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  • 1.
    Abali, Bilen Emek
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Mechanics. Chair of Continuum Mechanics and Constitutive Theory, Institute of Mechanics, Technische Universität Berlin.
    Modeling magnetohydrodynamics and computation of metal smelting2020In: Energy-based mathematical methods for reactive multiphase flows / [ed] Liero, M.; Mehrmann, V.; Mielke, A.; Peschka, D.; Thomas, M.; Wagner, B., Berlin Mathematics Research Center MATH , 2020, p. 12-13Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ore is a compound including minerals and is found in Earth’s crust. Ore may contain iron, aluminum, copper or even gold. Extracting these metals are called smelting. For aluminum, smelting is driven by electromagnetism, where conductive ore is a viscous melt with high temperatures and is set in motion effected by electromagnetic forces. Simulation of such an application necessitates not only a computational framework but also the consistent set of partial differential equations. Thermomechanics and electromagnetism are both well-studied independently; nevertheless, their interaction is still puzzling.

  • 2.
    Abaray, Lahcen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Development and Characterization Of Ceramic Particles Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wear is a significant challenge encountered in the mining industry, affecting the durability and performance of materials. Hadfield steel has emerged as a commonly used material in this field due to its favorable properties. However, there is a persistent need to enhance its service life. Metal matrix composites (MMCs) offer a potential solution to address this issue. By reinforcingHadfield steel with ceramic particles, MMCs aim to improve the material's wear resistance and extend its operational lifespan. This study specifically investigates the potential of MMCs, reinforced with Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) particles, to enhance the performance of Hadfield steel in mining applications. Notably, ZTA particles are chosen for their exceptional wear resistance and low cost, making them an attractive reinforcement option. The mechanical behavior and properties of ZTA particle reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) were thoroughly investigated by conducting a comprehensive analysis. This analysis encompassed adetailed examination of the microstructure, composition, distribution, as well as the bonding between ZTA particles and the metallic matrix, along with rigorous measurements of hardness and wear resistance. The findings of the study reveal that the ZTA particle reinforced MMCs exhibit a uniform dispersion of ZTA particles throughout the composite material. This homogeneous distribution contributes to notable enhancements in the average hardness of the MMCs, surpassing that of Hadfield steel alone. However, the study did not observe a substantial enhancement in the wear resistance of the material.

  • 3. Abbasalizadeh, A.
    et al.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Sietsma, J.
    Yang, Y.
    Rare Earth Extraction from NdFeB Magnets and Rare Earth Oxides Using Aluminum Chloride/Fluoride Molten Salts2015In: Rare Earths Industry: Technological, Economic, and Environmental Implications, Elsevier, 2015, p. 357-373Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current research, the feasibility of the recovery of neodymium and dysprosium from spent NdFeB magnets (about 6wt% Dy) was investigated using molten salt processes. The salt bath consisted of a eutectic composition of an NaCl-KCl-LiCl mixture. To enable the efficient dissolution of metal in the molten salt phase, AlCl3 was used as a chlorinating agent. Iron-free electrodeposition was carried out successfully. Energy-dispersive spectroscopic analysis of the electrodeposit revealed that co-deposition of the dysprosium occurs along with neodymium at the cathode. The process shows that this method is well suited for recovering rare earth metals from magnetic scrap containing these metals.Furthermore, the setup design for recovery of neodymium and dysprosium from their oxides was investigated with regard to previous studies on the neodymium magnets. The stability of different fluoride and chloride salts was studied by means of thermodynamic calculation. Aluminum fluoride-based molten salt systems were studied in detail as the electrolyte for electrochemical extraction of rare earth oxides into rare earth metal elements with Al.

  • 4.
    Abbasalizadeh, Aida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Sridhar, Seetharaman
    Grinder, Olle
    Izumi, Yukari
    Barati, Mansoor
    Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process2013In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 65, no 11, p. 1552-1558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700 degrees C) to 1173 K (900 degrees C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  • 5.
    Abbasalizadeh, Aida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, S.
    Dysprosium extraction using molten salt process2014In: Rare metal technology 2014: proceedings of a symposium sponsored by The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) held during TMS 2014, 143rd Annual Meeting & Exhibition, February 16-20, 2014, San Diego Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, 2014, p. 207-208Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Abbasalizadeh, Aida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Sridhar, S.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Neodymium extraction using salt extraction process2015In: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section C, ISSN 0371-9553, E-ISSN 1743-2855, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 191-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper deals with the feasibility of the neodymium recovery from spent Nd-Fe-B magnets using molten salt electrodeposition method. The salt bath consisted of a mixture of LiCl- KCl-NaCl corresponding to the eutectic composition. The experimental set-up with its salient features is presented. AlCl3 was used as flux and graphite rods dipped in the salt bath served as electrodes. The voltage for the electrolysis was chosen on the basis of the decomposition potential of NdCl3. The reaction sequence can be described as Iron-free neodymium deposition could be carried out successfully. In view of the proximity of the electrode potentials, the co-deposition of the aluminium and neodymium was observed to occur at the cathode, as revealed by SEM/EDS and XRD analyses of the electrodeposit.

  • 7.
    Abdel-Khalek, N.A.
    et al.
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), PO Box 87, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.
    Yassin, K.E.
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), PO Box 87, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.
    Selim, K. A.
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), PO Box 87, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.
    Rao, Kota Hanumantha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Kandel, A.-H.
    Chemistry Department Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan, Egypt.
    Effect of starch type on selectivity of cationic flotation of iron ore2012In: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section C, ISSN 0371-9553, E-ISSN 1743-2855, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 98-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cationic flotation is one of the most widely accepted technologies for upgrading siliceous iron ore using polysaccharides (mainly starches) as depressing agents for iron bearing minerals while floating silica with amines. In this paper, a group of starches are investigated as depressants for haematite. These starches are wheat, corn, rice, potato and dextrin. The role of starch type on the selectivity of the separation process has been studied through zeta potential, adsorption measurements as well as flotation tests. The effects of type of starch and pH of the medium have been studied. The results indicate that the selectivity of the separation process is strongly affected by the type of starch used, where better results are obtained with corn starch or wheat starch in comparison to the other types. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements indicated that the interaction between starches and haematite surface is intermolecular interaction.

  • 8. Abdin, Amir
    et al.
    Feyzabi, Kaveh
    Hellman, Oskar
    Nordström, Henrietta
    Rasa, Dilman
    Thaung Tolförs, Gustav
    Öqvist, Per-Olof
    Methods to create compressive stress in high strength steel components2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Residual compressive stresses can be used to increase the lifetime of parts under cyclic stress as they negate the applied tensile stresses that cause crack initiation and propagation in the material. The goal of this project was to investigate methods to induce stresses, their advantages and disadvantages as well as depth and magnitude of induced stresses, and also to find methods of analyzing the induced residual stresses. This was done on behalf of Epiroc Drilling Tools AB in order for them to induce stresses on the insides of their long, narrow and hollow rods, where stress induction is difficult. Shot peening was used as a reference as that is the method currently in use by the company. The results show that the two most promising methods are cavitation peening and laser shock peening; two relatively new methods with large magnitudes and depth of induced stress as well as a great capability of inducing stresses on the hard-to-reach insides of the rods. Ultrasonic needle peening, ultrasonic shot peening as well as induction hardening, cryogenic treatment and friction stir processing were also investigated. Methods of analyzing the stresses include X-ray diffraction and slitting, hole drilling and ultrasonic methods.

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  • 9.
    Abdollahi, Morteza
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, Iran.
    Bahrami, Ataallah
    Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering – Urmia University, P.O. Box 57561/51818, Iran.
    Saleh Mirmohammadi, Mir
    School of Mining Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran.
    Kazemi, Fatemeh
    Faculty of Engineering – University of Kashan, Iran.
    Danesh, Abolfazl
    Complex of Copper Processing – Sungun, Headquarters Rd, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
    Ghorbani, Yousef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    A process mineralogy approach to optimize molybdenite flotation in copper: molybdenum processing plants2020In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 157, article id 106557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sungun copper-molybdenum operation in Iran uses a typical copper-molybdenum flowsheet to produce separate copper and molybdenum concentrates through flotation and regrinding of the rougher concentrates arising from the primary circuit. This site was used as a case study limited to the feed and products of the copper-molybdenum separation circuit, in which process mineralogy might improve the quality of the molybdenum concentrate thorough diagnostic analysis of key flowsheet streams. The undesirable presence of copper in the molybdenum concentrate was identified as a key focus for the investigation by process mineralogy, which has a history of successful process diagnosis. This is because it develops information on minerals, which is far more informative than chemical assays alone. Together with the assays, the mineralogical data inform the investigator of the type and quantity of minerals present, their state of liberation and textural associations, and metal recovery.

    A key finding was that the appearance of chalcopyrite in the molybdenum concentrate was due to the presence of a chalcopyrite-pyrite texture that avoided the chalcopyrite depression in the molybdenum circuit because of suitable pyrite flotation conditions. Recovery of liberated pyrite to this concentrate also diluted the molybdenum concentrate. The open-circuit format of the regrind circuit also contributed to the unnecessary production of ultrafine particles. This flaw expressed itself as ultrafine losses of molybdenite to the flotation tailings.

  • 10.
    Abdoshahi, Neda
    et al.
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Dehghani, Mohammad
    Mat Ctr Leoben Forsch GmbH, Roseggerstr 12, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Hatzenbichler, Lukas
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Spoerk-Erdely, Petra
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Ruban, Andrei V.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Mat Ctr Leoben Forsch GmbH, Roseggerstr 12, A-8700 Leoben, Austria.
    Musi, Michael
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Mayer, Svea
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Spitaler, Juergen
    Mat Ctr Leoben Forsch GmbH, Roseggerstr 12, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Holec, David
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Structural stability and mechanical properties of TiAl plus Mo alloys: A comprehensive ab initio study2021In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 221, p. 117427-, article id 117427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium aluminides are technologically important intermetallic alloys with also many curious properties interesting from a basic research point of view. When alloyed with Mo, several (meta)stable phases have been reported; their properties are, however, largely unknown due to the alloy processing (e.g. fast cooling) and/or non-existence as a single-phase material. Here we employ first principles calculations to study compositional trends in structural and mechanical properties. We could show that Mo increases the density of all studied phases, leads to their chemical destabilization with the exception of the ordered bcc /3o phase, increases their ductility, and enhances the elastic anisotropy. Discrepancies between two employed ab initio methods (special quasi-random structures vs. coherent potential approximation) in the case of the /3o and B19 phases are rationalized with significant local distortions which may eventually facilitate a spontaneous phase transformation. Predictions of ordering temperatures solely based on the configurational entropy do not yield values in the experimentally expected ranges.

  • 11.
    Abdoshahi, Neda
    et al.
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Dehghani, Mohammad
    Mat Ctr Leoben Forsch GmbH, Roseggerstr 12, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Ruban, Andrei V.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Structures. Mat Ctr Leoben Forsch GmbH, Roseggerstr 12, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Friak, Martin
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys Mat, Zizkova 22, CZ-61662 Brno, Czech Republic.;Brno Univ Technol, Fac Mech Engn, Inst Mat Sci & Engn, Tech 2896-2, CZ-61669 Brno, Czech Republic..
    Sob, Mojmir
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys Mat, Zizkova 22, CZ-61662 Brno, Czech Republic.;Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Chem, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61137 Brno, Czech Republic..
    Spitaler, Juergen
    Mat Ctr Leoben Forsch GmbH, Roseggerstr 12, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Holec, David
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    On the energetics of the cubic-to-hexagonal transformations in TiAl plus Mo alloys2022In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 240, article id 118268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusionless transformations allow access to metastable phases and enrich the materials design portfolio. They are well suited for atomistic modeling; nonetheless, they are challenging when involving disordered systems or alloys with complex compositions. This work presents a comprehensive study of transforma-tion energetics between bcc and hcp ordered and disordered phases in the TiAl+Mo model alloy system. By employing two complementary techniques I. VASP-SQS, and II. EMTO-CPA, we can show that chemical disorder flattens the energy landscape but may introduce a small barrier. Unlike that, the energetics of ordered phases are barrier-less and hence would suggest a spontaneous transformation. Finally, we show that Mo stabilizes the bcc phases, leading to a barrier-less transformation hcp -+ bcc for both ordered and disordered states when Mo content exceeds ti 12 at.%.

  • 12.
    Abdul Abas, Riad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Experimental Studies of Thermal Diffusivities concerning some Industrially Important Systems2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this industrially important work was to gain an increasing understanding of the properties of some industrially important materials such as CMSX-4 nickel base super alloy, 90Ti.6Al.4V alloy, 25Cr:6Ni stainless steel, 0.7% carbon steel, AISI 304 stainless steel-alumina composites, mould powder used in continuous casting of steel as well as coke used in blast furnace with special reference to the thermal diffusivities. The measurements were carried out in a wide temperature range covering solid, liquid, glassy and crystalline states.

    For CMSX-4 alloy, the thermal conductivities were calculated from the experimental thermal diffusivities. Both the diffusivities and conductivities were found to increase with increasing temperature. Microscopic analysis showed the presence of intermetallic phases γ´ such as Ni3Al below 1253 K. In this region, the mean free path of the electrons and phonons is likely to be limited by scattering against lattice defects. Between 1253 K and solidus temperature, these phases dissolved in the alloy adding to the impurities in the matrix, which, in turn, caused a decrease in the thermal diffusivity. This effect was confirmed by annealing the samples at 1573 K. The thermal diffusivities of the annealed samples measured at 1277, 1403 and 1531 K were found to be lower than the thermal diffusivities of non-annealed samples and the values did not show any noticeable change with time. It could be related to the attainment of equilibrium with the completion of the dissolution of γ´ phase during the annealing process. Liquid CMSX-4 does not show any change of thermal diffusivity with temperature. It may be attributed to the decrease of the mean free path being shorter than characteristic distance between two neighbouring atoms.

    Same tendency could be observed in the case of 90Ti.6Al.4V alloy. Since the thermal diffusivity increases with increasing temperature below 1225 K and shows slight decrease or constancy at higher temperature. For 25Cr:6Ni stainless steel, the thermal diffusivity is nearly constant up to about 700 K. Beyond that, there is an increase with temperature both during heating as well as cooling cycle. On the other hand, the slope of the curve increases above 950 K, which can be due to the increase of bcc phase in the structure. 0.7% carbon steel shows a decrease in the thermal diffusivity at temperature below Curie point, where the structure contains bcc+ fcc phases. Above this point the thermal diffusivity increases, where the structure contains only fcc phase. The experimental thermal conductivity values of these alloys show good agreement with the calculated values using Mills model.

    Thermal diffusivity measurements as a function of temperature of sintered AISI 304 stainless steel-alumina composites having various composition, viz, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 10 wt% Al2O3 were carried out in the present work. The thermal diffusivity as well as the thermal conductivity were found to increase with temperature for all composite specimens. The thermal diffusivity/conductivity decreases with increasing weight fraction of alumina in the composites. The experimental results are in good agreement with simple rule of mixture, Eucken equation and developed Ohm´s law model at weight fraction of alumina below 5 wt%. Beyond this, the thermal diffusivity/ conductivity exhibits a high discrepancy probably due to the agglomeration of alumina particles during cold pressing and sintering.

    On the other hand, thermal diffusivities of industrial mould flux having glassy and crystalline states decrease with increasing temperature at lower temperature and are constant at higher temperature except for one glassy sample. The thermal diffusivity is increased with increasing crystallisation degree of mould flux, which is expected from theoretical considerations.

    Analogously, the thermal diffusivity measurements of mould flux do not show any significant change with temperature in liquid state. It is likely to be due to the silicate network being largely broken down.

    In the case of coke, the sample taken from deeper level of the pilot blast furnace is found to have larger thermal diffusivity. This can be correlated to the average crystallite size along the structural c-axis, Lc, which is indicative of the higher degree of graphitisation. This was also confirmed by XRD measurements of the different coke samples. The degree of graphitisation was found to increase with increasing temperature. Further, XRD and heat capacity measurements of coke samples taken from different levels in the shaft of the pilot blast furnace show that the graphitisation of coke was instantaneous between 973 and 1473 K.

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  • 13.
    Abdul Abas, Riad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Hayashi, M.iyuki
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Thermal Diffusivity measurement of CMSX-4 alloy by Laser flash method2007In: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 109-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, thermal diffusivity measurements have been carried out on industrial samples of CMSX-4 nickel-base superalloy using the laser-flash method with emphasis on studying the effect of temperature and microstructure on the thermal diffusivity. The measurements were performed in the temperature range from 298 to 1623 K covering both solid as well as liquid ranges. Below 1253 K, the thermal-diffusivity values were found to increase with increasing temperature. Microstructural investigations of quenched samples revealed that below 1253 K, an ordered phase, usually referred to as the -phase was present together with the disordered fcc phase, often referred to as the γ phase. Between 1253 K and the solidus temperature, the phase was found to dissolve in the matrix alloy causing an increase in the disordering of the alloy, and thereby a small decrease in the thermal-diffusivity values. The thermal-diffusivity values of samples pre-annealed at 1573 K exhibited constancy in the temperature range from 1277 to 1513 K, which is attributed to the attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium. These equilibrium values were found to be lower than the results for samples not subjected to annealing. The thermal-diffusivity values of the alloy in the liquid state were found to be independent of temperature.

  • 14.
    Abdul Abas, Riad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Hayashi, Miyuki
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Thermal Diffusivity Measurements of some Industrially Important Alloys by a Laser Flash Method2007In: International journal of materials reseach, ISSN 1862-5282, Vol. 98, no 6, p. 535-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, thermal diffusivity measurements of three industrially significant alloys, viz. 90Ti.6Al.4V, stainless steel with 25Cr and 6Ni as well as plain carbon steel with 0.7 % carbon have been carried out as a function of temperature. The aim of this work is to study the effect of temperature and microstructure on the thermal diffusivities of these alloys. For the 90Ti.6Al.4V alloy, thermal diffusivity increases with temperature below 1225 K. Above this temperature, the values started decreasing probably due to the dissolution of Ti3Al intermediate phase in the matrix, which would result in an increase in the disorder of the structure. For 25Cr: 6Ni stainless steel, the thermal diffusivity is nearly constant up to about 700 K. Above this, there is an increase in the thermal diffusivities with temperature during the heating cycle, which was reproducible during thermal cycling. On the other hand, the slope of the curve increases above 950 K.

    In the case of the 0.7 % carbon steel, the thermal diffusivity shows a decreasing trend with temperature below the Curie point for the alloy, where the alloy consists of bcc + fcc phases. Above this point, only the fcc phase is prevalent and the thermal diffusivity was found to increase with temperature. Heat transfer is carried out by lattice vibration (phonons) as well as electrons. The contribution of electrons varies depending upon the type of alloy. In this study, the highest electron contribution was found in 0.7 % carbon steel, while the lowest was in stainless steel. The thermal conductivity values of these alloys are in good agreement with the calculated values using the model proposed by Mills.

  • 15.
    Abelin, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Blomkvist, Håkan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Investigation of the scale factor between full scale ladle furnace process and water models2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ladle furnace process is an important process in the steel manufacturing industry. The purpose of this process is to optimize the composition of the elements in the melt as well as to homogenize the temperature in the liquid.

    It is common practice to model this process using smaller water models. In order to accurately scale these models a variety of criteria and scaling factors are needed. The central phenomenon which all else is derived from is the two-phase gas plume dominating the fluid flows. The plume, and its dependant parameters are difficult to define. Which ones ought to be used and how to use them has not been standardized. Concerns have been raised whether the most common method of scaling is even applicable in ladle metallurgy. This report gives an account for studies concerning these variables and their effect on the subject. The objective of this report is to highlight ways to improve these simulations with respect to debated parameters.

    The conclusion of this study points out the reasons for why these variables may be of importance for the modeling of the ladle furnace process. It also specifically mentions future work that should be conducted in order to provide deeper knowledge of thedifferent parameters affecting the method of modeling.

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  • 16.
    Abhale, Prakash Bansi
    et al.
    Global R and D, ArcelorMittal, Kolkatta.
    Yadav, Vishal Kumar
    Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM), Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven.
    Nurni, Viswanathan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Ballal, Bharath Nidambur
    Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay.
    Efficient computation of gas flow in blast furnace in 3-D2012In: 6th Int. Congress on the Science and Technology of Ironmaking 2012, ICSTI 2012: Including Proceedings from the 42nd Ironmaking and Raw Materials Seminar, and the 13th Brazilian Symp. on Iron Ore, 2012, Vol. 1, p. 722-732Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blast furnace continues to occupy prominent place among iron making technologies as it accounts for more than 90% of the hot metal produced in the world. In India, as a part of initiative from Ministry of Steel, efforts are being made to develop offline as well as online models with an aim to improve blast furnace performance. As a part of this effort, offline comprehensive models simulating the internal state of an operating blast furnace are being developed. Such comprehensive models involve systematic integration of various sub-models for gas flow, solid flow, reaction kinetics, enthalpy balance etc. Unlike in many other systems, these sub-processes are highly interlinked in blast furnace and hence call for large number of iteration among the sub-models which ultimately results in significant computation time. Our efforts in integration of these sub-models have indicated that the gas flow is one of the important bottle necks in achieving faster computation. This has led to a development of new and efficient computation scheme to simulate the gas flow in 2-D [1]. This new scheme provided efficient way of handling complex burden profile in a blast furnace. This paper presents the extension of this 2-D gas flow model to 3-D. Further, the 3-D model has been used to investigate the asymmetry in gas flow which can arise from blanking the tuyeres, asymmetric fusion or cohesive zone or formation scabs or scaffolds in the furnace behavior

  • 17.
    Abouzari, Sara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Solid solution strengthening effect on creep strength of austenitic stainless steel2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sanicro 25 is a newly developed austenitic stainless steel, designed for the next generation of Ultrasupercritical coal-fired boilers in electrical power plants. This material is applicable in reheater and superheater tubes, where the material temperature is up to 700

    °C. One of the main strengthening mechanisms in high temperature materials is solid solution strengthening. A combination of this mechanism and precipitation hardening, promotes creep strength of heat resistance materials. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of solid solution strengthening on creep strength of Sanicro 25.Previous works has been done for effects of phosphorous in copper and also for influence of laves phase on the creep properties of CrMo alloys. The results of these two works are used and the model is adapted to austenitic stainless steel. First a Zero starting state was defined which was Alloy 316H and then the calculation was made for Sanicro 25. Thermodynamic calculations were made using DICTRA and Thermo-Calc. Elastic misfit parameter was determined using ab initio calculations. The results from the simulation in this work indicate that solutes with larger size misfit compare to the parent atoms have better solid solution strengthening effect. A decrease in the creep strength by increasing temperature has been observed which could be attributed to growth of laves phase.

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    Solid solution strengthening effect on creep strength of austenitic stainless steel
  • 18.
    Abrahamsen, Alexandra
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Data Science for In-process Chatter Classification2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Milling is one of the most crucial processes in machining. Every industry demands a stable milling process for a smoother finish and material cost reduction. Chatter is a vibrating phenomenon which affects the workpiece's quality, its dimensional accuracy, and tool life. It is required to classify the chatter phenomenon to devise an effective chatter prevention strategy.

    Several classification strategies are being used, including frequency and time-related strategies. Since the chattering phenomenon is a frequency-based phenomenon so a frequency-based feature set can be of vital importance. However, frequency-based strategies have a problem of noise. The noise problem can be addressed by combining frequency and time-domain methods.

    Thus, a hybrid approach based on the frequency and time-based feature set is developed and used in conjunction with k-means-based unsupervised learning to come up with a practical but reliable classifier. The proposed classifier algorithm offers good performance, clearly distinguishing between chatter and stable conditions.

    Based on the chatter classification in this work, it is possible to identify thresholds for chattering detection. It is essential to mention that the thresholds obtained from this work will only be useful for the machine and tool used in the experiments and will not be of use for other machines and need more investigation. 

  • 19.
    Abramov, A.A.
    et al.
    Moscow State Mining University, Moscow.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Chemistry and optimal conditions for copper minerals flotation: theory and practice2005In: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review, ISSN 0882-7508, E-ISSN 1547-7401, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 77-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable information on the surface state of sulphide copper minerals and regularities of sulphidization and flotation of oxidized copper minerals, the composition of sorption layer on the mineral surface forming during its interaction with xanthate or dixanthogen, and the influence of collector forms sorption on the copper minerals floatability and on the optimal conditions for these minerals flotation and depression has been obtained at present. The determined physicochemical models in the form of quantitative equations have been derived for the optimal conditions of flotation and depression of copper minerals under changing pH value and of sodium sulphide, lime, cyanide, zinc–cyanide complexes additions. The equations derived were proven in the laboratory and industrial scale and can be used both in automatic control systems at plants and for improvement of technological processes of selective flotation of copper containing ores.

  • 20.
    Abrikosov, Igor A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Steneteg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultberg, Lasse
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hellman, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yu Mosyagin, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Theoretical Physics and Quantum Technologies, National Research, Technological University MISiS, Moscow, Russia.
    Lugovskoy, Andrey V.
    Department of Theoretical Physics and Quantum Technologies, National Research, Technological University MISiS, Russia.
    Barannikova, Svetlana A.
    Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia; Department of Physics and Engineering, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Finite Temperature, Magnetic, and Many-Body Effects in Ab Initio Simulations of Alloy Thermodynamics2013In: TMS2013 Supplemental Proceedings, John Wiley & Sons, 2013, p. 617-626Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ab initio electronic structure theory is known as a useful tool for prediction of materials properties. However, majority of simulations still deal with calculations in the framework of density functional theory with local or semi-local functionals carried out at zero temperature. We present new methodological solution.s, which go beyond this approach and explicitly take finite temperature, magnetic, and many-body effects into account. Considering Ti-based alloys, we discuss !imitations of the quasiharmonic approximation for the treatment of lattice vibrations, and present an accurate and easily extendable method to calculate free ,energies of strongly anharmonic solids. We underline the necessity to going beyond the state-of-the-art techniques for the determination of effective cluster interactions in systems exhibiting mctal-to-insulator transition, and describe a unified cluster expansion approach developed for this class of materials. Finally, we outline a first-principles method, disordered local moments molecular dynamics, for calculations of thermodynamic properties of magnetic alloys, like Cr1-x,.AlxN, in their high-temperature paramagnetic state. Our results unambiguously demonstrate importance of finite temperature effects in theoretical calculations ofthermodynamic properties ofmaterials.

  • 21. Abu-Odeh, A.
    et al.
    Galvan, E.
    Kirk, T.
    Mao, Huahai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Chen, Q.
    Mason, P.
    Malak, R.
    Arróyave, R.
    Efficient exploration of the High Entropy Alloy composition-phase space2018In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 152, p. 41-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High Entropy Alloys (HEAs), Multi-principal Component Alloys (MCA), or Compositionally Complex Alloys (CCAs) are alloys that contain multiple principal alloying elements. While many HEAs have been shown to have unique properties, their discovery has been largely done through costly and time-consuming trial-and-error approaches, with only an infinitesimally small fraction of the entire possible composition space having been explored. In this work, the exploration of the HEA composition space is framed as a Continuous Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CCSP) and solved using a novel Constraint Satisfaction Algorithm (CSA) for the rapid and robust exploration of alloy thermodynamic spaces. The algorithm is used to discover regions in the HEA Composition-Temperature space that satisfy desired phase constitution requirements. The algorithm is demonstrated against a new (TCHEA1) CALPHAD HEA thermodynamic database. The database is first validated by comparing phase stability predictions against experiments and then the CSA is deployed and tested against design tasks consisting of identifying not only single phase solid solution regions in ternary, quaternary and quinary composition spaces but also the identification of regions that are likely to yield precipitation-strengthened HEAs.

  • 22.
    Adegoke, Olutayo
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Homogenization of Precipitation Hardening Nickel Based Superalloys2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Allvac 718 Plus and Haynes 282 are relatively new precipitation hardening nickel based superalloys with good high temperature mechanical properties. In addition, the weldability of these superalloys enhances easy fabrication. The combination of high temperature capabilities and superior weldability is unmatched by other precipitation hardening superalloys and linked to the amount of the γ’ hardening precipitates in the materials. Hence, it is these properties that make Allvac 718 Plus and Haynes 282 desirable in the manufacture of hot sections of aero engine components.

    Studies show that cast products are less weldable than wrought products. Segregation of elements in the cast results in inhomogeneous composition which consequently diminishes weldability. Segregation during solidification of the cast products results in dendritic microstructure with the segregating elements occupying interdendritic regions. These segregating elements are trapped in secondary phases present alongside γ matrix. Studies show that in Allvac 718Plus, the segregating phase is Laves while in Haynes 282 the segregating phase is not yet fully determined.

    Thus, the present study investigated the effects of homogenization heat treatments in eliminating segregation in cast Allvac 718 Plus and Haynes 282. Paramount to the study was the effect of different homogenization temperatures and dwell time in the removal of the segregating phases. Experimental methods used to both qualify and quantify the segregating phases included SEM, EDX analysis, manual point count and macro Vickers hardness tests.

    Main results show that there is a reduction in the segregating phases in both materials as homogenization proceeds hence a disappearance of the dendritic structure. In Allvac 718 Plus, plate like structures is observed to be closely associated with the Laves phase at low temperatures and dwell times. In addition, Nb is found to be segregating in the interdendritic areas. The expected trend of increase in Laves as a result of the dissolution of the plate like structures at the initial stage of homogenization is only detectable for few cases. In Haynes 282, white and grey phases are clearly distinguished and Mo is observed to be segregating in interdendritic areas.

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  • 23.
    Adegoke, Olutayo
    et al.
    Univ West, Sweden.
    Polisetti, Satyanarayana Rao
    Univ West, Sweden.
    Xu, Jinghao
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Joel
    Univ West, Sweden.
    Brodin, Hakan
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery, Sweden.
    Pederson, Robert
    Univ West, Sweden.
    Harlin, Peter
    Univ West, Sweden; Sandvik Addit Mfg, Sweden.
    Influence of laser powder bed fusion process parameters on the microstructure of solution heat-treated nickel-based superalloy Alloy 247LC2022In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 183, article id 111612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Alloy 247LC samples were built with different laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process parameters. The samples were then subjected to solution heat treatment at 1260 degrees C for 2 h. The grain size of all the samples increased significantly after the heat treatment. The relationship between the process parameters and grain size of the samples was investigated by performing a design of experiment analysis. The results indicated that the laser power was the most significant process parameter that influenced the grain height and aspect ratio. The laser power also significantly influenced the grain width. The as-built and as-built + heat-treated samples with high, medium, and low energy densities were characterized using a field emission gun scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron backscatter diffraction detector. The micrographs revealed that the cells present in the as-built samples disappeared after the heat treatment. Isolated cases of twinning were observed in the grains of the as-built + heat-treated samples. The disappearance of cells, increase in the grain size, and appearance of twins suggested that recrystallization occurred in the alloy after the heat treatment. The occurrence of recrystallization was confirmed by analyzing the grain orientation spread of the alloy, which was lower and more predominantly <1 degrees in the as-built + heat-treated conditions than in the as-built conditions. The microhardness of the as-built + heat-treated samples were high which was plausible because gamma precipitates were observed in the samples. However, the L-PBF process parameters had a very low correlation with the microhardness of the as-built + heat-treated samples.

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  • 24.
    Adolfsson, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Cementitious properties of steelmaking slags2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is directed towards the use of steelmaking slags as raw material for sulphoaluminate belite cement (SAB). Another important objective was to characterise the cementitious properties of phases in ladle furnace slag (LFS) specifically the calcium aluminates. Mayenite (C12A7) is considered one of the most important calcium aluminate in LFS, and since comparatively limited data on the kinetic properties of this phase are available, it was decided to study C12A7 more closely with regard to both particle size and temperature sensitivity. The behaviour of high-temperature reactions of tested SAB mixtures was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Mineralogical observations were carried out with x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results proved that steelmaking slags have the potential to work as raw material, since sulphoaluminate (C4A3 S ) along with polymorphs of dicalcium silicate (C2S) and ferrite phase (C4AF) were detected after firing at 1200ºC in an air atmosphere. The hydration properties of the specimens were analysed through conduction calorimetry, and compressive strength of specimens hydrated for 2 and 28 days. The compressive strength was in accordance with that suggested in the literature for slow hardening SAB cement. Both mixtures tested behaved the same with regard to heat development as well as the amount of ettringite (AFt) formed during the first 24 hours of the hydration. The formation of AFt was characterised with both differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and XRD. The crystallographic distribution in LFS samples was quantified using Rietveldanalysis. Calorimetric studies were performed at 20, 25 and 30°C in order to calculate the activation energy of hydration and thereby to suggest a kinetic model for tested compositions within this temperature interval. In addition to heat of hydration, compressive strength tests were completed on mortar prisms of LFS, and LFS in a blend with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) which hydrated for 2, 7 and 28 days. Both compositions reached acceptable early strengths, whereas, after 28 days hydration, the blend was superior to neat LFS. Related activation energy was according to the Avrami-Erofeev model determined to 58 kJ/mol for the LFS and 63 kJ/mol for the blend. Corresponding calorimetric studies at the same temperatures were performed on a fine and coarse size fraction (Fraction A and Fraction B) of a synthesised C12A7. The purity was confirmed by XRD, and the hydraulic behaviour was investigated in excess water with respect to the dissolution. The apparent activation energy was calculated to 33 and 79 kJ/mol, respectively, for Fractions A-B using the Avrami-Erofeev model. From the model, it was also concluded that the acceleration period can be ascribed to a phase-boundary controlled mechanism. The principal calcium aluminate hydrates obtained were C2AH8 and C2AH7.5, and it was further observed that C12A7 is accompanied by an anomalous setting behaviour much like monocalcium aluminate (CA), and that the decomposition of C2AH8 to C2AH7.5 develops more slowly with higher surface area, specifically at 20 and 30°C.

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  • 25. Adolfsson, Daniel
    Steelmaking slags as raw material for sulphoaluminate belite cement2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work was undertaken as part of the research in the Minerals and Metals Recycling research centre, MiMeR. The course of the thesis is attributed to metallurgical slags from the steelmaking industry and the possible use of such by-products as raw material for sulphoaluminate belite cement (SAB). Implementing steel slags into the production of cement could contribute to the steel industry's possibility of increasing the recirculation. In addition to the previous objective, the introduction of slag into the cement manufacturing can also facilitate the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions as well as lowering the overall energy consumption during the manufacturing. The reason for this is that the SAB system enables the reduction of the lime saturation factor (LSF) which in turn implies that less limestone is needed in the raw meal. Additionally, the firing temperature can be reduced by about 100-150°C, since dicalcium silicate and sulphoaluminate are formed already at approximately 1200-1250°C. In any event, one should remember that this is not intended to be a final solution for the recycling of slag, nor a replacement for already accepted cement materials. A number of applications currently exist where ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is used, but in cases where the OPC could be replaced with other type of cements, e.g. SAB cement, the possibility of using residues material in cement applications is increased. Considering the clinker covered within this work, possible applications are those where slow hydraulic properties are suitable. The behaviour of high temperature reactions of tested mixtures was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Mineralogical observations were carried out with x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results proved that steelmaking slags have the potential to work as raw material, since sulphoaluminate along with polymorphs of dicalcium silicate and ferrite phases were detected after firing at 1200 ºC in an air atmosphere. The hydraulic properties of the specimens were analysed through conduction calorimetry, XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as was the mechanical strength of the specimens when hydrated for 2 and 28 days. The compressive strength was in accordance with that suggested in the literature for slow hardening SAB cement. Both mixtures tested behaved the same with regard to heat development as well as the amount of AFt formed during the first 24 hours of the hydration.

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  • 26. Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Robinson, Ryan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Cementitious phases in ladle slag2011In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 82, no 4, p. 398-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ladle slag is an internal by-product generated within the steelmaking industry during the refining of steel. The realisation of beneficial inherent properties of ladle slag as a binder supplement or substitute material is believed to be advantageous with respect to both economy and environment for steelmakers. For this reason, the current study has focused on highlighting the properties of ladle slag that are pertinent to the formation of calcium aluminate hydrates. Three fractions of ladle slag, two of which were based on different slag formers, have been characterised using XRF, XRD and calorimetric analysis. Commonly known hydraulic minerals such as mayenite, tricalcium aluminate and dicalcium silicate were detected during analysis. An important aspect in the utilisation of ladle slag is the slag handling methodology. Therefore, this study also highlights and discusses the need to reconsider slag handling procedures concerning unnecessary exposure to weathering and the possible need for further processing of the slag in order to better employ the inherent hydraulic properties of this material.

  • 27. Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Viggh, Erik O.
    Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, Orléans.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Hydraulic properties of sulphoaluminate belite cement based on steelmaking slags2007In: Advances in Cement Research, ISSN 0951-7197, E-ISSN 1751-7605, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 133-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on modified Bogue calculations, steelmaking slags were combined in order to produce a belite-rich clinker activated with sulphoaluminate. The experiments were conducted on two different mixtures based on steelmaking slags together with additives, namely MixA and MixB. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hydraulic properties of the specimens, using conduction calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, and also to measure the mechanical strength of the specimens when hydrated for 2 and 28 days. The compressive strength was satisfactory in relation to the estimated compositions. Both mixtures behaved the same with regard to heat development as well as the amount of ettringite formed during the first 24 h of the hydration.

  • 28. Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Viggh, Erik O.
    Cementa AB, Malmö.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Steelmaking slags as raw material for sulphoaluminate belite cement2007In: Advances in Cement Research, ISSN 0951-7197, E-ISSN 1751-7605, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 147-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, slags from the steelmaking industry are described and considered as a potential raw material within the field of sulphoaluminate belite cement. The objective of the study was to investigate the possibility of using a substantial amount of steelmaking slags as raw meal in the manufacture of a sulphobelitic clinker. A further aim was to compare the influence of different slags in relation to the formation of sulphoaluminate and the other clinker phases required. The behaviour of high temperature reactions was investigated by using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Mineralogical observations were carried out through X-ray powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Three different mixtures and a single ladle slag were prepared using modified Bogue calculations, which are characterised by the assessment of a potential phase composition in order to produce belite-rich cement activated with sulphoaluminate. The results so far prove that steelmaking slags have the potential to be used as raw material, since sulphoaluminate along with polymorphs of dicalcium silicate and ferrite phases were detected after firing at 1200 degrees C in an air atmosphere.

  • 29. Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Robinson, Ryan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Blagojevic, J.
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Su, F.
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Assessment of ladle slag as binder alternative for cold bonded briquettes2008In: REWAS 2008: Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology ; held October 12 - 15, 2008 in Cancun, Mexico / [ed] B. Mishra; C. Ludwig; S. Das, Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2008, p. 117-123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold bonded briquetting of steel plant by-products has proven to be a viable recycling alternative concerning technology, economy and environment in both the traditional blast furnace route and the direct reduction process. A critical parameter in cold bonded briquettes is the type and amount of binder used during production. The binder material must meet certain quality requirements concerning low and high temperature strength, chemistry and economy. Currently, SSAB Tunnplåt uses ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as binder in their cold bonded briquettes. In order to improve binder quality and possibly decrease OPC dependency, a binder feasibility study has been conducted concerning an internal by-product, ladle slag, as a supplement and/or partial substitute for OPC. Several characterization techniques have been used to study the behaviour of ladle slag, these include: XRD, XRF, SEM, glass content analysis, calorimetric analysis, particle size distribution and thermochemical stability considerations concerning the CaO-Al2O3-SiO 2 system.

  • 30. Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Robinson, Ryan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Blagojevic, J.
    Su, F.
    Assessment of ladle slag as bnder alternative for cold bonded briquettes2008In: REWAS 2008: Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment / [ed] B. Mishra; C. Ludwig; S. Das, Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2008, p. 117-124Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    SSAB Merox SE-61380 Oxelösund, Sweden.
    Robinson, Ryan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Influence of mineralogy on the hydraulic properties of ladle slag2011In: Cement and Concrete Research, ISSN 0008-8846, E-ISSN 1873-3948, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 865-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is aimed at investigating the hydraulic characteristics of ladle furnace slag (LFS), under the pretence of using LFS as a cement substitute in certain applications. Furthermore, LFS has been considered as a possible activator in a blend containing 50% LFS, and 50% ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). Phases detected in LFS were quantified using Rietveld analysis. Calorimetric studies were performed at 20, 25 and 30 °C in order to calculate the apparent activation energy of hydration and thereby to suggest a kinetic model for the tested compositions within this temperature interval. In addition, compressive strength tests were performed on mortar prisms made with LFS, and LFS/GGBFS which had hydrated for 2, 7 and 28 days. Both compositions reached acceptable early strengths, (e.g. LFS, 33.1 MPa, and LFS/GGBFS, 17.9 MPa, after 2 days), but after 28 days hydration the blend was superior to neat LFS. Related apparent activation energies were determined using an Avrami–Erofeev model and gave Ea = 58 kJ/mol for neat LFS and Ea = 63 kJ/mol for the blend. The results imply that LFS or a LFS/GGBFS blend can be favourably used as supplement in binder applications such as binder in by-product metallurgical briquettes, which are used as recycle to the blast furnace or basic oxygen furnace depending on the specific briquette composition.

  • 32. Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Viggh, Erik O.
    Cementa AB.
    Steelmaking slags as raw material for calcium sulfoaluminate belite cement2005In: Securing the future: international conference on mining and the environment, metals and energy recovery : proceedings, Stockholm: SweMin , 2005, p. 8-Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 33. Affatato, S.
    et al.
    Leardini, W.
    Jedenmalm, Anneli
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Zavalloni, M.
    Ruggeri, O.
    Tarterini, F.
    Viceconti, M.
    Microstructural effects on the wear resistance of CO-CR implant alloys2006In: Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, 2006, p. -951Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modem metal-on-metal articulation have been proposed to reduce the incidence of osteolysis due to polyethylene particles debris, as a late complication. The tribology of large metal-on-metal articulations allows theoretical advantages with respect to other configurations, especially for the lubrication regime. This study was aimed to compare the wear performances of different diameters of clinically available acetabular metallic components manufactured in a cast cobalt-chrome alloy. To evaluate the influence of the material properties of wear and microstructure, metal-on-metal components were tested in a hip joint simulator for five million cycles with bovine calf serum as lubricant. In particular, three different configurations of metal-on-metal components (28-mm, 36-mm, 54-mm) were tested. After the test all specimens were examined with optical and electronic scanning microscope. A statistical difference were observed among the three groups tested in the run-in and steady-state wear rates, favoring the larger femoral heads. The results of this study indicate that the 54-mm diameter femoral heads prove a better wear behavior than the smaller configurations.

  • 34.
    Afshari, Davood
    et al.
    Univ Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran..
    Ghaffari, Ali
    Univ Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran..
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Optimization in the Resistant Spot-Welding Process of AZ61 Magnesium Alloy2022In: Strojniski vestnik, ISSN 0039-2480, Vol. 68, no 7-8, p. 485-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an integrated artificial neural network (ANN) and multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) are developed to optimize the resistance spot welding (RSW) of AZ61 magnesium alloy. Since the stability and strength of a welded joint are strongly dependent on the size of the nugget and the residual stresses created during the welding process, the main purpose of the optimization is to achieve the maximum size of the nugget and minimum tensile residual stress in the weld zone. It is identified that the electrical current, welding time, and electrode force are the main welding parameters affecting the weld quality. The experiments are carried out based on the full factorial design of experiments (DOE). In order to measure the residual stresses, an X-ray diffraction technique is used. Moreover, two separate ANNs are developed to predict the nugget size and the maximum tensile residual stress based on the welding parameters. The ANN is integrated with a multi-objective GA to find the optimum welding parameters. The findings show that the integrated optimization method presented in this study is effective and feasible for optimizing the RSW joints and process.

  • 35.
    Agca, Can
    et al.
    Univ Calif Davis, Peter A Rock Thermochem Lab, Davis, CA 95616 USA.;Oak Ridge Natl Lab, POB 2009, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA..
    Lindwall, Greta
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    McMurray, Jake W.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, POB 2009, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA..
    Neuefeind, Jorg C.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, POB 2009, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA..
    Liu, Zi-Kui
    Penn State Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Navrotsky, Alexandra
    Univ Calif Davis, Peter A Rock Thermochem Lab, Davis, CA 95616 USA.;Arizona State Univ, Ctr Mat Universe, Sch Mol Sci, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA..
    Experimental and computational studies of melting of the spinel phase in the Fe-Al-O ternary system2020In: Calphad, ISSN 0364-5916, E-ISSN 1873-2984, Vol. 70, article id 101798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The melting behavior of spinel in the Fe-Al-O system at high temperatures (1500-1800 degrees C) was studied by a combination of experimental and computational investigations. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) at ultra-high temperatures coupled with cooling traces on CO2 laser-heated levitated samples provided melting temperatures and the heats of fusion of (Fe,Al)(3)O-4 spinel phases. The experimental results are in fair agreement with the predictions using a published CALPHAD description and areas for modeling improvement are identified. New insights into the melting of defect spinel are provided.

  • 36.
    Agetorp, Maria
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Gasdysa till brännugn - driftförhållanden och materialval2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 37.
    Aghasibeig, Maniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Hasse
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Laser cladding of a featureless iron-based alloy2012In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 209, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser cladding experiments with powder injection technique were carried out to create coatings of Fe-8.1Cr6.4Mn-5.3Si-6.9Mo-3.6C alloy on AISI 1018 steel substrates using a diode laser. Analysis of the clad layers showed that an almost featureless structure was formed at different dilutions between 1% and 4%. The featureless phase with a high hardness of 1155 HV was characterized as a metastable solid solution of e phase. However, the featureless structure appeared to be very brittle with numerous cracks. After heat-treatment, it decomposed into a bainitic structure with a high hardness of 884 HV.

  • 38.
    Ahlberg, E.
    et al.
    Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology;University of Göteborg.
    Forssberg, K. S. Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Wang, Xianghuai
    Luleå University of Technology.
    The surface oxidation of pyrite in alkaline solution1990In: Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, ISSN 0021-891X, E-ISSN 1572-8838, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1033-1039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The collector-less flotation of pyrite has been studied by conventional techniques and is correlated to the electrochemical behaviour of pyrite in alkaline solution (1m NaClO4, pH 11). It was concluded that the initial oxidation of pyrite produces a hydrophobic sulphur rich surface together with hydrophilic iron hydroxide species. Also upon grinding, the surface is covered by hydrophilic species and therefore no significant flotation was obtained in the absence of a collector. However, collectorless flotation was readily obtained in an iron complexing solution like EDTA. This indicates that the remaining sulphur-rich layer is responsible for the floatability of pyrite under these conditions.

  • 39.
    Ahlgren, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Hayek, Elias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Evaluation and Characterisation of Non-metallic Inclusions for Clogging Problems: Experiments Conducted by Electrolytic Extraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Clogging of the nozzle and tundish during the continuous casting of Al-killed steel is a common issue in the industry due to clogging caused by alumina and other non-metallic inclusions. To investigate this effect, four samples from the production of Al-killed steel (0.95-1 wt% C and undergoing vacuum degassing) were analysed. The first sample was taken before vacuum degassing, the second sample was taken after vacuum degassing, the third sample at the start of continuous casting and the fourth sample during continuous casting. These samples were examined using a scanning electron microscope combined with electrolytic extraction.

    A total of 16 alumina inclusions, which can directly lead to clogging, were found. Most of these alumina inclusions were present in the first and fourth samples, indicating that the inclusions before vacuum degassing and during continuous casting contribute most significantly to clogging. Additionally, the alumina inclusions in the fourth sample were larger than those in the first sample, suggesting that these initial inclusions pose a greater risk of clogging. The alumina inclusions had a globular/regular morphology, which is consistent with the literature review.

    Furthermore, inclusions containing magnesium oxide, calcium oxide and calcium sulphide were found, however, it is difficult to conclude how these inclusions affect clogging.

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  • 40.
    Ahlgren Peters, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    A SIMULATION WITH FINITE ELEMENTS TO MODEL STEEL SHEET SLITTING: A Master Thesis in Engineering Physics2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A steel slitting process is simulated using FEM (Finite Element Method) in order to see potential defects along the edge in a steel sheet after it has been cut. The model's results were compared to microscope images of the steel sheet in order to verify accuracy. The purpose is conceptual and to find a model that successfully simulates a steel cutting process and (hopefully) how the edge depends on different parameters. The model developed seems to achieve this task, and a more thorough calibration of the model could result in (more) optimal parameters for the machine to use.

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  • 41.
    Ahlin, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Gärdin, Marcus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Automated Classification of Steel Samples: An investigation using Convolutional Neural Networks2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automated image recognition software has earlier been used for various analyses in the steel making industry. In this study, the possibility to apply such software to classify Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of two steel samples was investigated. The two steel samples were of the same steel grade but with the difference that they had been treated with calcium for a different length of time. 

    To enable automated image recognition, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) was built. The construction of the software was performed with open source code provided by Keras Documentation, thus ensuring an easily reproducible program. The network was trained, validated and tested, first for non-binarized images and then with binarized images. Binarized images were used to ensure that the network's prediction only considers the inclusion information and not the substrate.

    The non-binarized images gave a classification accuracy of 99.99 %. For the binarized images, the classification accuracy obtained was 67.9%.  The results show that it is possible to classify steel samples using CNNs. One interesting aspect of the success in classifying steel samples is that further studies on CNNs could enable automated classification of inclusions. 

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  • 42.
    Ahlin, Björn T. I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Nitrogen Removal in a Vacuum Tank Degasser: An Investigation on the Nitrogen Removal Performance2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The impending change of processes at SSAB Oxelösund due to the HYBRIT project, where the blast furnace and LD converter are to be replaced with an EAF will have a significant impact on the manufacturing of steel in Oxelösund. One issue that will arise is the nitrogen content in the steel. Sources claim that the nitrogen content in steel from an EAF route is substantially larger, 60-70 ppm, than in steel from a blast furnace and LD converter route, which have a nitrogen content of around 25 ppm. Therefore, the nitrogen removal capabilities of SSAB Oxelösund’s vacuum tank degasser were to be examined. Industrial trials were performed where the amount of slag during vacuum treatment was lowered. The intention was that half the amount of slag removed prior to vacuum treatment and later completely slag free. This was performed in an attempt to increase the effective reaction area, where nitrogen removal occurs. Due to some practical problems with the steel mill, the industrial trial were unfortunately cut short. Consequently, only trials with half the amount of slag were performed and compared to existing process data for standard praxis. Also, nitrogen removal calculations based on the industrial data were performed. A parameter representing the overall reaction rate, which is dependent on effective reaction area was obtained, validated and subsequently applied to a future case scenario. The results indicate that the reduction in slag amount does have the desired effect, increasing the said area and increasing the rate of nitrogen removal. However, the sample size is not nearly sufficient enough to determine this definitively. The conclusions reached were that the facility does have the possibility to decrease the increased nitrogen content down to reasonable levels, around 20-30 ppm. Albeit, an increase in vacuum treatment time is probably required. Another conclusion was that surface active elements, such as oxygen and sulphur greatly reduce the nitrogen removal. Therefore, efforts should be taken to remove these elements prior to vacuum treatment. In addition, it was established that the effective reaction area is of great importance for a successful nitrogen removal. Therefore, actions to maximise this area should be taken. Finally, it was stated that further research is necessary in order to fully understand nitrogen contamination prevention- and removal techniques

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  • 43.
    Ahlqvist, Max
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    23 full factorial heat treatment experiment on Cu-Ni-Mo alloyed ADI: A literature study in HCF-VHCF properties of ADI and heat treatment experiments using a 23 full factorial design for potentially improved very high cycle fatigue strength2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing knowledge and suggesting new heat treatment parameters for improved very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) strength of austempered ductile iron (ADI) are the main purposes of this thesis. The work was performed within Epiroc a mining and infrastructure company. They have performed internal research on VHCF properties of ADI had previously for one set of heat treatment parameters. The scientific community in contrast have extensively studied fatigue properties of ADI in the low to high cycle regime (≤108 cycles) but only scarcely in the VHCF regime (>108 cycles). Therefor the thesis is built upon the hypothesis: ‘Improvements in HCF strength should also mean improvements in VHCF strength’. Enabling utilization of published research on heat treatment effects on fatigue strength in the HCF regime (≥107 cycles).

    Finding an efficient way of exploring heat treatment parameters and their effects on the given Cu-Ni-Mo ADI alloy were a main objective. Thus, finding mechanical- and material properties characteristic for high cycle fatigue strength in the HCF regime became crucial. The potential in using these properties to develop and execute an experimental plan to evaluate heat treatments, yet minimizing the amount of fatigue testing required.

    The first step was identifying the heat treatment parameters (and parameter ranges) that showed high HCF strength, which are: Austempering temperature (Taus), austempering time (taus) and austenitization temperature (Tγ). Then finding the characteristic mechanical- and material properties for said high HCF strength material, found to be: high- ductility, unnotched impact energy and volume fraction of carbon stabilized austenite (VRA). With both heat treatment parameters, mechanical- and material properties distinctive of high HCF strength material an experimental plan was developed based on a full factorial design (23). The factorial design was chosen for its simplicity and inherent strengths, especially as both individual and interaction effects can be estimated for all factors (heat treatment parameters). Two levels (23), one high and one low, for each of the three factors (23) were determined necessary, giving a total of 8 heat treatment trials. The primary response variables of interest (evaluated properties) for each heat treatment trial were: ductility, unnotched impact energy and volume fraction of carbon stabilized austenite. Meaning usage of the following tests: Tensile testing, impact energy testing, and X-ray diffraction. Specimens for testing were extracted from austempered Y-block type III, initially cast by a commercial foundry with an Epiroc specified chemical composition. The main and interaction effects from the heat treatment parameters on the response variables were both calculated and visually determined. The experimental data was validated against literature found data for similar heat treatments. The evaluated experimental results showed good correlation with literature for the given chemical composition. Ultimately resulting in recommendations for a new heat treatment parameters for improved high cycle fatigue strength.

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  • 44.
    Ahmad, Yousef
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Oxidation of Graphite and Metallurgical Coke: A Numerical Study with an Experimental Approach2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At the royal institute of technology (KTH) in the department of applied process metallurgy, a novel modelling approach has been developed which allows a dynamic coupling between the commercial thermodynamic software Thermo-Calc and the commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software Ansys Fluent, only referred to as Fluent in the study. The dynamic coupling approach is used to provide numerical CFD-models with thermodynamic data for the thermo-physical properties and for the fluid-fluid chemical reactions occurring in metallurgical processes. The main assumption forthe dynamic coupling approach is the existence of local equilibrium in each computational cell. By assuming local equilibrium in each computational cell it is possible to use thermodynamic data from thermodynamic databases instead of kinetic data to numerically simulate chemical reactions. The dynamic coupling approach has been used by previous studies to numerically simulate chemical reactions in metallurgical processes with good results. In order to validate the dynamic coupling approach further, experimental data is required regarding surface reactions. In this study, a graphiteand metallurgical coke oxidation experimental setup was suggested in order to provide the needed experimental data. With the experimental data, the ability of the dynamic couplings approach to numerically predict the outcome of surface reactions can be tested.By reviewing the literature, the main experimental apparatus suggested for the oxidationexperiments was a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA). The TGA can provide experimental data regarding the reaction rate, kinetic parameters and mass loss as a function of both temperature and time. An experimental setup and procedure were also suggested.In order to test the ability of Fluent to numerically predict the outcome of surface reactions, without any implementation of thermodynamic data from Thermo-Calc, a benchmarking has been conducted. Fluent is benchmarked against graphite oxidation experiments conducted by Kim and No from the Korean advanced institute of science and technology (KAIST). The experimental graphite oxidation rates were compared with the numerically calculated graphite oxidation rates obtained from Fluent. A good match between the experimental graphite oxidation rates and the numerically calculated graphite oxidation rates were obtained. A parameter study was also conducted in order to study the effect of mass diffusion, gas flow rate and the kinetic parameters on the numerically calculated graphite oxidation rate. The results of the parameter study were partially supported by previous graphite oxidation studies. Thus, Fluent proved to be a sufficient numerical tool for numerically predicting the outcome of surface reactions regarding graphite oxidation at zero burn-off degree.

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  • 45.
    Ahmadi, R.
    et al.
    Iran Mineral Processing Research Centre (IMPRC), Karaj.
    Hashemzadehfini, M.
    Iran Mineral Processing Research Centre (IMPRC), Karaj.
    Parian, Mehdi Amiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Rapid determination of Bond rod-mill work index by modeling the grinding kinetics2013In: Advanced Powder Technology, ISSN 0921-8831, E-ISSN 1568-5527, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 441-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generally, Bond work index is a common method for selecting comminution equipment as well as estimation of grinding efficiency and calculating required power. In the current research, a simple, fast and accurate procedure is introduced to find the rod-mill work index based on the conventional Bond work index. The grinding experiments were carried out on four typical samples of iron, copper, manganese and lead–zinc ore with three test-sieves in specified time periods and aimed to shortening the procedure. Furthermore, the grinding kinetics and mass balance equations were applied to model the standard Bond rod-mill work index. For comparing the standard Bond rod-mill work index and the new modeled method, work index (Wi) and produced fine particles in a cycle (Gi) for the four samples determined. The performed paired Student’s t-test results indicated that the Standard Deviation for Gi and Wi obtained by the shortened method are respectively 0.50 and 0.58 in respect of traditional Bond method.

  • 46.
    Ahmadkhaniha, Donya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Ascani, D.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    High entropy alloy deposition from an aqueous bath2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Ahmadkhaniha, Donya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Huang, Yi
    Materials Research Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Jaskari, Matias
    Kerttu Saalasti Institute, University of Oulu, Nivala, Finland.
    Järvenpää, Antti
    Kerttu Saalasti Institute, University of Oulu, Nivala, Finland.
    Sohi, Mahmoud Heydarzadeh
    School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Karjalainen, L. Pentti
    Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Langdon, Terence G.
    Materials Research Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Effect of high-pressure torsion on microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of cast pure Mg2018In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 53, no 24, p. 16585-16597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-pressure torsion (HPT) processing was applied to cast pure magnesium, and the effects of the deformation on the microstructure, hardness, tensile properties and corrosion resistance were evaluated. The microstructures of the processed samples were examined by electron backscatter diffraction, and the mechanical properties were determined by Vickers hardness and tensile testing. The corrosion resistance was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a 3.5% NaCl solution. The results show that HPT processing effectively refines the grain size of Mg from millimeters in the cast structure to a few micrometers after processing and also creates a basal texture on the surface. It was found that one or five turns of HPT produced no significant difference in the grain size of the processed Mg and the hardness was a maximum after one turn due to recovery in some grains. Measurements showed that the yield strength of the cast Mg increased by about seven times whereas the corrosion resistance was not significantly affected by the HPT processing. 

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  • 48.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    Skolan för industriell teknik och management, Kungliga Tekniska högskolan.
    Investigations of the Kinetics of Reduction and Reduction/Carburization of NiO-WO3 Precursors.2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Kinetic studies of reduction of the mixtures of NiO and WO3 having different Ni/(Ni+W) molar ratios in flowing hydrogen gas were investigated by means of Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fluidized Bed (FB) technique as well as Thermal diffusivity measurements under isothermal conditions. In the case of TGA, the reaction progress was monitored by mass loss, while evolved gas analysis by a gas chromatograph was the indicator of the reaction progress in the case of FB. The results indicate that the reduction reaction proceeds through three consecutive steps, viz.NiO-WO3 Ni-WO3 Ni-WO2 Ni-WThe present results show that the fluidized bed technique can be successfully utilized in bulk production of intermetallics containing W and a transition metal (or a composite material) wherein the process conditions would have a strong impact on the particle size of the end product.During the investigations, it was found that there was a delay in the reaction during the hydrogen reduction of NiO-WO3 mixed oxides in a fluidized bed reactor. In order to understand the same, a theoretical model was developed to estimate the apparent reaction rate constant for the reduction reaction from the intrinsic chemical reaction rate constant. Appropriate differential mass balance equations based on intrinsic chemical reaction rate constants and thermodynamic equilibria were developed. The proposed model was successfully applied in predicting the overall reaction kinetics of a fluidized bed reactor. This model is also suitable for scale-up calculations.SEM images showed that the particle size of the final product was dependent on the Ni/(Ni+W) molar ratio; smaller particles were formed at higher nickel contents. X-ray diffractions of the reduced precursors exhibited slight shift of Ni peaks from the standard one indicating the dissolution of W into Ni.A new method for studying kinetics of the hydrogen reduction of NiO-WO3 precursors was developed in which the reaction progress was monitored by following the change of thermal diffusivity of the precursors. Activation energies of reduction as well as sintering were calculated. This method is considered unique as it provides information regarding the physical changes like sintering, change of porosity and agglomeration along with the chemical changes occurring during the gas/solid reaction.As a continuation of the kinetic studies, Ni-W-C ternary carbides were synthesized by simultaneous reduction–carburization of Ni-W-O system using H2-CH4 gas mixtures by TGA. The results showed that the reduction of the oxide mixture was complete before the carburization took place. The nascent particles of the metals formed by reduction could react with the gas mixture with well-defined carbon potential to form a uniform product of Ni-W-C. The above-mentioned experiments were conducted in such a way to ensure that the reaction was controlled by the chemical reaction. The activation energies of the reduction as well as carburization processes at different stages were calculated accordingly.The present dissertation demonstrates the potential of the investigations of gas/solid reactions towards tailoring the process towards materials with optimized properties as for example introduction of interstitials. The present process design is extremely environment-friendly with reduced number of unit processes and the product being H2O.

  • 49.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering. Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo, Egypt.
    New Trends in The Application of Carbon-Bearing Materials in Blast Furnace Iron-Making2018In: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The iron and steel industry is still dependent on fossil coking coal. About 70% of the total steel production relies directly on fossil coal and coke inputs. Therefore, steel production contributes by ~7% of the global CO2 emission. The reduction of CO2 emission has been given highest priority by the iron- and steel-making sector due to the commitment of governments to mitigate CO2 emission according to Kyoto protocol. Utilization of auxiliary carbonaceous materials in the blast furnace and other iron-making technologies is one of the most efficient options to reduce the coke consumption and, consequently, the CO2 emission. The present review gives an insight of the trends in the applications of auxiliary carbon-bearing material in iron-making processes. Partial substitution of top charged coke by nut coke, lump charcoal, or carbon composite agglomerates were found to not only decrease the dependency on virgin fossil carbon, but also improve the blast furnace performance and increase the productivity. Partial or complete substitution of pulverized coal by waste plastics or renewable carbon-bearing materials like waste plastics or biomass help in mitigating the CO2 emission due to its high H2 content compared to fossil carbon. Injecting such reactive materials results in improved combustion and reduced coke consumption. Moreover, utilization of integrated steel plant fines and gases becomes necessary to achieve profitability to steel mill operation from both economic and environmental aspects. Recycling of such results in recovering the valuable components and thereby decrease the energy consumption and the need of landfills at the steel plants as well as reduce the consumption of virgin materials and reduce CO2 emission. On the other hand, developed technologies for iron-making rather than blast furnace opens a window and provide a good opportunity to utilize auxiliary carbon-bearing materials that are difficult to utilize in conventional blast furnace iron-making.

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  • 50.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Andersson, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    El-Tawil, Asmaa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lotfian, Samira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Alternative Carbon Sources for Reduction2015Conference paper (Other academic)
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