efficiently for energy services. Using biomass to substitute fossil coal provides greater climate change mitigation benefits than substituting oil or fossil gas. Some bioenergy substitutions result in positive CRF, i.e. increased global warming, during an initial period. This occurs for relatively inefficient bioenergy conversion pathways to substitute less carbon intensive fossil fuels, e.g. biomotor fuel used to replace diesel. More beneficial bioenergy substitutions, such as efficiently replacing coal, result immediately in reduced CRF. Biomass decay rates and transportation distance have less influence on climate benefits.

  • 31.
    Hakim Jaffer Ali, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Khatami, Kasra
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Atasoy, Merve
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Birgersson, Madeleine
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Williams, Cecilia
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Benchmarking virus concentration methods for quantification of SARS-CoV-2 in raw wastewater2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater-based epidemiology offers a cost-effective alternative to testing large populations for SARS-CoV-2 virus, and may potentially be used as an early warning system for SARS-CoV-2 pandemic spread. However, viruses are highly diluted in wastewater, and a validated method for their concentration and further processing, and suitable reference viruses, are the main needs to be established for reliable SARS-CoV-2 municipal wastewater detection. For this purpose, we collected wastewater from two European cities during the Covid-19 pandemic and evaluated the sensitivity of RT-qPCR detection of viral RNA after four concentration methods (two variants of ultrafiltration-based method and two adsorption and extraction-based methods). Further, we evaluated one external (bovine corona virus) and one internal (pepper mild mottle virus) reference virus. We found a consistently higher recovery of spiked virus using the modified ultrafiltration-based method. This method also had a significantly higher efficiency (p-value <0.01) for wastewater SARS-CoV-2 detection. The ultracentrifugation method was the only method that detected SARS-CoV-2 in the wastewater of both cities. The pepper mild mottle virus was found to function as a potentially suitable internal reference standard.

  • 32. Hjertø Lind, Anders Torgeir
    et al.
    Flick, Helge
    Teräs, Jukka
    Heleniak, Timothy
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    WANO policy brief2024Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management in the northern latitudes is often more challenging than in the more central regions. Under the Arctic climate conditions with large distances between settlements and to the recycling facilities, and relatively smaller markets and volume of produced waste, there are special needs for developing new innovative solutions for waste management. 

    WANO focuses on cross-border business and innovation cooperation in the field of waste management, including municipal and industrial waste, in the regions of Troms, Finnmark and Nordland (Norway), Lapland and North Ostrobothnia (Finland) and Norrbotten (Sweden). The project identifies key actors, technologies, innovation trends, and cross-border collaboration possibilities in the Arctic waste sector.

    Among the lessons learned so far which are highlighted in this policy brief are that waste management in Norway has already taken important steps to promote innovation and cooperation but that there is a demand for additional knowledge-based expertise among the waste management actors in north Norway. Cross-border initiatives are welcomed in north Norway by the actors. The big hindrance seems to be “know-who”: the Norwegian actors need more information about the actors across the border in north Finland and north Sweden.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    preview image
  • 33.
    Håkansson, Viktor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sjölander, Natalie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Byggavfall: En studie av avfall på byggarbetsplatser2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag lever vi svenskar bekvämt och väljer att inte alltid sopsortera. Detta gäller även på större byggarbetsplatser där man slänger mycket stora mängder avfall. Mycket kan återvinnas men på grund av slarv uppstår en del oanvändbart avfall. I följande rapport studerades två fall av nybyggnation av flerbostadshus i Örebro. Detta genomfördes med hjälp av platsbesök och intervjuer med personer som har god insikt i projekten. Fotografier togs på plats för att styrka det som skrivits i arbetet. Bilderna visar bristande sortering och märkning av containrarna. Här anser vi att förbättringsmöjligheter finns och att det stora hindret är motivation och tidsbrist.

    Inom detta område finns lagar och förordningar som reglerar hanteringen av byggavfallet. EU har tagit fram olika steg som avfall bör gå igenom innan det klassas som oanvändbart och hamnar på deponi. Självklart är det bästa att undvika uppkomsten av överflödigt material. För att avfall skall kunna återvinnas till så stor grad som möjligt är det viktigt att sortera det i många grupper. Det bästa alternativet är såklart att produkten återanvänds utan att genomgå bearbetning. Vissa produkter som inte är direkt byggmaterial glöms lätt bort, däribland emballage som genereras i samband med leveranser.

    Kvalitetsarbete är viktigt för att kunna identifiera alla bidragande orsaker. Om platsledningen förstår vikten av policy och mål så kan man lättare förmedla sitt ställningstagande. På de undersökta byggarbetsplatserna framgick att detta var positivt för att förbättra och driva miljöarbetet. Det är också viktigt att underentreprenörerna tar del av samma information.

    Stora förbättringar har skett i byggsektorn men det finns fortfarande arbete kvar. Till exempel behöver statistik föras till en högre grad än idag bland annat för att byggföretagen ska veta om de uppfyller kraven i EU:s nya miljömål. Det är idag svårt att hitta exakt statistik från byggbranschen.

    Prissättningen av fraktioner bestäms efter kostnaden för återvinningsprocesserna. Ibland är kostnadsskillnaden så liten att den inte motiverar byggföretagen att själva sköta sorteringen på plats. Istället går de blandade fraktionerna till eftersortering hos återvinningsföretaget. Detta är inte bra då vissa material måste sorteras direkt för att inte förstöras. Förstört material kan inte återvinnas vilket ger en negativ effekt på miljön.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Minimizing CO2 emission by following ZEB strategies2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractBuildings play an important role in formulating sustainable development, which can help todecrease environmental impacts, such as energy resource depletion, environmental deteriorationand climate change due to the use of fossil base fuels. The zero energy/emission concept isgaining interest as a renewable energy resource. These types of buildings consist of two designstrategies: minimizing the total energy demand (heat demand in cold climate) through energyefficientmeasures)EEM (and adapting renewable energy resources and technologies (RET) toreduce environmental impacts. This thesis tries to determine the potential of single-family housesin reducing total energy consumption and CO2 emission by converting them to zeroenergy/emission buildings in Sweden. To fulfill the goal of this thesis, six different single-familyhouses were selected randomly from the last six decades. Improving the buildings‟ conditionsand reducing the energy demand through EEM and RET can have several side effects on thebuildings‟ thermal indoor climate and air quality.The results of this thesis show the undeniable potential of the residential sector, practically oldbuildings, in reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission. The results of the energycalculations show that in the average case, it is possible to reduce the CO2 emissions to 440.5kg/year in a single-family house by converting the house to a zero energy building (ZEB). Since2000, by using more electrical equipment and devices and leaving them in standby mode, energyconsumption has increased, which directly connects to peoples‟ living habits. Further researchmay be required for climate change, life-cycle cost and environmental impacts and social policy.

    Download full text (pdf)
    uppsats
  • 35.
    Jennersjö Hedman, Alma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Genetic engineering of marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002 for nitrogen fixation2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The global demand for nitrogen fertilizer was 12 million metric tonnes in 2014 and is expected to increase to 240 million metric tonnes by the year 2050, with the growth of the global population. 

    To meet the demand for nitrogen fertilizers, the Haber-Bosch process has primarily been used to produce the precursor of many nitrogen fertilizers - ammonia. The very energy-expensive Haber-Bosch process uses fossil fuels and, therefore, a renewable source of ammonia must be established. Some microorganisms can use atmospheric nitrogen to produce ammonia via the nitrogenase enzyme, a mechanism attractive for alternative ammonia production. In this thesis project, integrating vectors for the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002 have been designed and generated to facilitate future heterotrophic nitrogenase integration and ammonia production. The vectors were designed for integration in seven neutral sites of the Synechococcus PCC 7002 genome. Five of the seven planned integrating vectors were successfully constructed and transformation was attempted into Synechococcus PCC 7002 to determine the transformation efficiency of the different neutral sites, however, the transformation results were inconclusive.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Summary
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Johannes, Lundahl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Insamlingssystemets påverkan på utsorteringsgrad och renhet av matavfall till biogasproduktion2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Produktionen av biogas är en viktig komponent för skapandet av ett fossilfritt samhälle. Rötning av det matavfall som uppstår i hushållen är en central källa till att producera biogas och biogödsel. Regeringen har satt upp etappmålet att till 2018 sortera ut minst 40 % av matavfallet från hushåll, storkök, butiker och restauranger så att energi kan utvinnas eller att 50 % av matavfallet samlas in så antingen energi kan utvinnas eller växtnäring tas till vara på.

     

    Det här examensarbetet utfördes på initiativ av Tekniska verken i Linköping AB med syftet att studera och kartlägga hur olika fastighetsnära insamlingssystem för matavfall påverkar biogasproduktion med avseende på mängd och kvalitet på biogas och biogödsel. Det har dessutom studerats om det finns andra faktorer som påverkar insamlad mängd och renhet på matavfallet. Rapporten är tänkt att utgöra beslutsunderlag för Tekniska verken inför en eventuell omställning av rådande insamlingssystem.

     

    Resultaten i studien visade att system där matavfall läggs i ett separat fack eller kärl har något högre utsorteringsgrad av matavfall jämfört med optisk sortering. Detta innebär att en omställning till fyrfackskäl eller separata kärl skulle kunna ge högre utsorteringsgrad än dagens optiska sortering. Därför konstateras det i studien att insamlingssystemet troligtvis har en påverkan på utsorteringsgraden av matavfall. Renhetsgraden är hög för samtliga studerade system, därför är det troligt att en omställning av insamlingssystem för villor i Linköping kommun kan genomföras utan att kompromissa med renheten på matavfallet. Det konstateras även i studien att det finns yttre faktorer som påverkar mängd och renhet på det matavfall som samlas från hushållen. Litteraturstudier och intervjuer med utvalda kommuner med hög utsorteringsgrad visade att faktorer som informationskampanjer och användarvänlighet kring matavfallsinsamling har en påverkan på insamlingsresultatet. Dock kan det inte bestämmas till vilken grad de yttre faktorerna påverkar resultatet.

     

    För framtida studier rekommenderas att inkludera fler plockanalyser för att få en tydligare bild av hur resultatspridningen ser ut för de olika insamlingssystemen. Detta skulle leda till en större säkerhet i slutsatserna om hur de olika insamlingssystemen påverkar insamlingsresultatet för matavfall. Vidare är det möjligt att en strukturerad intervjustudie med fokus på enstaka utvalda faktorer skulle kunna avgöra vilken påverkan en isolerad yttre faktor har på insamlingsresultatet.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Johansson, Martina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Bellander, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Björklund, Isabelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Dahlström, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Selin, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Larsson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Energi‐ och miljöoptimering av  Lurbo ridanläggning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målsättningen med projektet var att miljö- och energioptimera Lurbo ridanläggning med avseende på deras egna miljömål som innebär att de siktar mot att bli den miljövänligaste ridanläggningen i Sverige. Det som har tagits i beaktande är solenergi, gödsel- och dagvattenhantering. Solenergi är idag den snabbast växande elproduktionskällan och ridanläggningen har enligt beräkningar (med hjälp av kalkylverktyget i Uppsala Kommuns solkarta, MATLAB och litteraturstudier) och observationer stora möjligheter till att implementera en solcellsanläggning för att motsvara deras elproduktionsbehov och mer därtill. Två åtgärdsförslag med två olika juridiska och ekonomiska utgångslägen presenteras i denna rapport, där en rekommendation slutligen ger ridanläggningen det mest gynnsamma beslutet att installera en solcellsanläggning som endast motsvarar deras årliga elbehov.

    Gödselproduktionen på ridanläggningen är stor och har därför en betydande miljöpåverkan. Näringsämnen läcker ut från både gödselplattan och från hagar. I denna rapport ligger fokuset på läckaget av fosfor, då läckaget från ridanläggningen överskrider tillåtna värden. Detta påverkar omgivningen och särskilt deneutrofierade Hågaån negativt. Aktuella åtgärder för att minska miljöpåverkan från gödselhanteringen presenteras. Enkla lösningar som att bygga ett tak över gödselplattan för att hindra läckage vid regn och att plantera fånggrödor läggs fram, men även mer kostsamma lösningar som att införskaffa en gödselbrännare har undersökts. Den viktigaste åtgärden för att minska fosforläckaget från hagarna anses vara att hålla hagarna fria från gödsel. För detta rekommenderas att investera i en gödseldammsugare.

    Ridanläggningen använder renat vatten för att bevattna ridhuset under sommarhalvåret. Genom att samla upp dagvatten för bevattning så kan kostnaden kraftigt reduceras samtidigt som bevattningen sker på ett mer miljövänligt sätt. Den mängd nederbörd som faller över anläggningens tak är tillräcklig för att täcka anläggningens bevattningsbehov. Hur uppsamlingen ska ske presenteras i fyra alternativa åtgärdsförslag i den här rapporten, där det förslag som är enklast att genomföra rekommenderas.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Kajsa, Ignberg
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Struvit i Skövde biogasanläggning: En studie av struvitpåväxt i rör och alternativa lösningar för att minska problemet och dess uppkomst2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal with the study has been to find methods for cleaning and prevention of struvite at Skövde biogasanläggning (biogas plant). This to increase the efficiency and resource optimize the biogas plant and in that way get closer to a sustainable development of the society. Struvite (magnesiumammoniumphosphate hexahydrate) is a white, harsh mineral that commonly occurs in pipes, heat exchangers, pumps, and centrifuges at wastewater plants and after digestion processes at biogas plants. Struvite precipitates as a result of pH, temperatures, concentrations and supersaturation. Pipe material can also contribute. The study has been conducted through study visits and analyses of digestate and struvite at Skövde biogasanläggning to find the amount of struvite that can precipitate and where at the plant this happens. A simple benchmarking has been conducted, which shows that struvite precipitation at biogas plants mainly occurs in heat exchangers and that the fouling is temperature dependent. Materials and chemicals have been studied to find methods for cleaning and prevention of struvite. The study has shown that struvite mainly occurs in the heat exchanger and in pipe bends at the biogas plant and that it is dependent of the pH, supersaturation, temperature and high concentrations of phosphorous, magnesium and ammonium. A theory has been made from the study that the mineral first appears in the chamber between the digesters and heat storage tank. The study further shows that the most effective methods to clean fouling of struvite is to by hand chip the mineral alternatively replace the pipes. To prevent fouling of pipes a combination of methods is recommended, which minimizes the energy usage at the plant and prevent stops in the biogas production. Chemicals should be used if crystallization is to be completely stopped. The chemicals should be added in the above- mentioned chamber. Also planned maintenance should be conducted to minimize fouling. The pipes that are to be replaced should be replaced with pipes made of plastic materials. By doing this the resource efficiency increases and unnecessary environmental impact of the plant is avoided. The study has only included a rough cost analysis. To further support the above- mentioned methods a deeper economic analysis is recommended, which should include a study of chemical dosage and inspection sites for planned maintenance. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 39.
    Kaur, Bimaljeet
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Pollen identification using sequencing techniques2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Palynology or the study of pollen, is essential understand the relationship between plants and their pollinators. Traditionally, pollen grains are identified by microscopy. The method has several shortcomings, such as being time-consuming and having low taxonomic resolution. DNA-barcoding-based sequencing can identify pollen at the genus and species levels without specialized paleontological expertise. Aim of this study is to assess which molecular approach can be the most effective tool and is the most cost-effective for the identification of pollen from mixed pollen samples. A DNA metabarcoding study was conducted using the rbcL barcode gene for pollen identification using two sequencing techniques: Sanger and MinION. DNA metabarcoding produced taxonomic data easily. For the analysis of Sanger and MinION sequencing data, BLAST and KRAKEN2 were used respectively. Pavian and KRONA were later used to visualize the MinION sequencing data. Various plant species native to Sweden were identified with this metabarcoding approach. However, the reference database failed to identify a few of them, thus indicating the need to expand the reference database. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Evaluation of Innovative Rehabilitation Technologies Utilising Polymer Composites for Aging Sewer Systems2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water and wastewater sewer system maintenance is among the costliest aspects of infrastructure investment. The replacement of deteriorated lines is a difficult and expensive process that causes community disturbance and is generally not conducted fast enough to meet demand. To keep up with the rate of deterioration, the use of alternative rehabilitation technologies using polymer linings has increased significantly in recent years, both within Sweden and worldwide. Compared to the traditional pipe replacement method, these technologies are cost-effective, create less community disturbance, and offer a quick return to the service for the line. The main function of polymeric lining is to stabilise the condition of the pipeline, eliminate deterioration, and thereby extend the pipeline’s service life. Although rehabilitation technologies employing polymeric systems have been in use for over 30 years, there have been few technical assessments of either these technologies or the materials involved. Data gathered through the evaluation of these innovative technologies can make their benefits and limitations more widely understood, and can also be used to increase the effectiveness of the rehabilitation process in future.

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to an improved understanding of the most commonly used materials and methods employed in rehabilitation of wastewater and other applicable sewer lines in residential buildings in Sweden. The primary objective was not to prove that the emerging rehabilitation technologies work, but rather to increase knowledge of their weaknesses and strengths, identify any issues, and provide a technical assessment to support realistic expectations of pipeline rehabilitation. Gathering technical information in this way will help with the planning of future investigations; moreover, collecting extensive data will help to increase the effectiveness of the renewal works, aid progress in the field, and improve predictions regarding longevity and service life.

    As pipeline rehabilitation is still considered novel, and owing to the general lack of available data on the subject, a multi-approach study was carried out: this included evaluation of the polymeric materials’ performance in the presence of deteriorative factors, assessing the in-service state of the materials and lined sewers previously installed, monitoring the level of quality control implemented during previous rehabilitation works, and evaluating the environmental impacts of using pipe-lining technologies compared to pipe replacement. The techniques discussed included rehabilitation with epoxy and polyester resin-based lining materials, applied with brush-on and spray-on techniques, and cured-in-place pipe lining (installed by sending a resin-impregnated flexible tube inside the host pipe).

    Degradation of the resin-based lining materials was investigated via artificial aging involving immersion in water at elevated temperatures. The changes in materials that occurred during accelerated laboratory aging were tracked by means of various tests, including thermal and mechanical analyses, water absorption measurements and microscopy. The analysis focused on reinforced polyester-based and toughened epoxy-based lining materials in order to gain a better understanding of their performance as pipe lining. Moreover, the previously installed lined pipes and lining materials were also studied during laboratory examinations to evaluate the in-service performance of the materials and techniques under operating conditions over time, as well as to identify common defects. The state of the materials and the lined pipe were studied by means of different investigative methods, including visual inspection, microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thickness measurement, thermal and mechanical analyses. This PhD work also includes an investigation to determine the level of quality control carried during some previous rehabilitation works. Data on the quality evaluation of previous rehabilitation works were gathered during visits to the work sites, as well as by analysing lined pipes that had already been installed. Finally, a comparative life-cycle assessment was undertaken to compare the environmental impacts of pipe replacement with those of alternative innovative rehabilitations, such as CIPP and coatings with polyester and epoxy polymeric systems. Data obtained from an LCA tool were used to facilitate comparison from an environmental perspective.

    Results from artificial aging in the lab indicated that the properties of polymeric lining materials changed significantly when high temperatures were combined with water exposure. However, the aging testing conducted for this study also found that the materials performed relatively well at temperatures close to the average temperatures inside sewerage systems. The results revealed that the polyester-based lining material was less sensitive when compared with epoxy-based lining materials during stimulated aging. Moreover, results from the in-service field demonstration (involving examination of 12 samples with up to 10 years of service, including reinforced polyester and modified epoxy linings or cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) lining) showed minimal evidence that the materials underwent significant deterioration after installation; instead, a majority of the common defects were found to be related to poor-quality installation practices. Because very few field samples were available to study, conclusions regarding overall performance could not be drawn. However, there is no evidence that these materials will not perform as expected during their service life when properly installed.

    Evaluating quality control of previous rehabilitation work revealed a gap between theory and practice where the level of quality control and documentation was concerned; furthermore, it also emerged that quality control and documentation is crucial to both the prevention of common issues and the overall effectiveness of the rehabilitation. Accordingly, a series of recommendations regarding the development of comprehensive quality control and quality assurance procedures (QC/QA) are provided in this work. These recommendations highlight the aspects that are most important to consider at each of several key stages (before installation, during installation, and after rehabilitation work is completed).

    Results from comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA) showed that alternative technologies, including cured-in-place (flexible sleeve) and coating techniques, have some advantages over pipe replacement from an environmental perspective. However, the choice to use one rehabilitation technology over another is a multi-stage decision-making process that should not be based solely on a single factor.

    This PhD work promotes an improved understanding of the limitations and benefits of polymeric lining through the testing performed and analyses conducted. This work highlights the need for improved quality control, and further suggests that developing a detailed and comprehensive quality control plan for each technology would provide higher and more consistent quality overall. The study also demonstrates that the long-term strength of any rehabilitation work depends on various factors, and that selecting one method over another must be a process based on extensive knowledge and understanding of each rehabilitation technology. No evidence was found to indicate that the materials could not perform well under working conditions if selected and installed appropriately. However, a larger number of field samples with longer in-service time and a more detailed technical history, along with a more extended experimental plan for laboratory investigations based on the results of this PhD work, will allow for the gathering of the data required to answer questions regarding life expectancy with a higher degree of certainty.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Khatami, Kasra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Perez-Zabaleta, Mariel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Pure cultures for synthetic culture development: Next level municipal waste treatment for polyhydroxyalkanoates production2022In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 305, p. 114337-114337, article id 114337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), as bio-based plastics, promise a transition from petroleum products to green and sustainable alternatives. However, their commercial production is yet impeded by high production costs. In this study, we assessed synthetic culture in mono and co-culture modes for bacterial PHA production. It was demonstrated that volatile fatty acids (VFAs) derived from food waste and primary sludge are cheap carbon sources for maintaining high production yields in the synthetic cultures. The maximum obtained PHA was 77.54 ± 5.67% of cell dried weight (CDW) (1.723 g/L) from Cupriavidus necator and 54.9 ± 3.66% of CDW (1.088 g/L) from Burkholderia cepacia. The acquired results are comparable to those in literature using sugar substrates. Comparatively, lower PHA productions were obtained from the co-cultivations ranging between 36-45 CDW% (0.39–0.48 g/L). Meanwhile, the 3-hydroxyvalerate content in the biopolymers were increased up to 21%.

  • 42.
    Krige, Adolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Microbial Fuel cells, applications and biofilm characterization2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1900’s it has been known that microorganisms are capable of generating electrical power through extracellular electron transfer by converting the energy found organic compounds (Potter, 1911). Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has garnered more attention recently, and have shown promise in several applications, including wastewater treatment (Yakar et al., 2018), bioremediation (Rosenbaum & Franks, 2014), biosensors (ElMekawy et al., 2018) desalination (Zhang et al., 2018) and as an alternative renewable energy source in remote areas (Castro et al., 2014). In MFCs catalytic reactions of microorganisms oxidize an electron donor through extracellular electron transfer to the anode, under anaerobic conditions, with the cathode exposed to an electron acceptor, facilitating an electrical current (Zhuwei, Haoran & Tingyue, 2007; Lovley, 2006). For energy production in remote areas a low cost and easily accessible feed stock is required for the MFCs. Sweet sorghum is a drought tolerant feedstock with high biomass and sugar yields, good water-use efficiency, established production systems and the potential for genetic improvements. Because of these advantages sweet sorghum stalks were proposed as an attractive feedstock (Rooney et al., 2010; Matsakas & Christakopoulos, 2013). Dried sweet sorghum stalks were, therefore, tested as a raw material for power generation in a MFC, with anaerobic sludge from a biogas plant as inoculum (Sjöblom et al., 2017a).

    Using sorghum stalks the maximum voltage obtained was 546±10 mV, the maximum power and current density of 131±8 mW/m2 and 543±29 mA/m2 respectively and the coulombic efficiency was 2.2±0.5%. The Ohmic resistances were dominant, at an internal resistance of 182±17 Ω, calculated from polarization data. Furthermore, hydrolysis of the dried sorghum stalks did not improve the performance of the MFC but slightly increased the total energy per gram of substrate. During the MFC operation, the sugars were quickly fermented to formate, acetate, butyrate, lactate and propionate with acetate and butyrate being the key acids during electricity generation.

    Efficient electron transfer between the microorganisms and the electrodes is an essential aspect of bio-electrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells. In order to design more efficient reactors and to modify microorganisms, for enhanced electricity production, understanding the mechanisms and dynamics of the electron transport chain is important. It has been found that outer membrane C-type cytochromes (OMCs) (including omcS and omcZ discussed in this study) play a key role in the electron transport chain of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a well-known, biofilm forming, electro-active microorganism  (Millo et al., 2011; Lovley, 2008). It was found that Raman microscopy is capable of providing biochemical information, i.e., the redox state of c-type cytochromes (cyt-C) without damaging the microbial biofilm, allowing for in-situ observation.

    Raman microscopy was used to observe the oxidation state of OMCs in a suspended culture, as well as in a biofilm of an MFC. First, the oxidation state of the OMCs of suspended cultures from three G. sulfurreducens strains (PCA, KN400 and ΔpilA) was analyzed. It was found that the oxidation state can also be used as an indicator of the metabolic state of the cells, and it was confirmed that PilA, a structural pilin protein essential for long range electron transfer, is not required for external electron transfer. Furthermore, we designed a continuous, anaerobic MFC enabling in-situ Raman measurements of G. sulfurreducens biofilms during electricity generation, while poised using a potentiostat, in order to monitor and characterize the biofilm. Two strains were used, a wild strain, PCA, and a mutant, ΔOmcS. The cytochrome redox state, observed through the Raman spectra, could be altered by applying different poise voltages to the electrodes. This change was indirectly proportional to the modulation of current transferred from the cytochromes to the electrode. This change in Raman peak area was reproducible and reversible, indicating that the system could be used, in-situ, to analyze the oxidation state of proteins responsible for the electron transfer process and the kinetics thereof.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43. Kupferschmidt, Natalia
    et al.
    Xia, Xin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Labrador, Roberto H.
    Atluri, Rambabu
    Ballell, Lluis
    Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E.
    In vivo oral toxicological evaluation of mesoporous silica particles2013In: Nanomedicine, ISSN 1743-5889, E-ISSN 1748-6963, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mesoporous silica particles are highly promising nanomaterials for biomedical applications. They can be used to improve bioavailability, solubility and drug stability and to protect drugs from the acidic conditions of the stomach, leading to increased drug effectiveness. Their biocompatibility in vivo has recieved little attention, in particular regarding oral administration. Aim: To study the oral tolerance of micron-sized nanoporous folic acid-templated material-1 (cylindrical, 2D hexagonal pore structure) and nanometer-sized anionic-surfactant-templated mesoporous silica material-6 (cylindrical, 3D cubic pore structure) mesoporous silica particles in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials & methods: A dose stepwise procedure or range finding test was followed by a consequent confirmatory test. The confirmatory test included daily administrations of 2000 and 1200 mg/kg doses for nanoporous folic acid-templated material-1 and anionic-surfactant-templated mesoporous silica material-6, respectively. Results: The maximum tolerated dose for anionic-surfactant-templated mesoporous silica material-6 was not reached. Similar results were observed for nanometer-sized anionic-surfactant-templated mesoporous silica material-1 in most of the animals, although adverse effects were observed in some animals that are most probably due to the administration by oral gavage of the formulated particles. Conclusion: The results are promising for the use of mesoporous silica materials as drug-delivery systems in oral administration.

  • 44.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Radical systems, eco-innovation and the transition towards sustainability: industrial product design and cultural change2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Lingmerth, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Jadstrand, Josefine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gödsel som substrat vid biogasproduktion: Undersökning av biogas- och metanpotential i satsvisa laboratorieförsök2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta examensarbete har biogasproduktion med olika typer av gödsel som substrat, med fokus på hönsgödsel, undersökts genom satsvisa utrötningsförsök, BMP. I försöken undersöktes hur biogasutvecklingen såg ut över tid, den totala biogas- respektive metanpotentialen samt hur denna påverkas av tillsats av glycerol. Undersökningen visade att substratblandningar har större biogas- och metanpotential än enskilda substrat samt att tillsats av glycerol inte gynnar biogasproduktionen men kan gynna metanproduktionen. Undersökningen visade också att hönsgödsel har större biogaspotential, och högre metanhalt i den bildade biogasen, än nöt- och svinflytgödsel. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Mårtensson, Lennart
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Mattiasson, Bo
    Indienz AB.
    Biomass from wetlands and other valuable conservation areas as substrate for industrial biotechnology2016In: The Ninth International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region, and the World, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass  from  wetlands  has  historically  been  an  important  resource,  but  today  it  is  difficult  to  take advantage  of  this  biomass,  besides  being  used  as  feed  on  the  farm.  A  very  important  goal  is  to  find rational  and  economical  viable  way  to  make  biogas  from  wetland  biomass,  including  biomass  from other   conservation   worthy   areas   of   high   biodiversity,   such   as   roadsides   harvested   frequently. Moreover,  the  residues  from  biogas  process  used  as  bio-fertilizer  to  the  fields,  so  that  nitrogen  and phosphorus is returned to the farm land. The biomass can be used for the production of biogas or for extracting valuable chemicals in bio refineries. These valuable chemicals may be potentially useful for making future plastic materials, i.e. bio plastics. Major focus will be on biogas technology, and above all, methods for the pretreatment of recalcitrant substrates such as biomass containing high levels of lignocelluloses, i.e., to make the material available to the biogas-producing bacteria. The work is based on  an  involvement  of  research  in  the  areas  of  environmental  engineering  and  landscape  science  and includes studies of biodiversity and water treatment function of the landscape.  Finally, it is important to stress that mowing of wet meadows mostly will result in a better capacity of such meadows to retain nutrients from water passing through them. Wetland with wet meadows and similar vegetation types will be more efficient in cleaning water and thereby fight eutrophication in the recipient. Summing up, the  main  advantages  using  harvest  hay  (mowing)  from  wet  meadows  and  roadside  meadows  as substrate for biotechnical industry are:

    •Raw material for bio plastics

    •Cheap and easy handled fertilizers to agriculture

    •Important for biodiversity

    •Better function of wetlands as nutrient traps fighting eutrophication of the sea

  • 47.
    Pagés Díaz, Jhosané
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Pereda Reyes, Ileana
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Co-digestion of different waste mixtures from agro-industrial activities: Kinetic evaluation and synergetic effects2011In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 102, no 23, p. 10834-10840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Several wastes from agro-industrial activities were mixed in different ratios to evaluate the co-digestion process. Methane yield (YCH4), specific methanogenic activity (SMA) and a kinetic parameter (k0) were determined. A second feeding was also performed to examine the recovery of bacterial activity after exhaustion. Mixture ratios of 1:1:1:1 and 1:3:4:0.5 (w/w) showed the best performance, with YCH4 of 664; 582 NmL CH4/gVSsubstrate, as well as SMA of 0.12; 0.13 gCODNmLCH4/gVSinoculum/d, respectively, during the digestion of the first feed. It was possible to relate synergetic effects with enhancement in YCH4 by up to 43%, compared with values calculated from YCH4 of the individual substrates. All batches started up the biogas production after an exhaustion period, when a second feed was added. However, long lag phases (up to 21 days) were observed due to stressed conditions caused by the substrate limitation prior to the second feed.

  • 48.
    Pawar, Sudhanshu S.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Werker, Alan
    Promiko AB, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Simon
    Promiko AB, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Langeland, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Persson, Magnus
    Paper Province AB, Sweden.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. Fortum Recycling and Waste AB, Sweden.
    MultiBio: Environmental services from a multipurpose biorefinery2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    MultiBio project aimed to establish and demonstrate a novel multipurpose biorefinery cascade concept, producing three renewable biobased products: 1) biohydrogen, 2) biopolymers and 3) protein rich meal ingredients for fish farming. The cascade concept exploits the ability of a bacterium (Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus) to transform nutrients present in low-value waste process waters of the pulp and paper industry, to high-value products hydrogen gas, organic acids and microbial biomass. The organic acid rich effluent will then be managed in an open culture microbial process used to achieve discharge water quality objectives and to produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymers. Moreover, since C. saccharolyticus protein content is more than 63% of cell dry weight, their potential in formulation of fish feed was evaluated. 

    A fiber sludge containing, CTMP residual stream was found to be a possible feedstock for the MultiBio process concept. Due to safety risks the demo-scale experiments of biohydrogen gas technology were moved from Biorefinery demo plant (Örnsköldsvik) of 40 m3 capacity to ATEX classified pilot-scale facility with 0.4 m3 capacity. Hence, bacterial biomass enough for the large-scale fish feed ingredient could not be produced. Lab-scale experiments with Caldicellulosiruptor cells as fish feed ingredient showed promising results as a protein-rich, sustainable fish feed ingredient. In addition, PHA biopolymer also showed favourable results as fish food ingredient for experiments at Gårdsfisk AB. Lab-scale experimental tests showed that the surplus activated sludge from the mills wastewater treatment could currently accumulate PHA to about 20 % of its dry weight. Mass balance evaluations based on realistically achievable expectations indicated a PHA biopolymer production potential of 3 600 tons of PHA per year from available organic residuals and for the two evaluated mills combined. 

    The MultiBio concept has a positive climate impact in comparison with current treatment and moves developments in a positive direction to achieve 7 of the 10 Swedish environmental goals. Through a detailed feasibility analysis, a natural progression in next steps in scenarios were suggested for PHA production. The MultiBio cascade process can be implemented with further necessary development with good business potential and a positive effect on climate change. However, biohydrogen technology needs further developments before this cascade process concept can be implemented. Alternatively, a scenario with only biopolymer technology shows already a significant business potential and even larger positive effect on climate change. A successful next step in demonstration of the PHA biopolymer production scenario may lead to it being implemented within the next few years. Furthermore, MultiBio has attracted a lot of attention regionally and nationally but also internationally with a total of 65 media listings. A licentiate thesis and three university degree projects linked to the project have been completed. Overall, the MultiBio project has successfully achieved its goals and objectives.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Román, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Hoffmaister, Juan P.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Climate and development: the potential for climate cobenefits in the Mozambican rice sector2012In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 219-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the opportunities and pitfalls of linking a future Sustainable Development – Policies and Measures (SD-PAM) mechanism to Mozambican rice policies. It concludes that there are various ways in which the ambition to increase the production of rice can also reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, the analysis suggests that an SD-PAM mechanism may be instrumental in supporting this type of co-benefits. This implies that the pursuit of development policies as a precursor for climate mitigation is valid also for the agricultural sector and, similarly, least developed countries (LDCs) may have a role to play. Three traits of the LDC setting will influence the design of a future SD-PAM mechanism. One is the way contextual factors influence individual policy programmes. Another is the need for capacity building in its broader sense, which then emerges as another leverage mechanism in addition to funding, credits and technology transfer. Finally, it requires the recognition that GHG mitigation in LDCs is not about reducing emissions in an absolute sense but, rather, a question of changing development paths and thereby avoiding future GHG emissions

  • 50.
    Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Cintas, Olivia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Assessment Roadmapfor Emerging Bio-based Technologies: Identifying Sustainability Prospects with Multiple Perspectives2019In: Life cycle Management Conference 2019: Life cycle Management Conference 2019, Poznan, Polen, 2019, Vol. 9Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many bio-based technologies are emerging technologies, with the characteristics of being radical and fast growing. The 2018 Nobel prize in chemistry is based on enzymatic bio-based conversion as a green alterative for several conventional technologies. Overall, the transition to a bio-based economy is seen as a mean to reach sustainability, energy independence and economic growth. Bioeconomy strategies have however also been criticized for focusing too much on economic growth and too little on sustainability. Assessing potential life cycle sustainability risks and benefits early in the development of technologies – when still at lab or pilot scale – provides valuable insights about how to prioritize research activities and to potentially avert unintended consequences. The lack of knowledge and high uncertainty in early development however also makes such assessments challenging. On the social sustainability side, bio-based technologies create new jobs, while the social acceptance can hinder the market growth even in an innovation country like Sweden. Emerging technologies like for example artificial intelligence might reduce jobs and gene therapy in medicine might bear risk for coming future generation. The questions and risks are manifold. Therefore, it is essential to have a roadmap for guidance that takes a holistic approach to sustainability with a life cycle perspective. To add to the complexity, the possibilities for assessment approaches are extensive. Different perspectives can be assessed in numerous ways and with many different methods. The goal of this study is to contribute to a sustainable transition to the bioeconomy, by serving as a roadmap for research and innovation (R&I) on emerging bio-based technologies.

    To suggest a general roadmap for holistic and interdisciplinary assessments, this study identifies, and describes the use of multiple perspective assessments in selected R&I projects on emerging bio-based technologies. The projects include virgin and waste raw materials, biotechnology conversion processes and products such as bio-based chemicals, building materials, soil amendment, and pellets for heat. The findings are, in combination with existing frameworks on biomass- and bio-product prospect models, used to suggest an assessment roadmap for identifying sustainability prospects of emerging bio-based technologies.

    The result consists of an “assessment roadmap” including the perspectives resource-, economic-, environmental-, social- and market potential. Each perspective is accompanied by questions targeted to identify benefits and risks, such as “What valorization routes currently exists, and are under research, for the feedstock?”; “Is the feedstock available, also in the future?”; “Is the production technology socially accepted?”. The roadmap for bio -based emerging technologies also provides advice on the procedure for sustainability assessments, such as organizing an initial workshop with expert knowledge and highlight the importance of scanning before allocating resources for in depth analyses.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
12 1 - 50 of 68
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf