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  • 1. Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Diaz-Olivares, Jose A.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Seoane, Fernando
    Teriö, Heikki
    Mediavilla Martinez, Cesar
    Aso, Santiago
    Tiemann, Christian
    Big Data & Wearable Sensors Ensuring Safety and Health @Work2017In: GLOBAL HEALTH 2017, The Sixth International Conference on Global Health Challenges, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    —Work-related injuries and disorders constitute a major burden and cost for employers, society in general and workers in particular. We@Work is a project that aims to develop an integrated solution for promoting and supporting a safe and healthy working life by combining wearable technologies, Big Data analytics, ergonomics, and information and communication technologies. The We@Work solution aims to support the worker and employer to ensure a healthy working life through pervasive monitoring for early warnings, prompt detection of capacity-loss and accurate risk assessments at workplace as well as self-management of a healthy working life. A multiservice platform will allow unobtrusive data collection at workplaces. Big Data analytics will provide real-time information useful to prevent work injuries and support healthy working life

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  • 2.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17165 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Diaz-Olivares, Jose A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17165 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Seoane, Fernando
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Halsovagen 7, S-14157 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Boras, Swedish Sch Text, Allegatan 1, S-50190 Boras, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Biomed Engn, S-17176 Solna, Sweden..
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17165 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Boras, Sci Pk,Allegatan 1, S-50190 Boras, Sweden..
    Wearable Sensors Enabling Personalized Occupational Healthcare2018In: INTELLIGENT ENVIRONMENTS 2018 / [ed] Chatzigiannakis, I Tobe, Y Novais, P Amft, O, IOS PRESS , 2018, p. 371-376Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents needs and potentials for wearable sensors in occupational healthcare. In addition, it presents ongoing European and Swedish projects for developing personalized, and pervasive wearable systems for assessing risks of developing musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular diseases at work. Occupational healthcare should benefit in preventing diseases and disorders by providing the right feedback at the right time to the right person. Collected data from workers can provide evidence supporting the ergonomic and industrial tasks of redesigning the working environment to reduce the risks.

  • 3.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 65 Stockholm, Sweden; School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lu, Ke
    School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Diaz-Olivares, Jose A
    School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 65 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Hälsovägen 7, 141 57 Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76 Solna, Sweden .
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    University of Borås, Science Park Borås. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 65 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Wearable Sensors Enabling Personalized Occupational Healthcare2018In: Intelligent Environments 2018 / [ed] Ioannis Chatzigiannakis, Yoshito Tobe, Paulo Novais, Oliver Amft, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, p. 371-376Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents needs and potentials for wearable sensors inoccupational healthcare. In addition, it presents ongoing European and Swedishprojects for developing personalized, and pervasive wearable systems for assessingrisks of developing musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular diseases at work.Occupational healthcare should benefit in preventing diseases and disorders byproviding the right feedback at the right time to the right person. Collected datafrom workers can provide evidence supporting the ergonomic and industrial tasksof redesigning the working environment to reduce the risks.

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  • 4.
    Adawi, Rahim
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Preventing fatal effects of overworking: Product design solution2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “Overworking to death” is a phenomenon that has been noticeable in developing countries. The cause of death is mainly through ischemic strokes. While the victims’ occupations differed, they all shared a common characteristic, being positioned in a sedentary work, ranging from IT workers to doctors. This project’s aim was to develop a product that prevented or decreased the strokes that derived from sedentary overwork. This was mainly tackled by preventing one of the three causes of developing blood props, slowed blood flow. In order to gather rich data of the phenomenon, a qualitative study was conducted in China, during two months. By doing an extensive structured sampling, information rich data could be gathered during a short period of time. Data were derived from observations, questionnaires and an interview, which then was interpreted to customer needs and the final product specification. The final product became a trouser with an in built dynamic compression mechanic, that can compress the veins mostly during sitting activities, in order to prevent blood stasis. The compression mechanic works like the Chinese finger trap; compressing the calves while sitting and stretching the legs forward. It is made only out of polysaccharides fibres; cotton and corn.

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    PREVENTING FATAL EFFECTS OF OVERWORKING – PRODUCT DESIGN SOLUTION / Rahim_Adawi
  • 5.
    Aminoff, Hedvig
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Arnelo, Urban
    Groth, Kristina
    Modeling the Implementation Context of a Telemedicine Service: Work Domain Analysis in a Surgical Setting2021In: JMIR Formative Research, E-ISSN 2561-326X, Vol. 6, no 5, article id e26505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:A telemedicine service enabling remote surgical consultation had shown promising results. When the service was to be scaled up, it was unclear how contextual variations among different clinical sites could affect the clinical outcomes and implementation of the service. It is generally recognized that contextual factors and work system complexities affect the implementation and outcomes of telemedicine. However, it is methodologically challenging to account for context in complex health care settings. We conducted a work domain analysis (WDA), an engineering method for modeling and analyzing complex work environments, to investigate and represent contextual influences when a telemedicine service was to be scaled up to multiple hospitals.

    Objective:We wanted to systematically characterize the implementation contexts at the clinics participating in the scale-up process. Conducting a WDA would allow us to identify, in a systematic manner, the functional constraints that shape clinical work at the implementation sites and set the sites apart. The findings could then be valuable for informed implementation and assessment of the telemedicine service.

    Methods:We conducted observations and semistructured interviews with a variety of stakeholders. Thematic analysis was guided by concepts derived from the WDA framework. We identified objects, functions, priorities, and values that shape clinical procedures. An iterative “discovery and modeling” approach allowed us to first focus on one clinic and then readjust the scope as our understanding of the work systems deepened.

    Results:We characterized three sets of constraints (ie, facets) in the domain: the treatment facet, administrative facet (providing resources for procedures), and development facet (training, quality improvement, and research). The constraints included medical equipment affecting treatment options; administrative processes affecting access to staff and facilities; values and priorities affecting assessments during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; and resources for conducting the procedure.

    Conclusions:The surgical work system is embedded in multiple sets of constraints that can be modeled as facets of the system. We found variations between the implementation sites that might interact negatively with the telemedicine service. However, there may be enough motivation and resources to overcome these initial disruptions given that values and priorities are shared across the sites. Contrasting the development facets at different sites highlighted the differences in resources for training and research. In some cases, this could indicate a risk that organizational demands for efficiency and effectiveness might be prioritized over the long-term outcomes provided by the telemedicine service, or a reduced willingness or ability to accept a service that is not yet fully developed or adapted. WDA proved effective in representing and analyzing these complex clinical contexts in the face of technological change. The models serve as examples of how to analyze and represent a complex sociotechnical context during telemedicine design, implementation, and assessment.

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  • 6.
    Bagir, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Adoption of Digital Occupational Safety and Health Technologies in the Construction Sector2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector is a considerable contributor to a country's economy. For example, there are more than 300 000 people employed in the construction sector in Sweden. Unfortunately, workers’ safety is a big problem in this high-employment sector since the potential risk for injury is high. In Sweden, workers in the construction industry are among the most injured, both in terms of work-related accidents and occupational injuries. With more technology advances, there has been an increasing interest in the construction sector regarding new technologies in recent years which also includes occupational safety and health technologies. The reason behind this growing interest could be creating more efficiency, increasing productivity, increasing safety, and keeping up with technical development in general. Studies have shown that the safety management in the construction sector is a serious challenge, despite the many efforts to prevent and reduce occupational accidents and injuries in this sector. Therefore there has been an increasing drive for replacing traditional safety approaches with modern safety technologies. 

    The objective of this thesis work was to investigate the current state of digital technologies adopted in the construction industry specifically for occupational health and safety. 

    A qualitative research approach was utilized in the current study, using two methods. The first method was an interview with OSH professionals, digital responsible, technology developer and construction workers from different construction companies. The second method was a scoping review of websites and documents to ascertain different types of safety technologies that have been investigated previously. 

    The results provide a list of different types of safety technologies that have been investigated previously and a versatile overview of safety technology's development process, adoption process, and facilitators and barriers for a successful adoption. 

    This study points out the benefits of utilizing safety technologies and provides extensive information regarding the adoption of safety tools, that could encourage engaged actors in the field to strive for more safety technologies which could lead to a safer work environment and healthyworker. 

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    Occupational Health and Safety
  • 7.
    Bergstrand, Maria
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Styckares arbetsmiljö: En studie om knivskärpa, olika knivstålskvaliteter, arbetssätt, samt fysisk ansträngning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Styckare inom köttbranschen i Sverige ligger sedan länge i toppen av statistiken i Sverige, när det gäller yrken med de högsta relativa frekvenserna av anmälda arbetssjukdomar orsakade av belastningsfaktorer. Kniven är styckarens viktigaste verktyg och om den är slö ökar den fysiska belastningen med ökad risk för både belastningsskador och olycksfall. I denna studie på magisternivå var syftet att undersöka sambanden mellan knivens skärpa, knivens stålkvalitet, effekten av individens arbetssätt samt den fysiska ansträngningen vid styckning av nötkött. 12 personer vid två olika företag deltog i studien, under normalt arbete med styckning vid enkelbord under tre arbetsdagar. Tre olika knivstålskvaliteter utvärderades. Mätning av knivskärpa skedde med mätapparat Anago, samt med subjektiva skattningar enligt visuell analog skala (VAS). Tiden som kniven användes innan byte användes också som ett mått på hur länge skärpan kunde bibehållas. Ansträngningen hos styckarna undersöktes med mätning av hjärtfrekvensen under arbete, samt med skattning av ansträngning i händer och armar enligt VAS. Slutligen mättes eventuellt obehag/besvär före och under arbete med skattning enligt VAS.

     

    Det tycks som om det knivstål som var hårdare och inte finns på marknaden fungerade sämst, medan de övriga två var likvärdiga. Det finns indikationer på att det hårdare knivstålet påverkar andra egenskaper negativt, framförallt känslan av knivens följsamhet.

    Det föreligger en signifikant skillnad mellan olika individer i förmågan att bibehålla knivskärpa över tid, och de med obehag/besvär byter kniv oftare. Ytterligare studier krävs för att klargöra vad skillnaderna beror på, men sannolikt har både styckarens arbetsteknik, och företagets och individens rutiner för knivvård betydelse. Förbättrad utbildning inom dessa områden rekommenderas. Utvärderingen av knivtid indikerar att en styckare behöver 5-6 knivar per dag för att säkerställa att arbetet sker med vass kniv hela tiden.

    Det finns ett samband mellan dålig knivskärpa och lokal ansträngningskänsla i händer och armar. Något samband mellan knivskärpan och central ansträngning kunde dock inte påvisas i denna studie. Pulsvärdena visade att arbete som styckare innebär en hög belastning på andnings- och cirkulationsapparaten, och att de löper en stor risk att överskrida det rekommenderade gränsvärdet för energetisk belastning. Större undersökningsmaterial krävs dock för att dra säkrare slutsatser angående detta.

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    Styckares arbetsmiljö
  • 8.
    Burnett, Wadena D.
    et al.
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Tweten, Michael
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Okpalauwaekwe, Udoka
    College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Trask, Catherine M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Milosavljevic, Stephan
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    The effect of selected rest break activities on reaction time, balance, and perceived discomfort after one hour of simulated occupational whole-body vibration exposure in healthy adults2023In: Annals of Medicine, ISSN 0785-3890, E-ISSN 1365-2060, Vol. 55, no 2, article id 2244965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & Objective: Negative health effects from occupational whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure during machinery operation include alterations in proprioception, vestibular function, reaction time, stress, motor response, and decrements in musculoskeletal health. To reduce WBV exposure during machinery operation, it may be possible to incorporate short rest break activities throughout the day. This study aims to determine if there are intervention activities that can minimize decrements in cognitive, proprioceptive, and musculoskeletal effects related to WBV exposure during machine operation. Materials & Methods: Eleven healthy adults participated in four 1-hour sessions of ecologically valid WBV exposure followed by one of four 5-minute activities: sitting, walking, 2 min of gaze stabilization exercise (GSE) coupled with 3 min of trunk mobility exercise (GSE + MOBIL), or 2 min of GSE coupled with a 3-minute walk (GSE + WALK). Baseline and post-activity measurements (rating of perceived discomfort, balance and postural sway measurements, 5-minute psychomotor vigilance task test) were submitted to a paired t-test to determine the effect of WBV exposure and activities on physical, cognitive, and sensorimotor systems and to a repeated measures ANOVA to determine any differences across activities. Results: We observed degradation of the slowest 10% reaction speed outcomes between baseline and post-activity after walking (7.3%, p < 0.05) and sitting (8.6%, p < 0.05) but not after GSE + MOBIL or GSE + WALK activities. Slowest 10% reaction speed after GSE + MOBIL activity was faster than all other activities. The rating of perceived discomfort was higher after SIT and WALK activities. There were no notable differences in balance outcomes. Conclusion: When compared to sitting for 5 min, an activity including GSE and an active component, such as walking or trunk mobility exercises, resulted in maintenance of reaction time after WBV exposure. If confirmed in occupational environments, GSE may provide a simple, rapid, effective, and inexpensive means to protect against decrements in reaction time after WBV exposure.

  • 9.
    Chen, Janice D.
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia.
    Buzzard, Jennifer
    Ramsey Health, Hollywood Hospital, Perth 6009, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia.
    Impact of experience when using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment to assess postural risk in children using information and communication technologies2014In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 398-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is an observation-based screening tool that has been used to assess postural risks of children in school settings. Studies using eye-tracking technology suggest that visual search strategies are influenced by experience in the task performed. This study investigated if experience in postural risk assessments contributed to differences in outcome scores on the RULA and the visual search strategies utilized. While wearing an eye-tracker, 16 student occupational therapists and 16 experienced occupational therapists used the RULA to assess 11 video scenarios of a child using different mobile information and communication technologies (ICT) in the home environment. No significant differences in RULA outcome scores, and no conclusive differences in visual search strategies between groups were found. RULA can be used as a screening tool for postural risks following a short training session regardless of the assessor's experience in postural risk assessments. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Coelho, Denis A.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Lourenço, Miguel L.
    C-MAST: Centre for Mechanical and Aerospace Science and Technologies, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal.
    Dynamics of forearm muscle activity in slanted computer mice use2021In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 123-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Static muscular activity of muscles activated in the use of the conventional PC mouse is believed to represent a higher risk for the musculoskeletal health of the user than dynamic muscular activity.

    OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a compounded muscular activity dynamics indicator (akin to percent relative range), enabling comparison between computer handheld pointing devices.

    METHODS: This muscular dynamism approach considers baseline muscular activity (APL, ECR, ECU and ED) relative to the Maximum Voluntary Contraction as well as the dynamics of muscular activation. The latter is computed as the ratio of the difference between APDF90 and APDF10 divided by APDF50 (APDF-Amplitude Probability Distribution Function for the 90th, 50th and 10th percentiles). The paper demonstrates the approach with results of comparative evaluation of a horizontal, a slanted and a vertical PC mouse, through surface EMG monitoring of 20 participants performing standardized graphical task with the devices.

    RESULTS: Hand size impacts muscular activity dynamics in these four muscles, which supersedes differences in device geometry, across the range of devices tested.

    CONCLUSION: Smaller devices relative to hand size foster more dynamic muscular activity.

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  • 11.
    Crockett, Katie
    et al.
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Lovo, Stacey
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Irvine, Alison
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Trask, Catherine M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Oosman, Sarah
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    McKinney, Veronica
    College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    McDonald, Terrence
    Departments of Family Medicine and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Sari, Nazmi
    Department of Economics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Carnegie, Bertha
    Patient Partner, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Custer, Marie
    Patient Partner, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    McIntosh, Stacey
    Patient Partner, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Bath, Brenna
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Experiences of Health Care Access Challenges for Back Pain Care Across the Rural-Urban Continuum in Canada: Protocol for Cross-sectional Research2022In: JMIR Research Protocols, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 11, no 12, article id e42484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Back pain is common and costly, with negative impacts on both individuals and the health care system. Rural, remote, and Indigenous populations are at greater risk of experiencing back pain compared to urban and non-Indigenous populations. Potential barriers to health care access among Canadians with chronic back pain (CBP) have been identified; however, no study has used lived experiences of people with CBP to drive the selection, analysis, and interpretation of variables most meaningful to patients. Objective: The aims of this study are to (1) engage with rural, remote, and urban Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients, health care providers, and health system decision makers to explore lived experiences among people with CBP in Saskatchewan, Canada; (2) cocreate meaningful indicators of CBP care access and effectiveness; and (3) identify program and policy recommendations to overcome access barriers to CBP care. Methods: In phase 1, one-on-one interviews with 30 people with current or past CBP and 10 health care providers residing or practicing in rural, remote, or urban Saskatchewan communities will be conducted. We will recruit Indigenous (n=10) and non-Indigenous (n=20) rural, remote, and urban people. In phase 2, findings from the interviews will inform development of a population-based telephone survey focused on access to health care barriers and facilitators among rural, remote, and urban people; this survey will be administered to 383 residents with CBP across Saskatchewan. In phase 3, phase 1 and 2 findings will be presented to provincial and national policy makers; health system decision makers; health care providers; rural, remote, and urban people with CBP and their communities; and other knowledge users at an interactive end-of-project knowledge translation event. A World Café method will facilitate interactive dialogue designed to catalyze future patient-oriented research and pathways to improve access to CBP care. Patient engagement will be conducted, wherein people with lived experience of CBP, including Indigenous and non-Indigenous people from rural, remote, and urban communities (ie, patient partners), are equal members of the research team. Patient partners are engaged throughout the research process, providing unique knowledge to ensure more comprehensive collection of data while shaping culturally appropriate messages and methods of sharing findings to knowledge users. Results: Participant recruitment began in January 2021. Phase 1 interviews occurred between January 2021 and September 2022. Phase 2 phone survey was administered in May 2022. Final results are anticipated in late 2022. Conclusions: This study will privilege patient experiences to better understand current health care use and potential access challenges and facilitators among rural, remote, and urban people with CBP in Saskatchewan. We aim to inform the development of comprehensive measures that will be sensitive to geographical location and relevant to culturally diverse people with CBP, ultimately leading to enhanced access to more patient-centered care for CBP. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/42484

  • 12.
    Dahlqvist, Camilla
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Occupat & Environm Med, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Nordander, Catarina
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Occupat & Environm Med, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Enquist, Henrik
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Occupat & Environm Med, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Self-recordings of upper arm elevation during cleaning - comparison between analyses using a simplified reference posture and a standard reference posture2018In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, article id 402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background To reduce ergonomic risk factors in terms of awkward and constrained postures and high velocities, it is important to perform adequate risk assessments. Technical methods provide objective measures of physical workload. These methods have so far mainly been used by researchers. However, if written instructions how to apply the sensors and how to adopt the reference posture are provided, together with triaxial accelerometers, it may be possible for employees to record their own physical workload. The exposure in terms of e.g. upper arm elevations could then easily be assessed for all workers in a workplace. The main aims of this study were: 1) to compare analyses for self-recording of upper arm elevation during work using a simplified reference posture versus using a standard reference posture, and 2) to compare the two reference postures.MethodsTwenty-eight cleaners attached an accelerometer to their dominant upper arm and adopted a simplified reference according to a written instruction. They were thereafter instructed by a researcher to adopt a standard reference. Upper arm elevations were recorded for 2 or 3 days. Each recording was analysed twice; relative to the simplified reference posture and relative to the standard reference posture. The group means of the differences in recorded upper arm elevations between simplified and standard reference analyses were assessed using Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Furthermore, we calculated the group mean of the differences between the simplified reference posture and the standard reference posture.ResultsFor arm elevation during work (50(th) percentile), the group mean of the differences between the two analyses was 0.2 degrees (range-7 - 10 degrees). The group mean of the differences between the two references was 9 degrees (range 1-21 degrees). The subjects were able to follow the instructions in the protocol and performed self-recording of upper arm elevation and velocity.ConclusionsThe small difference between the two analyses indicates that recordings performed by employees themselves are comparable, on a group level, with those performed by researchers. Self-recordings in combination with action levels would provide employers with a method for risk assessment as a solid basis for prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

  • 13.
    Dellve, Lotta
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Ahlstrom, Linda
    Sandsjö, Leif
    Forsman, Mikael
    Lindegård, Agneta
    Ahlstrand, Chris
    Kadefors, Roland
    Hagberg, Mats
    Myofeedback training and intensive muscular strength training to improve work ability and decrease pain among female workers on long term sick leave with neck pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial2011In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 335-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical framework is that muscle tension in the neck is related to insufficient muscular rest and is a risk factor for chronic pain and reduced work ability. Promoting muscle strength and muscle rest may increase work ability and reduce neck pain. To test whether myofeedback training or intensive strength training leads to decreased pain and increased work ability in women on long-term sick leave. This is a randomized controlled trial of two 1-month interventions with myofeedback or muscular strength training in the home environment. Female human service organization workers (n = 60) on long-term (> 60 days) sick leave and with chronic neck pain were followed with self-reported and laboratory-observed data of health, pain, muscular activation, and work ability, at baseline, immediately after the intervention and 3 months after baseline. For both intervention groups, pain was lowered over time compared with the control group. Decreased pain and muscular activity was associated with increased self-rated work ability and with laboratory-observed work ability at 3-month follow-up. Decreased pain was also associated with increased self-rated work ability at 1-month follow-up. Muscular strength training was associated with increased self-rated work ability and mental health. Myofeedback was associated with increased observed work ability and self- rated vitality. The two interventions showed positive results, suggesting that they could be developed for use in health care practice to address pain and work ability. The intensive muscular strength training program, which is both easy to conduct at home and easy to coach, was associated with increased work ability.

  • 14.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, Ergonomi.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    KTH, Ergonomi.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, Ergonomi (Stängd 20130701).
    Styckarnas arbetssituation: Ett interaktivt forskningprogram för branschstöd och utveckling av åtgärder (Star). dnr 0800142012Report (Other academic)
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  • 15.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jönköpings tekniska högskola.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Styckarnas arbetssituation: Ett interaktivt forskningprogram för branschstöd och utveckling av åtgärder (Star). dnr 0800142012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Slutrapport för projektet
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    Alla publikationer i bilagan
  • 16.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Carl, Lind
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Nyman, Teresia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Factors influencing ergonomists' use of observation-based risk-assessment tools2019In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 93-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Several observation-based risk-assessment tools have been developed in recent decades. Studies reporting their use often focus only on the user, the ergonomist. The influence of context and the attributes of the tools may also affect the use but are factors that are seldom considered. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore the process of risk-assessment assignments and to identify factors influencing the use of research-based observation-based risk-assessment tools among Swedish ergonomists, with a background as reg. physiotherapists, employed in Occupational Health Services (OHS). METHODS: A web-based questionnaire (n = 70) was combined with semi-structured interviews (n = 12). RESULTS: There was limited use of several observation-based risk-assessment tools. Furthermore, the results showed that ergonomics risk-assessment assignments are most commonly initiated reactively and that interventions were seldom evaluated. Factors that influence use are related both to the ergonomist and to the attributes of the tools as well as to contextual factors assigned to authorities, and internal organisations both within occupational health service companies and client companies. CONCLUSION: There was a lack of systematic approaches in ergonomics risks assessment and low use and knowledge of risk-assessment tools. This indicates that there is a need to support OHS companies in implementing systematic tools in their practice.

  • 17.
    Elvnäs, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Carter, Ned
    Swedish Assoc Local Author & Reg, S-11882 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Assessing and improving supervisory behaviours at standardised meetings using self-recorded video and the operant supervisory taxonomy index2024In: International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, ISSN 2045-7804, E-ISSN 2045-7812, Vol. 11, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to use the operant supervisory taxonomy index (OSTI) with self-recorded videos: 1) to assess three crucial supervisory behaviours at recurrent workplace meetings; 2) to assess an intervention to increase supervisors' use of performance consequences; 3) to demonstrate how using OSTI with video for studying supervisor-employee interactions contributes to the field of human factors and ergonomics. Eight supervisors at a technical company video-recorded themselves at standardised daily staff meetings for ten weeks (360 videos, in total). All supervisors increased their delivery of performance consequences per meeting after participating in weekly sessions focusing on their use of this behaviour. The use of the crucial supervisory behaviours varied within and between supervisors. A combination of self-recorded videos over time and OSTI is a useful method for objectively analysing supervisor performance in detail and can contribute to improving supervisory behaviours and their impact on performance and health.

  • 18.
    Gatzounis, Rena
    et al.
    Research Group Experimental Health Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, The Netherlands; Research Group Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology & Educational Sciences, University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Crombez, Geert
    Department of Experimental-Clinical & Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology & Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Schrooten, Martien G. S.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Research Group Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology & Educational Sciences, University of Leuven, Belgium.
    S. Vlaeyen, Johan W.
    Research Group Experimental Health Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, The Netherlands; Research Group Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology & Educational Sciences, University of Leuven, Belgium.
    A break from pain!: Interruption management in the context of pain2019In: Pain management, ISSN 1758-1869, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity interruptions, namely temporary suspensions of an ongoing task with the intention to resume it later, are common in pain. First, pain is a threat signal that urges us to interrupt ongoing activities in order to manage the pain and its cause. Second, activity interruptions are used in chronic pain management. However, activity interruptions by pain may carry costs for activity performance. These costs have recently started to be systematically investigated. We review the evidence on the consequences of activity interruptions by pain for the performance of the interrupted activity. Further, inspired by literature on interruptions from other research fields, we suggest ways to improve interruption management in the field of pain, and provide a future research agenda.

  • 19.
    Grafö, Nils
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education.
    Hur arbetar violinlärare på musikhögskola med ergonomi?2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Being a violinist implies great demands on any individual since the profession brings considerable risks of work-related illnesses or injuries. This essay investigates how violin teachers in music colleges in Sweden are working in order to prevent work-related injury and illness among violin students and if this happens due to the teacher’s own initiative or if the college is working with a certain methodology. The study utilizes a hermeneutic method in order to interpret qualitative interviews with violin teachers at music colleges. The results show a personal commitment among the interviewed teachers when it comes to teaching ergonomics in instrumental teaching, but it is up to each teacher to decide the extent and depth of the ergonomic knowledge that is being passed on to the students. Depending on the violin teacher, there may be considerable differences in the ergonomic focus of the violin teaching. This means that violin students do not receive the same chances with regards to avoiding work-related illnesses or injuries.

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  • 20.
    Hult, Axel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Munguia Chang, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Smartphone Acquisition and Online Visualization of IMU and EMG Sensor Data for Assessment of Wrist Load2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders constitutes a substantial burden for society, generating individual suffering and financial costs. Quantifying the musculoskeletal stress and establishing exposure-response relationships is an important step in facing this problem.

    Observational methods for assessing exposure in the field of ergonomics have shown poor results, and the technical measurement methods that exists are often complicated to use which limits their scope to scientific purposes.

    This work describes the development of a prototype measurement system aimed to simplify ambulatory measurements of musculoskeletal load, specifically aimed at the wrist and hand. Wearable sensors including Inertial Measurement Units (IMU:s) and Electromyography (EMG) were connected to a smartphone and used for measuring wrist movement and forearm muscle activity. Data sampled in the smartphone was stored online in a cloud database, and a webapplication was developed to visualize work-load exposure.

    Testing under controlled conditions indicated that muscular rest can be measured and classified according to suggested risk thresholds. Accurate angular measurements were difficult to implement because of lacking inter-sensor alignment in the horizontal plane, as well as uncertainties in the Bluetooth protocol.

    Future work should focus on the IMU:s and look to further develop a method of correcting the relative angle error, as well as investigating accurate time synchronization of the two sensors.Alternatively, deriving angular velocities directly from the IMU gyroscopes could be investigated.

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    MunguiaChang_Hult_Thesis
  • 21.
    Hyppönen, Hannele
    et al.
    Information Department, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ammenwerth, Elske
    University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT), Hall in Tyrol, Austr i a.
    Nøhr, Christian
    Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Faxvaag, Arild
    Norwegian Research Centre for Electronic Patient Records, Trondheim, Norway.
    Walldius, Åke
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    eHealth indicators: results of an expert workshop2012In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Volume 180: Quality of Life through Quality of Information, I O S Press , 2012, p. 328-332Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    eHealth indicators are needed to measure defined aspects of national eHealth implementations. However, until now, eHealth indicators are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore, an expert workshop "Towards an International Minimum Dataset for Monitoring National Health Information System Implementations" was organized. The objective was to develop ideas for a minimum eHealth indicator set. The proposed ideas for indicators were classified based on EUnetHTA and De-Lone & McClean, and classification was compared with health IT evaluation criteria classification by Ammenwerth & Keizer. Analysis of the workshop results emphasized the need for a common methodological framework for defining and classifying eHealth indicators. It also showed the importance of setting the indicators into context. The results will benefit policy makers, developers and researchers in pursuit of provision and use of evidence in management of eHealth systems.

  • 22.
    Hägg, Göran M
    et al.
    KTH, Ergonomi.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, Ergonomi.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    McGorry, Raymond
    Knife force differences when cutting meat at different temperatures2012In: NES2012: Ergonomics for Sustainability and Growth / [ed] Ann-Beth Antonsson, Kjerstin Vogel, Göran M Hägg, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Meat cutters in abattoirs is a group with high risks for musculoskeletal disorders. A major reason for this is that they exert high hand forces over a great part of the day when cutting meat. Though meat is refrigerated due to hygienic demands, meat temperature can vary. Meat cutters have claimed that knife forces increase with lower temperatures. This study was performed to find out what effects the meat temperature has on cutting forces. In addition, the same issue was addressed for pure fat.

    Method

    To be able to do cuts in meat under controlled conditions while measuring cutting forces, a machine, Anago KST Sharpness Analyzer, was used. The machine normally runs a knife at constant speed through a standardized textile ribbon while the force exerted on the ribbon is recorded over time. For this investigation, the ribbon was replaced by a wooden fixture with a 10 mm wide slot where the knife could pass and where meat samples could be fixed.Meat obtained from hind loin and fat tissue of pork was cut into 5 cm long, 4 cm wide and 2 cm thick samples. The meat fibre orientation was aligned with the long axis of the sample. When fixated in the fixture and the machine was started, the knife made a 4 cm long cut through 2 cm thick meat or fat.One hundred and forty four samples of meat and as many of fat were collected and put overnight in one of three refrigerators with temperatures 2, 7 and 12 °C, 48 in each. Well sharpened standard knifes were used for the tests. The knife was changed after 24 cuts. During the procedure samples were taken directly from the refrigerator and put into the fixture and tested immediately. The sample order was generally 2, 7, 12 °C to avoid systematic effects of a gradually blunter knife.

    Results

    There were no significant differences in knife forces at the three meat temperatures. The forces for fat were in average about three times higher than the meat forces. There was no significant difference between forces in fat at 7 and 12 °C. However there was a strongly significant difference between these two groups and the 2 °C fat group. The force was about 30% higher compared to the forces at 7 and 12 °C in fat.

    Conclusion

    In the range 2-12 °C there are no differences in meat. For fat there are no differences in the range 7-12 °C while the force increases about 30% when going from 7 to 2 °C.

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  • 23.
    Hägg, Göran M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Karltun, Johan
    McGorry, Raymond
    Knife force differences when cutting meat at different temperatures2012In: NES2012: Ergonomics for Sustainability and Growth / [ed] Ann-Beth Antonsson, Kjerstin Vogel, Göran M Hägg, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Meat cutters in abattoirs is a group with high risks for musculoskeletal disorders. A major reason for this is that they exert high hand forces over a great part of the day when cutting meat. Though meat is refrigerated due to hygienic demands, meat temperature can vary. Meat cutters have claimed that knife forces increase with lower temperatures. This study was performed to find out what effects the meat temperature has on cutting forces. In addition, the same issue was addressed for pure fat.

    Method

    To be able to do cuts in meat under controlled conditions while measuring cutting forces, a machine, Anago KST Sharpness Analyzer, was used. The machine normally runs a knife at constant speed through a standardized textile ribbon while the force exerted on the ribbon is recorded over time. For this investigation, the ribbon was replaced by a wooden fixture with a 10 mm wide slot where the knife could pass and where meat samples could be fixed.Meat obtained from hind loin and fat tissue of pork was cut into 5 cm long, 4 cm wide and 2 cm thick samples. The meat fibre orientation was aligned with the long axis of the sample. When fixated in the fixture and the machine was started, the knife made a 4 cm long cut through 2 cm thick meat or fat.One hundred and forty four samples of meat and as many of fat were collected and put overnight in one of three refrigerators with temperatures 2, 7 and 12 °C, 48 in each. Well sharpened standard knifes were used for the tests. The knife was changed after 24 cuts. During the procedure samples were taken directly from the refrigerator and put into the fixture and tested immediately. The sample order was generally 2, 7, 12 °C to avoid systematic effects of a gradually blunter knife.

    Results

    There were no significant differences in knife forces at the three meat temperatures. The forces for fat were in average about three times higher than the meat forces. There was no significant difference between forces in fat at 7 and 12 °C. However there was a strongly significant difference between these two groups and the 2 °C fat group. The force was about 30% higher compared to the forces at 7 and 12 °C in fat.

    Conclusion

    In the range 2-12 °C there are no differences in meat. For fat there are no differences in the range 7-12 °C while the force increases about 30% when going from 7 to 2 °C.

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    KNIFE FORCE DIFFERENCES WHEN CUTTING MEAT AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES
  • 24.
    Höjvall, Christofer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Detection of physical behavior from thigh worn accelerometer: Validation of a new data processing software that automatically compensates for minor variations in the placement of the accelerometer2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The term physical behavior includes sedentary and non-sedentary everyday physical activities. Objective measurement methods are recommended when sedentary behaviors are to be measured. Data from a thigh worn accelerometer can, together with the Acti4 software, be used to distinguish different physical behaviors. Due to different shapes of thighs and how the accelerometers have been placed on the thighs there is a need to compensate for individual differences in reference angles in respect to gravity. Normally this is done by letting the participants perform a reference position when they stand up and that time is noted in a diary. However, this is very time  consuming. One alternative is to automatically estimate the compensation angles from walking episodes in the existing data.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to validate two new features to the Acti4 software, detection of lying and automatic reference angle generation.

    Methods: Ten participants underwent a 45-minute standardized protocol, and a 48-hour free-living protocol, with recordings of the different physical behaviors lying, sitting, standing, walking, running, stair walking, and cycling. Video recordings of the standardized protocol, and accelerometer data and diaries together with the participants review of the results from the software from the free-living protocol, has been used to validate the software.

    Results: During the standardized protocol, the overall accumulated performance of the software to identify the same physical behavior as in the video recordings was 81.1% (sensitivity), 96.7% (specificity) and 94.8% (accuracy). Participants agreed that most identified physical behavior episodes were correct, when reviewing the result from the software. When the two different reference angle generation methods were compared, almost no difference was found in the results of the standardized protocol, neither when comparing total time registered per behavior accumulated for all participants during the free-living protocol.

    Conclusions: The software may be used in research as a valid tool to measure physical behavior. However, the sensitivity to detect lying and stair walking may vary between individuals. When conducting research with thigh worn accelerometers, researchers may use the easier to use method with automatically generated reference angles instead of the more burdensome method with manually recorded diary annotation.

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  • 25. Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Wahlstrom, Jens
    Liv, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Digging deeper into the assessment of upper arm elevation angles using 0 Cross Mark standard inclinometry2015In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 51, p. 102-103Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Jakob, Martina
    et al.
    Department of Technology Assessment and Substance Cycles, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy, Potsdam, Germany.
    Balaguier, Romain
    Opti’mouv, Saint Paul, France.
    Park, Hyunjin
    Department of Technology Assessment and Substance Cycles, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy, Potsdam, Germany; Department of Agricultural Economics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Integrative Research Institute on Transformations of Human-Environment Systems (IRI THESys), Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Trask, Catherine M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
    Addressing Exoskeleton Implementation Challenges: Case Studies of Non-Acceptance in Agriculture2023In: Journal of Agromedicine, ISSN 1059-924X, E-ISSN 1545-0813, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 784-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to detect success and failure factors for the implementation of passive exoskeletons in agriculture. Exoskeletons have been shown to reduce musculoskeletal loads during lab-based manual tasks, but long-term implementation experiences in agriculture are lacking. Methods: We analyzed four intervention studies in agriculture focusing on methodological and contextual reasons why the trials were successful or unsuccessful. The study context, attempted intervention, and data collection of each field trial is compared. In the absence of long-term studies investigating the implementation and effectiveness of exoskeletons in agriculture, a set of multi-week pilot trials were initiated among German market vegetable farms and French vineyards from 2019 to 2022. Participant ratings, farm characteristics (e.g. employment duration and payment scheme) and intervention implementation characteristics (e.g. participation in implementation or language barriers) were analyzed using a mixed-methods approach to identify success and failure factors. Results: The comparison of the studies showed that despite the organizational issues, there were several practical issues that limit the success of exoskeleton use in agriculture. We observed that participant rejection of the intervention is a major barrier to successfully conducting long-term field trials in agriculture. Factors like pain, discomfort, heat stress, or a lack of perceived benefits have been identified as failure factors but also the implementation process itself. Conclusion: In addition to careful targeting of trial sites and inclusion of participatory elements in the implementation plan, successful implementation of exoskeletons in agriculture requires fundamental human factors development of the exoskeletons themselves. This will require better matching the physical needs of the workers, the production needs of the tasks, and compatibility with the environment.

  • 27.
    Jaldestad, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Hansson, Ingrid
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Chefsutbildning i Psykosocial Arbetsmiljörond: Utvärdering av en utbildningsinsats inom primär stressprevention2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stress Prevention Project was a pilot project that took place in a global high-tech company during 2012-2014. The aim of the project was to identify the root causes of employees' perceived stress and to develop an approach for preventing these root causes. When the pilot project was completed a decision was taken that the intervention would be implemented throughout the organization. As a prelude to the intervention process all managers and HR personnel participated in a training session in “Psychosocial Work Environment Round”. The training included an introduction to psychosocial factors in the work environment and how these may affect employees, and a review of the questionnaire that was used to identify the psychosocial working environment and how its results should be interpreted.

     

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the initial training session, whether it is structured in a relevant way and what its content brings the intervention process.

     

    Limitations: The authors have only evaluated the initial training session that is a part of the larger intervention process.

     

    Method: The study was a qualitative interview study of interpretative and reflective approach. A selection of managers from three different training sessions and departments were asked to participate in the study. Participation was voluntary and all information treated confidentially. The interviews were carried out in focus groups of 2-4 participants. In exceptional cases individual interviews were conducted, this was because it was not possible to gather all the managers in the same session due to their different schedules.

     

    Results: The result shows that trainers and participants largely had the same perception regarding the aim and goals of the training session.  All goals were met with one exception.

     

    Despite completed training session several of the participants still felt unsure how to manage and affect the psychosocial work environment in their working group. However, they are satisfied with the training session as well as the intervention process. They consider the training to be important to secure the quality of the intervention. The participant inquire for a follow-up of the training session.

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  • 28.
    Jonsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Mats Y
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Seat adjustment: capacity and repeatability among occupants in a modern car2008In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 232-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Families in the Western world have a car and several family members share the same car. In this study, 154 participants have adjusted a driver's seat three times. The primary objective was to study intrapersonal repeatability and intraclass correlation (ICC) on seat; length adjustment, backrest angle, seat front edge and seat rear edge adjustment, related to participant age, sex, stature and weight. Length adjustment has the best intrapersonal repeatability within two repetitions, 49 mm and ICC-value 0.87. Females and younger participants (age < 40 years) adjust seats generally more accurately. Females adjust the seat 41 mm more forward, 120 mm compared to men 79 mm counted from 0-starting position. Females sit with more upright seat backrests, 46 degree compared to 43 degrees for males counted from 0-starting position. Females sit higher than males in both the frontal and rear part of the seat cushion.

  • 29.
    Kaladjev, Stojan
    Stockholm University, Centrum för musikpedagogisk forskning (MPC).
    Ergonomi i musikutbildningen: ergonomiska och kognitiva aspekter på instrumentalspel2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Knödler, Stephanie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    eQu riding therapy saddle: focused on children with cerebral palsy2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There doesn´t exist yet a saddle which is mainly designed for therapeutic riding. What the therapist do nowadays is, that they use either normal saddles and add different devices with screws on, or they use a vaulting girth. Both of them are not the ideal solution and a saddle designed for therapeutic riding is needed. The goals were, to design a saddle where the child sits safer on the horse and the exercises can be done smooth, the therapist should have a stressfree job and the horse should feel comfortable through the entire therapy session.

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    Stephanie Knödler
  • 31.
    Kransvik, Carina
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Att praktisk tillämpa ”SAM- testet” i skyddskommittén med perspektiven ålder, genus och funktionsnedsättning: - och utvärdera om det kan vara ett stöd för att utveckla ett hållbart arbetsliv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The government writes that "A sustainable working life requires continuous focus on a good working environment throughout the entire working life". Exercising a systematic work environment (SAM) is an effective tool and a good way to create a sustainable working life. The Safety Committee shall closely monitor developments in matters relating to protection against ill health and accidents. The problem formulation describes the research and writing of many reports within Sweden and at EU level on a sustainable working life, but the experience is that few companies are working on a sustainable working life in the systematic work environment work. The purpose of the thesis was to apply the "SAM test" practically to evaluate if it could be a support through dialogue for protection committees in developing a sustainable working life with the perspective of age, gender and disability.

    The method was to provide a facilitator with information on dialogue and sustainable working life at a protection committee meeting. Then let the group respond to the "SAM test" with a sustainable working life and perspective gender, age and disability in mind. The facilitator observes the group while responding to the questions as well as influencing the group to think about sustainable work by using the dialogue as a tool. The purpose, among other things, was to see if they would respond in consensus and target the group towards sustainable work.

    The result showed that the "SAM Test"is a good tool for companies to use in their work towards a sustainable work life. The” SAM-testet” needs to develop the comments and actions in the action plan and add more links to a sustainable working life. This is needed together with education on sustainable working life and dialogue. The company needs to create a consensus for a sustainable working life and, in the context of risk assessments, increase knowledge in sustainable working life. Corporate health care needs knowledge of the three perspectives; age, gender and disability as well as dialogue. Researchers also need to gather good materials and support companies in the work towards for a sustainable working life.

    Thoughts about continued work: A natural next step in a continued work would be to follow a company in its quest for a sustainable working life. I would then be able to study which the obstacles are and how to remove them. Another way would be to join the development and design of the “SAM Test” tool as a tester.

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  • 32.
    Kranz, Courtney
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Lee, Kellyn
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Jadhav, Parnashree
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Vestlin, Linda
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Barker, Mike
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Jacques, Angela
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Netto, Julie
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Netto, Kevin
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Kinematic and perceptual responses in heavy lifting and pulling: Are there differences between males and females?2021In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 90, article id 103274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated kinematic and perceptual differences between the sexes in a heavy lifting and pulling task. A 20 kg box was lifted from floor to chest height, and a 70 kg mannequin pulled across 20m. The effect of height, mass and average grip strength on kinematics and perceived workload was examined in 42 (19 females, 23 males) healthy individuals. A univariate linear regression analysis found females lifted with greater lumbar extension compared to males (p < 0.001), and adopted more hip (p = 0.006) and knee flexion (p = 0.036) in the pulling task. Females reported a greater perceived workload in both tasks (p < 0.001). After the multivariable analysis, only grip strength remained significant for perceived workload in the lift (p = 0.04), and height for knee flexion in the pull (p = 0.009). This highlights that height and strength are important factors driving kinematics and perceived workload. Clinicians may consider these factors in heavy manual tasks, more so than sex. 

  • 33.
    Leonidou, Ioanna Eleni
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Johansson, Ehlias Gonzalez
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    MATLAB-program för bearbetning av EMG- och rörelsesensordata2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project has constructed a program for mapping calf muscles activation. With the help of IMU in combination with EMG the program can draw conclusions regarding runners’ performances with different shoes. In studies where muscles activity was measured with the help of stationary pressure plates there arose a need for a program that could process both kinds of data simultaneously. Therefore, this Project presents a program that uses EMG and IMU data to analyse an individual’s performance based on the wearers’ shoes. Barefoot running was used as a reference to determine the level of effort with different shoes. The result is expressed as a precent scale where barefoot is 100% effort and the performance with different shoes can be above or below barefoot activation level. With the new program, scientists could understand the correlation between runners’ shoe choice and their efforts. 

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  • 34.
    Li, Xiaogai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Neuronic Engineering.
    Yuan, Qiantailang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Neuronic Engineering.
    Lindgren, Natalia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Neuronic Engineering.
    Huang, Qi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Neuronic Engineering.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    Mips AB, Taby, Sweden..
    Östh, Jonas
    Volvo Cars Safety Ctr, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Mech & Maritime Sci, Div Vehicle Safety, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Pipkorn, Bengt
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Mech & Maritime Sci, Div Vehicle Safety, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Autol Res, Vargarda, Sweden..
    Jakobsson, Lotta
    Volvo Cars Safety Ctr, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Mech & Maritime Sci, Div Vehicle Safety, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Neuronic Engineering.
    Personalization of human body models and beyond via image registration2023In: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, E-ISSN 2296-4185, Vol. 11, article id 1169365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finite element human body models (HBMs) are becoming increasingly important numerical tools for traffic safety. Developing a validated and reliable HBM from the start requires integrated efforts and continues to be a challenging task. Mesh morphing is an efficient technique to generate personalized HBMs accounting for individual anatomy once a baseline model has been developed. This study presents a new image registration-based mesh morphing method to generate personalized HBMs. The method is demonstrated by morphing four baseline HBMs (SAFER, THUMS, and VIVA+ in both seated and standing postures) into ten subjects with varying heights, body mass indices (BMIs), and sex. The resulting personalized HBMs show comparable element quality to the baseline models. This method enables the comparison of HBMs by morphing them into the same subject, eliminating geometric differences. The method also shows superior geometry correction capabilities, which facilitates converting a seated HBM to a standing one, combined with additional positioning tools. Furthermore, this method can be extended to personalize other models, and the feasibility of morphing vehicle models has been illustrated. In conclusion, this new image registration-based mesh morphing method allows rapid and robust personalization of HBMs, facilitating personalized simulations.

  • 35.
    Lind, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Unit of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solnav€agen 4, SE-113 65, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Unit of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solnav€agen 4, SE-113 65, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Unit of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solnav€agen 4, SE-113 65, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hanson, Lars
    The Virtual Systems Research Centre, School of Engineering Science, University of Sk€ovde, Sk€ovde, Sweden .
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Lu, Ke
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Reducing postural load in order picking through a smart workwear system using real-time vibrotactile feedback2020In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Applied Ergonomics, Vol. 89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrotactile feedback training may be one possible method for interventions that target at learning better work techniques and improving postures in manual handling. This study aimed to evaluate the short term effect of real-time vibrotactile feedback on postural exposure using a smart workwear system for work postures intervention in simulated industrial order picking. Fifteen workers at an industrial manufacturing plant performed order-picking tasks, in which the vibrotactile feedback was used for postural training at work. The system recorded the trunk and upper arm postures. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were conducted about the users’ experience of the system. The results showed reduced time in trunk inclination ≥20°, ≥30° and ≥45° and dominant upper arm elevation ≥30° and ≥45° when the workers received feedback, and for trunk inclination ≥20°, ≥30° and ≥45° and dominant upper arm elevation ≥30°, after feedback withdrawal. The workers perceived the system as useable, comfortable, and supportive for learning. The system has the potential of contributing to improved postures in order picking through an automated short-term training program.

  • 36.
    Lindergård, Eli
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Månbris, Mathias
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Progressiva glasögons inverkan på huvudposition hos bildskärmsanvändare2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction – Musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and shoulders are common occupational diseases among VDU operators. This causes individual suffering with high costs for society at around 0.5% to 2% of a countries GDP, as well as for companies, that besides high costs also risk a poorer production and quality. There is a concern that VDU operators with progressive lenses have an increased head extension and Forward head posture. However, Few comparative studies have been made on head extension and Forward head posture on subjects with progressive lenses and even fewer with subjects in their natural working environment. Aim – In this study, the aim was to, in the subjects own natural working environment, investigate whether there is a connection between the concept of poor posture in regards of FHP and HE, and VDU operators in the use of progressive lenses, compared to VDU operators without progressive lenses. Materials – The data was collected from seven different companies in the Greater Stockholm area during the period March-April 2017. The test group consisted of 3 men and 7 women with an average age of 57.80 years (± 8.18). The time spent using progressive lenses was 5.85 years (± 5.59). The control group consisted of 4 men and 6 women with an average age of 55.90 years (± 3.60). Method - The subjects were photographed with a smartphone on a leveled tripod, sitting at their own desks in front of their own monitors. Three photos were taken within 5 minutes on each subject. The subjects did not know exactly when the photographs were taken. A mobile application was used to extract angles for HE and FHP measurements. The mean values were then used for further analysis with a two-independent sample test. Results – The test group's mean head protrusion, TFHP was 42.20° (±7.15°). The test group's angle for measuring the head extension, THE, had an average of 17.73° (±5.55°). The control group's mean head protrusion, KFHP was 40.87° (±7.53°). The control group's mean of the head extension, KHE was 11.53° (±7.42°). The correlation between progressive lenses and FHP was not significant (p = 0.739), nor was the correlation between progressive lenses and HE significant (p = 0.063). Conclusion – The results of the study showed no statistically significant correlation that VDU operators in the subject's natural working environment with progressive lenses have a higher degree of FHP or HE than VDU operators without progressive lenses in relation to the vertical- and horizontal line respectively. On the other hand, they had a trend towards a higher HE than VDU operators without progressive lenses with a p-value of 0.063.

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  • 37.
    Lindner, Helen Y
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Buer, Nina
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Hermansson, Liselotte
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University Health Care Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Dept. of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Compensatory Movement in Upper Limb Prosthesis Users during Activity Performance2019In: Prosthetics and Orthotics International, ISSN 0309-3646, E-ISSN 1746-1553, Vol. 43, no 1 suppl., p. 512-512Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Low dexterity of conventional two-function (open, close) myoelectric hand prostheses with limited wrist movement often leads to compensatory shoulder and elbow movements, e.g. excess shoulder abduction and elbow flexion. Compensatory movements may lead to musculoskeletal pain [1] and it is thus important to identify prosthesis users with compensatory movements and to develop preventive treatments for musculoskeletal pain.

    AIM: The study aim was to measure and compare compensatory movements during activity performance among upper limb prosthesis users with different levels of myoelectric control.

    METHOD: Twenty-seven users of conventional myoelectric hand prosthesis performed the Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control (ACMC) at the Örebro Limb Deficiency and Arm Prosthesis Centre. The performances were recorded and analyzed with Dartfish motion capture video analysis software. The software was used to track and measure the maximum angles for shoulder abduction and elbow flexion at the non-prosthetic and prosthetic sides during the activity performance. Two independent raters used Dartfish to analyze 10 videos and Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was used to calculate inter-rater reliability. The ability to control a myoelectric prosthetic hand was assessed by the ACMC.

    RESULTS: The within-individual differences for shoulder abduction ranged from 2° to 52° and for elbow flexion from 1° to 66°. When compared between prosthetic and non-prosthetic side, larger differences in shoulder abduction and elbow flexion were found among the users with ACMC ≤ 0 than users with ACMC > 0 (Fig.1a). When comparing the within-individual side differences between prosthesis users with ACMC ≤0 and users with ACMC >0, a significant angle difference was found in the elbows (p=0.03) but not in the shoulders (p=0.34) (Fig.1b). Inter-rater reliability between the two independent raters was excellent (ICC 0.91).

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Compensatory elbow movements during activity performance are higher in upper limb prosthesis users with low level of myoelectric control. Prevention for musculoskeletal pain should consist of both training for improved prosthetic control and improved prosthetic use in activity performance. Measurement of compensatory movements can help to identify amputees with frequent compensatory movements. Future studies are needed to investigate the effect of ability to control myoelectric prosthesis on musculoskeletal pain.

    REFERENCES [1] Jones LE, Davidson JH. Prosthet Orthot Int 1999; 23(1):55-8.

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study was supported financially by the Norrbacka-Eugenia Foundation.

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    Compensatory Movement in Upper Limb Prosthesis Users during Activity Performance
  • 38.
    Lindner, Helen Y
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Hill, Wendy
    Institute of Biomedical Engineering, UNB, Fredericton, Canada.
    Hermansson, Liselotte
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University Health Care Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Dept. of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Cognitive load and compensatory movement in learning to use a multi-function hand2019In: Prosthetics and Orthotics International, ISSN 0309-3646, E-ISSN 1746-1553, Vol. 43, no 1 suppl. 1, p. 52-52Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recent technology provides increased dexterity in multi-function hands with the potential to reduce compensatory body movements. However, it is challenging to learn how to operate a hand that has up to 36 grips. While the cognitive load required to use these hands is unknown, it is clear that if the cognitive load is too high, the user may stop using the multi-functional hand or may not take full advantage of its advanced features.

    AIM: The aim of this project was to compare cognitive load and compensatory movement in using a multi-function hand versus a conventional myo hand.

    METHOD: An experienced prosthesis user was assessed using his conventional myo hand and an unfamiliar iLimb Ultra hand, with two-site control and the same wrist for both prostheses. He was trained to use power grip, lateral grip and pinch grip and then completed the SHAP test while wearing the Tobii Pro 2 eye-tracking glasses. Pupil diameter (normal range: 2-4mm during normal light) was used to indicate the amount of cognitive load.[1] The number of eye fixations on the prosthesis indicate the need of visual feedback during operation. Dartfish motion capture was used to track the maximum angles for shoulder abduction and elbow flexion.

    RESULTS: Larger pupils were found in the use of Ilimb ultra (2.6-5.6mm) than in the use of conventional myo hand (2.4-3.5mm) during the SHAP abstract light tests. The pupils dilated most often during changing grips, e.g. switching to pinch grip for the tripod task (from 2.7 to 5.6mm). After training of using power grip and pinch grip repeatedly, the maximum pupil diameter decreased from 5.6 to 3.3mm. The number of eye fixations on the I-limb ultra (295 fixations) were also higher than on the conventional myo-hand (139 fixations). Smaller shoulder abduction and elbow flexion were observed in the use of I-limb ultra (16.6°, 36.1°) than in the use of conventional myo hand (57°, 52.7°).

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Although it is cognitively demanding to learn to use a multi-function hand, it is possible to decrease this demand with adequate prosthetic training. Our results suggest that using a multi-function hand enables reduction of body compensatory movement, however at the cost of a higher cognitive load. Further research with more prosthesis users and other multi-function hands is needed to confirm the study findings.

    REFERENCES [1] van der Wel P, van Steenbergen H. Psychon Bull Rev 2018; 25(6):2005-15.

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This project was supported financially by Norrbacka-Eugenia Foundation, Promobilia Foundation and Örebro University.

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    Cognitive Load and Compensatory Movement in Learning to use a Multi-Function Hand
  • 39. Lindström, Fredric
    et al.
    Ren, Keni
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Waye, Kerstin Persson
    Comparison of two methods of voice activity detection in field studies2009In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 1658-1663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the performance of 2 methods of voice activity detection (neck-attached accelerometer vs. binaural recordings) in field studies in environments where voice activity normally occurs.

    Method: A group of 11 healthy adults wore recording equipment during their lunch break. We used binary classification to analyze the results from the 2 methods. The output was compared to a gold standard, obtained through listening tests, and the probability for sensitivity (Ps) and false positive (Pf) was rated. The binary classifiers were set for consistent sensitivity of 99%; thus, the lower false positive rate would indicate the method with the better performance.

    Results: The neck-attached accelerometer (Pf = 0.5%) performed significantly (p < .001) better than the binaural method (Pf = 7%).

    Conclusion: The neck-attached accelerometer is more suitable than the binaural method for voice assessments in environments where people are speaking in close proximity to each other and where the signal-to-noise ratio is moderate to low.

  • 40.
    Ma, Jingjun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Seamless and personalized connectivity for carsharing services: A Concept Framework and Proposed Solutions2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of information and communication technology (ICT), car sharing becomes more and more popular. It is a short-term car rental service and Volvo entered this market in 2019. The purpose of this thesis is to design for a seamless and personalized experience for car sharing users with the smartphone.

    A literature overview and user interviews were performed to get a general understanding of the user groups, usage patterns of the car sharing service and their experience of connecting the smartphones to the car. Two user tests were made to iterate the design and get to know users’ opinions about the design concepts. Personas and scenarios were built up and that made the basis for the design of user interfaces on the car-sharing apps and the \ac{IVI}. As a result, a concept solution was brought up. The general process of the car sharing service was: booking a car, finding a car, getting onboard, picking up friends, and getting offboard. For drivers, they can find and unlock the car seamlessly with the phone, get onboard with all preferred settings applied, safely log into the IVI system, easily pick up friends by seeing their position, and clear personal data when they return the car. For passengers, they can see the position of the car and estimated arrival time, scan a QR code to turn their phones to a remoter of the IVI system, directly send a destination to the IVI system, and share their favorite music. Nearly all the users liked the designed functions in the tests but the adoption of the service was mainly affected by two factors. One was privacy concerns and the other was function value. Users made a choice of how important more functions were compared with sequences regarding loss of privacy. More future research needs to be done to further validate the findings of this thesis and achieve the designed experience.

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  • 41.
    Mazaheri, Ava
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Ergonomic Evaluation of Power Tool Use at Different Task and Tool Related Conditions Using a Mechanical Test Rig, Electromyography and Subjective Evaluations2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Workers within production and assembly lines are often exposed to ergonomically unfavorable tasksand conditions. Reaction forces and reaction torques generated by industrial power tools may causenot only discomfort but also health issues and injury. The forceful tasks in combination with highlyrepetitive hand-arm motions and prolonged tool use paves the way for loss in workforce capacitywhich in turn can lead to great losses in productivity and product quality. An umbrella term for themany injuries and diseases that may arise from the use of such tools is Cumulative Trauma Disorders(CTD).This study aimed to investigate the ergonomic effect of power tool use for various tool and taskrelated conditions. The study required the setup of a test rig with a simulated handle of the tool. Theergonomic impact was assessed by measuring the torques associated with different tighteningstrategies, as well as measuring the angular displacement of the tool handle. By varying the jointstiffness and workplace orientation, the complexity of the task was varied and thus quantified.Measurements of muscle activity during each tightening procedure provided a quantification of thephysiological impact on the operator. By combining the measurements on the operator withsubjective assessment of perceived exertion and discomfort, a more holistic perspective on thetightening procedure was obtained.The results obtained from the study stressed the negative impact on the operator which the QuickStep tightening strategy on medium hard joints implies, regardless of workspace orientation. TheTurbo Tight and Tensor Pulse tightening strategies turned out to generate the lowest reactiontorques and handle deflections, regardless of joint stiffness and workspace orientation. The findingsfrom the muscle activity measurements in combination with the subjective evaluation methodsfurther confirmed the mildness of the Turbo Tight and Tensor Pulse strategies. Moreover, horizontalworkspace resulted in lower tool handle deflection compared to vertical workspace for all tighteningstrategies and joint stiffnesses.

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  • 42. Milosavljevic, Stephan
    et al.
    Bergman, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Rehn, Börje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Carman, Allan B
    All-terrain vehicle use in agriculture: Exposure to whole body vibration and mechanical shock2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 530-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whole body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shock were measured in 12 New Zealand farmers during their daily use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). As per the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) guidelines for WBV exposure, frequencies between 0 and 100Hz were recorded via a seat-pad tri-axial accelerometer during 20min of ATV use. The farmers were also surveyed to estimate seasonal variation in daily ATV usage as well as 7-day and 12-month prevalence of spinal pain. Frequency-weighted vibration exposure and total riding time were calculated to determine the daily vibration dose value (VDV). The daily VDV of 16.6m/s(1.75) was in excess of the 9.1m/s(1.75) action limit set by ISO guidelines suggesting an increased risk of low back injury from such exposure. However, the mean shock factor R, representing cumulative adverse health effects, was 0.31 indicating that these farmers were not exposed to excessive doses of mechanical shock. Extrapolation of daily VDV data to estimated seasonal variations of farmers in ATV riding time demonstrated that all participants would exceed the ISO recommended maximum permissible limits during the spring lambing season, as compared to lower exposures calculated for summer, autumn and winter. Low back pain was the most commonly reported complaint for both 7 day (50%) and 12 month prevalence (67%), followed by the neck (17% and 42%) and the upper back (17% and 25%) respectively. The results demonstrate high levels of vibration exposure within New Zealand farmers and practical recommendations are needed to reduce their exposure to WBV.

  • 43.
    Nguyen, Theresa Hoai-Thuong
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Product Development, Production and Design, JTH, Industrial design.
    ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING FOR ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY: Innovative Design for an Ankle Foot Orthosis2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following report presents a Master thesis project about a re-design of an ankle foot orthosis using additive manufacturing as the production method, conducted by a student in Spring 2020 as part of the Master’s programme Industrial Design at Jönköping University’s School of Engineering. Ankle foot orthoses are the most prescribed lower extremity orthoses worldwide and are worn in a visually obtrusive way making patients feel stigmatized for their disability. The social stigma makes it emotionally difficult for many users to wear an AFO frequently enough for proper rehabilitation. Despite its significance and wide spread use, its design has not changed for over 50 years. Traditional manufacturing methods are difficult to work with and make customization options very limited. By using digital additive manufacturing methods like 3D Scanning, 3D printing and computer simulations, it is possible to offer personalized looks for AFOs by implementing almost any custom pattern expressed in cut-outs on the AFO surface. That kind of perforation simultaneously solves the problem of bad perspiration and air flow. The freedom of graphical expression in those patterns invite the patient to participate in the design process themselves to create an ankle foot orthosis that is their own. That revolutionary twist on the manufacturing and design process empowers the user to take control over their disability to the furthest degree possible and returns the human right of self-determination and independence to them.

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    Jönköping_University_-_MasterThesis_-_Theresa_Nguyen_-_Additive_Manufacturing_for_Assistive_Technology
  • 44.
    Niemand, Ponthus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Saladdin, Aya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Management of ergonomic aspects in early design phases using virtual reality: Mapping of ergonomic aspects in early design phases, How would mordern technology like VR be used?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Group is one of the Worlds leading manufacturer in the categories trucks, busses, construction equipment and engines for the marine and industrial applications. Volvo Group consist of many different brands 10 in total, these are: Volvo Trucks, UD Trucks, Renault Trucks, Mack Trucks, Group Trucks Asia & JVs, Volvo Construction Equipment, Volvo Bus, Volvo Penta, Volvo Financial Services and Governmental Sales. The initiative for the project came from Method and Process Development within Volvo Trucks Tuve Plant, department at Volvo Group Trucks Operations (GTO), which is the part of Volvo Group performing the actual production of the trucks.

    Volvo GTO is located worldwide in several different countries, which leads to different work processes. To standardize a method where the designer (component owner) together with the geometry architect can make a first ergonomics analysis of the concerned component. To make this possible, the project presented a manual on how the component owner should proceed to obtain as good and correct analysis of ergonomics as possible.

    This bachelor thesis makes suggestions for how VR would be helpful in the design phase as an evaluation tool during development of a new product/component or whether improvements should be made to an existing component. The thesis has focused mostly on how the designer and geometry architect can evaluate the ergonomics aspects with VR as a help, already in the design phase.

    The project has investigated two user cases. One of them is presented in this report. This applies to the installation of heat shield, the reason that this particular assembly was chosen is due to its poor ergonomics and accessibility. The project chose to do a RULA-analysis and PLIBEL-analysis. The RULA analysis gave a high total score, 7 out of 7, while PLIBEL was an analysis at the workplace. Both proved to be a good basis for continued work. 

    The study shows that VR is a great tool for analysis of the ergonomics aspects in early design phase. It gives relevant results and has the potential for savings in resources and cost in product development process.

    To improve the results of the thesis, there have been visits on ESI-Group which has sponsored the thesis in the form of VR equipment and workshop. This gave the project members an insight into the possibilities of VR.

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  • 45.
    Persson, Kristian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Renberg, Max
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ambulance Safety: MADDE2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Safety, a word that can be linked and interpreted in many different ways. Personal safety, that you should feel safe in your everyday life depending on your surroundings. IT security, to protect a persons or organization's valuable assets such as information. Flight safety, the safety of flying in its various kinds. There are safety issues in almost every area you look at, but this project that you will read about in this report is about traffic safety, more specifically, the safety of working in the back of an ambulance. Imagine working as an ambulance paramedic. You and your colleague have just picked up a “Prio 1” (most critical degree), classified patient who needs urgent care. You are sitting in the back of the ambulance and will take care of the patient while your colleague is driving the car. The situation is so critical that your colleague needs to drive as quickly as possible to get to the hospital in time. Thus, you must sit tight with a seat belt in order not to risk your own safety during the ride. Around you, there are a number of components you need to care of for the patient. You cannot reach these components because of the belt that clings to the chair. What are you going to do? Do you unbutton your belt to reach the components, but risk your own safety while driving? Or do you wear the belt incorrectly, so that you use the belt, but only over the hips (for example), so that you can reach the tools? Both of these alternatives are how the majority of ambulance paramedics use the seatbelt today to be able to do their job. Either you unbutton and release yourself completely from the belt or you use it, but incorrectly to reach everything the person in question needs in the ambulance. Both actions have resulted in a big amount of injuries to the caregivers and the numbers continues to increase continuously. This project is about just that. A solution to the problem of the working environment in the back of ambulances. Further in this report you will read about how two students at Halmstad University encountered the problem, but first and foremost how they solved it.  

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  • 46.
    Persson, Lukas
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Norén, Johan
    HållRätt: -Hjälp dig hjälpa dig själv Utveckling av ett hållningshjälpmedel för vardagligt bruk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Society is becoming increasingly digitalized and we spend more and more of awake hours infront electronics, both at home and at work. Our bodies, made for being resilient hunters, are not suited for sitting still an entire day. The static work exhausts the muscles and makes it hard to maintain a correct posture throughout the day, enough time in static positions may result in both interior and exterior damages to the body. The main purposes with the project is to increase the awareness of what horrible consequences that may occur when the body is being exposed to an unhealthy posture, also develop a prototype for a product that will guide the user on the road of getting a better default posture.The product we have developed is primarily aimed at companies, which it will be able to offer their employees a better shot at a healthier life, which will result in reduced number of sick leaves for the companies. We, Johan Norén and Lukas Persson, has in our thesis, HållRätt, developed a prototype for a product that will assist you by encouraging you to improve your posture reduce your chances of getting unwanted injuries. The product is a wearable accessory that will be undetectable by your surroundings, unless you choose to wear over your clothes. The product will be a combination of a helper and personal trainer who will guide the user on the way to a better posture and thus better health and a fuller life.

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  • 47.
    Rhén, Ida-Märta
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Ergonomics risk assessment methods for creating healthy work environments2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessments of ergonomic conditions in pre-production and in field are necessary to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders and to increase productivity and quality. Methods for such assessments include simulations, direct measurements and observations. In order to carry out correct ergonomic assessments, which is an important part in the work of creating healthy workplaces, it is vital that these methods are user-friendly, accurate and reliable. However, several methods are insufficiently tested with respect to these factors.

    The aim of this thesis was to increase the knowledge of some relevant risk assessment methods for the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. The methods include risk assessments in both planned and existing work environments.

    A risk assessment approach for digital human modelling was developed. The approach included a reference database of epidemiological relationships between directly measured exposure and related musculoskeletal disorders. For illustration, a case in manual assembly was simulated; exposures were calculated and compared to the reference data to indicate the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The application and detailed assessment would be helpful to prioritise among different design solutions.

    A 3D digital prototype of a laparoscopic robotic open console was ergonomically evaluated using the simulation tool Intelligently Moving MAnikins (IMMA); twelve manikins representing anthropometries of the Swedish and US populations were used. The work-ranges of the console and the manikins were calculated and compared. The ergonomics was evaluated using a US checklist and the Swedish standard for computer work. The assessment criteria, which are related to the adjustability of the screen, the armrests, and the pedals, were not fulfilled. The result showed that IMMA, with its built-in functions, provides the opportunity for risk assessment of planned static work tasks. With some improvements, tools like IMMA may increasingly be used efficiently for early assessments of planned products or work environments.

    The inter- and intra-rater reliability and validity of six observation-based assessment methods, ART, HARM, SI, QEC, OCRA and SWEA, were studied through twelve ergonomists' and an expert group's repeated risk assessments of ten videotaped tasks. The results showed a low to moderate inter- and intra-rater reliability. Both the percent agreement and the reliability differed for the assessments of the methods' overall risk levels. Using a standardised task duration of 3.75 hours (rather than different durations for the different tasks) in the statistical calculations, the reliability of all methods decreased, except for OCRA. The decrease was most evident for HARM and ART, which was due to the fact that the duration of the task has a large impact in the methods' calculation of the total risk level. The validity was similar to the inter-rater reliability for each method.

    This thesis emphasizes the importance of detailed quantification of exposure and reliable methods to draw accurate conclusions about the risk of musculoskeletal disorders, both in planned and existing work environments.

    Today's technology, with small and wireless devices for direct measurements and methods for analysing physical exposure, provides opportunities to perform accurate and reliable ergonomic assessments. The possibility of using similar measurement strategies in digital human modelling, allows the discrimination of small differences in exposure which simplifies comparisons of different design solutions as well as between planned and existing work environment. Although the reliability of several observation-based methods was found to be low, observational methods are still important in the risk assessments of physical exposure, in order to include parts of the work environment that are not yet possible to measure. However, observational methods should preferably be used for screening and in combination with technical measurements.

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  • 48.
    Rose, Linda M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Neumann, W. Patrick
    Hägg, Göran M.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Kentta, Göran
    Fatigue and recovery during and after static loading2014In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 1696-1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjectively assessed endurance time (ET), resumption time (RT) and perceived discomfort, pain or fatigue (PD), and objectively measured maximum force-exerting capacity were investigated for varying loads and durations of a pushing task with two repeated trials. Beyond the main results quantifying how the load scenario affected ET, RT and PD, three additional results are of note: (1) although the maximum pushing force did not change between trials, shorter ET, longer RT and higher PD indicated accumulation of fatigue in Trial 2; (2) the PD ratings showed a trend with a linear increase during loading and a curvilinear decrease during recovery; and (3) the RT and the load level for different relative loading times were found to have an unexpected U-shaped relationship, indicating lowest fatigue at the intermediate load level. These results can be used to model a more sustainable and productive work-recovery ratio.

  • 49.
    Salomonsson, Angelica
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Utveckling av medicintekniskt instrument för mätning av muskelstyrka2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete inom biomekanik var ett produktutvecklingsprojekt av ett medicintekniskt instrument för mätning av statisk muskelstyrka i lårmuskulaturen (quadriceps). Instrumentet utvecklades med utgångspunkt från instrumentet Stig Starke som blivit föråldrat och förfallet. Stig Starke nyttjas främst av sjukgymnaster på Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset med syfte att exempelvis utvärdera effekter av sjukgymnastisk behandling. Behovet av en ny version av instrumentet är stort både inom kliniskt arbete och inom forskning. En ny version av instrumentet skulle hjälpa sjukgymnaster och forskare till att kunna fortsätta mäta muskelstyrkan i quadriceps på ett snabbt och enkelt sätt.

    Syftet och målsättningen med detta examensarbete var att utveckla Stig Starke-instrumentet så att mätningar av maximal statisk styrka i lårmuskulaturen (quadriceps), i enheten Newton, kan göras på patienter inom sjukvård och rehabilitering. En problemanalys i form av Workshop gjordes hos användarna på Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset. Problemanalysen tillsammans med en förstudie lade grunden för koncept i form av krav och önskemål till nya versionen av instrumentet. Önskemål på användarvänlighet av instrumentet och standardisering av patientens kroppsposition stod högt i prioritering.

    Via dynamisk produktutveckling och biomekaniska metoder där användarna (sjukgymnasterna) var i fokus kunde ett koncept väljas ut och tillverkas till en funktionell prototyp. Sex nyckelord för arbetet är quadriceps, muskelkraft, instrument, antropometri, användarvänlighet och standardisering. Funktionella prototypen visade via produktutvärdering att goda utvecklingsmöjligheter finns för den nya versionen, då den visade på hög användarvänlighet och standardisering. Behovet av en ny version av instrumentet kommer att finnas kvar tills ett likvärdigt instrument som Stig Starke kan tillämpas i verkligheten. 

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    Utveckling av medicintekniskt instrument för mätning av muskelstyrka
  • 50.
    Sandström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    IMPROVING SELF-RESCUE EQUIPMENT: Can a self-contained self-rescue unit be more comfortable to wear over long periods of time, not damage other equipment and be donned easily?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A self-contained self-rescue unit is a device that is used in the mining industry in case of fires or release of toxic gases that depletes or contaminates breathable oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. These units are the first line of defense by providing oxygen in a closed breathing cycle, allowing personnel to get themselves to safety.

    The goal of this project was to design a unit that is more comfortable to carry during the daily operations in and outside the mines. A unit that is easier to done and less likely to damage the users and/or surrounding mining equipment. It is developed in close collaboration with Atlas Copco, as the main sponsor, as well as Dräger and personnel working at Zink Gruvan Mining. 

    The result is a unit with an operational time of twenty minutes and a reduced size and weight. It’s position can be adjusted to be worn around the waist or the chest, depending on the tasks the user performs, as well as simplifying the donning procedure.

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