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  • 1. A. Hosseini, V.
    et al.
    Karlsson, L.
    Örnek, Cem
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Reccagni, P.
    Wessman, S.
    Engelberg, D.
    Microstructure and functionality of a uniquely graded super duplex stainless steel designed by a novel arc heat treatment method2018In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 139, p. 390-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel arc heat treatment technique was applied to design a uniquely graded super duplex stainless steel (SDSS), by subjecting a single sample to a steady state temperature gradient for 10 h. A new experimental approach was used to map precipitation in microstructure, covering aging temperatures of up to 1430 °C. The microstructure was characterized and functionality was evaluated via hardness mapping. Nitrogen depletion adjacent to the fusion boundary depressed the upper temperature limit for austenite formation and influenced the phase balance above 980 °C. Austenite/ferrite boundaries deviating from Kurdjumov–Sachs orientation relationship (OR) were preferred locations for precipitation of σ at 630–1000 °C, χ at 560–1000 °C, Cr2N at 600–900 °C and R between 550 °C and 700 °C. Precipitate morphology changed with decreasing temperature; from blocky to coral-shaped for σ, from discrete blocky to elongated particles for χ, and from polygonal to disc-shaped for R. Thermodynamic calculations of phase equilibria largely agreed with observations above 750 °C when considering nitrogen loss. Formation of intermetallic phases and 475 °C-embrittlement resulted in increased hardness. A schematic diagram, correlating information about phase contents, morphologies and hardness, as a function of exposure temperature, is introduced for evaluation of functionality of microstructures.

  • 2. Aarts, Mark
    et al.
    Reiser, Alain
    Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, ETH Zürich, Department of Materials, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 1-5/10, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Spolenak, Ralph
    Alarcon-Llado, Esther
    Confined pulsed diffuse layer charging for nanoscale electrodeposition with an STM2022In: Nanoscale Advances, ISSN 25160230, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 1182-1190Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Abadei, S.
    et al.
    Department of Microelectronics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gevorgian, S
    Department of Microelectronics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden;Core Unit Research Center, Ericsson Microwave Systems, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Cho, C.-R
    Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grishin, A.
    Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lindbäck, Ture
    Luleå University of Technology.
    DC field dependent properties of Na0.5 K0.5 NbO3/SiO2/Si structures at millimeter-wave frequencies2001In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 78, no 13, p. 1900-1902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dielectric properties of laser-ablated 0.5-μm-thick c-axis epitaxial Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films on high-resistivity (7.7 Ω cm) silicon SiO2/Si substrate are studied experimentally at frequencies up to 40 GHz. For measurements, planar 0.5-μm-thick gold electrodes (interdigital and straight slot) are photolithography defined on the top surface of Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films. The slot width between the electrodes is 2 or 4 μm. 13% capacitance change at 40 V dc bias and Q factor more than 15 are observed at 40 GHz, which makes the structure useful for applications in electrically tunable millimeter-wave devices

  • 4.
    Abadei, S.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Microelectronics.
    Gevorgian, S.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Microelectronics.
    Kugler, V.
    Department of Physics, Linköping University.
    Helmersson, U.
    Department of Physics, Linköping University.
    Andreasson, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Microwave properties of tunable capacitors basee on magnetron sputtered ferroelectric Na0.5K0.5NbO3 film on low and high resistivity silicon substrates2001In: Integrated Ferroelectrics, ISSN 1058-4587, E-ISSN 1607-8489, Vol. 39, no 1-4, p. 359-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, small signal DC voltage dependent dielectric permittivity, loss tangent, and tuneability of magnetron sputtered epitaxial Na0.5K0.5NO3 films are studied experimentally. (100)-oriented Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films are deposited onto SiO2-buffered CMOS grade low resistivity (p = 10-20 cm) and high resistivity (p = 15-45 kcm) silicon substrates. Planar capacitors with 2 or 4 m gaps between electrodes have been fabricated on top of ferroelectric films. These devices have been characterized in the frequency range 1.0 MHz to 50 GHz at temperatures 30 - 300K. Na0.5K0.5NbO3/SiO2/Si structures on high resistivity silicon substrate exhibit C-V performances typical for Metal-Insulator- Semiconductor (MIS) capacitors. At low frequencies, f 1.0 GHz, the large tuneability and large losses are associated with the MIS structure, while at higher microwave frequencies the tuneability is mainly associated with the ferroelectric, film. At 1.0 MHz and room temperature, the tuneability of Na0.5K0.5NbO3/SiO2/Si structures more than 90%, reducing to 10-15 % at 50 GHz. The losses decrease with increasing the DC bias and frequency. A Q-factor more than 15 at 50 GHz is observed. The dielectric permittivity of the Na0.5K0.5NbO3 film is in the range 50-150 at frequencies 0.045-50 GHz. On low resistivity substrate the performance of Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films is completely screened by the high losses in silicon, and the tuneability is negligible

  • 5.
    Abali, Bilen Emek
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Mechanics. Chair of Continuum Mechanics and Constitutive Theory, Institute of Mechanics, Technische Universität Berlin.
    Modeling magnetohydrodynamics and computation of metal smelting2020In: Energy-based mathematical methods for reactive multiphase flows / [ed] Liero, M.; Mehrmann, V.; Mielke, A.; Peschka, D.; Thomas, M.; Wagner, B., Berlin Mathematics Research Center MATH , 2020, p. 12-13Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ore is a compound including minerals and is found in Earth’s crust. Ore may contain iron, aluminum, copper or even gold. Extracting these metals are called smelting. For aluminum, smelting is driven by electromagnetism, where conductive ore is a viscous melt with high temperatures and is set in motion effected by electromagnetic forces. Simulation of such an application necessitates not only a computational framework but also the consistent set of partial differential equations. Thermomechanics and electromagnetism are both well-studied independently; nevertheless, their interaction is still puzzling.

  • 6.
    Abali, Bilen Emek
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Mechanics. Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci, Christian Doppler Lab LiCRoFast, Peter Jordan Str 82, A-1190 Vienna, Austria.
    Zecchini, Michele
    Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci, Christian Doppler Lab LiCRoFast, Peter Jordan Str 82, A-1190 Vienna, Austria.
    Daissè, Gilda
    Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci, Christian Doppler Lab LiCRoFast, Peter Jordan Str 82, A-1190 Vienna, Austria.
    Czabany, Ivana
    BOKU Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci, Dept Mat Sci & Proc Engn, Inst Wood Technol & Renewable Mat, Konrad Lorenz Str 24, A-3430 Tulln, Austria.
    Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang
    BOKU Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci, Dept Mat Sci & Proc Engn, Inst Wood Technol & Renewable Mat, Konrad Lorenz Str 24, A-3430 Tulln, Austria.
    Wan-Wendner, Roman
    Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci, Christian Doppler Lab LiCRoFast, Peter Jordan Str 82, A-1190 Vienna, Austria; Univ Ghent, Dept Struct Engn & Bldg Mat, Magnel Lab, Technol Pk Zwijnaarde 60, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium.
    Cure Kinetics and Inverse Analysis of Epoxy-Amine Based Adhesive Used for Fastening Systems2021In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 14, article id 3853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermosetting polymers are used in building materials, for example adhesives in fastening systems. They harden in environmental conditions with a daily temperature depending on the season and location. This curing process takes hours or even days effected by the relatively low ambient temperature necessary for a fast and complete curing. As material properties depend on the degree of cure, its accurate estimation is of paramount interest and the main objective in this work. Thus, we develop an approach for modeling the curing process for epoxy based thermosetting polymers. Specifically, we perform experiments and demonstrate an inverse analysis for determining parameters in the curing model. By using calorimetry measurements and implementing an inverse analysis algorithm by using open-source packages, we obtain 10 material parameters describing the curing process. We present the methodology for two commercial, epoxy based products, where a statistical analysis provides independence of material parameters leading to the conclusion that the material equation is adequately describing the material response.

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  • 7.
    Abaray, Lahcen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Development and Characterization Of Ceramic Particles Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wear is a significant challenge encountered in the mining industry, affecting the durability and performance of materials. Hadfield steel has emerged as a commonly used material in this field due to its favorable properties. However, there is a persistent need to enhance its service life. Metal matrix composites (MMCs) offer a potential solution to address this issue. By reinforcingHadfield steel with ceramic particles, MMCs aim to improve the material's wear resistance and extend its operational lifespan. This study specifically investigates the potential of MMCs, reinforced with Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) particles, to enhance the performance of Hadfield steel in mining applications. Notably, ZTA particles are chosen for their exceptional wear resistance and low cost, making them an attractive reinforcement option. The mechanical behavior and properties of ZTA particle reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) were thoroughly investigated by conducting a comprehensive analysis. This analysis encompassed adetailed examination of the microstructure, composition, distribution, as well as the bonding between ZTA particles and the metallic matrix, along with rigorous measurements of hardness and wear resistance. The findings of the study reveal that the ZTA particle reinforced MMCs exhibit a uniform dispersion of ZTA particles throughout the composite material. This homogeneous distribution contributes to notable enhancements in the average hardness of the MMCs, surpassing that of Hadfield steel alone. However, the study did not observe a substantial enhancement in the wear resistance of the material.

  • 8.
    Abas, Riad Abdul
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Property measurements towards understanding process phenomena2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this industrially important work was to gain an increasing understanding of the properties of materials such as CMSX-4 nickel base super alloy, mould powder used in continuous casting of steel and coke used in blast furnace, with special reference to the thermal diffusivities. The measurements were carried out in a wide temperature range, solid, liquid, glassy and crystalline states.

    For CMSX-4 alloy, the thermal conductivities were calculated from the experimental thermal diffusivities. Both the diffusivities and conductivities were found to increase with increasing temperature. Microscopic analysis showed the presence of intermetallic phases such as NiTi and NiTi2 below 1253 K. In this region, the mean free path of the phonons is likely to be limited by scattering against lattice defects. Between 1253 K and solidus temperature, these phases dissolved in the alloy adding to the impurities in the matrix, which, in turn, caused a decrease in the thermal diffusivity. This effect was confirmed by annealing the samples at 1573 K. The thermal diffusivities of the annealed samples measured at 1277, 1403 and 1531 K were found to be lower than the thermal diffusivities of non-annealed samples and the values did not show any noticeable change with time. It could be related to the attainment of equilibrium with the completion of the dissolution of γ and γ´ phases during the annealing process.

    Liquid CMSX-4 does not show any change of thermal diffusivity with temperature. It may be attributed to the decreasing the mean free path being shorter than characteristic distance between two neighbouring atoms.

    On the other hand thermal diffusivities of mould powder having glassy and crystalline states decrease with increasing temperature at lower temperature and are constant at higher temperature except for one glassy sample.

    Analogously, the thermal diffusivity measurements of mould powder did not show any significant change with temperature in liquid state. It is likely to be due to the silicate network being largely broken down.

    The thermal diffusivity is increased with increasing crystallisation degree of mould powder, which is expected from theoretical considerations.

    The coke sample, taken from deeper level of the blast furnace, is found to have larger thermal diffusivity. This could be correlated to the average crystallite size along the structural c-axis, Lc, which is indicative of the higher degree of graphitisation. This was also confirmed by XRD measurements of the different coke samples. The degree of graphitisation was found to increase with increasing temperature. Further, XRD measurements of coke samples taken from different levels in the shaft of the blast furnace show that the graphitisation of coke was instantaneous between room temperature and 1473 K.

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  • 9.
    Abbadessa, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. Univ Santiago de Compostela, IDIS Res Inst, Ctr Res Mol Med & Chron Dis CIMUS, Campus Vida,Ave Barcelona S-N, Santiago De Compostela 15706, Spain.;Univ Santiago de Compostela, Sch Pharm, Dept Pharmacol Pharm & Pharmaceut Technol, Campus Vida,Ave Barcelona S-N, Santiago De Compostela 15706, Spain..
    Dogaris, Ioannis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Farahani, Saina Kishani
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Reid, Michael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Dept Mat & Surface Design, Drottning Kristinas Vag 61, SE-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rautkoski, Hille
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland Ltd, POB 1000, FI-02044 Espoo, Finland..
    Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland Ltd, POB 1000, FI-02044 Espoo, Finland..
    Oinonen, Petri
    Ecohelix AB, Teknikringen 38, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Layer-by-layer assembly of sustainable lignin-based coatings for food packaging applications2023In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 182, article id 107676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Packaging plays a critical role in ensuring food safety and shelf life by protecting against e.g., moisture, gases, and light. Polyethylene (PE) is widely used in food packaging, but it is mainly produced from non-renewable resources and it is an inefficient oxygen and light barrier. In this study, the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of a sustainably produced lignin-based polymer (EH) with polyethylenimine (PEI) or chitosan (CH) was used to fabricate (partially or fully) bio-based coatings with the aim of improving barrier properties of PE films. The charge density of EH was calculated using a polyelectrolyte titration method and the hydrodynamic diameters of EH, PEI and CH were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). LbL assembly was monitored in situ via Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) and Stagnation Point Adsorption Reflectometry (SPAR). PE films were coated with a variable number of PEI/EH or CH/EH bilayers (BL) using an immersive LbL assembly method. Coated films were studied in terms of light-blocking ability, wettability, thermal behaviour, surface structure, as well as oxygen and water vapor barrier properties. QCM-D and SPAR data showed a stepwise multilayer formation and strong interactions between the oppositely charged polymers, with PEI/EH coating having a greater amount of deposited polymer compared to CH/EH coating at the same number of BL. Overall, light barrier properties and wettability of the coated films increased with the number of deposited bilayers. Coated PE films maintained the overall thermal behaviour of PE. A number of BL of 20 was found to be the most promising based on the studied properties. Selected samples showed improved oxygen and water vapor barrier properties, with PEI/EH coating performing better than CH/EH coating. Taken altogether, we demonstrated that a novel and sustainable lignin-based polymer can be combined with PEI or CH to fabricate (partially or fully) bio-based coatings for food packaging.

  • 10.
    Abbas, Zeshan
    et al.
    Shenzhen Polytechnic University, China.
    Deng, Jianxiong
    Shenzhen Polytechnic University, China.
    Zhao, Lun
    Shenzhen Polytechnic University, China.
    Islam, Md. Shafiqul
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Surface-conformed approach for mechanical property analysis using ultrasonic welding of dissimilar metals2024In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 132, no 7-8, p. 3447-3466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, dissimilar aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) metals were joined together using ultrasonic metal welding (USMW), a solid-state welding technology. From the perspective of increasing the base metal welding contact area, the Cu/Al mating surface was innovatively prepared and ultrasonically welded. A comprehensive analysis was carried out on the forming quality, welding process temperature, interface structure, and mechanical properties of the welded joint. Defect-free and squeezed welds were successfully achieved by machining novel patterns especially C4-2. The results indicated that the reference joint can withstand higher loads, but its failure mode is very unstable. Failure may occur at welded interface and on the aluminum plate which is not good for actual production applications. Welded strength of reference joint was 4493 N, and the welded strength of C4-2 joint was 3691 N. However, microscopic analysis discovered that the welded joint internal morphology in C4-2 was more stable and hardest. C4-2 joint has successfully achieved higher tensile strength and stability under failure displacement of 38% which is higher than C4-1 joint. All welded joint failures occurred on aluminum plate, indicating that the joint strength is higher than that of bottom plate. This is attributed to unique structural design of chiseled joint and lesser thickness. SEM–EDS results investigated that the C4-2 joint can transfer more energy to area under welding head which provides welded joint with robust diffusion capacity. The transition layer has a higher thickness while the energy transferred to area away from welding head was smaller. Thickness of transition layer is significantly reduced and reference joint has similar diffusion characteristics. Conversely, the thickness of the transition layer at the corresponding position is smaller than that of pattern morphology. This is due to overall smaller thickness of the pattern joint which is more conducive to the transfer of welding energy. The surface-conformed approach and comprehensive temperature analysis provide a new understanding of USMW in dissimilar welded metals. © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2024.

  • 11.
    Abbas, Zeshan
    et al.
    Shenzhen Polytechnic University, China.
    Teng, Fan
    Shenzhen Polytechnic University, China.
    Zhao, Lun
    Shenzhen Polytechnic University, China.
    Islam, Md. Shafiqul
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Influence of Patterns on Mechanical Properties of Ultrasonically Welded Joints in Copper Substrate and Wire2024In: Metals and Materials International, ISSN 1598-9623, E-ISSN 2005-4149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic wire welding is considered a method of choice for creating reliable interconnects in electronics industry including aerospace, batteries and electric vehicles. In this paper, ultrasonic welding tests between EVR252 copper wire and substrate are carried out. Novel pattern morphologies are machined on substrates to explore its influence on mechanical properties of welded joint. Patterns are divided into three different categories e.g., original surface, vertical and horizontal shapes. Cracks, microstructure strength and tensile properties of welded joint are studied and its joining mechanism is analysed. Compared with the reference substrate (S1), the welded joint performance of the longitudinal patterns (S2, S3, S4) has been improved, among which the longitudinal pattern (S4) has the most significant improvement (+ 15%). Likewise, the performance of transverse pattern (S5) welded joints is relatively poor (− 16%). The microstructural analysis using SEM has revealed predominant joint strength on Cu wire surface while maintaining rock-like and compact properties of S4 substrate. Upper side of wire-harness compactness is frequently observed due to vertical direction of patterns on substrate and also increases the strength of welded joint. Values of failure load, failure displacement and failure energy absorption were increased by 7.9%, 72% and 35% for S2, 6.1%, 75% and 42% for S3 and 15%, 87% and 113% for S4 compared to S1. Failure modes of welded joints are mainly characterized into: 1-poor ductility or rupture (no deformation) failure in vertical 3-line pattern joints 2-cylindrical deep holes failure in vertical 3-line zigzag pattern joints and 3-bulging effect failure in horizontal 3-line zigzag pattern joints. Point and line scans EDS measurement were performed to investigate weaker and stable trends of different locations in welded joints. In S4 substrate, 17.9% carbon content at the position of welded joint was investigated, leading to content of less oxides and fraction impurities. However, S1 weld zone contains 38.7% carbon content which can weaken welded joint and reduce durability. Graphical Abstract: (Figure presented.). © The Author(s) under exclusive licence to The Korean Institute of Metals and Materials 2024.

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  • 12. Abbasalizadeh, A.
    et al.
    Sridar, S.
    Chen, Z.
    Sluiter, M.
    Yang, Y.
    Sietsma, J.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Hari Kumar, K. C.
    Experimental investigation and thermodynamic modelling of LiF-NdF3-DyF3 system2018In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 753, p. 388-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrolysis of molten fluorides is one of the promising methods for the recovery and recycling of rare earth metals from used magnets. Due to the dearth of phase equilibria data for molten fluoride systems, thermodynamic modelling of LiF-DyF3-NdF3 system using the CALPHAD approach was carried out. Gibbs energy modelling for LiF-NdF3 and LiF-DyF3 systems was performed using the constitutional data from literature. Ab initio calculations were used to obtain enthalpy of reaction of LiDyF4, an intermediate phase that is found to exist in the LiF-DyF3 system. Differential thermal analysis was carried out for selected compositions in the NdF3-DyF3 system, in order to determine liquidus and solidus temperatures. The Gibbs energy parameters for the limiting binaries determined in this work is used for modelling the Gibbs energy functions of equilibrium phases in the ternary system. Selected compositions of LiF-NdF3-DyF3 were subjected to DTA in order to validate the calculated phase temperatures involving melt.

  • 13. Abbasalizadeh, A.
    et al.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Sietsma, J.
    Yang, Y.
    Rare Earth Extraction from NdFeB Magnets and Rare Earth Oxides Using Aluminum Chloride/Fluoride Molten Salts2015In: Rare Earths Industry: Technological, Economic, and Environmental Implications, Elsevier, 2015, p. 357-373Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current research, the feasibility of the recovery of neodymium and dysprosium from spent NdFeB magnets (about 6wt% Dy) was investigated using molten salt processes. The salt bath consisted of a eutectic composition of an NaCl-KCl-LiCl mixture. To enable the efficient dissolution of metal in the molten salt phase, AlCl3 was used as a chlorinating agent. Iron-free electrodeposition was carried out successfully. Energy-dispersive spectroscopic analysis of the electrodeposit revealed that co-deposition of the dysprosium occurs along with neodymium at the cathode. The process shows that this method is well suited for recovering rare earth metals from magnetic scrap containing these metals.Furthermore, the setup design for recovery of neodymium and dysprosium from their oxides was investigated with regard to previous studies on the neodymium magnets. The stability of different fluoride and chloride salts was studied by means of thermodynamic calculation. Aluminum fluoride-based molten salt systems were studied in detail as the electrolyte for electrochemical extraction of rare earth oxides into rare earth metal elements with Al.

  • 14.
    Abbasalizadeh, Aida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Sridhar, Seetharaman
    Grinder, Olle
    Izumi, Yukari
    Barati, Mansoor
    Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process2013In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 65, no 11, p. 1552-1558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700 degrees C) to 1173 K (900 degrees C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  • 15. Abbasalizadeh, Aida
    et al.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Venkatesan, Prakash
    Sietsma, Jilt
    Yang, Yongxiang
    Novel Reactive Anode for Electrochemical Extraction of Rare Earth Metals from Rare Earth Oxides2017In: RARE METAL TECHNOLOGY 2017 / [ed] Kim, H Alam, S Neelameggham, NR Oosterhof, H Ouchi, T Guan, X, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2017, p. 87-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrolytic production of metallic neodymium is carried out in fused fluoride salts containing neodymium oxide. Two major challenges pertaining to neodymium production are (a) low oxide solubility, (b) possibility of anodic fluorine gas evolution if the electrolysis rate exceeds feeding rate of neodymium oxide. In this study, a novel method is proposed in which iron fluoride (FeF3) is used as a fluorinating agent to convert neodymium oxide into neodymium fluoride. Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) results of as-converted salt show a complete conversion of neodymium oxide into neodymium fluoride. In the electrolysis process, iron is used as a reactive anode with electrochemical dissolution of iron into the melt, thus preventing fluorine gas evolution at the anode. Therefore, the fluorinating agent is constantly regenerated in situ which enables the continuous conversion of neodymium oxide feed. The cathodic product is a Nd-Fe alloy which can be directly used as a master alloy for the production of NdFeB permanent magnets.

  • 16.
    Abbasalizadeh, Aida
    et al.
    Delft Univ Technol TU Delft, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Mekelweg 2, NL-2628 CD Delft, Netherlands..
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Venkatesan, Prakash
    Delft Univ Technol TU Delft, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Mekelweg 2, NL-2628 CD Delft, Netherlands..
    Sietsma, Jilt
    Delft Univ Technol TU Delft, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Mekelweg 2, NL-2628 CD Delft, Netherlands..
    Yang, Yongxiang
    Delft Univ Technol TU Delft, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Mekelweg 2, NL-2628 CD Delft, Netherlands..
    Use of iron reactive anode in electrowinning of neodymium from neodymium oxide2019In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 310, p. 146-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrolytic production of metallic neodymium is carried out in fused neodymium fluoride salts containing neodymium oxide. Two major challenges pertaining to neodymium production in fluoride salts are a) low solubility of neodymium oxide in fluoride melt, b) possibility of anodic gas evolution (CO, CO2, CF4, C2F6). In this study, iron is used as a reactive anode in the electrolysis process, promoting electrochemical dissolution of iron into the melt, preventing PFC (perfluorocarbon) gas evolution at the anode. Further, the rare earth oxide is converted to rare earth fluoride by the use of iron fluoride formed as the result of iron dissolution. Thus, the fluoridizing agent is constantly regenerated in-situ which enables the continuous conversion of neodymium oxide feed. The cathodic product is Nd-Fe alloy which can be used as a master alloy for the production of NdFeB magnets. 

  • 17.
    Abbasalizadeh, Aida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, S.
    Dysprosium extraction using molten salt process2014In: Rare metal technology 2014: proceedings of a symposium sponsored by The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) held during TMS 2014, 143rd Annual Meeting & Exhibition, February 16-20, 2014, San Diego Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, 2014, p. 207-208Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Abbasalizadeh, Aida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Sridhar, S.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Neodymium extraction using salt extraction process2015In: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section C, ISSN 0371-9553, E-ISSN 1743-2855, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 191-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper deals with the feasibility of the neodymium recovery from spent Nd-Fe-B magnets using molten salt electrodeposition method. The salt bath consisted of a mixture of LiCl- KCl-NaCl corresponding to the eutectic composition. The experimental set-up with its salient features is presented. AlCl3 was used as flux and graphite rods dipped in the salt bath served as electrodes. The voltage for the electrolysis was chosen on the basis of the decomposition potential of NdCl3. The reaction sequence can be described as Iron-free neodymium deposition could be carried out successfully. In view of the proximity of the electrode potentials, the co-deposition of the aluminium and neodymium was observed to occur at the cathode, as revealed by SEM/EDS and XRD analyses of the electrodeposit.

  • 19.
    Abbasi, Mahmoud
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanocomposite of chitosan/SiO2/carbon nanotubes and its application for dyes removal2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 145, p. 105-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption characteristics of Direct Blue 71 (DB71) and Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) from aqueous solution onto novel magnetic nanocomposite of Chitosan/SiO2/CNTs (MNCSC) have been investigated. The morphology of MNCSC was characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of initial dye concentration, contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial pH as experimental parameters on the removal of dyes were investigated. The adsorption experiments indicated the maximum adsorption capacity occurred at pH 6.8 for DB71 and pH 2.0 for RB19. The experimental data were analyzed by isotherm models and equilibrium results were fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity of the MNCSM was determined to be 61.35 mg/g for DB71 (R-2 = 0.996) and 97.08 mg/g for RB19 (R-2 = 0.998). Adsorption data were analyzed with three kinetics models and pseudo second-order equation could best describe for adsorption of dyes. Finally, the thermodynamic parameters were determined. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Characterisation of airborne particles from rail traffic2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the investigation of wear particles in rail transport started in late-1910s, the high mass concentration of these particles has raised worries among researchers concerned with air quality. However, effective action has yet to be taken because of lack of relevant knowledge. This thesis provides applicable information for the airborne wear particles in rail transport. Some aspects of their characteristics such as diameter size, mass concentration, number concentration, and morphology of particles were investigated in field tests and laboratory tests.The effects on particle characterisations from different operational conditions in the field tests, and applying different braking materials, conducting tests in different applied loads or sliding velocities in the laboratory tests were studied. The main advantage of conducting laboratory tests was to focus on studying particles from one source. The possibility of repetition, using high sensitive instruments and conducting tests at low costs are the other advantages of laboratory studies. Paper A describes how a pin-on-disc machine was used to reproduce similar real operational conditions during mechanical braking in a train. The results were validated by comparing the field tests results with the laboratory studies. The particles morphology and size distribution were also studied.Paper B presents a summary of field tests results. The effects of curve negotiating and applying braking in different real conditions were investigated with an on-board measurement.The element composition of the particles and their potential sources were also investigated outside of the particles morphologies.Paper C presents comprehensive results from laboratory studies on airborne particles from different braking materials. The differences in the particle characteristics in similar test conditions were attributable to different material compositions and dominant wear mechanisms. A new index was introduced in this paper and is suggested to be used as a qualitative factor with regard to the airborne wear particle emission rate.Paper D is a review of the recent studies of exhaust emission and non-exhaust emission from rail vehicles. A summary of results, measurements, adverse health effects, and proposed or applied solutions are reviewed in this paper.

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  • 21.
    Abbasi-Ravasjani, Sonia
    et al.
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Ctr Dent Amsterdam ACTA, Dept Oral Cell Biol, Amsterdam Movement Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Seddiqi, Hadi
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Ctr Dent Amsterdam ACTA, Dept Oral Cell Biol, Amsterdam Movement Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Moghaddaszadeh, Ali
    Islamic Azad Univ, Dept Biomed Engn, Sci & Res Branch, Tehran, Iran..
    Ghiasvand, Mohammad-Ehsan
    Amirkabir Univ Technol, Dept Mech Engn, Tehran, Iran..
    Jin, Jianfeng
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Ctr Dent Amsterdam ACTA, Dept Oral Cell Biol, Amsterdam Movement Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Oliaei, Erfan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Bacabac, Rommel Gaud
    Univ San Carlos, Dept Phys, Med Biophys Grp, Cebu, Philippines..
    Klein-Nulend, Jenneke
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Ctr Dent Amsterdam ACTA, Dept Oral Cell Biol, Amsterdam Movement Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sulfated carboxymethyl cellulose and carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan immobilization on 3D-printed poly-epsilon-caprolactone scaffolds differentially promote pre-osteoblast proliferation and osteogenic activity2022In: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, E-ISSN 2296-4185, Vol. 10, article id 957263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of bioactivity in three-dimensional (3D)-printing of poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds limits cell-material interactions in bone tissue engineering. This constraint can be overcome by surface-functionalization using glycosaminoglycan-like anionic polysaccharides, e.g., carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), a plant-based carboxymethylated, unsulfated polysaccharide, and kappa-carrageenan, a seaweed-derived sulfated, non-carboxymethylated polysaccharide. The sulfation of CMC and carboxymethylation of kappa-carrageenan critically improve their bioactivity. However, whether sulfated carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) and carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan (CM-kappa-Car) affect the osteogenic differentiation potential of pre-osteoblasts on 3D-scaffolds is still unknown. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of surface-functionalization by SCMC or CM-kappa-Car on the physicochemical and mechanical properties of 3D-printed PCL scaffolds, as well as the osteogenic response of pre-osteoblasts. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were seeded on 3D-printed PCL scaffolds that were functionalized by CM-kappa-Car (PCL/CM-kappa-Car) or SCMC (PCL/SCMC), cultured up to 28 days. The scaffolds' physicochemical and mechanical properties and pre-osteoblast function were assessed experimentally and by finite element (FE) modeling. We found that the surface-functionalization by SCMC and CM-kappa-Car did not change the scaffold geometry and structure but decreased the elastic modulus. Furthermore, the scaffold surface roughness and hardness increased and the scaffold became more hydrophilic. The FE modeling results implied resilience up to 2% compression strain, which was below the yield stress for all scaffolds. Surface-functionalization by SCMC decreased Runx2 and Dmp1 expression, while surface-functionalization by CM-kappa-Car increased Cox2 expression at day 1. Surface-functionalization by SCMC most strongly enhanced pre-osteoblast proliferation and collagen production, while CM-kappa-Car most significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization after 28 days. In conclusion, surface-functionalization by SCMC or CM-kappa-Car of 3D-printed PCL-scaffolds enhanced pre-osteoblast proliferation and osteogenic activity, likely due to increased surface roughness and hydrophilicity. Surface-functionalization by SCMC most strongly enhanced cell proliferation, while CM-kappa-Car most significantly promoted osteogenic activity, suggesting that surface-functionalization by CM-kappa-Car may be more promising, especially in the short-term, for in vivo bone formation.

  • 22.
    Abbaspour, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Isoleringsegenskaper hos frodvuxen gran: En studie av dess värmeledningsförmåga och funktion2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the potential of fast-grown spruce (Picea abies) as an insulation material in historic buildings, aiming to evaluate the relationship between density and thermal conductivity. The background of the study lies in the need for sustainable and efficient insulation materials that can be used to improve the energy performance of buildings while preserving their historical character and aesthetic value. Fast-grown spruce has a lower density then the lowest available in the Swedish standard for materials heat conductivity. 

    The methodology included both laboratory analyses and field studies. In the laboratory part, a hot-disk instrument was used to measure thermal conductivity, followed by calculations of density and moisture content. The field studies were conducted to identify practical applications and challenges in using fast-grown spruce as a construction material. These studies involved inspections of buildings constructed with fast-grown spruce and interviews with those responsible for their construction to investigate its potential functionality as a construction material. 

    The main results from the laboratory analyses showed a strong correlation between density and thermal conductivity, indicating that fast-grown spruce, with its lower density, has improved insulation properties compared to slow-grown spruce. The field studies confirmed that fast-grown spruce can be used as a construction material in buildings, but also pointed out its tendency to exhibit greater movement during drying, which can be accounted for to prevent issues during the drying process. 

    The conclusions suggest that fast-grown spruce can be a valuable addition to existing insulation materials due to its improved insulation performance. The study recommends further research to examine long-term degradation effects and the material's moisture properties, which are critical for its practical use in buildings. Additionally, further research should investigate the ability of fast-grown spruce to serve as a substrate for plaster, both for clay and lime-based plasters, to determine the wood's compatibility with these materials. 

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    Frodvuxen gran värmeledning
  • 23.
    Abbaszad Rafi, Abdolrahim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Alimohammadzadeh, Rana
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Avella, Angelica
    Mõistlik, Tanel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Jűrisoo, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Kaaver, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Tai, Cheuk -Wai
    Lo Re, Giada
    Cordova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    A facile route for concurrent fabrication and surface selective functionalization of cellulose nanofibers by lactic acid mediated catalysis2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 14730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Celulose nanofibers are lightweight, recycable, biodegradable, and renewable. Hence, there is a great interest of using them instead of fossil-based components in new materials and biocomposites. In this study, we disclose an environmentally benign (green) one-step reaction approach to fabricate lactic acid ester functionalized cellulose nanofibrils from wood-derived pulp fibers in high yields. This was accomplished by converting wood-derived pulp fibers to nanofibrillated “cellulose lactate” under mild conditions using lactic acid as both the reaction media and catalyst. Thus, in parallel to the cellulose nanofibril production, concurrent lactic acid-catalyzed esterification of lactic acid to the cellulose nanofibers surface occured. The direct lactic acid esterification, which is a surface selective functionalization and reversible (de-attaching the ester groups by cleavage of the ester bonds), of the cellulose nanofibrils was confirmed by low numbers of degree of substitution, and FT-IR analyses. Thus, autocatalytic esterification and cellulose hydrolysis occurred without the need of metal based or a harsh mineral acid catalysts, which has disadvantages such as acid corrosiveness and high recovery cost of acid. Moreover, adding a mineral acid as a co-catalyst significantly decreased the yield of the nanocellulose. The lactic acid media is successfully recycled in multiple reaction cycles producing the corresponding nanocellulose fibers in high yields. The disclosed green cellulose nanofibril production route is industrial relevant and gives direct access to nanocellulose for use in variety of applications such as sustainable filaments, composites, packaging and strengthening of recycled fibers. 

  • 24.
    Abbondanza, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, NanoLund, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Larsson, Alfred
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, NanoLund, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Linpe, Weronica
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Hetherington, Crispin
    Lund Univ, nCHREM, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Carla, Francesco
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE, Oxon, England..
    Lundgren, Edvin
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Harlow, Gary
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM). MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Fotongatan 2, Lund, 224 84, Sweden.
    Templated electrodeposition as a scalable and surfactant-free approach to the synthesis of Au nanoparticles with tunable aspect ratios2022In: Nanoscale Advances, E-ISSN 2516-0230, Vol. 4, no 11, p. 2452-2467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-throughput method for the fabrication of ordered arrays of Au nanoparticles is presented. It is based on pulsed electrodeposition into porous anodic alumina templates. In contrast to many synthesis routes, it is cyanide-free, prior separation of the alumina template from the aluminium substrate is not required, and the use of contaminating surfactants/capping agents often found in colloidal synthesis is avoided. The aspect ratio of the nanoparticles can also be tuned by selecting an appropriate electrodeposition time. We show how to fabricate arrays of nanoparticles, both with branched bases and with hemispherical bases. Furthermore, we compare the different morphologies produced with electron microscopies and grazing-incidence synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We find the nanoparticles are polycrystalline in nature and are compressively strained perpendicular to the direction of growth, and expansively strained along the direction of growth. We discuss how this can produce dislocations and twinning defects that could be beneficial for catalysis.

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  • 25.
    Abdelakram, Hafid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business Swedish School of Textiles, Textile Materials Technology, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, E.
    Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business Swedish School of Textiles, Textile Materials Technology, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Rödby, K.
    Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business Swedish School of Textiles, Textile Materials Technology, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Ramos, A.
    Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business Swedish School of Textiles, Textile Materials Technology, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Abtahi, F.
    Institute for Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Seoane, F.
    Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business Swedish School of Textiles, Textile Materials Technology, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sensorized T-Shirt with Fully Integrated Textrodes and Measurement Leads with Textile-Friendly Methods2024In: IFMBE Proceedings, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2024, Vol. 108, p. 227-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development in the field of smart wearable products for monitoring daily life health status is beginning to spread in society. Textile electronic methods are improving and facilitating the manufacturing of sensorized garments. This paper evaluates a newly developed t-shirt incorporating electronic sensing and interconnecting elements integrated into the T-shirt with textile-friendly techniques sensorized with a Movesense device for monitoring ECG and HR and activity. The measurement results obtained from the t-shirt are entirely in agreement with the measurements obtained with other textile garments and encourage us for a near future where wearable sensors are just textile garments sensorized seamlessly without suboptimal textile-electronic integrated elements.

  • 26.
    Abdelaziz, Omar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Capanema, Ewellyn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ajao, Olumoye
    Canmet ENERGY, Canada.
    Kristensen, Tove
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Benali, Marzouk
    Canmet ENERGY, Canada.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    A Rapid and Tunable Approach for the Fractionation of Technical Kraft Lignin2023In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, ISSN 1974-9791, E-ISSN 2283-9216, Vol. 99, p. 67-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the heterogeneity of technical lignin is essential to obtain predictable and high-performance polymeric materials that are suitable for high-value applications. Organic solvents with different polarities and solubilities can be used to fractionate lignin and reduce the complexity and diversity of its chemical structure. Among the various solvents and solvent mixtures, acetone-water mixtures offer an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly means of lignin fractionation. In the present study, temperature-induced acetone-water fractionation was investigated to refine the properties of a technical softwood Kraft lignin, i.e., LignoBoost™ lignin. Relatively mild operating conditions were tested, namely, temperatures of 70-110°C and autogenous pressure. A factorial experimental design was developed using the Design-Expert® software, and three factors (temperature, time, and acetone concentration) were investigated. It was found that temperature-induced fractionation could increase lignin homogeneity and maintain high lignin solubilization with a short processing time (<1 h). It was also possible to tune the properties of the soluble lignin fraction (yield and weight-average molecular weight) based on the factorial models developed. The techno-economic evaluation confirmed the commercial viability of this fractionation process. 

  • 27.
    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Assiut University, Egypt.
    Surfactant assisted synthesis of hierarchical porous metal-organic frameworks nanosheets2019In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 30, no 43, article id 435601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks show increasing research attention due to their unique properties including tunable thickness, simple packing into a film and membrane, and high surface-to-volume atom ratios. A bottom-up synthesis strategy using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide for the synthesis of copper-benzenedicarboxylate (Cu(BDC)) nanosheets is reported. The method offers the synthesis of hierarchical porous Cu(BDC) lamellae with micrometer lateral dimensions, and nanometer thickness (100-150 nm). Electron microscope (scanning and transmission), and N-2 adsorption isotherms confirm the formation of lamellae Cu(BDC) with mesopore size of 5-80 nm. The material has thermal stability up to 400 degrees C with good chemical stability in several organic solvents. However, the material transforms to another phase (Cu(BDC)(H2O)(2)) when soaked in water and alcohols. The transformation reduces crystal size and offers the formation of hydrogen bond resulting in an increase in the sorption of CO2 by similar to 10% compared to the pristine material Cu(BDC).

  • 28.
    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Div Mat & Environm Chem, Svante Arrhenius Väg 16 C, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Assiut Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Chem, Adv Multifunct Mat Lab, Assiut 71515, Egypt..
    Georgouvelas, Dimitrios
    Stockholm Univ, Div Mat & Environm Chem, Svante Arrhenius Väg 16 C, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Mathew, Aji P.
    Stockholm Univ, Div Mat & Environm Chem, Svante Arrhenius Väg 16 C, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    CelloZIFPaper: Cellulose-ZIF hybrid paper for heavy metal removal and electrochemical sensing2022In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 446, article id 136614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The processing of hierarchical porous zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF-8) into a cellulose paper using sheet former Rapid-Kothen (R.K.) is reported. The procedure is a promising route to overcome a significant bottleneck towards applying metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in commercial products. ZIF-8 crystals were integrated into cellulose pulp (CP) or TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNF) following an in-situ or ex-situ process; the materials were denoted as CelloZIFPaper_In Situ and CelloZIFPaper_Ex Situ, respectively. The materials were applied as adsorbents to remove heavy metals from water, with adsorption capacities of 66.2-354.0 mg/g. CelloZIFPaper can also be used as a stand-alone working electrode for the selective sensing of toxic heavy metals, for instance, lead ions (Pb2+), using electrochemical-based methods with a limit of detection (LOD) of 8 mu M. The electrochemical measurements may advance 'Lab-onCelloZIFPaper' technologies for label-free detection of heavy metal ions.

  • 29.
    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Assiut University, Egypt.
    Mathew, Aji P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Cellulose-Based Materials for Water Remediation: Adsorption, Catalysis, and Antifouling2021In: Frontiers in Chemical Engineering, E-ISSN 2673-2718, Vol. 3, article id 790314Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose-based materials have been advanced technologies that used in water remediation. They exhibit several advantages being the most abundant biopolymer in nature, high biocompatibility, and contain several functional groups. Cellulose can be prepared in several derivatives including nanomaterials such as cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), and TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNF). The presence of functional groups such as carboxylic and hydroxyls groups can be modified or grafted with organic moieties offering extra functional groups customizing for specific applications. These functional groups ensure the capability of cellulose biopolymers to be modified with nanoparticles such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), graphene oxide (GO), silver (Ag) nanoparticles, and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. Thus, they can be applied for water remediation via removing water pollutants including heavy metal ions, organic dyes, drugs, and microbial species. Cellulose-based materials can be also used for removing microorganisms being active as membranes or antibacterial agents. They can proceed into various forms such as membranes, sheets, papers, foams, aerogels, and filters. This review summarized the applications of cellulose-based materials for water remediation via methods such as adsorption, catalysis, and antifouling. The high performance of cellulose-based materials as well as their simple processing methods ensure the high potential for water remediation.

     

  • 30.
    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Assiut University, Egypt; The British University in Egypt (BUE), Egypt.
    Sultan, Sahar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Mathew, Aji P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Three-Dimensional Printing of Cellulose/Covalent Organic Frameworks (CelloCOFs) for CO2 Adsorption and Water Treatment2023In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 15, no 51, p. 59795-59805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of porous organic polymers, specifically covalent organic frameworks (COFs), has facilitated the advancement of numerous applications. Nevertheless, the limited availability of COFs solely in powder form imposes constraints on their potential applications. Furthermore, it is worth noting that COFs tend to undergo aggregation, leading to a decrease in the number of active sites available within the material. This work presents a comprehensive methodology for the transformation of a COF into three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds using the technique of 3D printing. As part of the 3D printing process, a composite material called CelloCOF was created by combining cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), sodium alginate, and COF materials (i.e., COF-1 and COF-2). The intervention successfully mitigated the agglomeration of the COF nanoparticles, resulting in the creation of abundant active sites that can be effectively utilized for adsorption purposes. The method of 3D printing can be described as a simple and basic procedure that can be adapted to accommodate hierarchical porous materials with distinct micro- and macropore regimes. This technology demonstrates versatility in its use across a range of COF materials. The adsorption capacities of 3D CelloCOF materials were evaluated for three different adsorbates: carbon dioxide (CO2), heavy metal ions, and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). The results showed that the materials exhibited adsorption capabilities of 19.9, 7.4–34, and 118.5–410.8 mg/g for CO2, PFOS, and heavy metals, respectively. The adsorption properties of the material were found to be outstanding, exhibiting a high degree of recyclability and exceptional selectivity. Based on our research findings, it is conceivable that the utilization of custom-designed composites based on COFs could present new opportunities in the realm of water and air purification.

  • 31.
    Abdel-Karim, R.
    et al.
    Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.
    Reda, Y.
    Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.
    Muhammed, Mamoun A.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    El-Raghy, S.
    Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.
    Shoeib, M.
    Metals Technology Department Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute.
    Ahmed, H.
    Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.
    Electrodeposition and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Ni-Fe Alloys2011In: Journal of Nanomaterials, ISSN 1687-4110, E-ISSN 1687-4129, p. 519274-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocrystalline Ni-Fe deposits with different composition and grain sizes were fabricated by electrodeposition. Deposits with iron contents in the range from 7 to 31% were obtained by changing the Ni(2+)/Fe(2+) mass ratio in the electrolyte. The deposits were found to be nanocrystalline with average grain size in the range 20-30 nm. The surface morphology was found to be dependent on Ni(2+)/Fe(2+) mass ratio as well as electroplating time. The grains size decreased with increasing the iron content, especially in case of short time electroplating. Increasing the electroplating time had no significant effect on grain size. The microhardness of the materials followed the regular Hall-Petch relationship with amaximum value (762 Hv) when applying Ni(2+)/Fe(2+) mass ratio equal to 9.8.

  • 32.
    Abdel-Khalek, N.A.
    et al.
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), PO Box 87, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.
    Yassin, K.E.
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), PO Box 87, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.
    Selim, K. A.
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), PO Box 87, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.
    Rao, Kota Hanumantha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Kandel, A.-H.
    Chemistry Department Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan, Egypt.
    Effect of starch type on selectivity of cationic flotation of iron ore2012In: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section C, ISSN 0371-9553, E-ISSN 1743-2855, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 98-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cationic flotation is one of the most widely accepted technologies for upgrading siliceous iron ore using polysaccharides (mainly starches) as depressing agents for iron bearing minerals while floating silica with amines. In this paper, a group of starches are investigated as depressants for haematite. These starches are wheat, corn, rice, potato and dextrin. The role of starch type on the selectivity of the separation process has been studied through zeta potential, adsorption measurements as well as flotation tests. The effects of type of starch and pH of the medium have been studied. The results indicate that the selectivity of the separation process is strongly affected by the type of starch used, where better results are obtained with corn starch or wheat starch in comparison to the other types. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements indicated that the interaction between starches and haematite surface is intermolecular interaction.

  • 33.
    AbdElKhalek, Y. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Awad, M. I.
    Abd El Munim, H. E.
    Maged, S. A.
    Trajectory-based fast ball detection and tracking for an autonomous industrial robot system2021In: International Journal of Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications, ISSN 1740-8865, E-ISSN 1740-8873, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 126-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomising industrial robots is the main goal in this paper; imagine humanoid robots that have several degrees of freedom (DOF) mechanisms as their arms. What if the humanoid's arms could be programmed to be responsive to their surrounding environment, without any hard-coding assigned? This paper presents the idea of an autonomous system, where the system observes the surrounding environment and takes action on its observation. The application here is that of rebuffing an object that is thrown towards a robotic arm's workspace. This application mimics the idea of high dynamic responsiveness of a robot's arm. This paper will present a trajectory generation framework for rebuffing incoming flying objects. The framework bases its assumptions on inputs acquired through image processing and object detection. After extensive testing, it can be said that the proposed framework managed to fulfil the real-time system requirements for this application, with an 80% successful rebuffing rate. 

  • 34.
    Abdelmajid, Ehab
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Abouelkhair, Mohammad
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Analys av länkarm till transportcykel2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work has been performed at Starke Cycles and its purpose is to analyze the control arm of the MacPherson's suspension system for their new prototype of transport cycles. To analyze the control arm, the work is divided into different parts. The parts consists of mechanical calculations, material production, CAD modulation, structural mechanics and FEM analyzes. Material production is carried out using the material database CES-EduPack. The CAD program Solidworks is used to obtain a CAD model of the control arm. To analyze the control arm, SolidWorks simulation tools are used to obtain stress concentration and are presented.

    Starke Cycles is a private bicycle manufacturing company. Their idea is to manufacture and develop environmentally friendly electric bicycles for the transport of goods. A normal way of transporting goods is by means of trucks. The disadvantage of transporting goods in a truck compared to transport cycles is that it causes toxic gases, high risk of traffic accidents and delays because it is restricted in traffic where certain roads and roads prevent it from reaching its destination. These disadvantages are a major reason why Starke Cycles has invested in the production of transport bicycles. The electric motors used in the transport bicycles do not emit exhaust gases. The size of the transport bicycles is considerable smaller, which means more space for fellow drivers on roads and ways and the risk of traffic accidents is reduced. Delays rarely occur because the transport bicycles are allowed to drive on cycle tracks and this makes the transport of goods smoother and faster.

    The work results in a 3D model and the control arm reaches the goals that were set at the project. The material selection for the control arm was made of low-alloy steel of the AISI 4340 normalized. FEM analyzes in Solidworks show that the stress concentrations in the link arm can handle the maximum static load with a good safety factor of 200 at maximum load of the transport cycle.

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    E.Abdelmajid_M.Abou El Khair
  • 35. Abdi, Y.
    et al.
    Derakhshandeh, J.
    Hashemi, P.
    Mohajerzadeh, S.
    Karbassian, F.
    Nayeri, F.
    Arzi, E.
    Robertson, M. D.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Light-emitting nano-porous silicon structures fabricated using a plasma hydrogenation technique2005In: Materials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, Vol. 124-125, no SUPPL., p. 483-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preparation of porous silicon films by DC-plasma hydrogenation and subsequent annealing of amorphous silicon films on silicon and glass substrates is reported for the first time. The effects of varying plasma power and annealing temperatures have been investigated and characterized by scanning-electron microscopy, transmission-electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. A plasma density of about 5.5 W/m2 and hydrogenation-annealing temperatures of about 400 °C was found to be suitable for the formation of nano-crystalline silicon films with grain diameters of the order of 3-10 nm. The intensity and wavelength of the emitted visible light were found to depend on the hydrogenation and annealing conditions, and patterning of the silicon films using standard lithography allowed the creation of light-emitting patterns.

  • 36. Abdin, Amir
    et al.
    Feyzabi, Kaveh
    Hellman, Oskar
    Nordström, Henrietta
    Rasa, Dilman
    Thaung Tolförs, Gustav
    Öqvist, Per-Olof
    Methods to create compressive stress in high strength steel components2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Residual compressive stresses can be used to increase the lifetime of parts under cyclic stress as they negate the applied tensile stresses that cause crack initiation and propagation in the material. The goal of this project was to investigate methods to induce stresses, their advantages and disadvantages as well as depth and magnitude of induced stresses, and also to find methods of analyzing the induced residual stresses. This was done on behalf of Epiroc Drilling Tools AB in order for them to induce stresses on the insides of their long, narrow and hollow rods, where stress induction is difficult. Shot peening was used as a reference as that is the method currently in use by the company. The results show that the two most promising methods are cavitation peening and laser shock peening; two relatively new methods with large magnitudes and depth of induced stress as well as a great capability of inducing stresses on the hard-to-reach insides of the rods. Ultrasonic needle peening, ultrasonic shot peening as well as induction hardening, cryogenic treatment and friction stir processing were also investigated. Methods of analyzing the stresses include X-ray diffraction and slitting, hole drilling and ultrasonic methods.

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  • 37.
    Abdollahi, Morteza
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, Iran.
    Bahrami, Ataallah
    Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering – Urmia University, P.O. Box 57561/51818, Iran.
    Saleh Mirmohammadi, Mir
    School of Mining Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran.
    Kazemi, Fatemeh
    Faculty of Engineering – University of Kashan, Iran.
    Danesh, Abolfazl
    Complex of Copper Processing – Sungun, Headquarters Rd, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
    Ghorbani, Yousef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    A process mineralogy approach to optimize molybdenite flotation in copper: molybdenum processing plants2020In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 157, article id 106557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sungun copper-molybdenum operation in Iran uses a typical copper-molybdenum flowsheet to produce separate copper and molybdenum concentrates through flotation and regrinding of the rougher concentrates arising from the primary circuit. This site was used as a case study limited to the feed and products of the copper-molybdenum separation circuit, in which process mineralogy might improve the quality of the molybdenum concentrate thorough diagnostic analysis of key flowsheet streams. The undesirable presence of copper in the molybdenum concentrate was identified as a key focus for the investigation by process mineralogy, which has a history of successful process diagnosis. This is because it develops information on minerals, which is far more informative than chemical assays alone. Together with the assays, the mineralogical data inform the investigator of the type and quantity of minerals present, their state of liberation and textural associations, and metal recovery.

    A key finding was that the appearance of chalcopyrite in the molybdenum concentrate was due to the presence of a chalcopyrite-pyrite texture that avoided the chalcopyrite depression in the molybdenum circuit because of suitable pyrite flotation conditions. Recovery of liberated pyrite to this concentrate also diluted the molybdenum concentrate. The open-circuit format of the regrind circuit also contributed to the unnecessary production of ultrafine particles. This flaw expressed itself as ultrafine losses of molybdenite to the flotation tailings.

  • 38.
    Abdollahifakhr, Hamon
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Supported Engineering Design.
    Sengul, Ceyhun
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Supported Engineering Design.
    AUTOMATIC DESIGN OF WIRING PATTERN FOR CAR SEAT HEATERS2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This projects aims to develop design automation in product development. Design automation causes increase in producibility and decrease in product cost and manufacturing lead time.

    The study at hand is proposed to provide a new method and to introduce procedure to the design of wiring pattern for a car seat heater for Kongsberg Automotive, KA. KA is a Norwegian company and a global provider of engineering, design, and manufacture for seat comfort, driver and motion control systems, fluid assemblies, and industrial driver interface products. The method that currently is used in the company to create a wiring pattern is neither sufficient enough nor automated.

    In order to design the wiring pattern, at first procedure is handled by the designer. Secondly, car seat heater 2D layout is imported and then, the dimensions of the elements are defined as constraints. Then VBA codes are opened and the program is run. The result will be a wiring pattern in different 2D layouts. To make the design process easier, we have modeled five different layouts; wiring pattern of one element, two elements, three elements, five elements (with two back sides) and one element trapezoidal 2D layout.

    The algorithm written in VBA (Visual basic for application) creates the pattern according to the dimensions of the elements which are used as inputs to define constrained parameters. The created macros are simple to use and easy to modify, independent from the programming knowledge. The user is only responsible with parameter input and running the program. The solution gives wiring pattern for a car seat heater.

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  • 39.
    Abdoshahi, Neda
    et al.
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Dehghani, Mohammad
    Mat Ctr Leoben Forsch GmbH, Roseggerstr 12, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Hatzenbichler, Lukas
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Spoerk-Erdely, Petra
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Ruban, Andrei V.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Mat Ctr Leoben Forsch GmbH, Roseggerstr 12, A-8700 Leoben, Austria.
    Musi, Michael
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Mayer, Svea
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Spitaler, Juergen
    Mat Ctr Leoben Forsch GmbH, Roseggerstr 12, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Holec, David
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Structural stability and mechanical properties of TiAl plus Mo alloys: A comprehensive ab initio study2021In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 221, p. 117427-, article id 117427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium aluminides are technologically important intermetallic alloys with also many curious properties interesting from a basic research point of view. When alloyed with Mo, several (meta)stable phases have been reported; their properties are, however, largely unknown due to the alloy processing (e.g. fast cooling) and/or non-existence as a single-phase material. Here we employ first principles calculations to study compositional trends in structural and mechanical properties. We could show that Mo increases the density of all studied phases, leads to their chemical destabilization with the exception of the ordered bcc /3o phase, increases their ductility, and enhances the elastic anisotropy. Discrepancies between two employed ab initio methods (special quasi-random structures vs. coherent potential approximation) in the case of the /3o and B19 phases are rationalized with significant local distortions which may eventually facilitate a spontaneous phase transformation. Predictions of ordering temperatures solely based on the configurational entropy do not yield values in the experimentally expected ranges.

  • 40.
    Abdoshahi, Neda
    et al.
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Dehghani, Mohammad
    Mat Ctr Leoben Forsch GmbH, Roseggerstr 12, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Ruban, Andrei V.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Structures. Mat Ctr Leoben Forsch GmbH, Roseggerstr 12, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Friak, Martin
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys Mat, Zizkova 22, CZ-61662 Brno, Czech Republic.;Brno Univ Technol, Fac Mech Engn, Inst Mat Sci & Engn, Tech 2896-2, CZ-61669 Brno, Czech Republic..
    Sob, Mojmir
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys Mat, Zizkova 22, CZ-61662 Brno, Czech Republic.;Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Chem, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61137 Brno, Czech Republic..
    Spitaler, Juergen
    Mat Ctr Leoben Forsch GmbH, Roseggerstr 12, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Holec, David
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, Franz Josef Str 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    On the energetics of the cubic-to-hexagonal transformations in TiAl plus Mo alloys2022In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 240, article id 118268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusionless transformations allow access to metastable phases and enrich the materials design portfolio. They are well suited for atomistic modeling; nonetheless, they are challenging when involving disordered systems or alloys with complex compositions. This work presents a comprehensive study of transforma-tion energetics between bcc and hcp ordered and disordered phases in the TiAl+Mo model alloy system. By employing two complementary techniques I. VASP-SQS, and II. EMTO-CPA, we can show that chemical disorder flattens the energy landscape but may introduce a small barrier. Unlike that, the energetics of ordered phases are barrier-less and hence would suggest a spontaneous transformation. Finally, we show that Mo stabilizes the bcc phases, leading to a barrier-less transformation hcp -+ bcc for both ordered and disordered states when Mo content exceeds ti 12 at.%.

  • 41.
    Abdul Abas, Riad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Experimental Studies of Thermal Diffusivities concerning some Industrially Important Systems2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this industrially important work was to gain an increasing understanding of the properties of some industrially important materials such as CMSX-4 nickel base super alloy, 90Ti.6Al.4V alloy, 25Cr:6Ni stainless steel, 0.7% carbon steel, AISI 304 stainless steel-alumina composites, mould powder used in continuous casting of steel as well as coke used in blast furnace with special reference to the thermal diffusivities. The measurements were carried out in a wide temperature range covering solid, liquid, glassy and crystalline states.

    For CMSX-4 alloy, the thermal conductivities were calculated from the experimental thermal diffusivities. Both the diffusivities and conductivities were found to increase with increasing temperature. Microscopic analysis showed the presence of intermetallic phases γ´ such as Ni3Al below 1253 K. In this region, the mean free path of the electrons and phonons is likely to be limited by scattering against lattice defects. Between 1253 K and solidus temperature, these phases dissolved in the alloy adding to the impurities in the matrix, which, in turn, caused a decrease in the thermal diffusivity. This effect was confirmed by annealing the samples at 1573 K. The thermal diffusivities of the annealed samples measured at 1277, 1403 and 1531 K were found to be lower than the thermal diffusivities of non-annealed samples and the values did not show any noticeable change with time. It could be related to the attainment of equilibrium with the completion of the dissolution of γ´ phase during the annealing process. Liquid CMSX-4 does not show any change of thermal diffusivity with temperature. It may be attributed to the decrease of the mean free path being shorter than characteristic distance between two neighbouring atoms.

    Same tendency could be observed in the case of 90Ti.6Al.4V alloy. Since the thermal diffusivity increases with increasing temperature below 1225 K and shows slight decrease or constancy at higher temperature. For 25Cr:6Ni stainless steel, the thermal diffusivity is nearly constant up to about 700 K. Beyond that, there is an increase with temperature both during heating as well as cooling cycle. On the other hand, the slope of the curve increases above 950 K, which can be due to the increase of bcc phase in the structure. 0.7% carbon steel shows a decrease in the thermal diffusivity at temperature below Curie point, where the structure contains bcc+ fcc phases. Above this point the thermal diffusivity increases, where the structure contains only fcc phase. The experimental thermal conductivity values of these alloys show good agreement with the calculated values using Mills model.

    Thermal diffusivity measurements as a function of temperature of sintered AISI 304 stainless steel-alumina composites having various composition, viz, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 10 wt% Al2O3 were carried out in the present work. The thermal diffusivity as well as the thermal conductivity were found to increase with temperature for all composite specimens. The thermal diffusivity/conductivity decreases with increasing weight fraction of alumina in the composites. The experimental results are in good agreement with simple rule of mixture, Eucken equation and developed Ohm´s law model at weight fraction of alumina below 5 wt%. Beyond this, the thermal diffusivity/ conductivity exhibits a high discrepancy probably due to the agglomeration of alumina particles during cold pressing and sintering.

    On the other hand, thermal diffusivities of industrial mould flux having glassy and crystalline states decrease with increasing temperature at lower temperature and are constant at higher temperature except for one glassy sample. The thermal diffusivity is increased with increasing crystallisation degree of mould flux, which is expected from theoretical considerations.

    Analogously, the thermal diffusivity measurements of mould flux do not show any significant change with temperature in liquid state. It is likely to be due to the silicate network being largely broken down.

    In the case of coke, the sample taken from deeper level of the pilot blast furnace is found to have larger thermal diffusivity. This can be correlated to the average crystallite size along the structural c-axis, Lc, which is indicative of the higher degree of graphitisation. This was also confirmed by XRD measurements of the different coke samples. The degree of graphitisation was found to increase with increasing temperature. Further, XRD and heat capacity measurements of coke samples taken from different levels in the shaft of the pilot blast furnace show that the graphitisation of coke was instantaneous between 973 and 1473 K.

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  • 42.
    Abdul Abas, Riad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Hayashi, M.iyuki
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Thermal Diffusivity measurement of CMSX-4 alloy by Laser flash method2007In: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 109-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, thermal diffusivity measurements have been carried out on industrial samples of CMSX-4 nickel-base superalloy using the laser-flash method with emphasis on studying the effect of temperature and microstructure on the thermal diffusivity. The measurements were performed in the temperature range from 298 to 1623 K covering both solid as well as liquid ranges. Below 1253 K, the thermal-diffusivity values were found to increase with increasing temperature. Microstructural investigations of quenched samples revealed that below 1253 K, an ordered phase, usually referred to as the -phase was present together with the disordered fcc phase, often referred to as the γ phase. Between 1253 K and the solidus temperature, the phase was found to dissolve in the matrix alloy causing an increase in the disordering of the alloy, and thereby a small decrease in the thermal-diffusivity values. The thermal-diffusivity values of samples pre-annealed at 1573 K exhibited constancy in the temperature range from 1277 to 1513 K, which is attributed to the attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium. These equilibrium values were found to be lower than the results for samples not subjected to annealing. The thermal-diffusivity values of the alloy in the liquid state were found to be independent of temperature.

  • 43.
    Abdul Abas, Riad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Hayashi, Miyuki
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Thermal Diffusivity Measurements of some Industrially Important Alloys by a Laser Flash Method2007In: International journal of materials reseach, ISSN 1862-5282, Vol. 98, no 6, p. 535-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, thermal diffusivity measurements of three industrially significant alloys, viz. 90Ti.6Al.4V, stainless steel with 25Cr and 6Ni as well as plain carbon steel with 0.7 % carbon have been carried out as a function of temperature. The aim of this work is to study the effect of temperature and microstructure on the thermal diffusivities of these alloys. For the 90Ti.6Al.4V alloy, thermal diffusivity increases with temperature below 1225 K. Above this temperature, the values started decreasing probably due to the dissolution of Ti3Al intermediate phase in the matrix, which would result in an increase in the disorder of the structure. For 25Cr: 6Ni stainless steel, the thermal diffusivity is nearly constant up to about 700 K. Above this, there is an increase in the thermal diffusivities with temperature during the heating cycle, which was reproducible during thermal cycling. On the other hand, the slope of the curve increases above 950 K.

    In the case of the 0.7 % carbon steel, the thermal diffusivity shows a decreasing trend with temperature below the Curie point for the alloy, where the alloy consists of bcc + fcc phases. Above this point, only the fcc phase is prevalent and the thermal diffusivity was found to increase with temperature. Heat transfer is carried out by lattice vibration (phonons) as well as electrons. The contribution of electrons varies depending upon the type of alloy. In this study, the highest electron contribution was found in 0.7 % carbon steel, while the lowest was in stainless steel. The thermal conductivity values of these alloys are in good agreement with the calculated values using the model proposed by Mills.

  • 44.
    Abdul-Kareem, Mohammed B.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Rashid, Hayder M.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Hassan, Waqed H.
    College of Engineering, University of Warith Al-Anbiyaa, Kerbala, Iraq; Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Kerbala 56001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Lakhera, Sandeep Kumar
    Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Hatshan, Mohammad Rafe
    Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia.
    Faisal, Ayad A.H.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Preparation of coated MgFe layered double hydroxide nanoparticles on cement kiln dust and intercalated with sodium dodecyl sulfate as an intermediate layer for the adsorption of estrogen from water2023In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 344, article id 140338Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Abdulkareem Najm Al-Saedi, Ahmed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
    Hedenfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
    García, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
    Kron, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
    Bergström, Cornelia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
    Källkvist, Lova
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
    Analysis of Resin Impregnated Non-woven: In collaboration with Hitachi Energy2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    High voltage bushings are the most critical components of power transformers. A common material used in bushings is resin impregnated paper (RIP). Hitachi Energy is investigating whether this can be replaced with a new material, resin impregnated non-woven (RIN). One of the main reasons is that non-woven is less prone to absorb moisture compared to paper. Thus, for design purposes the mechanical, thermal and absorption properties of RIN have been studied and compared to RIP. The mechanical properties were tested by tensile and bending tests at room temperature and 80 ℃, showing that RIN has a lower elastic modulus and tensile strength than RIP at both temperatures. However, it was demonstrated that RIN does not retain its elongation at break and elasticity properties at elevated temperatures. The bending test showed no significant differences in flexural properties for RIN between room and high temperature. The thermal properties were studied with the transient plane source method (TPS) showing that both RIN and RIP had a higher specific heat capacity than pure epoxy. The thermal conductivity of the materials will be measured and included later. Lastly, the water absorption test was performed in order to provide information about the suitability of the materials used in bushings. For this different methods were used; water immersion andwater vapor testing. The immersion test showed that non-woven is more water resistant than paper and that the composites only absorb a small amount of water. No useful information was achieved from the water vapor test due to limited testing time. The results demonstrate the promising potential of RIN in bushings.

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  • 46.
    Abdulla, Hind
    et al.
    Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Engn Syst & Management, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.;Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Adv Digital & Addit Mfg Ctr, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    An, Heungjo
    Kumoh Natl Inst Technol, Sch Ind Engn, Gumi 39177, South Korea..
    Barsoum, Imad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Adv Digital & Addit Mfg Ctr, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.;Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Mech Engn, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Maalouf, Maher
    Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Engn Syst & Management, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.;Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Res Ctr Digital Supply Chain & Operat, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Mathematical Modeling of Multi-Performance Metrics and Process Parameter Optimization in Laser Powder Bed Fusion2022In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 12, no 12, article id 2098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to develop mathematical models to improve multi-performance metrics, such as relative density and operating costs, in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), also known as selective laser melting, a metallic additive manufacturing technique, by optimizing the printing process parameters. The work develops a data-driven model for relative density based on measurements and an analytical model for operating costs related to the process parameters. Optimization models are formulated to maximize relative density or minimize operating costs by determining the optimal set of process parameters, while meeting a target level of the other performance metrics (i.e., relative density or operating costs). Furthermore, new metrics are devised to test the sensitivity of the optimization solutions, which are used in a novel robust optimization model to acquire less sensitive process parameters. The sensitivity analysis examines the effect of varying some parameters on the relative density of the fabricated specimens. Samples with a relative density greater than 99% and a machine operating cost of USD 1.00 per sample can be produced, utilizing a combination of low laser power (100 W), high scan speed (444 mm/s), moderate layer thickness (0.11 mm), and large hatch distance (0.4 mm). This is the first work to investigate the relationship between the quality of the fabricated samples and operating cost in the LPBF process. The formulated robust optimization model achieved less sensitive parameter values that may be more suitable for real operations. The equations used in the models are verified via 10-fold cross-validation, and the predicted results are further verified by comparing them with the experimental data in the literature. The multi-performance optimization models and framework presented in this study can pave the way for other additive manufacturing techniques and material grades for successful industrial-level implementation.

  • 47. Abdullah, Omed Gh.
    et al.
    Tahir, Dana A.
    Kadir, K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Iraq.
    Optical and structural investigation of synthesized PVA/PbS nanocomposites2015In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482X, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 6939-6944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer nanocomposite based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and lead sulfide (PbS) in the average radius of (1.88-2.23) nm, have been synthesized using the chemical reduction rote and solution casting technique for different concentrations of PbS. The characterization of the polymer nanocomposite films were carried out using UV-visible spectroscopy, SEM, and XRD. The effect of various concentration of PbS NP on the optical properties of the composite has been studied to understand the optimum conditions for the synthesis process. The nanocomposite film shows high UV and visible light absorptions in the wavelength range of (200-500) nm, which correspond to the characteristics of the PbS NPs. The significant decreasing trend of the direct allowed band gap of the nanocomposite was observed upon increasing the Pb source concentration, from (6.27 eV) for pure PVA to (2.34 eV) for 0.04 M PbS concentration, which is much higher than the energy gap of bulk PbS value (0.41 eV). The calculated values of the static refractive index of Cauchy dispersion model were in the range of (1.09-1.20). X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the cubic nanocrystalline PbS phase formation.

  • 48.
    Abebe, Mihret
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Hedin, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bacsik, Zoltan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Spherical and Porous Particles of Calcium Carbonate Synthesized with Food Friendly Polymer Additives2015In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 3609-3616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Porous calcium carbonate particles were synthesized by adding solutions of Ca2+ to solutions of CO32- containing polymeric additives. Under optimized conditions well-defined aggregates of the anhydrous polymorph vaterite formed. A typical sample of these micrometer-sized aggregates had: a pore volume of 0.1 cm(3)/g, a pore width of similar to 10 nm, and a specific surface area of similar to 25-30 m(2)/ g. Only one mixing Order (calcium to carbonate) allowed the formation of vaterite, which was ascribed to the buffering capacity and relatively high pH of the CO32- solution. Rapid addition of the calcium chloride solution and rapid stirring promoted the formation of vaterite, due to the high supersaturation levels achieved. With xanthan gum, porous and micrometer-sized vaterite aggregates could be synthesized over a wide range of synthetic conditions. For the Other food grade polymers, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), methylcellulose (MC), and sodium carboxyl methylcellulose, several intensive and extensive synthetic parameters had to be optimized to obtain pure vaterite and porous aggregates. HPMC and MC allowed well-defined spherical micrometer-sited particles to form. We expect that these spherical and porous particles of vaterite could be relevant to model studies as well as a controlled delivery of particularly large molecules.

  • 49.
    Abedin, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems.
    Garidis, Konstantinos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems.
    Asadollahi, Ali
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems.
    Growth of epitaxial SiGe alloys as etch-stop layers in germanium-on-insulator fabricationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the application of epitaxially grown SixGe1-x films as etch stop layers in a germanium-on-insulator substrate fabrication flow is investigated. Layers with Ge contents from 15% to 70% were epitaxially grown on Si (1 0 0) using silane and germane. It was found that the Ge content in the films is independent of the growth temperature for fixed partial pressure ratios. At low growth temperatures the activation energy is found to be 1.8 eV which points to a hydrogen desorption limited growth rate mechanism. At growth temperatures of less than 500℃, the surface roughness is <1 nm. This surface roughness does not change when the films are grown on Ge substrates. Finally, a fully strained Si0.5Ge0.5 film was grown on Ge strain relaxed buffer at 450℃. This layer demonstrates etch selectivity of >400:1 towards Ge in diluted SC-1. This result enables the integration of the Si0.5Ge0.5 film as an etch stop layer for single crystalline germanium-on-insulator substrate fabrication.

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  • 50.
    Abedin, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Moeen, Mahdi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Cappetta, Carmine
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Sensitivity of the crystal quality of SiGe layers grown at low temperatures by trisilane and germane2016In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 613, p. 38-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates the crystal quality of SiGe layers grown at low temperatures using trisilane, and germane precursors. The crystal quality sensitivity was monitored for hydrogen chloride and/or minor oxygen amount during SiGe epitaxy or at the interface of SiGe/Si layers. The quality of the epi-layerswas examined by quantifying noise parameter, K-1/f obtained from the power spectral density vs. 1/f curves. The results indicate that while it is difficult to detect small defect densities in SiGe layers by physical material characterization, the noise measurement could reveal the effects of oxygen contamination as low as 0.16mPa inside and in the interface of the layers.

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