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  • 1.
    Abbas, Zeshan
    et al.
    Shenzhen Polytechnic University, China.
    Deng, Jianxiong
    Shenzhen Polytechnic University, China.
    Zhao, Lun
    Shenzhen Polytechnic University, China.
    Islam, Md. Shafiqul
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Surface-conformed approach for mechanical property analysis using ultrasonic welding of dissimilar metals2024In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 132, no 7-8, p. 3447-3466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, dissimilar aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) metals were joined together using ultrasonic metal welding (USMW), a solid-state welding technology. From the perspective of increasing the base metal welding contact area, the Cu/Al mating surface was innovatively prepared and ultrasonically welded. A comprehensive analysis was carried out on the forming quality, welding process temperature, interface structure, and mechanical properties of the welded joint. Defect-free and squeezed welds were successfully achieved by machining novel patterns especially C4-2. The results indicated that the reference joint can withstand higher loads, but its failure mode is very unstable. Failure may occur at welded interface and on the aluminum plate which is not good for actual production applications. Welded strength of reference joint was 4493 N, and the welded strength of C4-2 joint was 3691 N. However, microscopic analysis discovered that the welded joint internal morphology in C4-2 was more stable and hardest. C4-2 joint has successfully achieved higher tensile strength and stability under failure displacement of 38% which is higher than C4-1 joint. All welded joint failures occurred on aluminum plate, indicating that the joint strength is higher than that of bottom plate. This is attributed to unique structural design of chiseled joint and lesser thickness. SEM–EDS results investigated that the C4-2 joint can transfer more energy to area under welding head which provides welded joint with robust diffusion capacity. The transition layer has a higher thickness while the energy transferred to area away from welding head was smaller. Thickness of transition layer is significantly reduced and reference joint has similar diffusion characteristics. Conversely, the thickness of the transition layer at the corresponding position is smaller than that of pattern morphology. This is due to overall smaller thickness of the pattern joint which is more conducive to the transfer of welding energy. The surface-conformed approach and comprehensive temperature analysis provide a new understanding of USMW in dissimilar welded metals. © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2024.

  • 2.
    Abbas, Zeshan
    et al.
    Shenzhen Polytechnic University, China.
    Teng, Fan
    Shenzhen Polytechnic University, China.
    Zhao, Lun
    Shenzhen Polytechnic University, China.
    Islam, Md. Shafiqul
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Influence of Patterns on Mechanical Properties of Ultrasonically Welded Joints in Copper Substrate and Wire2024In: Metals and Materials International, ISSN 1598-9623, E-ISSN 2005-4149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic wire welding is considered a method of choice for creating reliable interconnects in electronics industry including aerospace, batteries and electric vehicles. In this paper, ultrasonic welding tests between EVR252 copper wire and substrate are carried out. Novel pattern morphologies are machined on substrates to explore its influence on mechanical properties of welded joint. Patterns are divided into three different categories e.g., original surface, vertical and horizontal shapes. Cracks, microstructure strength and tensile properties of welded joint are studied and its joining mechanism is analysed. Compared with the reference substrate (S1), the welded joint performance of the longitudinal patterns (S2, S3, S4) has been improved, among which the longitudinal pattern (S4) has the most significant improvement (+ 15%). Likewise, the performance of transverse pattern (S5) welded joints is relatively poor (− 16%). The microstructural analysis using SEM has revealed predominant joint strength on Cu wire surface while maintaining rock-like and compact properties of S4 substrate. Upper side of wire-harness compactness is frequently observed due to vertical direction of patterns on substrate and also increases the strength of welded joint. Values of failure load, failure displacement and failure energy absorption were increased by 7.9%, 72% and 35% for S2, 6.1%, 75% and 42% for S3 and 15%, 87% and 113% for S4 compared to S1. Failure modes of welded joints are mainly characterized into: 1-poor ductility or rupture (no deformation) failure in vertical 3-line pattern joints 2-cylindrical deep holes failure in vertical 3-line zigzag pattern joints and 3-bulging effect failure in horizontal 3-line zigzag pattern joints. Point and line scans EDS measurement were performed to investigate weaker and stable trends of different locations in welded joints. In S4 substrate, 17.9% carbon content at the position of welded joint was investigated, leading to content of less oxides and fraction impurities. However, S1 weld zone contains 38.7% carbon content which can weaken welded joint and reduce durability. Graphical Abstract: (Figure presented.). © The Author(s) under exclusive licence to The Korean Institute of Metals and Materials 2024.

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  • 3.
    Abdulla, Hind
    et al.
    Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Engn Syst & Management, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.;Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Adv Digital & Addit Mfg Ctr, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    An, Heungjo
    Kumoh Natl Inst Technol, Sch Ind Engn, Gumi 39177, South Korea..
    Barsoum, Imad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Adv Digital & Addit Mfg Ctr, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.;Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Mech Engn, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Maalouf, Maher
    Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Engn Syst & Management, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.;Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Res Ctr Digital Supply Chain & Operat, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Mathematical Modeling of Multi-Performance Metrics and Process Parameter Optimization in Laser Powder Bed Fusion2022In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 12, no 12, article id 2098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to develop mathematical models to improve multi-performance metrics, such as relative density and operating costs, in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), also known as selective laser melting, a metallic additive manufacturing technique, by optimizing the printing process parameters. The work develops a data-driven model for relative density based on measurements and an analytical model for operating costs related to the process parameters. Optimization models are formulated to maximize relative density or minimize operating costs by determining the optimal set of process parameters, while meeting a target level of the other performance metrics (i.e., relative density or operating costs). Furthermore, new metrics are devised to test the sensitivity of the optimization solutions, which are used in a novel robust optimization model to acquire less sensitive process parameters. The sensitivity analysis examines the effect of varying some parameters on the relative density of the fabricated specimens. Samples with a relative density greater than 99% and a machine operating cost of USD 1.00 per sample can be produced, utilizing a combination of low laser power (100 W), high scan speed (444 mm/s), moderate layer thickness (0.11 mm), and large hatch distance (0.4 mm). This is the first work to investigate the relationship between the quality of the fabricated samples and operating cost in the LPBF process. The formulated robust optimization model achieved less sensitive parameter values that may be more suitable for real operations. The equations used in the models are verified via 10-fold cross-validation, and the predicted results are further verified by comparing them with the experimental data in the literature. The multi-performance optimization models and framework presented in this study can pave the way for other additive manufacturing techniques and material grades for successful industrial-level implementation.

  • 4.
    Abolhasani, Hasanali
    et al.
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Farzi, Gholamali
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Davoodi, Ali
    Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 917751111, Iran.
    Vakili-Azghandi, Mojtaba
    Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Gonabad, Gonabad, 96919-57678, Iran.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Development of self-healable acrylic water-based environmental-friendly coating as an alternative to chromates coatings2023In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 176, article id 107402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, different coating systems, including solvent-based epoxy and water-based acrylic resins, were evaluated for their potential as an alternative to chromate coatings in order to avoid Cr(VI) toxic hazards. The resins were used as either pigment-free coatings or were formulated with 20-wt% zinc/aluminum pigments. The coatings were subsequently applied on galvanized ST12 steel plates and their corrosion resistance was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) evaluations. The effect of the binder and pigment type on the impact resistance of two different polymeric coatings was also evaluated. The results of impact tests revealed completely peeled film from the substrate for epoxy coatings. However, under the same experimental conditions, very few small cracks were created in water-based acrylic coatings for both pigmented and pigment-free cases. In addition, some other parameters such as drying time and coating cost were taken into account to select a good alternative to chromate coatings. The results of this work can facilitate the introduction of an inexpensive environmentally friendly acrylic coating as a promising self-healing alternative to chromate coating.

  • 5.
    Abou Nada, Fahed
    et al.
    Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Combustion Physics, Box 118, Lund, Swede.
    Lantz, Andreas
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Larfeldt, Jenny
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Alden, Marcus
    Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Combustion Physics, Box 118, Lund, Swede.
    Richter, Mattias
    Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Combustion Physics, Box 118, Lund, Swede.
    Remote temperature sensing on and beneath atmospheric plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings using thermographic phosphors2016In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 302, p. 359-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations on remote temperature sensing of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) at the surface and at the bond-coat/top-coat interface were carried out. Using Y2O3:Eu thermographic phosphor as an embedded temperature sensing layer, sub-surface temperature probing through 300 mu m of atmospheric plasma sprayed YSZ is demonstrated. The Y2O3:Eu thermographic phosphor displays a temperature sensitivity ranging between 400 degrees C up to a maximum of 900 degrees C when utilizing the luminescence originating from the 611 nm emission band. Dysprosium stabilized zirconia (10 wt.% DySZ), a TBC material, is also investigated and established as a temperature sensor from 400 degrees C up to a temperature of 1000 degrees C using both the intensity decay time and emission intensity ratio methods. In addition, the luminescence of presumed optically inactive YSZ materials was spectroscopically investigated in terms of optical interferences caused by impurities. A validation temperature probing measurement through 300 mu m of YSZ top-coat was successfully performed in a SGT-800 Siemens burner running at six different operating conditions in an atmospheric combustion rig. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Rask, Kjell
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Fältholm, Ylva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Projekt: LUPO - globala länkar2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Knutsson, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tasnádi, Ferenc
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lind, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phase Stability and Elasticity of TiAlN2011In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 4, no 9, p. 1599-1618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review results of recent combined theoretical and experimental studies of Ti1−xAlxN, an archetypical alloy system material for hard-coating applications. Theoretical simulations of lattice parameters, mixing enthalpies, and elastic properties are presented. Calculated phase diagrams at ambient pressure, as well as at pressure of 10 GPa, show a wide miscibility gap and broad region of compositions and temperatures where the spinodal decomposition takes place. The strong dependence of the elastic properties and sound wave anisotropy on the Al-content offers detailed understanding of the spinodal decomposition and age hardening in Ti1−xAlxN alloy films and multilayers. TiAlN/TiN multilayers can further improve the hardness and thermal stability compared to TiAlN since they offer means to influence the kinetics of the favorable spinodal decomposition and suppress the detrimental transformation to w-AlN. Here, we show that a 100 degree improvement in terms of w-AlN suppression can be achieved, which is of importance when the coating is used as a protective coating on metal cutting inserts.

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  • 8.
    Acharya, Sarthak
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Sattar, Shahid
    Department of Physics & Electrical Engineering, Linnæus University, 39231 Kalmar, Sweden.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Detailed Characterization of a Fully-Additive Covalent Bonded PCB Manufacturing Process (SBU-CBM Method)2022In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To bridge the technology gap between IC-level and board-level fabrications, a fully additive selective metallization has already been demonstrated in the literature. In this article, the surface characterization of each step involved in the fabrication process is outlined with bulk metallization of the surface. This production technique has used polyurethane as epoxy resin and proprietary grafting chemistry to functionalize the surface with covalent bonds on an FR-4 base substrate. The surface was then metalized using an electroless copper (Cu) bath. This sequential growth of layers on top of each other using an actinic laser beam and palladium (Pd) ions to deposit Cu is analyzed. State-of-the-art material characterization techniques were employed to investigate process mechanism at the interfaces. Density functional theory calculations were performed to validate the experimental evidence of covalent bonding of the layers. This manufacturing approach is capable of adding metallic layers in a selective manner to the printed circuit boards at considerably lower temperatures. A complete analysis of the process using bulk deposition of the materials is illustrated in this work.

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  • 9.
    Adane, Tigist
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology. KTH.
    Nicolescu, Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Towards a Generic Framework for the Performance Evaluation of Manufacturing Strategy: An Innovative Approach2018In: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, ISSN 2504-4494, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 131-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To be competitive in a manufacturing environment by providing optimal performance in terms of cost-effectiveness and swiftness of system changes, there is a need for flexible production systems based on a well-defined strategy. Companies are steadily looking for methodology to evaluate, improve and update the performance of manufacturing systems for processing operations. Implementation of an adequate strategy for these systems’ flexibility requires a deep understanding of the intricate interactions between the machining process parameters and the manufacturing system’s operational parameters. This paper proposes a framework/generic model for one of the most common metal cuttingoperations—the boring process of an engine block machining system. A system dynamics modelling approach is presented for modelling the structure of machining system parameters of the boring process, key performance parameters and their intrinsic relationships. The model is based on a case study performed in a company manufacturing engine blocks for heavy vehicles. The approach could allow for performance evaluation of an engine block manufacturing system condition. The presented model enables a basis for other similar processes and industries producing discrete parts.

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    Towards a Generic Framework for the Performance Evaluation of Manufacturing Strategy: An Innovative Approach
  • 10.
    Adegoke, Olutayo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Processability of Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Alloy 247LC: Influence of process parameters on microstructure and defects2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) of the nickel-based superalloy: Alloy 247LC. Alloy 247LC is used mainly in gas turbine blades and processing the blades with L-PBF confers performance advantage over the blades manufactured with conventional methods. This is mainly because L-PBF is more suitable, than conventional methods, for manufacturing the complex cooling holes in the blades. The research was motivated by the need for academia and industry to gain knowledge about the processability of the alloy using L-PBF. The knowledge is essential in order to eventually solve the problem of cracking which is a major problem when manufacturing the alloy. In addition, dense parts with low void content should be manufactured and the parts should meet the required performance. Thus, the thesis answered some of the important questions related to process parameter-microstructure-defect relationships.

    The thesis presented an introduction in chapter 1. A literature review was made in chapter 2 to 4. In chapter 2, the topic of additive manufacturing was introduced followed by an overview of laser powder bed fusion. Chapter 3 focused on superalloys. Here, a review was made from the broader perspective of superalloys but was eventually narrowed down to the characteristics of nickelbased superalloys and finally Alloy 247LC. Chapter 4 reviewed the main research on L-PBF of Alloy 247LC. The methodology applied in the thesis was discussed in chapter 5. The thesis applied statistical design of experiments to show the influence of process parameters on the defects and microstructure, so a detail description of the method was warranted. This was given at the beginning of chapter 5 and followed by the description of the L-PBF manufacturing and the characterization methods. The main results and discussions, in chapter 6, included a preliminary investigation on how the process parameters influenced the amount of discontinuity in single track samples. This was followed by the results and discussions on the investigation of voids, cracks and microhardness in cube samples (detail presentation was given in the attached paper B). Finally, the thesis presented results of the microstructure obtainable in L-PBF manufactured Alloy 247LC. The initial results of the microstructure investigation were presented in paper A.

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  • 11.
    Adegoke, Olutayo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Processability of Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Alloy 247LC-Influence of process parameters on microstructure and defects2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) of the nickel-basedsuperalloy Alloy 247LC. Alloy 247LC is mainly used in gas turbine blades and processing the blades with L-PBF may confer performance advantage over the blades manufactured with conventional methods. This is mainly because L-PBFis more suitable, than conventional methods, for manufacturing the complex cooling holes in the blades. The research was motivated by the need for academia and industry to gain knowledge about the processability of the alloy using L-PBF. The knowledge is essential to eventually solve the problem of cracking encountered when processing the alloy. In addition, dense parts with low void content should be processed and the microstructure and properties should meett he required performance. Heat-treatment is usually performed to acquire final properties, so it is also of interest to study this aspect. Thus, the thesis answered some of the important questions related to process parameter-microstructure- property relationships.

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  • 12.
    Adegoke, Olutayo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Brodin, Håkan
    Materials Technology Additive Manufacturing Product Development-Industrial Gas Turbines, Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery, Finspång, SE-612 83, Sweden.
    Pederson, Robert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Influence of laser powder bed fusion process parameters on voids, cracks, and microhardness of nickel-based superalloy alloy 247LC2020In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 17, article id 3770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing of parts from nickel-based superalloy Alloy 247LC by laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) is challenging, primarily owing to the alloy’s susceptibility to cracks. Apart from the cracks, voids created during the L-PBF process should also be minimized to produce dense parts. In this study, samples of Alloy 247LC were manufactured by L-PBF, several of which could be produced with voids and crack density close to zero. A statistical design of experiments was used to evaluate the influence of the process parameters, namely laser power, scanning speed, and hatch distance (inherent to the volumetric energy density) on void formation, crack density, and microhardness of the samples. The window of process parameters, in which minimum voids and/or cracks were present, was predicted. It was shown that the void content increased steeply at a volumetric energy density threshold below 81 J/mm3. The crack density, on the other hand, increased steeply at a volumetric energy density threshold above 163 J/mm3. The microhardness displayed a relatively low value in three samples which displayed the lowest volumetric energy density and highest void content. It was also observed that two samples, which displayed the highest volumetric energy density and crack density, demonstrated a relatively high microhardness; which could be a vital evidence in future investigations to determine the fundamental mechanism of cracking. The laser power was concluded to be the strongest and statistically most significant process parameter that influenced void formation and microhardness. The interaction of laser power and hatch distance was the strongest and most significant factor that influenced the crack density. © 2020 by the authors.

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  • 13.
    Adegoke, Olutayo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Brodin, Håkan
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery, Finspång, 612 83, Sweden.
    Pederson, Robert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Review of laser powder bed fusion of gamma-prime-strengthened nickel-based superalloys2020In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews state of the art laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) manufacturing of γ′ nickel-based superalloys. L-PBF resembles welding; therefore, weld-cracking mechanisms, such as solidification, liquation, strain age, and ductility-dip cracking, may occur during L-PBF manufacturing. Spherical pores and lack-of-fusion voids are other defects that may occur in γ′-strengthened nickel-based superalloys manufactured with L-PBF. There is a correlation between defect formation and the process parameters used in the L-PBF process. Prerequisites for solidification cracking include nonequilibrium solidification due to segregating elements, the presence of liquid film between cells, a wide critical temperature range, and the presence of thermal or residual stress. These prerequisites are present in L-PBF processes. The phases found in L-PBF-manufactured γ′-strengthened superalloys closely resemble those of the equivalent cast materials, where γ, γ′, and γ/γ′ eutectic and carbides are typically present in the microstructure. Additionally, the sizes of the γ′ particles are small in as-built L-PBF materials because of the high cooling rate. Furthermore, the creep performance of L-PBF-manufactured materials is inferior to that of cast material because of the presence of defects and the small grain size in the L-PBF materials; however, some vertically built L-PBF materials have demonstrated creep properties that are close to those of cast materials.© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 14.
    Adegoke, Olutayo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Brodin, Håkan
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery, 612 83, Finspång (SWE).
    Pederson, Robert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Harlin, Peter
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Sandvik Additive Manufacturing, Sandviken (SWE).
    Influence of laser powder bed fusion process parameters on the microstructure and cracking susceptibility of nickel-based superalloy Alloy 247LC2022In: Results in Materials, E-ISSN 2590-048X, Vol. 13, article id 100256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructures of material conditions of nickel-based superalloy Alloy 247LC fabricated using laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) were investigated. Experiments designed in a prior study revealed the L-PBF process parameters for which the material conditions displayed a reduced susceptibility to cracking. Certain process parameters produced material conditions with an increased susceptibility to cracking. In this study, the material conditions were investigated in detail to reveal their microstructure and to determine the cause of cracking. The reason for the transition between a reduced to an increased susceptibility to cracking was examined. The results revealed solidification cracking occurred at high-angle grain boundaries. Solidification cracking may have been promoted at high-angle grain boundaries because of the undercooling contribution of the grain boundary energy. Furthermore, Si segregation was observed in the cracks. Thus, the presence of Si most likely promoted solidification cracking. It was observed that a high crack density, which occurred in the high energy density material condition, was associated with a large average grain size. The fact that certain combination of process parameters produced microstructures with a low susceptibility to cracking, indicates that reliable Alloy 247LC material may be printed using L-PBF by employing improved process parameters. © 2022

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  • 15.
    Adegoke, Olutayo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Ojo, Olanrewaju A.
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Brodin, Håkan
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspang, Sweden .
    Pederson, Robert
    GKN Aerospace, Redditch, United Kingdom.
    Laser beam powder bed fusion and post processing of alloy 247LC2019In: MS and T 2019 - Materials Science and Technology, Materials Science and Technology , 2019, p. 27-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alloy 247LC is sensitive to cracking during laser beam powder bed fusion (PBF-LB) manufacturing. Post processing is thus required to close cracks and achieve desired properties. In this study, samples of Alloy 247LC were manufactured by PBF-LB and subsequently post processed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), HIP + solution and ageing heat treatments. The microstructure was characterized. Results showed cracks in the as-built condition. Cracks were not detected after HIP. Bright microconstituents were observed in the region between the cells, mainly, because of the partitioning of Hf and Ta into the intercellular region, where they presumably form carbides. What is assumed to be oxides were prominent in the microstructure. Thermodynamic calculations showed rapid formation of ?’ precipitates in the alloy, due to the high total concentration of Al and Ta and this was linked to the high hardness values in the as-built condition. © 2019 MS&T19®

  • 16.
    Adegoke, Olutayo
    et al.
    Siemens Energy, Finspång (SWE).
    Kumara, Chamara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. FEV Sverige AB, Trollhättan (SWE).
    Thuvander, Matttias
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Deirmina, Faraz
    Siemens Energy, Finspång (SWE).
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Brodin, Håkan
    Siemens Energy, Finspång (SWE).
    Harlin, Peter
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Sandvik Additive Manufacturing, Sandviken (SWE).
    Pederson, Robert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Scanning electron microscopy and atom probe tomography characterization of laser powder bed fusion precipitation strengthening nickel-based superalloy2023In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 171, article id 103472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atom probe tomography (APT) was utilized to supplement scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterizationof a precipitation strengthening nickel-based superalloy, Alloy 247LC, processed by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). It was observed that the material in the as-built condition had a relatively high strength. Using both SEMand APT, it was concluded that the high strength was not attributed to the typical precipitation strengtheningeffect of γ’. In the absence of γ’ it could be reasonably inferred that the numerous black dots observed in thecells/grains with SEM were dislocations and as such should be contributing significantly to the strengthening.Thus, the current investigation demonstrated that relatively high strengthening can be attained in L-PBF even inthe absence of precipitated γ’. Even though γ’ was not precipitated, the APT analysis displayed a nanometer scalepartitioning of Cr that could be contributing to the strengthening. After heat-treatment, γ’ was precipitated and itdemonstrated the expected high strengthening behavior. Al, Ta and Ti partitioned to γ’. The strong partitioningof Ta in γ’ is indicative that the element, together with Al and Ti, was contributing to the strain-age crackingoccurring during heat-treatment. Cr, Mo and Co partitioned to the matrix γ phase. Hf, Ta, Ti and W were found inthe carbides corroborating previous reports that they are MC. 

  • 17.
    Adegoke, Olutayo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Polisetti, Satyanarayana Rao
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Xu, Jinghao
    Linköpings universitet, Linköping.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Brodin, Håkan
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery, Finspång.
    Pederson, Robert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Harlin, Peter
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Sandvik Additive Manufacturing, Sandviken.
    Influence of laser powder bed fusion process parameters on the microstructure of solution heat-treated nickel-based superalloy Alloy 247LC2022In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 183, article id 111612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Alloy 247LC samples were built with different laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process parameters. The samples were then subjected to solution heat treatment at 1260 °C for 2 h. The grain size of all the samples increased significantly after the heat treatment. The relationship between the process parameters and grain size of the samples was investigated by performing a design of experiment analysis. The results indicated that the laser power was the most significant process parameter that influenced the grain height and aspect ratio. The laser power also significantly influenced the grain width. The as-built and as-built + heat-treated samples with high, medium, and low energy densities were characterized using a field emission gun scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron backscatter diffraction detector. The micrographs revealed that the cells present in the as-built samples disappeared after the heat treatment. Isolated cases of twinning were observed in the grains of the as-built + heat-treated samples. The disappearance of cells, increase in the grain size, and appearance of twins suggested that recrystallization occurred in the alloy after the heat treatment. The occurrence of recrystallization was confirmed by analyzing the grain orientation spread of the alloy, which was lower and more predominantly <1° in the as-built + heat-treated conditions than in the as-built conditions. The microhardness of the as-built + heat-treated samples were high which was plausible because γ’ precipitates were observed in the samples. However, the L-PBF process parameters had a very low correlation with the microhardness of the as-built + heat-treated samples.

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  • 18.
    Adeva Rodil, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Division for Engineering Sciences, Physics and Mathematics.
    Edge effect on abrasive wear mechanisms and wear resistance in WC-6wt.% Co hardmetals2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wear of hardmetals is a complicated topic because the wear resistance and the wear mechanisms are influenced by microstructural factors. Although edge wear resistance has a vital importance, most of the researches made in laboratories are related to flat wear resistance using coarse abrasive paper. This situation produces problems with the prediction of abrasive wear behaviour and with the estimation of the lifetime of cutting edges of different kinds of tooling.

    Several studies have been done in order to clarify edge wear behaviour. It has been published correlations of the edge toughness to the load and to the bulk fracture toughness. In those publications coarse abrasive or Vickers indenter were used.

    In the present research, edge shaped specimens of WC-6wt%Co grades were investigated. In order to compare the obtained results for flat sliding and edge wear behaviour two test arrangements, pin on flat disc and edge on flat disc were employed. The specimens were tested using 120, 320, 800 and 2400 mesh SiC abrasive paper and the worn surfaces were investigated using SEM instrument to evaluate wear mechanisms. The edge wear was observed was discussed in relation to wear mechanisms investigated and correlated to the flat wear behaviour.

    The obtained results showed limited applicability of the results obtained with the pin on the flat disc test arrangement for prediction of the edge wear resistance, especially in the case when size of the abrasive particles is close to the WC grain size. However, both edge and flat wear results were similar in; 1) large WC grain sized hard metals wore more than fine grain sized against coarse abrasive paper whereas the reverse occurred against fine abrasives, and 2) wear mechanisms were mainly ploughing (or grooving) for fine grain sized hardmetals in all cases, whereas wear mechanisms changed from ploughing to binder removal and carbide pull-out going from coarse to fine abrasive paper.

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  • 19.
    Adler, Jeanette
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Film Formation and Surface Tension Studies of Powder Coatings2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In industrial use of paint systems a swift processing is crucial. Another very important issue is to improve the quality of the final coating. This report investigates the film formation process of powder coatings, specially the spreading of individual powder particles. The obtained results can be used to understand and control the film formation process. In this way the desired levelling can be achieved and thus the desired gloss or other surface characteristics that may be required. This means that the method could be used when evaluating different polymer and additive combinations that could be used to change film formation behaviour or curing time for powder coating systems to suit various substrates. It makes it possible to avoid and minimize different surface defects as orange peel or cratering in the powder coated film.

    We used a reflection optical microscope to better understand the film formation process and especially the spreading of a powder melt on surfaces with various surface energies. The obtained data were: the particle diameter, the area, area ratio and the contact angle of the powder particle as a function of time and temperature. This information can be used to derive the surface tension of any powder melt.

    In this report we evaluate the dependencies of temperature, heat rate and surface energy for powder coatings on different substrates. The method provides information that can be used to optimize the film formation of a specific powder coating/substrate combination. This method can be used to evaluate the powder spreading and levelling on different substrates from a surface tension point of view.

    We found, as expected, that the powder flows out on a hydrophilic surface and is inhibited by a hydrophobic. The increase of the area ratio on a hydrophilic surface was about five times as the initial area coverage and on a hydrophobic surface only two times the initial area coverage. The contact angle between the melted powder particle on the different surface types could be calculated. The melt surface tension could be calculated since three substrates surfaces with various surface energies were used. The melt surface tension was found to be about 18.5 mN/m.

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  • 20.
    Adli, E.
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Gjersdal, H.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Røhne, O.M.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Dorholt, O.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Bang, D.M.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Thomas, D,
    ESS ERIC, Lund, Sweden.
    Shea, T.
    ESS ERIC, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, R.
    ESS ERIC, Lund, Sweden.
    Ibison, M.G.
    University of Liverpool and Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, UK.
    Welsch, C.P
    University of Liverpool and Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, UK.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    The Ess Target Proton Beam Imaging Systemas In-Kind Contribution2017In: Proceedings of IPAC2017, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2017, p. 3422-3425Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Adli, Erik
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Gjersdal, Håvard
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Sjøbæk, Kyrre N.
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Christoforo, Grey
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Fackelman, Eric D.
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Røhne, Ole M.
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Ringnes, Jonas S.
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Solbak, Simen R.
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Lithun, Maren C.
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Thomas, Cyrille
    ESS ERIC, Lund (SWE).
    Levinsen, Yngve
    ESS ERIC, Lund (SWE).
    Rosengren, Kaj
    ESS ERIC, Lund (SWE).
    Shea, Thomas
    ESS ERIC, Lund (SWE).
    Bell, Gerard
    STFC (GBR).
    Ibison, Mark
    University of Liverpool and Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (GBR).
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Progress Of The Ess Proton Beam Imaging Systems2022In: LINAC2022, ACoW Publishing , 2022, p. 395-398Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ESS Target Proton Beam Imaging Systems has the objective to image the 5 MW ESS proton beam as it entersthe spallation target. The imaging systems has to operate in a harsh radiation environment, leading to a number of challenges : development of radiation hard photon sources, long and aperture-restricted optical paths and fast electronics required to provide rapid information in case of beam anomalies. This paper outlines how main challenges of the imaging systems have been addressed, and the status of deployment as ESS gets closer to beam.

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  • 22.
    Agbauduta, Rex
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Crack density and microhardness of Alloy 247LC manufactured by laser powder bed fusion2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) enables the manufacturing of complex geometries,with beneficial mechanical properties in components used for aircraft and gas turbines applications. Alloy 247LC produced using laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF)is susceptible to cracking during the production process and must be post-processed using hot isostatic pressing (HIP), in addition to solution heat treatment (ST) and ageing heat treatmentsto heal cracks and attain the desired properties.The purpose of this study is to investigate L-PBF Alloy 247LC in both its as-built and as-built + heat-treated states(HIP and HIP + ST + ageing). Cracks, and microhardness were mainly studied. Sections cut in the built direction and transverse to the built direction were investigated in all the conditions i.e. in as-built and heat-treated states. The grains in the Z-Y direction are columnar and orientated in the build direction, while the grains in the X-Y plane are equiaxed. During the heat-treatments of the samples, substantial grain growth occurred indicating recrystallization. The cracks density appeared to be higher in the X-Y plane compared to the Z-Y plane. Cracks were absent after HIP. The microhardness appearedto be higher in the Z-Y plane compared to the X-Y plane in both low and high indentation load. This indicates anisotropy. In addition, low indentation load produced higher microhardness than a higher indentation load. This was observed in both the X-Y and Z-Y planes. It was also observed in the as-built and heat-treated conditions. HIP conditions had lower microhardness values than both the as-built and HIP + ST + Aged conditions. Microhardness values in the as-built is similar to those of the HIP + ST + Aged conditionswhich suggests that γ' does exist in the as-built state.

  • 23.
    Agic, Adnan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Analysis of entry phase in intermittent machining2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cutting forces and vibrations are essential parameters in the assessment of a cutting process. As the energy consumption in the machining process is directly affected by the magnitude of the cutting forces it is of vital importance to design cutting edges and select process conditions that will maintain high tool performance through reduced energy consumption. The vibrations are often the cause of poor results in terms of accuracy, low reliability due to sudden failures and bad environmental conditions caused by noise. The goal of this work is to find out how the cutting edge and cutting conditions affect the entry conditions of the machining operation. This is done utilizing experimental methods and appropriate theoretical approaches applied to the cutting forces and vibrations. The research was carried out through three main studies beginning with a force build-up analysis of the cutting edge entry into the workpiece in intermittent turning. This was followed by a second study, concentrated on modelling of the entry phase which has been explored through experiments and theory developed in the first study. The third part was focused on the influence of the radial depth of cut upon the entry of cutting edge into the workpiece in a face milling application. The methodology for the identification of unfavourable cutting conditions is also explained herein. Important insights into the force build-up process help addressing the correlation between the cutting geometries and the rise time of the cutting force. The influence of the nose radius for a given cutting tool and workpiece configuration during the initial entry is revealed. The critical angle i.e. the position of the face milling cutter that results in unfavourable entry conditions has been explained emphasizing the importance of the selection of cutting conditions. Finally, the theoretical methods utilized for the evaluation of the role of cutting edge geometry within entry phase dynamics has been explored. This has revealed the trends that are of interest for selection of cutting conditions and cutting edge design.

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  • 24.
    Agic, Adnan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Edge Geometry Effects on Entry Phase by Forces and Vibrations2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intermittent machining is in general strongly related to the large impacts in the entry phase and related vibrations. The influence of the impact forces and vibrations on the cutting process is dependent on workpiece material, structural properties of the tool-workpiece system, cutting edge geometries and cutting parameters. Cutting forces adopt generally a periodic behaviour that gives rise to forced vibrations. In addition, self-induced vibrations may arise because of lowrigidity and insufficient damping in the tool-workpiece system at specific cutting parameters. The ability of the cutting tool to carry the loads during the entry phase and minimize the vibrations is often the key parameter for an effective machining operation.This research work is based on the experiments, analytical studies and modelling. It was carried out through six main studies beginning with a force build-up analysis of the cutting edge entry into the workpiece in intermittent turning. This was followed by a second study, concentrated on modelling of the entry phase which has partly been explored through experiments and theory developed in the first study.

    The third part was focused on the influence of the radial depth of cut upon the entry of the cutting edge into the workpiece in a face milling application. The methodology for the identification of unfavourable radial depth of cut is also addressed herein. Next, effects of the cutting edge on the vibrations in an end milling application were investigated. This study was related to a contouring operation with the maximum chip thickness in the entry phase when machining steel, ISO P material.

    The results of this work provide some general recommendations when milling this type of workpiece material. After that, the focus was set on the dynamic cutting forces in milling. The force developments over a tooth engagement in milling showed to be strongly dependent on the cutting edge geometry. A significant difference between highly positive versus highly negative geometry was found.

    The implication of this phenomena on the stress state in the cutting edge and some practical issues were analysed. Finally, the role of the helix angle on the dynamic response of a workpiece was investigated. The modelling technique using force simulation and computation of the dynamic response by means of modal analysis was presented. Extensive experimental work was conducted to compare the modelling and experimentally obtained results. The modelling results showed a similar trend as the experimental results. The influence of helix angle on the cutting forces and the dynamic response was explained in detail.The research conducted in this work contributes to the deeper understanding of the influence of the cutting edge geometry and the cutting parameters on the force build up process during the entry phase. The presented studies investigate the force magnitudes, force rates and dynamic behaviour of the tools and workpieces when machining at the challenging entry conditions. The methodologies applied are focused on the physical quantities as forces and vibrations rather than the experimental studies that evaluate tool life. The methods and results of the research work are of great interest for the design of the cutting tools and optimization of the cutting processes.

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  • 25.
    Agic, Adnan
    et al.
    Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Eynian, Mahdi
    Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Hägglund, S.
    Seco Tools, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Jan-Eric
    Lund University, Production and Materials Engineering, Lund, Sweden.
    Beno, Tomas
    Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Influence of radial depth of cut on dynamics of face milling application2016In: The 7th International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS16, Conference Proceedings: 25th – 27th of October 2016, Lund: Swedish Production Academy , 2016, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of milling cutter geometry and appropriate cutting data for certain milling application is of vital importance for successful machining results. Unfavourable selection of cutting conditions might give rise to high load impacts that cause severe cutting edge damage. The radial depth of cut in combination with milling cutter geometry might under some circumstances give unfavourable entry conditions in terms of cutting forces and vibration amplitudes. This phenomenon originates from the geometrical features that affect the rise time of the cutting edge engagement into work piece at different radial depths of cut. As the radial depth of cut is often an important parameter, particularly when machining difficult to cut materials, it is important to explore the driving mechanism behind vibrations generation. In this study, acceleration of the work piece is measured for different radial depths of cut and cutting edge geometries. The influence of the radial depth of cut on the dynamical behaviour is evaluated in time and frequency domains. The results for different radial depths of cut and cutting geometries are quantified using root mean square value of acceleration. The outcome of this research study can be used both for the better cutting data recommendations and improved tool design.

  • 26.
    Agic, Adnan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Seco Tools, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Eynian, Mahdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Hägglund, S.
    Seco Tools, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Jan-Eric
    Lund University, Production and Materials Engineering, Lund, Sweden.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Influence of radial depth of cut on dynamics of face milling application2016In: The 7th International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS16, Conference Proceedings: 25th – 27th of October 2016, Lund: Swedish Production Academy , 2016, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of milling cutter geometry and appropriate cutting data for certain milling application is of vital importance for successful machining results. Unfavourable selection of cutting conditions might give rise to high load impacts that cause severe cutting edge damage. The radial depth of cut in combination with milling cutter geometry might under some circumstances give unfavourable entry conditions in terms of cutting forces and vibration amplitudes. This phenomenon originates from the geometrical features that affect the rise time of the cutting edge engagement into work piece at different radial depths of cut. As the radial depth of cut is often an important parameter, particularly when machining difficult to cut materials, it is important to explore the driving mechanism behind vibrations generation. In this study, acceleration of the work piece is measured for different radial depths of cut and cutting edge geometries. The influence of the radial depth of cut on the dynamical behaviour is evaluated in time and frequency domains. The results for different radial depths of cut and cutting geometries are quantified using root mean square value of acceleration. The outcome of this research study can be used both for the better cutting data recommendations and improved tool design.

  • 27.
    Agic, Adnan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Eynian, Mahdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Hägglund, S.
    Seco Tools, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Ståhl, J-E
    Lund University ,Production and Materials Engineering, Lund Sweden.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Influence of radial depth of cut on entry conditions and dynamics in face milling application2017In: Journal of Superhard Materials, ISSN 1063-4576, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 259-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of milling cutter geometry and appropriate cutting data for certain milling application is of vital importance for successful machining results. Unfavorable selection of cutting conditions might give rise to high load impacts that cause severe cutting edge damage. Under some circumstances the radial depth of cut in combination with milling cutter geometry might give unfavorable entry conditions in terms of cutting forces and vibration amplitudes. This phenomenon is originated from the geometrical features that affect the rise time of the cutting edge engagement into workpiece at different radial depths of cut. As the radial depth of cut is often an important parameter, particularly when machining difficult-to-cut materials, it is important to explore the driving mechanism behind vibrations generation. In this study, acceleration of the workpiece is measured for different radial depths of cut and cutting edge geometries. The influence of the radial depth of cut on the dynamical behavior is evaluated in time and frequency domains. The results for different radial depths of cut and cutting geometries are quantified using the root mean square value of acceleration. The outcome of this research study can be used both for the better cutting data recommendations and improved tool design.

  • 28.
    Agic, Adnan
    et al.
    Seco Tools, Fagersta, Sweden ; University West, Department of Engineering Science, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Eynian, Mahdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Hägglund, S.
    Seco Tools, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Ståhl, J.-E.
    Lund University, Production and Materials Engineering, Sweden.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Influence of radial depth of cut on entry conditions and dynamics in face milling application2017In: Journal of Superhard Materials, ISSN 1063-4576, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 259-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of milling cutter geometry and appropriate cutting data for certain milling application is of vital importance for successful machining results. Unfavorable selection of cutting conditions might give rise to high load impacts that cause severe cutting edge damage. Under some circumstances the radial depth of cut in combination with milling cutter geometry might give unfavorable entry conditions in terms of cutting forces and vibration amplitudes. This phenomenon is originated from the geometrical features that affect the rise time of the cutting edge engagement into workpiece at different radial depths of cut. As the radial depth of cut is often an important parameter, particularly when machining difficult-to-cut materials, it is important to explore the driving mechanism behind vibrations generation. In this study, acceleration of the workpiece is measured for different radial depths of cut and cutting edge geometries. The influence of the radial depth of cut on the dynamical behavior is evaluated in time and frequency domains. The results for different radial depths of cut and cutting geometries are quantified using the root mean square value of acceleration. The outcome of this research study can be used both for the better cutting data recommendations and improved tool design.

  • 29.
    Agic, Adnan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Seco Tools, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Eynian, Mahdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Ståhl, J. -E
    Lund University, Production and Materials Engineering, Lund, Sweden.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Experimental analysis of cutting edge effects on vibrations in end milling2019In: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016, Vol. 24, p. 66-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to minimize vibrations in milling by the selection of cutting edge geometry and appropriate cutting conditions is an important asset in the optimization of the cutting process. This paper presents a measurement method and a signal processing technique to characterize and quantify the magnitude of the vibrations in an end milling application. Developed methods are then used to investigate the effects of various cutting edge geometries on vibrations in end milling. The experiments are carried out with five cutting edge geometries that are frequently used in machining industry for a wide range of milling applications. The results show that a modest protection chamfer combined with a relatively high rake angle has, for the most of cutting conditions, a reducing effect on vibration magnitudes. Furthermore, dynamics of a highly positive versus a highly negative cutting geometry is explored in time domain and its dependency on cutting conditions is presented. The results give concrete indications about the most optimal cutting edge geometry and cutting conditions in terms of dynamic behavior of the tool.

  • 30.
    Agic, Adnan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Seco Tools, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Eynian, Mahdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Ståhl, Jan Erik
    Lund University, Production and Materials Engineering, Lund, Sweden.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Dynamic effects on cutting forces with highly positive versus highly negative cutting edge geometries2019In: International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, ISSN 1955-2513, E-ISSN 1955-2505, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 557-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the influence of the cutting edge geometry on the development of cutting forces during the milling process is of high importance in order to predict the mechanical loads on the cutting edge as well as the dynamic behavior on the milling tool. The work conducted in this study involves the force development over the entire engagement of a flute in milling, from peak force during the entry phase until the exit phase. The results show a significant difference in the behavior of the cutting process for a highly positive versus a highly negative cutting edge geometry. The negative edge geometry gives rise to larger force magnitudes and very similar developments of the tangential and radial cutting force. The positive cutting edge geometry produces considerably different developments of the tangential and radial cutting force. In case of positive cutting edge geometry, the radial cutting force increases while the uncut chip thickness decreases directly after the entry phase; reaching the peak value after a certain delay. The radial force fluctuation is significantly higher for the positive cutting edge geometry. The understanding of such behavior is important for modelling of the milling process, the design of the cutting edge and the interactive design of digital applications for the selection of the cutting parameters.

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  • 31.
    Agic, Adnan
    et al.
    Seco Tools, Fagersta, Sweden ; Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Eynian, Mahdi
    Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Jan-Erik
    Production and Materials Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.
    Beno, Tomas
    Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Dynamic effects on cutting forces with highly positive versus highly negative cutting edge geometries2019In: International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, ISSN 1955-2513, E-ISSN 1955-2505, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 557-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the influence of the cutting edge geometry on the development of cutting forces during the milling process is of high importance in order to predict the mechanical loads on the cutting edge as well as the dynamic behavior on the milling tool. The work conducted in this study involves the force development over the entire engagement of a flute in milling, from peak force during the entry phase until the exit phase. The results show a significant difference in the behavior of the cutting process for a highly positive versus a highly negative cutting edge geometry. The negative edge geometry gives rise to larger force magnitudes and very similar developments of the tangential and radial cutting force. The positive cutting edge geometry produces considerably different developments of the tangential and radial cutting force. In case of positive cutting edge geometry, the radial cutting force increases while the uncut chip thickness decreases directly after the entry phase; reaching the peak value after a certain delay. The radial force fluctuation is significantly higher for the positive cutting edge geometry. The understanding of such behavior is important for modelling of the milling process, the design of the cutting edge and the interactive design of digital applications for the selection of the cutting parameters.

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  • 32.
    Agic, Adnan
    et al.
    Seco Tools, Fagersta, Sweden ; University West, Department of Engineering Science, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Eynian, Mahdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Ståhl, J.-E.
    Lund University, Production and Materials Engineering, Sweden.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Experimental analysis of cutting edge effects on vibrations in end milling2019In: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016, Vol. 24, p. 66-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to minimize vibrations in milling by the selection of cutting edge geometry and appropriate cutting conditions is an important asset in the optimization of the cutting process. This paper presents a measurement method and a signal processing technique to characterize and quantify the magnitude of the vibrations in an end milling application. Developed methods are then used to investigate the effects of various cutting edge geometries on vibrations in end milling. The experiments are carried out with five cutting edge geometries that are frequently used in machining industry for a wide range of milling applications. The results show that a modest protection chamfer combined with a relatively high rake angle has, for the most of cutting conditions, a reducing effect on vibration magnitudes. Furthermore, dynamics of a highly positive versus a highly negative cutting geometry is explored in time domain and its dependency on cutting conditions is presented. The results give concrete indications about the most optimal cutting edge geometry and cutting conditions in terms of dynamic behavior of the tool.

  • 33.
    Agic, Adnan
    et al.
    Seco Tools AB, Fagersta, Sweden ; Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Gutnichenko, Oleksandr
    Division of Production and Materials Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.
    Eynian, Mahdi
    Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Jan-Eric
    Division of Production and Materials Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.
    Influence of cutting edge geometry on force build-up process in intermittent turning2016In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 46, p. 364-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the intermittent turning and milling processes, during the entry phase the cutting edges are subjected to high impact loads that can give rise to dynamical and strength issues which in general cause tool life reduction. In this study the effect of geometrical features of the cutting tool on the force generation during the entry phase is investigated. Cutting forces are measured by a stiff dynamometer at a high sampling frequency. In addition, the chip load area is analyzed and related to the measured cutting force. The results show that micro-geometrical features, in particular the protection chamfer, significantly affect the force generation during the entry phase.

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  • 34.
    Ahlgren, Dennis
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Patriksson, Daniel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Konstruktion av värmeelement2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to describing the work behind the development of a masonry heater.

    The masonry heater is developed in collaboration with the company Transient Design KB that is a product development company located in Alingsås. The company sees a possibility to cover a market segment where modern technology and design are missing.

    The report presents those methods and approaches that have been used and gives an overview to how the project has been carried out. It describes how the ideas behind the final results have produced and how they have been developed during the project's time. In the report you can also read about the final concept with its choices of construction and materials.

    The report is completed with a presentation of a final concept and a ground for possible future production.

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  • 35.
    Ahmad, Maqsood
    et al.
    Base Engine & Materials Technology, Volvo Group, Gothenburg.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    König, Mathias
    Materials Technology for Basic Engine, Scania CV, Södertälje.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bending Fatigue Behavior of Blast Cleaned Grey Cast Iron2017In: Residual Stresses 2016: ICRS-10, Materials Research Proceedings 2 (2016), 2017, Vol. 2, p. 193-198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a detailed study on the effect of an industrial blast cleaning process on the fatigue behavior of a grey cast iron with regard to the residual stresses and microstructural changes induced by the process. A comparison was also made to the effect of a machining operation which removed the casting skin layer. The blast cleaning process was found to greatly improve the fatigue resistance in both the low and high cycle regimes with a 75% increase in the fatigue limit. Xray diffraction measurements and scanning electron microscopic analyses showed that the improvement was mainly attributed to compressive residual stresses in a surface layer up to 800 μm in thickness in the blast cleaned specimens. The machining also gave better fatigue performance with a 30% increase in the fatigue limit, which was ascribed to the removal of the weaker casting skin layer.

  • 36.
    Ahmadkhaniha, Donya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Eriksson, F.
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, SE-581 83, Sweden.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Optimizing heat treatment for electroplated nip and NiP/SiC coatings2020In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 1-19, article id 1179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NiP (P &gt; 10 wt.%) coatings are amorphous coatings whose structure can be transformed by heat treatment into a crystalline structure and hardened by precipitation of Ni3P. In this study, NiP coatings and composite ones with SiC nanoparticles were produced by electrodeposition, and their structural transformation by heat treatment was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microhardness and the scratch and corrosion resistance of the coatings were evaluated and compared before and after different heat treatments. The results showed that in as-plated condition, the addition of SiC particles in the coatings did not modify the microstructure, microhardness, or electrochemical behavior. However, the SiC particles’ role was disclosed in combination with heat treatment. Composite coatings that were heat treated at 300◦C had higher microhardness and scratch resistance than the pure NiP one. In addition, composite coatings maintained their scratch resistance up to 400◦C, while in the case of the NiP ones, there was a reduction in scratch resistance by heating at 400◦C. It was also concluded that heating temperature has the main role in hardness and corrosion resistance of NiP and composite coatings, rather than heating time. The optimum heat-treatment protocol was found to be heating at 360◦C for 2 h, which resulted in a maximum microhardness of about 1500 HV0.02 for NiP and its composite coating without sacrificing the corrosion resistance.

  • 37.
    Ahmadkhaniha, Donya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linkopings universitet, Department of Physics, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. RISE Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Effect of SiC particle size and heat-treatment on microhardness and corrosion resistance of NiP electrodeposited coatings2018In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 769, p. 1080-1087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrodeposition of NiP composite coatings with nano and sub-micron sized SiC has been carried out to investigate the possibility of replacing hard chromium coatings. The composition and structure of the coatings were evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. Microhardness was measured by Vickers indentation and polarization measurements were carried out to study the corrosion behavior of the coatings. The results showed that submicron particles can be codeposited with a higher content as compared to nano sized ones. However, even if a smaller amount of the nano-sized SiC particles are incorporated in the coating, the contribution to an increasing microhardness was comparable with the submicron sized particles, which can be related to the higher density of codeposited particles. SiC particles did not change the anodic polarization behavior of NiP coatings in a 3.5% NaCl solution. Finally, the effect of heat-treatment on the coatings properties at 400 °C for 1 h was studied to investigate the contribution of particles and heat-treatment on hardness and corrosion properties. It was found that the heat-treatment doubled the microhardness and changed the anodic polarization behavior of the coatings from passive to active with respect to the as-plated conditions.

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  • 38.
    Ahmadkhaniha, Donya
    et al.
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Optimizing Heat Treatment for Electroplated NiP and NiP/SiC Coatings2020In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 1179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NiP (P &gt; 10 wt.%) coatings are amorphous coatings whose structure can be transformed by heat treatment into a crystalline structure and hardened by precipitation of Ni3P. In this study, NiP coatings and composite ones with SiC nanoparticles were produced by electrodeposition, and their structural transformation by heat treatment was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microhardness and the scratch and corrosion resistance of the coatings were evaluated and compared before and after different heat treatments. The results showed that in as-plated condition, the addition of SiC particles in the coatings did not modify the microstructure, microhardness, or electrochemical behavior. However, the SiC particles role was disclosed in combination with heat treatment. Composite coatings that were heat treated at 300 degrees C had higher microhardness and scratch resistance than the pure NiP one. In addition, composite coatings maintained their scratch resistance up to 400 degrees C, while in the case of the NiP ones, there was a reduction in scratch resistance by heating at 400 degrees C. It was also concluded that heating temperature has the main role in hardness and corrosion resistance of NiP and composite coatings, rather than heating time. The optimum heat-treatment protocol was found to be heating at 360 degrees C for 2 h, which resulted in a maximum microhardness of about 1500 HV0.02 for NiP and its composite coating without sacrificing the corrosion resistance.

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  • 39.
    Ahmadkhaniha, Donya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Pinate, Santiago
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Electrodeposition of Ni high P composite coatings containing nano and submicron ceramic particles2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Ahmadkhaniha, Donya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Pinate, Santiago
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. RISE Research Institute of Sweden, Borås.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Electrodeposition of Ni high P composite coatings containing nano and submicro ceramic particles2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, electrodeposition of Ni-P composite coatings has been carried out to investigate the possibility of replacing hard chromium coatings. Therefore, electrodeposition of Ni-P based composite coating with different SiC particle size (50 nm, 100 nm and 500 nm) or B4C (500 nm) was performed. The coating’s composition was evaluated by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), microhardness of the coatings was measured by Vickers indentor and polarization measurements were carried out to study the corrosion behavior of the coatings. The results showed that B4C particles can codeposit in higher percent respect to SiC ones. Ceramic particles increased microhardness of Ni-P coatings to 700HV0.01. The polarization behavior of all the coatings in 3.5% NaCl was similar in as plated state proving that particles did not hindered the passive behaviour. Finally, the effect of heat-treatment (at 400 ºC for 1 hour) on the coating’s properties was studied to compare the contribution of particles and heat-treatment on mechanical and corrosion properties of the coatings. Heat-treatment increased the coating’s microhardness and changed the anodic polarization behavior of the coatings respect to the as plated conditions.

  • 41.
    Ahmadpour, Ali
    et al.
    Amirkabir University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran, Iran.
    Noori Rahim Abadi, Seyyed Mohammad Ali
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Thermal-hydraulic performance evaluation of gas-liquid multiphase flows in a vertical sinusoidal wavy channel in the presence/absence of phase change2019In: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, ISSN 0017-9310, E-ISSN 1879-2189, Vol. 138, p. 677-689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulent gas-liquid multiphase flows with and without phase change in a vertical wavy channel are addressed. The multiphase flow field is resolved using the volume of fluid method (VOF), and the flow equations are discretized and numerically solved by the well-known finite volume method. As a multiphase system without mass transfer, air/water flow is considered. It is shown that numerical simulation is well capable of predicting the various multiphase flow regimes ranging from slug to bubbly flows inside wavy channels. Moreover, accurate predictions of overall pressure drop are provided by numerical solutions for various air and water flow rates and the phase shift angle between wavy channel walls. Additionally, condensing flows of refrigerant R134a are simulated inside wavy channels. It is found that for almost all the cases considered in the present study, the convective heat transfer coefficient is higher in wavy channels in respect to straight channels. However, a significant pressure drop penalty is observed especially for high mass fluxes across wavy channels. Therefore, the use of the wavy channels for the enhancement of condensing heat transfer is only advisable for low mass fluxes with the phase shift angle of 180°. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 42.
    Ahmed, N.
    et al.
    Khalifa Univ, Adv Digital & Addit Mfg Ctr, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Barsoum, Imad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. Khalifa Univ, Adv Digital & Addit Mfg Ctr, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.;Khalifa Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Haidemenopoulos, G.
    Univ Thessaly, Dept Mech Engn, Volos, Greece..
    Abu Al-Rub, R. K.
    Khalifa Univ, Adv Digital & Addit Mfg Ctr, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.;Khalifa Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Process parameter selection and optimization of laser powder bed fusion for 316L stainless steel: A review2022In: JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES, ISSN 1526-6125, Vol. 75, p. 415-434Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stainless steel 316L has been an extensively investigated metallic material for laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) in the past few decades due to its high corrosion resistance. However, there are challenges related to producing LPBF parts with minimal defects, attaining mechanical properties comparable with traditional process and dependency on time consuming post process treatments. The selection of L-PBF process parameters is crucial to overcome these challenges. This paper reviews the research carried out on L-PBF process parameter optimization for fabrication of 316L steel components for maximizing part densifications and attaining desired microstructure morphologies in parts. A brief work on numerical simulation approach for process parameter optimization for high densifications is also included in this paper.

  • 43.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Ferreira, Fabio
    Univ Coimbra, SEG CEMMPRE Dept Mech Engn, Rua Luis Reis Santos, P-3030788 Coimbra, Portugal.
    Oliveira, Joao
    Univ Coimbra, SEG CEMMPRE Dept Mech Engn, Rua Luis Reis Santos, P-3030788 Coimbra, Portugal.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Mechanical Properties of Hydrogen Free Diamond-Like Carbon Thin Films Deposited by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering with Ne2018In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are attractive for a wide range of industrial applications. One of the challenges related to the use of hard DLC lies in the high intrinsic compressive stresses that limit the film adhesion. Here, we report on the mechanical and tribological properties of DLC films deposited by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) with Ne as the process gas. In contrast to standard magnetron sputtering as well as standard Ar-based HiPIMS process, the Ne-HiPIMS lead to dense DLC films with increased mass density (up to 2.65 g/cm(3)) and a hardness of 23 GPa when deposited on steel with a Cr + CrN adhesion interlayer. Tribological testing by the pin-on-disk method revealed a friction coefficient of 0.22 against steel and a wear rate of 2 x 10(-17) m(3)/Nm. The wear rate is about an order of magnitude lower than that of the films deposited using Ar. The differences in the film properties are attributed to an enhanced C ionization in the Ne-HiPIMS discharge.

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  • 44.
    Akram, Shazad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Duan, Jiatong
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Alam, Farhan Muhammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Design and Development of a Battery Powered Electrofusion Welding System for Optical Fiber Microducts2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 173024-173043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, optical fiber microducts are coupled together by mechanical types of joints. Mechanical joints are thick, require a large space, and reduce the installation distance in multi-microduct installation. They may leak or explode in the blown fiber installation process. Mechanical joints are subjected to time dependent deterioration under long service times beneath the earth's surface. It may start with a small leakage, followed by damage due to water freezing inside the optical fiber microduct. Optical fiber microducts are made up of high-density polyethylene, which is considered most suitable for thermoelectric welding. For thermoelectric welding of two optical fiber microducts, the welding time should be one second, and should not cause any damage to the inner structure of the microducts that are being coupled. To fulfill these requirements, an LTspice simulation model for the welding system was developed and validated. The developed LTspice model has two parts. The first part models the power input to joule heating wire and the second part models the heat propagation inside the different layers of the optical fiber microduct and surrounding joint by using electro-thermal analogy. In order to validate the simulation results, a battery powered prototype welding system was developed and tested. The prototype welding system consists of a custom-built electrofusion joint and a controller board. A 40 volt 4 ampere-hour Li-Ion battery was used to power the complete system. The power drawn from the battery was controlled by charging and discharging of a capacitor bank, which makes sure that the battery is not overloaded. After successful welding, a pull strength test and an air pressure leakage test were performed to ensure that the welded joints met the requirements set by the mechanical joints. The results show that this new kind of joint and welding system can effectively replace mechanical joints in future optical fiber duct installations.

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  • 45.
    Akselsen, Odd M.
    et al.
    SINTEF, Trondheim.
    Wiklund, Greger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Østby, Erling
    SINTEF, Trondheim.
    Sörgjärd, Arve
    Kværner Verdal.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    A first assessment of laser hybrid welding of 420 mpa steel for offshore structure application2013In: 14th NOLAMP Conference: The 14th Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference, August 26th – 28th 2013, Gothenburg, Sweden / [ed] Alexander Kaplan; Hans Engström, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2013, p. 171-182Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, laser hybrid welding has been used in various industries to increaseproductivity and reduce costs. One example is the adaption of the hybrid process inshipbuilding. The next natural step is to further develop the process for the oil and gasindustry, where the welded joint properties requirements are more severe, and the ability tohandle tolerance deviations is more critical. As a first attempt to develop hybrid laser processfor the use in offshore structures, the present investigation addresses preliminary weldingtrails carried out with 15 kW fibre laser with appropriate gas metal arc welding equipment,using double Y joint geometry and 20 mm thick 420 MPa steel plates. The subsequent weldtesting included both Charpy V notch impact and CTOD fracture mechanical testing at -30°C.The results indicate that the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the examined steel appeared withsatisfactory Charpy and CTOD toughness (> 200 J, > 0.2 mm) while the weld metal hadinsufficient toughness (20-40 J, < 0.2 mm). With a better welding wire, designed for lowtemperature applications, it is reasonable to suggest that laser hybrid arc welding can be usedfor applications even below a temperature of -30°C.

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  • 46.
    Akselsen, Odd Magne
    et al.
    SINTEF, Trondheim.
    Wiklund, Greger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Østby, Erling
    SINTEF, Trondheim.
    Sørgjerd, Arve
    Kværner Verdal.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Properties of laser hybrid butt welds of 420 MPa steel2013In: The proceedings of the Twenty-third (2013) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference: Anchorage, Alaska, June 30-July 5, 2013 : ISOPE-2013 Anchorage / [ed] Jin S. Chung, Cupertino, Calif.: International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers , 2013, p. 290-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser hybrid welding has been used in European shipbuilding for many years due to its high productivity. In order to qualify the process for the oil and gas industry, an extensive welding and testing programme is needed, and the properties must satisfy more severe requirements than in shipbuilding. This is particularly the case when these activities are moving to the Arctic regions, where low temperature toughness may be the primary challenge. The present investigation addressed preliminary welding trials carried out with 15 kW fibre laser-gas metal arc (GMA) hybrid welding using double Y joint of 20 mm thick 420 MPa steel plates. Both Charpy V notch impact and CTOD fracture mechanical testing were included with test temperature of -30°C. The results indicate that the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the examined steel appeared with satisfactory toughness (> 200 J, > 0.2 mm) while the employed weld metal had insufficient impact properties. The weld metal CTOD toughness approached 0.2 mm. With a better welding wire, designed for low temperature applications, it is reasonable to suggest that laser hybrid arc welding can be used for applications even below -30 to -40°C

  • 47.
    Alam, M. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Barsoum, Z.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Kaplan, Alexander F. H.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Luleå University of Technology.
    The influence of surface geometry and topography on the fatigue cracking behaviour of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints2010In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 265, no 6, p. 1936-1945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser hybrid welding of an eccentric fillet joint causes a complex geometry for fatigue load by four point bending. The weld surface geometry and topography were measured and studied in order to understand the crack initiation mechanisms. The crack initiation location and the crack propagation path were studied and compared to Finite Element stress analysis, taking into account the surface macro- and micro-geometry. It can be explained why the root and the upper weld toe are uncritical for cracking. The cracks that initiate from the weld bead show higher fatigue strength than the samples failing at the lower weld toe, as can be explained by a critical radius for the toe below which surface ripples instead determine the main stress raiser location for cracking. The location of maximum surface stress is related to a combination of throat depth, toe radius and sharp surface ripples along which the cracks preferably propagate.

  • 48.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    A study of the fatigue behaviour of laser and hybrid laser welds2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis focuses on the fatigue cracking behaviour of laser and hybrid laser-MAG welded structures. Beside the welding process and the resulting weld, several topics related to fatigue of welded structures are treated such as; macro and micro surface geometry, weld defects and their influence on fatigue performance of welded structures, fatigue analysis by the nominal and effective notch stress method, fatigue life prediction using LEFM (Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics), fatigue testing, metallurgical analysis, elastic and elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The main objective is to gain understanding of the impact of weld defects and weld shape details on the fatigue behaviour of laser and hybrid laser welded joints. The first paper is a literature survey which compiled useful information regarding fracture and fatigue analysis of various welded joints. In the second paper fatigue testing by bending of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints was carried out. The weld surface geometry was measured and studied in order to understand the crack initiation mechanisms. The crack initiation location and the crack propagation path were studied and compared to Finite Element stress analysis, taking into account the surface macro- and micro-geometry. Based on the nominal stress approach, SN-curves were designed for laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints. The competing criteria of throat depth and stress raising by the weld toe radii and by the surface ripples are explained, showing that surface ripples can be critical.The third paper is the continuation of the second paper, but studying the fatigue crack propagation of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints. Microscopic analysis was carried out to identify internal weld defects. Nominal and effective notch stress analysis was carried out to compare standardized values. LEFM analysis was conducted for this joint geometry for four point bending load in order to study the effect of LOF on fatigue life. In good agreement between simulation and metallurgy, cracking starts and propagates from the lower toe, but for certain geometries alternatively from the weld bead or upper toe, even in case of Lack of Fusion, as was well be explained. Improved understanding of the crack propagation for these geometrical conditions was obtained and in turn illustrated. Lack of fusion surprisingly was not critical and only slightly lowered the fatigue life. Two dimensional linear elastic finite element analyses is carried out in the fourth paper on laser welding of a beamer in order to study the impact of geometrical aspects of the joint design and of the weld root on the fatigue performance. Critical geometrical aspects were classified and then studied by FE-analysis with respect to their impact on the fatigue behaviour. Stress comparison of full 15 mm and partial 6 mm weld penetration of the beam was done by varying the toe and root geometry to identify the critical details. Generalization of the knowledge by new methods was an important aspect, particularly to apply the findings for other joints. Together the papers provide better understanding of fatigue behaviour for complex geometries and are therefore suitable guidelines for improved weld design.

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  • 49.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Laser welding and cladding: the effects of defects on fatigue behaviour2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis focuses on weld defects in laser processed materials (for laser welding, laser hybrid arc welding and laser cladding) and their effect on the fatigue life of components. Component properties were studied with particular emphasis on the macro and micro surface geometry, weld defects and clad defects. The influence of these defects on fatigue life was analyzed by; the nominal and effective notch stress method, fatigue life prediction using Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM), fatigue testing, metallurgical analysis, fractography, elastic and elastic-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA). A simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was also carried out to better understand the formation of undercuts during the welding process. The main objective is to gain an understanding of the impact of laser weld and clad defects on the fatigue behaviour of components.In the first two papers, fatigue testing involving the bending of laser hybrid arc welded eccentric fillet joints was carried out. Based on measurements of the weld surface geometry the crack initiation location and the crack propagation path were studied, experimentally and in conjunction with FE stress analysis. The competing criteria of throat depth and stress raising by the weld toe radii and by the surface ripples are explained, showing that the topology of surface ripples can be critical to fatigue behaviour. LEFM analysis was conducted to study the effect of Lack of Fusion (LOF) on fatigue life. Cracking starts and propagates preferentially from the lower toe of the top surface for this eccentric weld, even in cases of LOF. In the third paper two-dimensional linear elastic FEA was carried out for laser welding of a high strength steel beam. The impact of the geometrical aspects of joint design and of the weld root geometry on the fatigue performance was studied. Critical geometrical aspects were classified and then studied by FE-analysis with respect to their impact on the fatigue behaviour. In the fourth paper the melt pool flow behaviour during the laser hybrid arc welding process was analyzed by CFD simulation. The melt velocity behind the keyhole was measured from high speed imaging as a starting value for the simulation. It was found that a high speed flow in the thin topmost layer of the melt transferred its momentum to an underlying flow which is faster than the welding speed and this delays the lifting of the depressed melt.In the fifth and sixth papers FEA of different macro stress fields and of stress raisers produced by defects was studied in laser clad surfaces for four different fatigue load conditions. Defects were categorized into zero-, one- and two-dimensional types. Pores intersecting or just beneath the surface initiated fatigue cracking, accompanied by two circular buckling patterns. For a four-point bending load involving a surface pore on a spherical rod, the critical range of azimuthal angle was identified to be 55º. The performance of as-clad surfaces was found to be governed by the sharpness of surface notches. Planar defects like hot cracks or LOF are most critical if oriented vertically, transverse to the bar axis. A generalized theory was established, showing that the combination of the macro stress field with the defect type, position and orientation, determines whether it is the most critical stress raiser.

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  • 50.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Barsoum, Z
    Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Stockholm.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Influence of defects on fatigue crack propagation in laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joint2011In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 78, no 10, p. 2246-2258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue cracking of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints has been studied for stainless steel. Two-dimensional linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis was carried out for this joint geometry for four point bending load. The numerical simulations explain for the experimental observations why the crack propagates from the lower weld toe and why the crack gradually bends towards the root. Lack of fusion turned out to be uncritical for the initiation of cracks due to its compressive stress conditions. The linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis has demonstrated in good qualitative agreement with fatigue test results that lack of fusion slightly (<10%) reduces the fatigue life by accelerating the crack propagation. For the geometrical conditions studied here improved understanding of the crack propagation was obtained and in turn illustrated. The elaborated design curves turned out to be above the standard recommendations

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