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  • 1. Abawallo, S. S.
    et al.
    Brandimarte, Luigia
    Maglionico, M.
    Analysis of the performance response of offline detention basins to inlet structure design2013In: Irrigation and Drainage, ISSN 15310361, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 449-457Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Abdulhameed, Isam Mohammed
    et al.
    University of Anbar, College of Engineering, Upper Euphrates Basin Developing Centre, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Sulaiman, Sadeq Oleiwi
    University of Anbar, College of Engineering, Dams and Water Resources Department, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Ahmed Najm, Abu Baker
    University of Anbar, College of Engineering, Dams and Water Resources Department, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Optimising water resources management by Using Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) in the West of Iraq2022In: Journal of Water and Land Development, ISSN 1429-7426, no 53, p. 176-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been suffering from decreasing Euphrates discharge due to the construction of dams within upstream countries and the use of surface irrigation systems. The country is facing a problem with meeting the increasing demand for water as a result of population growth and development in the industrial and agricultural sectors. Therefore, a simulation modelling was applied for western Iraq (Ramadi city as a case study) using the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) for the period 2018–2035. This research follows a four-step approach that involves: (i) evaluating the available water of the Euphrates River under declined water imports caused by the construction of dams in Turkey and Syria, (ii) assessing present and future water demands of the domestic, industrial, and agricultural sectors, (iii) improving water productivity (WP) by means of saving more water, (iv) estimating the economic returns under improved water use. The results showed that Iraq would face a serious problem in the coming years, represented by the limited storage of Haditha Dam, which is considered the strategic water storage site for the central and southern regions of Iraq. The study indicated the necessity of finding alternative sources of water supply by adopting new water management strategies to reduce the water deficit. 

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  • 3. Ahlers, R.
    et al.
    Brandimarte, Luigia
    Kleemans, I.
    Sadat, S. H.
    Ambitious development on fragile foundations: Criticalities of current large dam construction in Afghanistan2014In: Geoforum, ISSN 00167185, Vol. 54, p. 49-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High social, environmental and financial costs of dam construction during the past century provide valuable lessons for improving large infrastructure governance and enhancing dam safety. The Italian Vajont dam tragedy in 1963, for example, where the urgency to boost post-war economic development overruled cautionary site selection and reservoir filling, led to improved safety regulations. Today, Afghanistan is facing similar pressure to spur economic development. Revisiting Afghanistan's own dam history may inform decision-making over large scale dam development. For this, we refer to dam development in Afghanistan during the Cold War institutional constellation, which combined with the discourse on the role of dams in state formation, modernisation and development, profoundly shaped Afghanistan's landscape. Current dam development shows little evidence that any historic reflection is taking place; instead the discourse of infrastructure-as-prerequisite-for-development is consistently repeated. We argue that four factors compromise dam development in Afghanistan today: (1) lack of security; (2) an institutional context under transition; (3) absence of transboundary dialogue and agreements and (4) uncertain and fragmented aid provision. The complexity of dam development and operation is exacerbated by the extended temporal and spatial scale of their impact, thus placing a heavy burden on management- and planning capacity. Given these conditions, these dam development plans are built on fragile institutional foundations. To address their feasibility under such circumstances this paper links lessons from the past with the criticalities in future Afghan dam development.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hietala, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Application of a new method to improve river cross sections derived from satellite images2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In hydrological and hydraulic modelling, river geometry is a crucial input data. Recent investigations have been looking at methods to improve the description of cross sections extracted by DEM derived by satellite images. SRTM derived DEM are often lacking precise information as the sensors cannot detect the submerged river parts, but, on the other hand, it is available on a global scale which makes it very attractive and useful, especially in data scarce regions. This study aims at applying the so called “slope break” method to improve river cross section geometry extracted from SRTM DEM. The report is divided into three parts: a) The making of a Matlab-code to improve cross sections geometry extracted by satellite derived DEM; b) an application of the code to real cross-sections from the river Po in Italy and c) hydraulic simulations with and without SRTM modified cross sections to test the performance of the method, in collaboration with senior colleagues. The Matlab successfully performs the slope break point and finds, when appropriate, the approximated lowest point zmin of the cross section below the water surface. The comparison of the river geometry of the modified SRTM cross sections versus LiDAR available cross sections show the good performance of the method in improving the river geometry description. This code can simplify the work and improve many SRTM river cross sections in an effective way. The hydraulic simulations performed with and without the modified cross sections show how the modified SRTM model improves when compared to LiDAR results 

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  • 5.
    Andersson, Kjell
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Hagnestål, Anders
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Design of a flexible chain for winch based point absorbers2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Andreasson, Sten
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Berglund, Anders
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Hasselborg, Tomas
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Undersökning av kustfisket i Bottniska viken 19911993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fiskeriverkets utredningskontor i Luleå och Härnösand samt kustlaboratoriet i Öregrund har utfört en kartering av kustfisket i Bottniska viken. Fyra områden har studerats under 1991, Gräsö, Hornslandet, Holmön och Råneå skärgård. Områdenas omfattning och lägen framgår av figur 1. Undersökningen ingår som en del i Kustfiskeprojektet och har genomförts i form av en enkätundersökning. Syftet har varit att få en bild av fisket i respektive område; i vilken utsträckning fiske bedrivs, med vilka redskap det fiskas, hur stort fångstuttaget är samt fördelningen mellan fritids- och yrkesfiske. Framförallt har fritidsfisket belysts, eftersom omfattningen och strukturen av detta fiske varit dåligt känd.

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  • 7.
    Axelsson, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Utvärdering av hydraulisk simulering som metod för habitatskattning för lax och öring2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As all of Sweden's hydropower is to be re-examined within a 20-year period, methods are needed to carry out ecological investigations of dammed waterways. The first aim of this thesis is to evaluate whether methods for salmon and trout habitat mapping take all relevant indicators into account. In addition, the report aims to investigate which factors affect the results of habitat mapping based on hydraulic simulation and to investigate whether this method can be made more efficient through the use of simpler models, drone images and calculations.

    The work began with a literature study. A model was then built over a dammed stretch where mapping through hydraulic simulation was carried out. A mapping was then carried out on another stretch of stream based on a simpler model, drone images and shadow calculations, in parallel with a field mapping.

    The results of the literature study showed that the mapping methods capture the physical indicators well and indirectly link to certain chemical and ecological indicators. The method could be improved by including the water's nitrogen content and pH in the assessment.Important factors in habitat estimation with hydraulic simulation are the flow and the accuracy of the terrain model, as well as how the result is produced. The result from mapping with a simpler hydraulic model showed large deviations from the results obtained in the field, with respect above all to depth and width. Drone imagery for substrate assessment works well in shallow and clear water bodies. Shadow calculations based on how they were applied in this work to habitat mapping have not given satisfactory results, why the method needs to be developed.

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  • 8.
    Ayob, Mohd Nasir
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Castellucci, Valeria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Abrahamsson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Svensson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Waters, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Control Strategy for a Tidal Compensation System for Wave Energy Converter Device2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9. Bandeira, Jefferson Vianna
    et al.
    Salim, Lecio Hannas
    Bomtempo, Virgilio Lopardi
    Moreira, Rubens Martins
    Brisset, Patrick
    Hughes, Catherine E.
    Pant, Harish Jagat
    Thereska, Jovan
    Wörman, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Nuclear Techniques for Monitoring Sediment Dynamics in the Coastal Zone2014In: ENGINEERING GEOLOGY FOR SOCIETY AND TERRITORY, VOL 4: MARINE AND COASTAL PROCESSES, CHAM: SPRINGER INT PUBLISHING AG , 2014, p. 151-155Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of sediment transport in the coastal region is of vital importance to the management of this critical interface between land and sea, where most of the world population lives. For the assessment of sediment behaviour, hydraulic and sediment measurements, bathymetric survey, mathematical and physical models, are applied. Sediment tracers provide a unique capability for understanding sediment transport assisting in sediment management which cannot be obtained any other way, whether conventional monitoring or physical and numerical models because tracers integrate all the hydrodynamic actions in time and space. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is now an essential tool for the management of the natural systems and is increasingly used to study the fate and behaviour of particulates and contaminants. Tracer techniques are often employed to validate hydrodynamic models to enhance confidence in the predictive value of the models. In-situ detection afforded by the use of a radioactive tracer allows accurate quantitative determination of the rate of sediment transport, compared with other tracer methods. Also, it is cost effective and safe: its radiological impact to the environment is minimal. Several case studies, performed in different regions of the world, are presented.

  • 10.
    Baudoin, Antoine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Boström, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Thermal Rating of a Submerged Substation for Wave Power2016In: IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1949-3029, E-ISSN 1949-3037, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 436-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The costs of offshore maintenance operations put high reliability-requirements on offshore equipment for ocean energy, especially on submerged ones. Thermal management is thus essential in the design of the prototypes of a marine substation, developed at Uppsala University, for grid interface of wave power parks. The cooling system itself should be efficient as well as reliable. Therefore, the feasibility of a completely passive cooling strategy was evaluated. The studied substation includes various power components, which dissipate heat and are installed in one pressurized vessel. Thermal cross-coupling was investigated with 3-D submodels and a thermal network model. An electric circuit was coupled to determine the rated power of the substation. The results depend mainly on the dc-voltage, the seawater temperature, and the thermal contact between the components and the hull.

  • 11.
    Björkman, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Osäkerhet vid översvämningskartering av vattendrag: En kunskapsöversikt och tillämpning på MIKE 112014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to uncertainty in data, parameters and model structure, there may be large uncertainties in flood inundation models. Despite of this, uncertainty analysis is still rarely used by practitioners when creating flood maps. A reason why uncertainty analysis has not yet become customary in flood inundation modeling may be due to a lack of knowledge. Low availability of data can sometimes also make it more difficult to do an uncertainty analysis. Moreover, no examples exist of how uncertainties can be analyzed in MIKE 11, which is one of the most common models used in flood mapping at consultant agencies.

    The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly, to provide a general overview of current research on uncertainty and uncertainty analysis for flood inundation modeling. This in order to increase knowledge among consultants and decision makers. Secondly, to give an example of how uncertainties can be estimated in a flood inundation model created in MIKE 11 when there is limited access to data.

    The research overview showed that there is often considerable uncertainty in the discharge calculations and geometrical description in hydraulic models, and that there are many different ways to analyze the uncertainties. Some methods that are often used are Monte Carlo simulations, fuzzy sets, scenario analysis, Bayesian calibration and Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation, GLUE.

    A case study was performed in which a hydraulic model was built for the River Kungsbackaån in MIKE 11. A scenario analysis was carried out to show the uncertainties in the hydraulic model. Overall, 36 different model runs were made in which the calibration discharge, Manning's number and design flow were varied. Scenario analysis cannot provide a precise estimate of the uncertainty, it can only give a subjective estimate. The results of the scenario analysis showed that when the sea level in Kungsbackafjorden was 0,92 m the simulated water levels differed at most by 1,3 m for the 100-year discharge and by 0,41 m for the calculated maximum flow. Also, the flood extent of the two discharges were investigated. The greatest uncertainty in the extent was found in the flat areas even though the uncertainty in water levels was smaller there.

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  • 12.
    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea
    et al.
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Marion, Andrea
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Combined role of advective pumping and mechanical dispersion on time scales of bed form-induced hyporheic exchange2010In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 46, p. W08518-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the effect of advective pumping and pore scale dispersion on bed form-induced hyporheic exchange. Advection and dispersion play a competitive role in the exchange dynamics between the porous medium and the overlying stream: Advective fluxes first lead solutes deep into the bed and then back to the stream water, whereas dispersive fluxes favor the transfer of solutes deep into the bed leading to a permanent mass retention. The combined effect of advective exchange and dispersive fluxes produces complexity in the shape of the tails of the residence time distributions (RTDs), which follow at various stages of the process either a power law or an exponential decay. The seepage velocity induced by the stream gradient and, in case of a moving bed, the celerity of the translating bed forms limit the thickness of the advective hyporheic zone, inducing the RTDs to decrease rapidly at late time. This rapid decay can be preceded by a temporal region where the probability density functions (pdf's) tend to be inversely proportional to the square of time, and is followed by a region dominated by dispersion where the pdf's tend to be inversely proportional to the 3/2 power of time. The process shows distinct temporal ranges identified here by appropriate dimensionless parameters. Because of this complex exchange dynamics, models considering pure advection in the porous medium can significantly underestimate solute transfer at long time scales, whereas purely diffusive models of hyporheic exchange appear inadequate to represent the physical processes at an intermediate stage.

  • 13.
    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea
    et al.
    WET Engn Srl, I-31033 Castelfranco Veneto, TV, Italy.
    Marion, Andrea
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Musner, Tommaso
    Univ Padua, Dept Chem Proc Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Tregnaghi, Matteo
    WET Engn Srl, I-31033 Castelfranco Veneto, TV, Italy.
    Zaramella, Mattia
    WET Engn Srl, I-31033 Castelfranco Veneto, TV, Italy.
    Evidence of distinct contaminant transport patterns in rivers using tracer tests and a multiple domain retention model2011In: Advances in Water Resources, ISSN 0309-1708, E-ISSN 1872-9657, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 737-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solute transport in rivers is controlled by surface hydrodynamics and by mass exchanges with distinct retention zones. Surface and hyporheic retention processes can be accounted for separately in solute transport models with multiple storage compartments. In the simplest two component model, short term storage can be associated to in-channel transient retention, e.g. produced by riparian vegetation or surface dead zones, and the long-term storage can be associated to hyporheic exchange. The STIR (Solute Transport In Rivers) multiple domain transport model is applied here to tracer test data from three very different Mediterranean streams with distinctive characteristics in terms of flow discharge, vegetation and substrate material. The model is used with an exponential residence time distribution (RTD) to represent surface storage processes and two distinct modeling closures are tested to simulate hyporheic retention: a second exponential RTD and a power-law distribution approximating a known solution for bedform-induced hyporheic exchange. Each stream shows distinct retention patterns characterized by different timescales of the storage time distribution. Both modeling closures lead to very good approximations of the observed breakthrough curves in the two rivers with permeable bed exposed to the flow, where hyporheic flows are expected to occur. In the one case where the occurrence of hyporheic flows is inhibited by bottom vegetation, only the two exponential RTD model is acceptable and the time scales of the two components are of the same magnitude. The significant finding of this work is the recognition of a strong signature of the river properties on tracer data and the evidence of the ability of multiple-component models to describe individual stream responses. This evidence may open a new perspective in river contamination studies, where rivers could possibly be classified based on their ability to trap and release pollutants.

  • 14.
    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea
    et al.
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Marion, Andrea
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Zaramella, Mattia
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Modellazione a tempi di residenza del trasporto di soluti nei corsi d'acqua: Applicazione al fiume Yarqon, Israele2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [it]

    Il trasporto di soluti nei corsi d’acqua è controllato dall’idrodinamica superficiale e da scambi di massa con distinte zone di ritenzione. La propagazione a valle delle sostanze trasportate è generalmente ritardata dall’immagazzinamento temporaneo in zone morte superficiali, tipicamente zone vegetate o sacche di ritenzione laterali, e nei sedimenti sottostanti, nella cosiddetta zona iporeica. In questo articolo viene presentato un modello concettuale per il trasporto di soluti nei corsi d’acqua (STIR, Solute Transport In Rivers) nel quale i singoli processi di scambio sono rappresentati separatamente da una probabilità di “uptake” e da un’appropriata distribuzione dei tempi di residenza. Ciò rende il modello flessibile e modulare, e consente di incorporare l’effetto di una varietà di processi d’immagazzinamento e reazioni chimiche in modo dettagliato. La capacità del modello di rappresentare situazioni reali è qui dimostrata dall’applicazione al fiume Yarqon, in Israele.

  • 15.
    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea
    et al.
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Singer, Gabriel
    Univ Vienna, Dept Freshwater Ecol.
    Zaramella, Mattia
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Battin, Tom
    Univ Vienna, Dept Freshwater Ecol.
    Marion, Andrea
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Effects of Streambed Morphology and Biofilm Growth on the Transient Storage of Solutes2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 19, p. 7337-7342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial biofilms are the prime site of nutrient and contaminant removal in streams. It is therefore essential to understand how biofilms affect hydrodynamic exchange, solute transport and retention in systems where geomorphology and induced hydrodynamics shape their growth and structure. We experimented with large-scale streamside flumes with streambed landscapes constructed from graded bedforms of constant height and wavelength. Each flume had a different bedform height and was covered with a layer of gravel as substratum for benthic microbial biofilms. Biofilms developed different biomass and physical structures in response to the hydrodynamic conditions induced by the streambed morphology. Step injections of conservative tracers were performed at different biofilm growth stages. The experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed with the STIR model, using a residence time approach to characterize the retention effects associated with biofilms. The retained mass of the solute increased with biofilm biomass and the biofilm-associated retention was furthermore related to bedform height We tentatively relate this behavior to biofilm structural differentiation induced by bed morphology, which highlights the strong linkage between geomorphology, hydrodynamics, and biofilms in natural streams and provide important clues for stream restoration.

  • 16.
    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea
    et al.
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Tait, Simon
    Univ Bradford, Sch Engn Design & Technol.
    Marion, Andrea
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Chegini, Amir
    Univ Guilan, Dept Civil Engn, Fac Engn.
    Tregnaghi, Matteo
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Probabilistic description of grain resistance from simultaneous flow field and grain motion measurements2008In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 44, no 9, p. W09419-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments were carried out using a mobile gravel bed placed in a tilting flume with a modified particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Individual grain movements were surveyed using data from time series of images. Near-bed velocity flow field measurements were made simultaneously above the same area of the sediment surface by applying cross-correlation techniques to the collected plan view images. Statistics of grain motions were collected through a semiautomatic procedure. Significant changes in the flow field were observed in the proximity of the entrained or deposited particles. A strong correlation is shown between the changes in the local streamwise and lateral velocity and the movement of the grains. The theory of Grass is revisited and developed based on the experimental results. The probability distribution of individual grain resistance has been derived from the statistics of the near-bed velocity field and of the entrainment risk.

  • 17.
    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea
    et al.
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Tregnaghi, Matteo
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Marion, Andrea
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Tait, Simon
    Univ Bradford, Sch Engn Design & Technol, Bradford BD7 1DP, W Yorkshire, England.
    Misurazioni del campo di moto in prossimità di grani in movimento2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [it]

    È stata condotta una serie di esperimenti utilizzando una canaletta di laboratorio a fondo inclinabile ed un avanzato sistema PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry). L’apparato sperimentale ha permesso un’indagine a scala di grano delle condizioni di movimento incipiente. Sul fondo della canaletta si è disposto un letto di materiale granulometrico uniforme, che nelle prove è stato sottoposto all’azione continua di una portata d’acqua costante. Il regime idrodinamico approssima il moto uniforme della corrente e la condizione di incipiente movimento dei grani. Ciascun test è stato condotto per una durata di 10 – 18 ore, durante la quale sono state registrate misurazioni per periodi di circa cinque minuti ad intervalli regolari. Il campo di moto istantaneo è stato misurato all’interno di un’area di circa 400 cm2, posta su un piano inizialmente parallelo al letto, ad una distanza da esso di circa 5 mm. Un apposito software ha consentito la costruzione delle matrici del campo di velocità istantaneo, tramite la tecnica di cross-correlazione delle immagini applicata a particelle traccianti. Mediante una fotocamera digitale si sono ottenute, inoltre, delle sequenze di foto della superficie dei sedimenti, ognuna delle quali è contemporanea ad una misura del campo di moto. Tramite una procedura semi-automatica di elaborazione dei dati è stata prodotta una statistica riguardante il moto dei sedimenti. Analizzando le sequenze è stato possibile riconoscere lo spostamento dei grani superficiali; in seguito, osservando l’andamento temporale delle velocità in prossimità delle particelle in movimento, sono stati individuati dei cambiamenti del campo di moto locale che si verificano contemporaneamente alla loro rimozione o deposizione. Tali variazioni di velocità, che possono interessare la componente longitudinale e laterale o le rispettive fluttuazioni dalla media, appaiono una diretta conseguenza del moto delle particelle. È inoltre rilevante la correlazione tra “salti” positivi di velocità in corrispondenza di un grano che viene mosso e “salti” negativi nel caso di un grano che si deposita.

  • 18.
    Bozzi, S.
    et al.
    Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettron Informaz & Bioingn, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Bizzozero, F.
    Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettron Informaz & Bioingn, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Gruosso, G.
    Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettron Informaz & Bioingn, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Passoni, G.
    Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettron Informaz & Bioingn, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Giassi, Marianna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Analysis of Interaction of Point Absorbers' Arrays for Seawave Electrical Energy Generation in Italian Seas2016In: 2016 International Symposium On Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation And Motion (SPEEDAM), 2016, p. 1369-1374Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on interactions between wave energy converters (WEC) in array configuration. The arrays are simulated in the time domain by a coupled hydrodynamic electromagnetic model. The hydrodynamic parameters of the model are estimated by boundary element code while the electrical ones are obtained by finite element code. Wave parks of two and four devices are simulated considering different layouts. The ultimate goal of the work is to identify the optimal array design at four Italian locations. The results show that: (i) it is possible to find an array configuration which performs better than four isolated devices, at each study sites, (ii) the highest energy production is obtained with the linear layout at all the locations, (ii) optimum WEC distance varies between ten and twenty diameters, depending on the deployment site and (iv) the difference in energy production between the best and worst array configuration (i.e. over all the possible combinations of geometrical layout, spatial orientation and WEC distance) ranges from 3% to 7%, depending on the deployment site..

  • 19. Brandimarte, L.
    et al.
    Brath, A.
    Castellarin, A.
    Baldassarre, G. D.
    Isla Hispaniola: A trans-boundary flood risk mitigation plan2009In: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Vol. 34, no 4-5, p. 209-218Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Brandimarte, Luigia
    The seventh facet of uncertainty: wrong assumptions, unknowns and surprises in the dynamics of human–water systems2016In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 61, no 9, p. 1748-1758Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Brandimarte, Luigia
    et al.
    Di Baldassarre, G.
    Uncertainty in design flood profiles derived by hydraulic modelling2012In: Hydrology Research, ISSN 00291277, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 753-761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scientific literature has widely shown that hydraulic modelling is affected by many sources of uncertainty (e.g. model structure, input data, model parameters). However, when hydraulic models are used for engineering purposes (e.g. flood defense design), there is still a tendency to make a deterministic use of them. More specifically, the prediction of flood design profiles is often based on the outcomes of a calibrated hydraulic model. Despite the good results in model calibration, this prediction is affected by significant uncertainty, which is commonly considered by adding a freeboard to the simulated flood profile. A more accurate approach would require an explicit analysis of the sources of uncertainty affecting hydraulic modelling and design flood estimation. This paper proposes an alternative approach, which is based on the use of uncertain flood profiles, where the most significant sources of uncertainty are explicitly analyzed. An application to the Po river reach between Cremona and Borgoforte (Italy) is used to illustrate the proposed framework and compare it to the traditional approach. This paper shows that the deterministic approach underestimates the design flood profile and questions whether the freeboard, often arbitrarily defined, might lead to a false perception of additional safety levels.

  • 22. Brandimarte, Luigia
    et al.
    Di Baldassarre, G.
    Bruni, G.
    D'Odorico, P.
    Montanari, A.
    Relation Between the North-Atlantic Oscillation and Hydroclimatic Conditions in Mediterranean Areas2011In: Water resources management, ISSN 0920-4741, E-ISSN 1573-1650, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 1269-1279Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Brandimarte, Luigia
    et al.
    UNESCO-IHE, Institute for Water Education, 2601 DA Delft, Westvest 7, Netherlands.
    Paron, P.
    UNESCO-IHE, Institute for Water Education, 2601 DA Delft, Westvest 7, Netherlands.
    Di Baldassarre, G.
    UNESCO-IHE, Institute for Water Education, 2601 DA Delft, Westvest 7, Netherlands.
    Bridge pier scour: A review of processes, measurements and estimates2012In: Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, ISSN 15829596, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 975-989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scouring of piers and abutment has been recognized as the main cause of damage and failure of bridges over waterways. The scientific community has produced a number of studies addressing the complex characteristics of the scour process and has provided engineers with several techniques for the estimate of the maximum expected scour depth at a bridge site. Nevertheless, the prediction of scour depths is affected by many sources of uncertainty, such as observation uncertainty, parameter uncertainty, and structural uncertainty. Only a few studies have recently tried to estimate the uncertainty associated to the scour depth prediction. This paper offers a broad review of the main aspects to be taken into account when analyzing bridge pier scour: 1) processes: to better understand the dynamics triggering pier scour, an analysis of the type of scour occurring at bridge piers, the most influencing factors, failure mechanisms and local pier scour dynamics is carried out; 2) measurements: one of the main difficulties faced in the real world practice is scour data collection; this session reviews the latest techniques available for the measurements of the scour depth at bridge piers; 3) estimates: this session critically reviews different approaches the scientific literature has offered for the estimate of the maximum local scour depth and discusses the difficulty to address uncertainty in the estimates. This review is meant to be a useful reference for scientists and technicians dealing with the bridge pier scour issue.

  • 24. Brandimarte, Luigia
    et al.
    Popescu, I.
    Neamah, N. K.
    Analysis of fresh-saline water interface at the Shatt Al-Arab estuary2015In: International Journal of River Basin Management, ISSN 15715124, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Brandimarte, Luigia
    et al.
    Department of Water Engineering, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, Netherlands.
    Woldeyes, M. K.
    Department of Water Engineering, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, Netherlands.
    Uncertainty in the estimation of backwater effects at bridge crossings2013In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 10991085, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 1292-1300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of a bridge spanning over a river and its floodplain alters the condition of flow. In subcritical conditions, which are typical in alluvial rivers, this flow alteration results in the so-called backwater effect, that is, an increase of the water surface elevation upstream of the structure as a response to increased energy losses. The extension of the expected backwater affected area and the increase in water surface elevation are highly dependent on the river morphology, bridge geometry, flow and floodplain characteristics and may originate upstream flooding. Thus, in many countries, at the stage of design a new bridge (or renovation works), a specific investigation on the backwater effect has to be undertaken to analyse its effect on the flooding of its vicinity. Bridge waterway hydraulics has been widely investigated in terms of practical research and some standard guidelines have been suggested for modelling the backwater effect at bridge crossings. Although the scientific literature has widely proven that hydraulic modelling is affected by many sources of uncertainty, the hydraulic modelling of backwater effects is still undertaken within a deterministic approach, based on the outcomes of a calibrated hydraulic model. This article aims at approaching the prediction of backwater effects at bridge crossings by accounting for the main sources of uncertainty affecting the hydraulic modelling exercise. A bridge over a highly vegetated floodplain (Tallahala Creek, Mississippi, USA) was considered for this analysis, and uncertainty in the model parameters and input data was assessed to predict backwater flood design profiles.

  • 26.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Importance of river bank and floodplain slopes on the accuracy of flood inundation mapping2012In: River Flow 2012: Volume 2 / [ed] Rafael Murillo Muñoz, Leiden, The Netherlands: CRC Press / Balkema (Taylor & Francis) , 2012, p. 1015-1020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective flood assessment and management depend on accurate models of flood events, which in turn are strongly affected by the quality of digital elevation models (DEMs). In this study, HEC-RAS was used to route one specificwater discharge through the main channel of the Eskilstuna River, Sweden. DEMs with various resolutions and accuracies were used to model the inundation. The results showed a strong positive relationship between the quality of theDEMand the extent of the inundation. However, evenDEMswith the highest resolution produced inaccuracies. In another case study, the Testebo River, the model settings could be calibrated, thanks to a surveyed old inundation event. However, even with the calibration efforts, the resulting inundation extents showed varying degrees of deviation from the surveyed flood boundaries. Therefore, it becomes clear that not only does the resolution of the DEM impact the quality of the results; also, the floodplain slope perpendicular to the river flow will impact the modelling accuracy. Flatter areas exhibited the greatest predictive uncertainties regardless of the DEM’s resolution. For perfectly flat areas, uncertainty becomes infinite.

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  • 27.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Visualising DEM-related flood-map uncertainties using a disparity-distance equation algorithm2016In: IAHS-AISH Proceedings and Reports / [ed] A. H. Schumann, G. Blöschl, A. Castellarin, J. Dietrich, S. Grimaldi, U. Haberlandt, A. Montanari, D. Rosbjerg, A. Viglione, and S. Vorogushyn, Göttingen: Copernicus Publications on behalf of International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) , 2016, Vol. 373, p. 153-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The apparent absoluteness of information presented by crisp-delineated flood boundaries can lead tomisconceptions among planners about the inherent uncertainties associated in generated flood maps. Even mapsbased on hydraulic modelling using the highest-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), and calibrated withthe most optimal Manning’s roughness (n) coefficients, are susceptible to errors when compared to actual floodboundaries, specifically in flat areas. Therefore, the inaccuracies in inundation extents, brought about by thecharacteristics of the slope perpendicular to the flow direction of the river, have to be accounted for. Instead ofusing the typical Monte Carlo simulation and probabilistic methods for uncertainty quantification, an empiricalbaseddisparity-distance equation that considers the effects of both the DEM resolution and slope was used tocreate prediction-uncertainty zones around the resulting inundation extents of a one-dimensional (1-D) hydraulicmodel. The equation was originally derived for the Eskilstuna River where flood maps, based on DEM dataof different resolutions, were evaluated for the slope-disparity relationship. To assess whether the equation isapplicable to another river with different characteristics, modelled inundation extents from the Testebo Riverwere utilised and tested with the equation. By using the cross-sectional locations, water surface elevations, andDEM, uncertainty zones around the original inundation boundary line can be produced for different confidences.The results show that (1) the proposed method is useful both for estimating and directly visualising modelinaccuracies caused by the combined effects of slope and DEM resolution, and (2) the DEM-related uncertaintiesalone do not account for the total inaccuracy of the derived flood map. Decision-makers can apply it to alreadyexisting flood maps, thereby recapitulating and re-analysing the inundation boundaries and the areas that areuncertain. Hence, more comprehensive flood information can be provided when determining locations whereextra precautions are needed. Yet, when applied, users must also be aware that there are other factors that caninfluence the extent of the delineated flood boundary.

  • 28.
    Buck, Sine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Determining the best location for a nature-like fishway in Gavle River, Sweden2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of dams and hydro-power stations are some of the most common anthropogenic changes of watercourses and rivers. While being important to humans and society by providing electricity, these obstructions of watercourses can have severe consequences for the aquatic ecosystems. One consequence is that dams often hinder the important movement of migrating fish species between habitats. This can lead to decline and even extinction of important fish populations. To prevent these negative effects, a number of different fish passage systems, including nature-like fishways, have been developed. Nature-like fishways mimic natural streams in order to function as a natural corridor for a wide range of species. Planning and construction of a nature-like fishway is a complex task that often involves many different interests. In the present study a combination of multi-criteria decision analysis and least-cost path analysis is used for determining the best location for a nature-like fishway past Strömdalen dam in Gavleån, Sweden. An anisotropic least-cost path algorithm is applied on a friction-layer and a digital elevation model, and the least-cost path for a nature-like fishway is determined. The results show that the method is useful in areas of varying topography and steep slopes. However, because low slope is a very important factor when constructing a nature-like fishway, slope becomes the dominating factor in this analysis at the expense of e.g. distance to roads. Combining the methods with results from biological studies of fish behavior and detailed hydrological modelling would provide a very strong tool for the planning of nature-like fishways.

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  • 29.
    Carpman, Nicole
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Marine Current Resource Assessment: Measurements and Characterization2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing interest in converting energy from renewable resources into electricity has led to an increase in research covering the field of marine current energy, mainly concerning tidal currents and in-stream tidal turbines. Tides have the advantage of being predictable decades ahead. However, the tidal resource is intermittent and experiences local variations that affect the power output from a conversion system. The variability is mainly due to four aspects: the tidal regime, the tidal cycle, bathymetry at the site and weather effects. Each potential site is unique, the velocity flow field at tidal sites is highly influenced by local bathymetry and turbulence. Hence, characterizing the resource requires careful investigations and providing high quality velocity data from measurement surveys is of great importance. In this thesis, measurements of flow velocities have been performed at three kinds of sites.

    A tidal site has been investigated for its resource potential in one of all of the numerous fjords in Norway. Measurements have been performed to map the spatial and temporal variability of the resource. Results show that currents in the order of 2 m/s are present in the center of the channel. Furthermore, the flow is highly bi-directional between ebb and flood flows. The site thus have potential for in-stream energy conversion. A model is proposed that predicts peak current speed from information on tidal range at the site. A corresponding model can be set up and implemented at other similar sites affected by tides, i.e. fjord inlets connecting the ocean to a fjord or a basin.

    A river site serves as an experimental site for a marine current energy converter that has been designed at Uppsala University and deployed in Dalälven, Söderfors. The flow rate at the site is regulated by an upstream hydrokinetic power plant nearby, making the site suitable for experiments on the performance of the vertical axis turbine in its natural environment. The turbine has been run in uniform flow and measurements have been performed to characterize the extent of the wake.

    An ocean current site was a target of investigation for its potential for providing utilizable renewable energy. A measurement campaign was conducted, mapping the flow both spatially and temporally. However, the site was shown to not be suitable for energy conversion using present technique.

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  • 30.
    Carpman, Nicole
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Potentialbedömning av marin strömkraft i Finnhamn: Fältmätningar och resultat2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Skärgårdsstiftelsen utfördes mätningar av vattenhastigheten utanför Finnhamn i syfte att undersöka potentialen för att installera och driva ett marint strömkraftverk på platsen. Denna rapport presenterar resultaten från den undersökningen som genomförts med tvärsnittsmätningar och långtidsmätningar av vattenhastigheterna. Resultaten visar på låga vattenhastigheter under mätperioden. Slutsatsen är att platsen inte har tillräckligt stor energipotential för att vara av intresse för utbyggnad av strömkraftverk utifrån den teknik som finns idag.

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    Carpman - Potentialbedömningar Finnhamn
  • 31.
    Carpman, Nicole
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Uppsala University.
    Resource characterization and variability studies for marine current power2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Producing electricity from marine renewable resources is a research area that develops continuously. The field of tidal energy is on the edge to progress from the prototype stage to the commercial stage. However, tidal resource characterization, and the effect of tidal turbines on the flow, is still an ongoing research area in which this thesis aims to contribute.

    In this thesis, measurements of flow velocities have been performed at three kinds of sites. Firstly, a tidal site has been investigated for its resource potential in a fjord in Norway. Measurements have been performed with an acoustic Doppler current profiler to map the spatial and temporal characteristics of the flow. Results show that currents are in the order of 2 m/s in the center of the channel. Furthermore, the flow is highly bi-directional between ebb and flood flows. The site thus has potential for in-stream energy conversion. Secondly, a river site serves as an experimental site for a marine current energy converter that has been designed at Uppsala University and deployed in Dalälven, Söderfors. The flow rate at the site is regulated by an upstream hydro power plant, making the site suitable for experiments on the performance of the vertical axis turbine in a natural environment. The turbine was run in steady discharge flows and measurements were performed to characterize the extent of the wake. Lastly, at an ocean current site, the effect that transiting ferries may have on submerged devices was investigated. Measurements were conducted with two sonar systems to obtain an underwater view of the wake caused by a propeller and a water jet thruster respectively.

    Furthermore, the variability of the intermittent renewable sources wind, solar, wave and tidal energy was investigated for the Nordic countries. All of the sources have distinctly different variability features, which is advantageous when combining power generated from them and introducing it on the electricity grid. Tidal variability is mainly due to four aspects: the tidal regime, the tidal cycle, local bathymetry causing turbulence, asymmetries etc. and weather effects. Models of power output from the four sources was set up and combined in different energy mixes for a “highly renewable” and a “fully renewable” scenario. By separating the resulting power time series into different frequency bands (long-, mid-, mid/short-, and short-term components) it was possible to minimize the variability on different time scales. It was concluded that a wise combination of intermittent renewable sources may lower the variability on short and long time scales, but increase the variability on mid and mid/short time scales.

    The tidal power variability in Norway was then investigated separately. The predictability of tidal currents has great advantages when planning electricity availability from tidal farms. However, the continuously varying tide from maximum power output to minimum output several times per day increases the demand for backup power or storage. The phase shift between tidal sites introduces a smoothing effect on hourly basis but the tidal cycle, with spring and neap tide simultaneously in large areas, will inevitably affect the power availability.

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  • 32.
    Carpman, Nicole
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Measurements of tidal current velocities in the Folda fjord, Norway, with the use of a vessel mounted ADCP2014In: 33Rd International Conference On Ocean, Offshore And Arctic Engineering, 2014, Vol 8A: Ocean Engineering, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of tidal current water velocities is an important first step in evaluating the potential for a tidal site to be used as a renewable energy resource. For this reason, on site measurements are performed at the inlet of a fjord situated at the coast of Norway. The site has an average width of 580 m and adepth of 10-15 m which is narrow and shallow enough to give rise to water velocities that can be of use for energy conversion. With the use of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) cross-section measurements are conducted along four transects. The measurements covered flood and ebb currents around one tide and the data give a first approximation of the magnitude and distribution of the flow field. Depth averaged mean current velocities are calculated along the transects for horizontal bins with sizes in the order of 50 x 50 m. Maximum mean velocity for the flood currents were 1.31 m/s and 1.46 m/s for the ebb currents. The measurements show that even a small amount of data can give an indication of the potential and characteristics ofthe site.

  • 33.
    Carpman, Nicole
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Thomas, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Tidal current phasing along the coast of Norway2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tidal currents provide an intermittent source of renewable energy. A high degree of intermittency is unfavorable in the existing power system. However, by aggregating tidal power from sites with variable tidal phase a more firm power outpu tmay be achieved. In this paper, the tidal current phasing between 114 potential tidal energy sites along the Norwegian coast is investigated. Time series of tidal currents are generated with a model that considers the variation in current strength due to the variability in the semi-diurnal tidal cycle (spring to neap, flood to ebb, first to second daily tide etc.). From these, available kinetic energy in the natural flow is calculated. A constant conversion rate is then applied to give the power output at each site. Three scenarios, with varying number of sites and energy extraction, are investigated. The variability in each scenario is quantified on different time scales by filtering the aggregated power and calculate standard deviation and step change. It is found that the variability can be lowered by choosing sites with an advantageous time lag and limit the power output from the most energetic sites. As expected, smoothing is most distinct on short time scales.

  • 34.
    Carpman, Nicole
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Thomas, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Tidal resource characterization in the Folda Fjord, Norway2016In: International Journal of Marine Energy, ISSN 2214-1669, Vol. 13, p. 27-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For tidal-stream energy industry to be fully realized, lower velocity sites and fjords should be developed. Finding new prospective sites for in-stream energy extraction from tidal currents is an area of ongoing research. In this paper, the tidal flow at a fjord inlet has been characterized using acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements. This work is based on two survey measurement techniques: transect measurements to map the spatial variability, and seabed measurements to map the temporal variability. The data was analyzed in terms of characterizing metrics, to ensure they are comparable with other resource assessments. Results show that currents exceed 1 m/s for 38% of the time with peak currents of 2.06 m/s at hub height (middle of the water column) and the directional asymmetry is less than 1° between ebb and flood, indicating a truly bi-directional flow. A simple prediction model is proposed which allows peak current speeds to be accurately predicted in the channel center from tidal range data using a linear relationship. The relationship is shown to be strong, with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 at hub height, and a standard variation typically less than 10 cm/s. Furthermore, it is show that a minimum of 9 days of measurements are required to set up the model, although it takes 29 days to reduce the error in peak speed to less than 1%. However, the error is expected to vary depending on where in the monthly tidal cycle the survey begins, it is thus recommended to measure around spring tide if the measurement period is short.

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  • 35. Castellarin, A.
    et al.
    Galeati, G.
    Brandimarte, L.
    Montanari, A.
    Brath, A.
    Regional flow-duration curves: Reliability for ungauged basins2004In: Advances in Water Resources, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 953-965Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Castellucci, Valeria
    Tidal Effect Compensation System for Wave Energy Converters2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 37.
    Castellucci, Valeria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Waters, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Impact of Tidal Level Variations on the Wave Energy Absorption at Wave Hub2016In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy absorption of the wave energy converters (WEC) characterized by a limited stroke length - like the point absorbers developed at Uppsala University-depends on the sea level variation at the deployment site. In coastal areas characterized by high tidal ranges, the daily energy production of the generators is not optimal. The study presented in this paper quantifies the effects of the changing sea level at the Wave Hub test site, located at the south-west coast of England. This area is strongly affected by tides: the tidal height calculated as the difference between the Mean High Water Spring and the Mean Low Water Spring in 2014 was about 6.6 m. The results are obtained from a hydro-mechanic model that analyzes the behaviour of the point absorber at the Wave Hub, taking into account the sea state occurrence scatter diagram and the tidal time series at the site. It turns out that the impact of the tide decreases the energy absorption by 53%. For this reason, the need for a tidal compensation system to be included in the design of the WEC becomes compelling. The economic advantages are evaluated for different scenarios: the economic analysis proposed within the paper allows an educated guess to be made on the profits. The alternative of extending the stroke length of the WEC is investigated, and the gain in energy absorption is estimated.

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  • 38.
    Chatzigiannakou, Maria A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Dolguntseva, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Offshore Deployment of Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converters with a Direct Driven Linear Generator Power Take-Off at the Lysekil Test Site2014In: 33Rd International Conference On Ocean, Offshore And Arctic Engineering, 2014, Vol 9A: Ocean Renewable Energy, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the year 2013, four linear generators with point absorber buoy systems were deployed in the Lysekil test site. Until now, deployments of these point absorbing wave energy converters have been expensive, time consuming, complicated and raised safety issues. In the present paper, we focus on the analysis and optimization of the offshore deployment process of wave energy converters with a linear generator power take-off which has been constructed by Uppsala University. To address the crucial issues regarding the deployment difficulties, case study of previous offshore deployments at the Lysekil test site are presented regarding such parameters as safety, cost and time efficiency. It was discovered that the deployment process can be improved significantly, mainly by using new technologies, e.g., new specialized deployment vessels, underwater robots for inspections and for connecting cables and an automatized pressurizing process. Addressing the main deployment difficulties and constrains leads us to discovery of methods that makes offshore deployments more cost-efficient and faster, in a safety context.

  • 39.
    Chatzigiannakou, Maria Angeliki
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Efficiency evaluation of the offshore deployments of wave energy converters and marine substations2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
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  • 40.
    Chatzigiannakou, Maria Angeliki
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Potapenko, Tatiana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Ekergård, Boel
    Univ West, Dept Ind Econ Elect & Mech Engn, Trollhattan, Sweden..
    Temiz, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Numerical analysis of an Uppsala University WEC deployment by a barge for different sea states2020In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 205, article id 107287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wave energy converters (WECs) have been deployed onshore, nearshore, and offshore to convert ocean wave movement into electricity. The exploitation of renewable energy sources has restrictions; in the case of wave energy, high installation, maintenance, and decommissioning costs have limited their commercial use. Moreover, these offshore operations can be compromised by safety issues. This paper draws attention to offshore operation safety of a WEC developed by Uppsala University. Specifically, this paper investigates what sea states are suitable for the safe deployment of a WEC from a barge. This study follows recommendations in DNV-RP-H103 for analysis of offshore operations, namely lifting through the wave zone. ANSYS Aqwa is used to find hydrodynamic forces acting on a typical barge, using frequency domain analysis. Based on these hydrodynamic simulation results and methodology given in DNV-RP-H103, tables are created to show the sea states that would allow for the safe installation of a WEC using a typical barge. Considered sea states have significant wave heights varying between 0 m and 3 m and the wave zero crossing periods varying between 3 s and 13 s. The WEC submersions are considered between 0 m and 7 m, i.e. when the WEC is in the air until it is fully submerged.

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  • 41.
    Chen, Wenchuang
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, 519082, China.
    Zhang, Yongliang
    State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.
    Yang, James
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Yu, Huifeng
    State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.
    Liang, Sendong
    State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.
    Experiments and CFD modeling of a dual-raft wave energy dissipator2021In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 237, article id 109648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wave energy dissipator (WED) is proposed in this paper, composed of two asymmetric hinged floaters and two hydraulic cylinders, with the purpose to resist wave-induced relative rotation around the hinge. Experimental studies are performed to explore its performance under a wide range of regular waves. Based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, a 3D numerical model is set up, considering the non-linear interaction of wave and WED. The agreement between the experimental and numerical results is good. With the validated numerical model, the influence of the WED geometrical factors on energy conversion and wave transmission is examined. For a given raft length, the difference in energy conversion between the two multiplicative inverse fore-and-aft raft lengths is significant, which is dependent on the wave frequency. However, as for the wave transmission, the difference in between is insignificantly small, almost independent of the wave frequency. The findings demonstrate that, for energy conversion, its maximum value per unit length corresponds to a large fore-and-aft length ratio but a small total raft length. The combination of experiments and simulations provides reference for both understanding of hydrodynamic behaviours and design including parameter selection of the dissipator.

  • 42.
    Dahlstrand, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Konsekvenser av en avsänkning av Dragby kvarndamm i Björklingeån2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is a country revolved around different types of water. With a coastline stretching around a big part of the country. The Baltic Sea which is fed with so much fresh water that it classifies as a brackish sea. The fresh water from Sweden originates from almost 100 000 lakes and nearly 30 000 rivers and streams. However, these different waterways are heavily impacted by approximately 10 000 artificial dams. Dams that for example block fish from migrating to their spawning grounds. 

    In the last couple of years, the problems revolving around dams have been put higher up on the agenda of politicians and authorities. Significant efforts need to be made to be able to reach the goals of the European Water Framework Directive. Those efforts include building different kinds of fish passage solutions around dams, but also removing dams that no longer have a purpose. Dam removal is often the most cost-effective solution and at the same time the one with most ecological benefits.   

    In this study, the consequences of a removal of the Dragby mill dam have been investigated. The study have been done by collecting and combining data from habitat assessment, electrofishing and hydraulic modeling in HEC-RAS. The hydraulic modelling showed that the water level upstream of the dam will decrease with approximately 1-1.5 m if the dam is removed.  Simulated water velocities indicate that no rapids and stream habitat suitable for trout will immerse if the dam is to be removed. Nonetheless, the combined information suggests that a dam removal would most likely benefit other species such as the threatened burbot. Therefore, a removal of Dragby mill dam could result in a ecological boost for river Björklingeån.

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    Konsekvenser av en avsänkning av Dragby kvarndamm i Björklingeån
  • 43.
    Dargahi, Bijan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Flow characteristics of bottom outlets with moving gates2010In: Journal of Hydraulic Research, ISSN 0022-1686, E-ISSN 1814-2079, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 476-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the discharge characteristics of a bottom outlet with a moving gate by Flow3D. Experimental results for a scale model outlet of the Aswan Dam, Egypt, were used. Two different flow features were found. Pressurized flow established if the flume was filled and then the gate was slowly opened. However, a free surface flow occurred if the gate was fully opened and the entire flume was slowly flooded with water. The numerical simulations successfully captured the two flow patterns as well as the discharges and water surface profiles. The discharges were predicted with sufficient accuracy using the first-order momentum advection scheme. In comparison with the k-epsilon turbulence model, the Re-Normalization Group model yields the best agreement with the experiments. The model performed with similar accuracy for both model and prototype cases.

  • 44. Di Baldassarre, G.
    et al.
    Montanari, A.
    Lins, H.
    Koutsoyiannis, D.
    Brandimarte, Luigia
    Blschl, G.
    Flood fatalities in Africa: From diagnosis to mitigation2010In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 00948276, Vol. 37, no 22, article id L22402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flood-related fatalities in Africa, as well as associated economic losses, have increased dramatically over the past half-century. There is a growing global concern about the need to identify the causes for such increased flood damages. To this end, we analyze a large, consistent and reliable dataset of floods in Africa. Identification of causes is not easy given the diverse economic settings, demographic distribution and hydro-climatic conditions of the African continent. On the other hand, many African river basins have a relatively low level of human disturbance and, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to analyze climatic effects on floods. We find that intensive and unplanned human settlements in flood-prone areas appears to be playing a major role in increasing flood risk. Timely and economically sustainable actions, such as the discouragement of human settlements in flood-prone areas and the introduction of early warning systems are, therefore, urgently needed.

  • 45. Di Baldassarre, G.
    et al.
    Schumann, G.
    Brandimarte, Luigia
    Bates, P.
    Timely Low Resolution SAR Imagery To Support Floodplain Modelling: A Case Study Review2011In: Surveys in geophysics, ISSN 0169-3298, E-ISSN 1573-0956, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 255-269Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46. Di Baldassarre, G.
    et al.
    Viglione, A.
    Carr, G.
    Kuil, L.
    Yan, K.
    Brandimarte, Luigia
    Blöschl, G.
    Debates - Perspectives on socio-hydrology: Capturing feedbacks between physical and social processes2015In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 4770-4781Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47. Di Baldassarre, G.
    et al.
    Yan, K.
    Ferdous, M. R.
    Brandimarte, L.
    The interplay between human population dynamics and flooding in Bangladesh: A spatial analysis2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48. Domeneghetti, A.
    et al.
    Gandolfi, S.
    Castellarin, A.
    Brandimarte, Luigia
    Di Baldassarre, G.
    Barbarella, M.
    Brath, A.
    Flood risk mitigation in developing countries: Deriving accurate topographic data for remote areas under severe time and economic constraints2015In: Journal of Flood Risk Management, E-ISSN 1753-318X, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 301-314Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Engström, Jens
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Shahroozi, Zahra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Katsidoniotaki, Eirini
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Johannesson, Pär
    Göteman, Malin
    Offshore measurements of hydrodynamic forces on a 1:5 scale buoyIn: Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Essalhi, Mohamed
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Halil Avci, Ahmet
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lipnizki, Frank
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Tavajohi, Naser
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    The potential of salinity gradient energy based on natural and anthropogenic resources in Sweden2023In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 215, article id 118984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents assessment of natural and anthropogenic sources of blue energy within Swedish territory to identify suitable spots for implementing new projects. The natural energy potential of salinity gradients was found to be higher in southwest Sweden, and a national energy resource potential of 2610.6 MW from seawater/river water mixing will be reduced to a technical potential ranging from 1044.3 MW to 1825.4 MW considering technical and environmental constraints. It has been found that the theoretical extractable energy potential in Sweden is equivalent to 13% of the total electricity consumption and 6.2% of the total final energy consumption by energy commodities.

    Anthropogenic water sources were also highlighted as promising low and high-concentration solutions for SGE extraction. Gotland was identified as an attractive location for generating salinity gradient power. The total salinity gradient power obtainable by mixing municipal wastewater with seawater in Sweden was estimated to be 11.8 MW. The most promising site for this process was determined to be Gryaab AB Ryaverket in Gothenburg, which accounted for 45.8% of the total national potential from anthropogenic sources.

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