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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Nanostructured particles in/outside compartment of running train, an on board measurement2013Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Non-exhaust Nano particle emission in Rail traffic2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Towards elimination of airborne particles from rail traffic2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the investigation of wear particles from rail transport started in the late 1910s, the high mass concentrations of these particles have prompted concern among researchers interested in air quality. However, effective action has yet to be taken because relevant knowledge is still missing. This thesis provides knowledge of airborne wear particles originating from rail transport. Some aspects of their characteristic parameters, such as size, mass concentration, number concentration, and morphology, were investigated in the field and in laboratory tests. We also discuss means to mitigate non-exhaust emissions, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various test set-ups in the seven appended journal papers:Paper A reviews recent studies of exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from rail vehicles. The results, measurements, adverse health effects, and proposed or applied solutions presented in this literature are summarized in this paper.Paper B summarizes the results of field tests we conducted. The effects of curve negotiation and braking under different real conditions were investigated in a field test in which on-board measurements were made. The elemental composition and morphology of the particles emitted and their potential sources were also investigated.Paper C describes how a pin-on-disc machine can be used to reproduce real operating conditions during mechanical train braking in a controlled laboratory setting. The results were validated by comparing the field test results with the results of laboratory studies.Paper D presents comprehensive results of laboratory studies of airborne particles from different braking materials. A new index is introduced in this paper, which can be used as a quantitative metric for assessing airborne wear particle emission rates.Paper E describes the effects of using various friction modifiers and lubricants on the characteristics of airborne particles from wheel–rail contact under lubricated and unlubricated conditions.Paper F reports work to simulate thermoelastic instability in the cast-iron braking material. We simulated the fluctuation of the flash temperature by considering the temperature dependency of the material properties and the transformation of the contact state due to thermomechanical phenomena and wear.Paper G reviews new full- and sub-scale measurements of non-exhaust emissions from ground transport. The advantages and disadvantages of on-board measurements, pin-on-disc tests, dynamometer tests, and test rig studies are discussed in this paper.

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    Thesis
  • 4.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Ekstrand-Hammarström, Barbara
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI),.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI),.
    Bucht, Anders
    Deptartment of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, 901 89, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Jansson, Anders
    Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 106 91, Sweden.
    Biological response in lung cells by brake dust from a novel set-up to generate one sourcewear particles2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5. Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Olander, Lars
    Olofsson, Ulf
    Sellgren, Ulf
    A pin-on-disc study of the rate of airborne wear particle emissions from railway braking materials2012In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 284, p. 18-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates the characteristics of particles generated from the wear of braking materials, and provides an applicable index for measuring and comparing wear particle emissions. A pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with particle measurement instruments was used. The number concentration, size, morphology, and mass concentration of generated particles were investigated and reported for particles 10 nm-32 mu m in diameter. The particles were also collected on filters and investigated using EDS and SEM. The effects of wear mechanisms on particle morphology and changes in particle concentration are discussed. A new index, the airborne wear particle emission rate (AWPER), is suggested that could be used in legislation to control non-exhaust emissions from transport modes, particularly rail transport.

  • 6.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A pin-on-disc study of the rate of airborne wear particle emissions from railway braking materials2012In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 284, p. 18-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates the characteristics of particles generated from the wear of braking materials, and provides an applicable index for measuring and comparing wear particle emissions. A pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with particle measurement instruments was used. The number concentration, size, morphology, and mass concentration of generated particles were investigated and reported for particles 10 nm-32 mu m in diameter. The particles were also collected on filters and investigated using EDS and SEM. The effects of wear mechanisms on particle morphology and changes in particle concentration are discussed. A new index, the airborne wear particle emission rate (AWPER), is suggested that could be used in legislation to control non-exhaust emissions from transport modes, particularly rail transport.

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    fulltext
  • 7.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Jansson, Anders
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Particle emissions from rail traffic: a literature review2013In: Critical reviews in environmental science and technology, ISSN 1064-3389, E-ISSN 1547-6537, Vol. 43, no 23, p. 2211-2244Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle emissions are a drawback of rail transport. This work is a comprehensive presentation of recent research into particle emissions from rail vehicles. Both exhaust and non-exhaust particle emissions are considered when examining particle characteristics such as  PM10, and PM2.5 concentration levels, size, morphology, composition, as well as adverse health effects, current legislation, and available and proposed solutions for reducing such emissions. High concentration levels in enclosed rail traffic environments are reported and some toxic effects of the particles. We find that only a few limited studies have examined the adverse health effects of non-exhaust particle emissions and that no relevant legislation exists. Thus further research in this area is warranted.

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    fulltext
  • 8.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Larsson, Christina
    Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A field test study of airborne wear particles from a running regional train2012In: IMechE, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, ISSN 0954-4097, Vol. 226, no 1, p. 95-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhalable airborne particles have inverse health affect. In railways, mechanical brakes, the wheel–rail contact, current collectors, ballast, sleepers, and masonry structures yield particulate matter. Field tests examined a Swedish track using a train instrumented with particle measurement devices, brake pad temperature sensors, and speed and brake sensors. The main objective of this field test was to study the characteristics of particles generated from disc brakes on a running train with an on-board measuring set-up.

    Two airborne particle sampling points were designated, one near a pad–rotor disc brake contact and a second under the frame, not near a mechanical brake or the wheel–rail contact; the numbers and size distributions of the particles detected were registered and evaluated under various conditions (e.g. activating/deactivating electrical brakes or negotiating curves). During braking, three speed/temperature-dependent particle peaks were identified in the fine region, representing particles 280 nm, 350 nm, and 600 nm in diameter. In the coarse region, a peak was discerned for particles 3–6 μm in diameter. Effects of brake pad temperature on particle size distribution were also investigated. Results indicate that the 280 nm peak increased with increasing temperature, and that electrical braking significantly reduced airborne particle numbers. FESEM images captured particles sizing down to 50 nm. The ICP-MS results indicated that Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Ca, and Mg were the main elements constituting the particles.

     

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  • 9. Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    Olander, Lars
    Larsson, Christina
    Olofsson, Ulf
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    A field test study of airborne wear particles from a running regional train2012In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 226, no 1, p. 95-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhalable airborne particles have inverse health effects. In railways, mechanical brakes, the wheel–rail contact, current collectors, ballast, sleepers, and masonry structures yield particulate matter. Field tests examined a Swedish track using a train instrumented with particle measurement devices, brake pad temperature sensors, and speed and brake sensors. The main objective of this field test was to study the characteristics of particles generated from disc brakes on a running train with an on-board measuring set-up. Two airborne particle sampling points were designated, one near a pad–rotor disc brake contact and a second under the frame, not near a mechanical brake or the wheel–rail contact; the numbers and size distributions of the particles detected were registered and evaluated under various conditions (e.g. activating/deactivating electrical brakes or negotiating curves). During braking, three speed/temperature-dependent particle peaks were identified in the fine region, representing particles 280, 350, and 600 nm in diameter. In the coarse region, a peak was discerned for particles 3–6 µm in diameter. Effects of brake pad temperature on particle size distribution were also investigated. Results indicate that the 280 nm peak increased with increasing temperature, and that electrical braking significantly reduced airborne particle numbers. Field emission scanning electron microscope images captured particles sizing down to 50 nm. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry results indicated that Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Ca, and Mg were the main elements constituting the particles.

  • 10.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A study of friction modifiers on airborne wear particles from wheel-rail contact2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheel-rail contact and its wear process are crucial issues in maintenance and operating of rolling stocks. During wheel-rail contact, materials in mating faces are worn off and some of them transferred to airborne particles. Eventhough the wear process in wheel-rail contact are well-known, few studies have been conducted on the airborne particles from wheel-rail contact.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using different friction modifier on the amount of airbotne particles from wheel-rail contact in a laboratory simulation. In this regard, a series laboratory tests were used by using round head pin (R=25mm) and dead weight 40 N in a pin-on-disc machine. This set-up simulates a contact pressure around 750 MPa on the pin head.

    The amount of airborne particles and their characteristics were investigated in dry-contact, and non-dry contacts whereas a lubricant, Binol rail 510 and a friction modifier, tramsilence were used. According to the results, the effects of using Binol rail to reduce the amount of airborne particles were considerable.

  • 11.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Airborne wear particles from train traffic2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Experiences of measuring airborne wear particles from braking materials and wheel-rail contact2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During braking both of the discs and pads of disc brakes are worn. Since disc brakes are not sealed, some of the generated wear particles can become airborne.  Wheel-rail is also subjected to wear process during braking as well as normal running. They also contribute to generate airborne particles. Several studies have found an association between adverse health effects and the concentration of particles in the atmosphere, so it is of interest to improve our knowledge of the airborne wear particles generated by disc brakes.

    The present work includes results from full scale testing of rail vehicles. Particle size distribution, morphology and elemental contents are presented and discussed for different combinations of disc and pad materials. Due to high back ground concentration levels in field tests, dedicated laboratory test set ups on a reduced scale were designed and utilized for airborne particle studies with zero background level.

    Promising correlation between field test and the lab set up is identified. Different ways of using this test set up for evaluating how the composition of the airborne particles is classified with respect to their health effects are discussed. Furthermore, different ways of using the proposed method to rank and to quantify airborne particle emission factors are presented.

  • 13.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Lack of applicable criteria in non-exhaust emission legislation: AWPER index a practical solution2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    A field investigation of the size and morphology and chemical composition of airborne particles in rail transport2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    Larsson, christina
    A field investigation of the size, morphology and chemical composition of airborne particles in rail transport2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health effects of inhalable airborne particles are well documented. In the European Union the European Council mandates that the level of airborne particles with a diameter smaller than 10 µm (PM10) must not exceed an annual average of 40 µg/m3. Examples of possible sources from rail transport are mechanical brakes, wheel rail contact, current collectors, ballast, sleepers and masonry structures. In this regard, a series of field tests have been conducted on a regular Swedish track using a regional train instrumented with: particle measurement devices, temperature sensors in brake pads and sensors to measure the magnitude of train speed and a GPS.

    Two sampling points for airborne particles were designated in the train under frame. One of the sampling points was near a pad to rotor disc brake contact and a second global sampling point was chosen under the frame, but not near a mechanical brake or the wheel-rail contact. The first one was highly influenced by brake pad wear debris and the other one was influenced by all of the brake pads, wheel and rail wear debris as well as re-suspension. In each sampling points, three tubes were linked to three particle measurement devices. Two sets of Ptrak, Dustrak and Grimm devices were used. The Ptrak 8525 was an optical particle measurement device which could measure particle diameter in the size interval of 20 nm up to 1 micrometer. The Dustrak was used to measure particle mass concentration. The Grimm 1.109 was an aerosol spectrometer which counted number of particles from 0.25 micrometer to 32 micrometer in 31 intervals. These two Grimm devices were equipped with Millipore filters in the devices outlets to capture particles for further studies on morphology and matter of particles.

    The total number and size distribution of the particles for these two sampling points were registered and evaluated in different situations such as activating and deactivating electrical brake or train curve negotiating.

    During braking, three peaks of 250 nm, 350 nm and 600 nm in diameter, with the 350 nm peak dominating were identified in the fine particle region. In the coarse particle region, a peak of around 3-6 µm in diameter was discovered. The brake pad temperature effects on particle size distribution were also investigated and the results showed that the peak around 250 nm increased. Furthermore, the activation of electrical braking significantly reduced the number of airborne particles.

    A SEM was used to capture the images from collected particles on filters. Furthermore, an ICP-Ms method was used to investigate the elemental contents of the particulates on the filter.  In this case the main contribution belonged to Fe, Si, Al, Ca, Cu, Zn. The higher amount of some elements weights such as calcium, silicon, sodium and aluminum in the global sampling point filters revealed that ballast and concrete sleepers were the main sources for these particles although some of them originated from rail, wheel, brake disc and brake pad as well.

  • 16.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Tritscher, Trosten
    TSI.
    Krinke, Thomas
    TSI.
    On-board study of nano- and micrometer-particle characteristics of a running electric train2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Zhu, Yi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Pin-on-disc study of the effects of railway friction modifiers on airborne wear particles from wheel-rail contact2013In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 60, p. 136-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of wheel–rail interaction is crucial to wheel and rail maintenance. In this interaction, some of theworn-off material is transformed into airborne particles. Although such wear is well understood, few studiestreat the particles generated. We investigated friction modifiers' effects on airborne particles characteristicsgenerated in wheel-rail contacts in laboratory conditions. Pin-on-disc machine testing with a round-head pinloaded by a dead weight load 40 N simulated maximum contact pressure over 550 MPa. Airborne particlecharacteristics were investigated in dry contacts and in ones lubricated with biodegradable rail grease andwater- and oil-based friction modifiers. The number of particles declined with the grease; the number ofultrafine particles increased with the water-based friction modifier, mainly due to water vaporization.

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    peerreviewad version
  • 18.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Particle emission from rail vehicles: A literature review2012In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, Sage Publications, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emission of airborne particles is a side effect from rail transport. This work reviews recent research on particle emissions from rail vehicles. Both exhaust and non-exhaust particle emissions are characterized by size, morphology, composition, and size distribution. Current legislation, knowledge of adverse health effects, and available and proposed solutions for emission reductions are also treated. There has been much focus on exhaust emissions, but only a few limited studies have investigated non-exhaust particle emissions, which contain a significant amount of metallic materials. A new method for measuring the airborne wear particle emission rate (AWPER) is proposed as a first step to guide new legislations and to focus further research on non-exhaust airborne emission, i.e., research on the generation mechanisms for particle emissions and their adverse health effects.

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    fulltext
  • 19.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Technical note: Experiences of studying airborne wear particles from road and rail transport2013In: Aerosol and Air Quality Research, ISSN 1680-8584, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 1161-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airborne particles and their adverse effects on air quality have been recognized by humans since ancient times. Current exhaust emission legislations increase the relative contribution of wear particles on the PM levels. Consequently, wearbased particle emissions from rail and road transport have raised concerns as ground transportation is developing quickly. Although scientific research on airborne wear-based particles started in 1909, there is almost no legislation that control the generation of wear-based particles. In addition, there is no accepted and approved standard measurement technique for monitoring and recording particle characteristics. The main objective of this study is to review recent experimental work in this field and to discuss their set-ups, the sampling methods, the results, and their limitations, and to propose measures for reducing these limitations.

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  • 20.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. Department of Mechanical engineering, Golpayegan University of Technology.
    Teimourimanesh, Shahab
    Chalmers.
    Vernersson, Tore
    Chalmers.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Lunden, Roger
    Chalmers.
    Temperature and Thermoelastic Instability at Tread Braking Using Cast Iron Friction Material2013In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 314, no 1–2, p. 171-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Braking events in railway traffic often induce high frictional heating and thermoelastic instability (TEI) at the interfacing surfaces. In the present paper, two approaches are adopted to analyse the thermomechanical interaction in a pin-on-disc experimental study of railway braking materials. In a first part, the thermal problem is studied to find the heat partitioning between pin and disc motivated by the fact that wear mechanisms can be explained with a better understanding of the prevailing thermal conditions. The numerical model is calibrated using the experimental results. In a second part, the frictionally induced thermoelastic instabilities at the pin-disc contact are studied using a numerical method and comparing them with the phenomena observed in the experiments. The effects of temperature on material properties and on material wear are considered. It is found from the thermal analysis that the pin temperature and the heat flux to the pin increase with increasing disc temperatures up to a transition stage. This agrees with the behaviour found in the experiments. Furthermore, the thermoelastic analysis displays calculated pressure and the temperature distributions at the contact interface that are in agreement with the hot spot behaviour observed in the experiments.

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  • 21.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Teimourimanesh, Shahab
    Chalmers.
    Vernersson, Tore
    Chalmers.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Lunden, Roger
    Chalmers.
    Temperature and thermo-elastic instability of tread braking friction materials2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Larsson, Christina
    Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A study of airborne wear particles generated from organic railway brake pads and brake discs2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 273, no 1, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brake pads on wheel-mounted disc brakes are often used in rail transport due to their good thermal properties and robustness. During braking, both the disc and the pads are worn. This wear process generates particles that may become airborne and thus affect human health. The long term purpose of ‘Airborne particles in Rail transport’ project is to gain knowledge on the wear mechanisms in order to find means of controlling the number and size distribution of airborne particles. In this regard, a series of full-scale field tests and laboratory tests with a pin-on-disc machine have been conducted. The morphology and the matter of particles, along with their size distribution and concentration, have been studied. The validity of results from the pin-on-disc simulation has been verified by the field test results. Results show an ultra-fine peak for particles with a diameter size around 100 nm in diameter, a dominant fine peak for particles with a size of around 350 nm in diameter, and a coarse peak with a size of 3-7 μm in diameter. Materials such as iron, copper, aluminium, chromium, cobalt, antimony, and zinc have been detected in the nano-sized particles.

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  • 23.
    Abbott, Andrew
    et al.
    Univ Leicester, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Liu, Sichao
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Watanabe, Seiya
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wishart, James
    Brookhaven Natl Lab, Upton, NY 11973 USA..
    Ionic liquids at interfaces: general discussion2018In: Faraday discussions, ISSN 1359-6640, E-ISSN 1364-5498, Vol. 206, p. 549-586Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Abebe, Abay Damte
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    He, Qikang
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Foam Behavior Analysis Based On A Force Measurement System2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In the world where every sector of industrial manufacturing is being converted toautomated systems, surface finishing processes like sanding and polishing seem to lag.This phenomenon is not surprising as these processes are complex to optimize. Therehave been projects going on with the support of European Commission to findsolutions under SYMPLEXITY (Symbiotic Human-Robot Solutions for ComplexSurface Finishing Operations). One of the projects in under this include poliMATIC(Automated Polishing for the European Tooling Industry). Halmstad University isinvolved in doing projects.

    This project took a portion of this study in aim to understand a foam material’s behavior used for sanding tool at the tip of a robotic arm. This is studied using a forcemeasurement system developed at Halmstad University. The project has two sectionsand starts with one; Understanding the force measurement system and upgrading innecessary ways. Two; studying how the foam material compressive hardness propertyis affected when the material is fit with sandpaper for sanding operation using theforce measurement system. The study finally revealed how the combination of thefoam with sandpaper affects the robustness of the material, and significantlyimproved the output of the system with by reducing the noise level with 40%.

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    fulltext
  • 25.
    Abu Baker Karim, Aria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schnelzer, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Optimering av glidlager och utveckling av dess konstruktion2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We have in this project become engrossed in a plain bearing design that is located in a screw press. The screw press compact an unknown mass that is confidential. Robustus have a suggestion to over dimensioning the present plain bearing. The aim of this project was to analyze and to do an optimization on some plain bearings and compare them to the present bearing and to take the choice of material and the environment where the bearing is located into account. The analysis and the optimizations showed that the current plain bearing had the best geometry but not the optimal material selection. The project is in an early state and it needs some geometrical changes. The most important of everything is that the problem has been identified with the help of the wrecked plain bearing and with an excel model.

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    fulltext
  • 26.
    Adelusi, Oluwaseunnla P.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Tribolysis: – Reaction of Aromatic Halides for Potential Dehalogenation2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Out of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2015, chemicals and waste management are obtainable under six. Improper and unsafe disposal of toxic chemicals into the environment affects life below water (SDG 14), human health and well-being (SDG 7), and clean water and sanitation (SDG 6). The twelfth Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 12) focuses on chemical waste management to promote environmental sustainability as a specific target. Thus, in line with creating a safe environment, the last decades have seen the development of technologies and inventions for recycling and safe disposal of chemical wastes. Furthermore, there has been vast adoption of policies in countries worldwide restricting the production and use of toxic chemical wastes such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). For POPs like Polychlorinated Biphenyls, these policies play a significant role but are howbeit insufficient. The years of production and use of PCBs in the industry before adopting the policies have led to the build-up of large amounts of toxic fluids containing PCBs in storage, awaiting a safe disposal or remediation procedure. Although extensive work has been put into developing PCB remediation methods, most of this has been towards remediating contaminated soil. Therefore, this investigation is focused on a new remediation method for decomposing PCBs in toxic fluid wastes, especially from transformers. Mechanochemical processing has previously been applied for the dehalogenation of POPs. Thus, this study aimed at creating a dehalogenation chemical reaction of aromatic halides with a laboratory tribo-tester. The findings from this research provide valuable information about optimising the tribolysis process towards the development of the tribodevice under TriboREMEDY, a European Union Horizon 2020 project. 

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    Thesis_TRIBOSMaster_Adelusi
  • 27.
    Ahmer, Muhammad
    et al.
    AB SKF, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Gustafsson, Martin
    AB SKF, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglund, Kim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    A unified approach towards performance monitoring and condition-based maintenance in grinding machines2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process controller in a precision grinder for bearing rings puts high performance demands on the machine to achieve desired quality in production. This paper presents a unique approach of adding additional sensors for machine condition monitoring for the purpose of learning and using high fidelity condition indicators. The consolidation of real-time sensor data and the process control signals yields high-dimensional dataset. Automatic segmentation helps optimize the amount of data for processing and data mining ahead of fault diagnosis. The proposed setup is state of the art for prognostics as part of condition-based maintenance in a production machine.

  • 28.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    A portable roller ski rolling resistance measurement system2013In: The Impact of Technology on Sport V: Procedia Engineering / [ed] Subic A, Fuss FK, Clifton P, Chan KM., Elsevier, 2013, p. 79-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roller skis are used by cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers for their snow-free training and in roller ski competitions. Additionally, much of the current sports research into the physiology and biomechanics of crosscountry skiing is conducted indoors on treadmills using roller skis. For elite athletes, the differences in performance are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis' rolling resistance coefficient, especially in connection to research and roller ski competitions. The purpose of this study was to develop a roller ski rolling resistance measurement system (P-RRMS) that is portable and therefore useful in different contexts and locations. The P-RRMS was designed as a small treadmill, equipped with roller ski stabilizing lateral supports and a screwed bar for applying different vertical loads on the roller ski. The design uses only one force sensor, with possible measurements of three directions of force and torque around three axes. The weight of the P-RRMS is 100 kg and it is equipped with wheels to facilitate transportation.

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    Ainegren_Portable_roller_ski
  • 29.
    Aiso, Toshiharu
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Kubota, Manabu
    Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation.
    Jacobson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Influence of Mn and Al additions to carbon steel on material transfer and coating damage mechanism in a sliding contact between steel and TiN coated HSS tool2016In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 101, p. 414-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A crossed cylinders sliding test, simulating the contact between the chip and the cutting tool, is used to evaluate material transfer, friction characteristics and coating damage of a TiN coated high speed steel against specifically designed model steels. These steels include one reference with C as the only alloy element (Base steel), and two alloyed also with 1 mass% Mn or Al. When sliding against the Base steel, an Fe–O layer forms on the coating and protects it from wear. Against the Mn alloyed steel, Fe–Mn–O forms, which has no protective effect. Against the Al alloyed steel, an almost pure Al–O layer forms. This leads to the highest friction, rapidly causing substrate softening and coating fracture.

  • 30.
    Akurati, Parthasri
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Kumar, Karan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Development of a 3D Ring Dynamics Model For a Heavy-Duty Piston Ring-Pack2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing restrictions in emission legislations, the automotive industry aims to improve the efficiency of the lubricating system and to decrease fuel consumption. In the power cylinder unit (PCU), the piston rings are the major contributor to these consumptions. Hence, focus on the dynamic behaviour of the rings to reduce lube oil consumption (LOC) becomes a key factor in thriving towards sustainability. Several studies have been conducted on the piston ring-pack specifically using a 2D ring dynamics approach. This study focuses on developing a 3D ring dynamics model, in the software tool AVL EXCITE™ Piston&Rings, which is capable of observing the behaviour of the ring along the third dimension i.e. circumferential direction. A coordinated approach used in the methodology gives an insight into the parameters affecting the model behaviour. Within the PCU, wear on the cylinder liner surface and in the piston ring grooves can lead to accelerated LOC. This study further focuses on using the 3D model to analyse the friction and wear on the piston rings. Factors contributing towards LOC are individually studied and the results obtained are compared to the experimental engine test data. The outcome of the 3D numerical model developed shows promising results. The model can therefore be used to simulate different piston ring-packs and analyse the behaviour of the piston ring with a better prediction of friction, wear and LOC. Thus, the model will contribute to reducing the number of physical tests conducted, the expense involved in conducting those tests and would provide satisfactory products to the customer and would manage future emission requirements.

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    Development of a 3D Ring Dynamics Model For a Heavy-Duty Piston Ring-Pack
  • 31.
    Akçay, Aslı
    et al.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Koç University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul, Turkey; Koç University TÜPRAŞ Energy Center (KUTEM), Koç University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Babucci, Melike
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Koç University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul, Turkey; Koç University TÜPRAŞ Energy Center (KUTEM), Koç University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Balci, Volkan
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Koç University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul, Turkey; Koç University TÜPRAŞ Energy Center (KUTEM), Koç University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Uzun, Alper
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Koç University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul, Turkey; Koç University TÜPRAŞ Energy Center (KUTEM), Koç University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul, Turkey.
    A model to predict maximum tolerable temperatures of metal-oxide-supported 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids2015In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 123, p. 588-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal stability limits of metal-oxide-supported ionic liquids (ILs) with 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation, [BMIM]+, on most commonly used metal-oxides, SiO2, TiO2, γ-Al2O3, and MgO are determined. Data show that stability limits of bulk and metal-oxide-supported ILs linearly increase with increasing acidity of C2 proton on imidazolium ring, controlling the inter-ionic interaction strength. Moreover, data also show that the presence of metal-oxide lowers the stability limits considerably. This effect becomes more significant as the surface acidity of the metal-oxide decreases from SiO2 to MgO. This decrease in stability limits with increasing point of zero charge (PZC) of metal-oxide indicates that the interaction between IL and metal-oxide becomes the dominant factor rather than the inter-ionic interactions. Based on these findings a simple mathematical expression was developed as a function of PZC and inter-ionic interaction strength probed by ν(C2H) to predict the stability limits of [BMIM]+-based ILs immobilized on metal-oxides. Performance of the model was tested on several different ILs supported on different metal-oxides, including Fe2O3 and CeO2. Results show that the model successfully predicts the maximum operating or tolerable temperatures of supported-[BMIM]+-based ILs with an average relative error less than 4.3%. We suggest that the model developed here can help to choose proper ILs that can tolerate the operating conditions of systems including ILs immobilized on metal-oxides, such as in solid catalysts with ionic liquid layer (SCILL) or in supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts.

  • 32.
    Albo Zieme, Louise
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Product Development, Production and Design.
    Bergstedt, Pontus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Product Development, Production and Design.
    A pre-study for functional coatings evaluated on light metals to be applied on a new HPDC Mg-alloy: Investigating tribological and thermophysical properties, as-cast and coated2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Magnesium with two-thirds of the density compared to aluminium and one-quarter of steel, intrigues product developers and material scientists due to the light metal’s excellent combination of strength to weight ratio as well as their capability of being produced as a High Pressure Die Cast component compared to other ferrous or light metal alloys.

     

    However, a magnesium alloy inherits some concerning drawbacks, limiting the exploitation in structural applications and mechanical design such as automotive, heavy machinery and aerospace components. The need for a magnesium alloy that could withstand a sufficient amount of wear, temperature and corrosive environment, leads towards the investigation and evaluation of a suitable, functional coating as a solution to exploit the evident advantages a magnesium alloy exhibits. A substantial amount of research is required in order to reduce an existing knowledge gap that is the ongoing development in the search for a sufficient functional coating and adherence capability to the highly reactive substrate that is a magnesium alloy.

     

    This industrial master thesis is an early stage investigation to evaluate how the currently used aluminium substrate with an electrodeposited coating relate and compares to a heat-treated electroless deposited coating through tribological and thermophysical induced stresses. These properties are tested with proven industrial standard methods resulted in a comprehensive conclusion and discussion regarding the feasibility of applying the coating onto a commercial magnesium alloy closely related to the Mg-alloy developed by Husqvarna and thereby contributing to technological advances to the highly relevant topic within product development in materials engineering.

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    A pre-study for functional coatings evaluated on light metals to be applied on a new HPDC Mg-alloy
  • 33. Alemani, Mattia
    et al.
    Nosko, Oleksii
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Metinoz, Ibrahim
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A study on emission of airborne wear particles from car brake friction pairs2015In: SAE International Journal of Materials & Manufacturing, ISSN 1946-3979, E-ISSN 1946-3987, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 147-157, article id 2015-01-2665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emission of airborne wear particles from friction material / cast iron pairs used in car brakes was investigated, paying special attention to the influence of temperature. Five low-metallic materials and one non-asbestos organic material were tested using a pin-on-disc machine. The machine was placed in a sealed chamber to allow airborne particle collection. The concentration and size distribution of 0.0056 to 10 μm particles were obtained by a fast mobility particle sizer and an optical particle sizer. The temperature was measured by a thermocouple installed in the disc. The experiments show that as the temperature increases from 100 to 300 °C the emission of ultrafine particles intensifies while that of coarse particles decreases. There is a critical temperature at which the ultrafine particle emission rate rises stepwise by 4 to 6 orders of magnitude. For the friction pairs investigated, the critical temperature was found to be between 165 and 190 °C. Below the critical temperature, fine particles outnumber coarse and ultrafine particles, although coarse particles make up the bulk of the particulate matter mass. The friction pairs differ in the ultrafine particle emission rate by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. Above the critical temperature, ultrafine particles constitute almost 100% of the total particle number and their relative mass contribution can exceed 50%. Analysis of the particle size distributions revealed peaks at 0.19-0.29, 0.9 and 1.7 μm. Above the critical temperature, one more peak appears in the ultrafine particle range at 0.011-0.034 μm.

  • 34.
    Alemani, Mattia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). Brembo S.p.A, Stezzano, Italy.
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Matějka, Vlastimil
    Metinöz, Ibrahim
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Perricone, Guido
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). Brembo S.p.A, Stezzano, Italy.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Scaling effects of measuring disc brake airborne particulate matter emissions – A comparison of a pin-on-disc tribometer and an inertia dynamometer bench under dragging conditions2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 232, no 12, p. 1538-1547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important contributor to non-exhaust emissions in urban areas is airborne particulate matter originating from brake systems. A well-established way to test such systems in industry is to use inertia dynamometer benches; although they are quite expensive to run. Pin-on-disc tribometers, on the other hand, are relatively cheap to run, but simplify the real system. The literature indicates promising correlations between these two test stands with regard to measured airborne number distribution. Recent studies also show a strong dependency between the airborne number concentration and the disc temperature. However, a direct comparison that also takes into account temperature effects is missing. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to investigate how the transition temperature is affected by the different test scales, under dragging conditions, and the effects on total concentration and size distribution. New and used low-steel pins/pads were tested against cast iron discs/rotors on both the aforementioned test stands, appositely designed for particulate emission studies. A constant normal load and constant rotational velocity were imposed in both test stands. Results show that a transition temperature can always be identified. However, it is influenced by the test scale and the frictional pair status. Nevertheless, emissions are assessed similarly when an equivalent frictional pair status is analysed (e.g. run-in). Further investigations for fully run-in samples on the pin-on-disc should be performed in order to finally assess the possibility of using the tribometers for the initial assessment of different friction materials.

  • 35.
    Alemani, Mattia
    et al.
    KTH.
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    On the influence of car brake system parameters on particulate matter emissions2018In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 396, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of car brake system parameters on particulate matter emissions was investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer. Samples from a low-steel friction material and a cast iron disc were tested for different sliding velocities, nominal contact pressures and frictional powers. Disc temperatures were also measured. Their impact on total concentration, size distribution, particle coefficient and transition temperature was analysed. Results show that frictional power is the most significant brake system parameter. However, temperature, as a response parameter, is the most influential, inducing a shift towards the ultrafine particulate fraction and raising emissions. A transition temperature, independent of the system parameters, was identified.

  • 36.
    Alfredsson, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Nordin, E.
    An Elastic-Plastic Model for Single Shot-Peening Impacts2013In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 231-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model was developed for impacts of elastic perfectly plastic spherical particles with impact velocities up to 250 m/s. The model is based on the two master curves, for normalized pressure and projected contact area c (2), which both are functions of the representative strain I > at maximum impact. The model and its parameters were fitted to finite element results for elastic perfectly plastic and strain rate-independent materials. It was applied to a wide range of materials with different ratio between yield stress and elastic properties, different ball sizes and impact velocities. The impact model predicted the results from finite element method for contact radius, maximum impact depth in both target and ball as well as remaining impact depth in target and ball. The remaining impact depth was determined from elastic spring back with Hertzian and quadratic pressure at maximum impact. The rebound velocity was also estimated by following the load-deformation path during spring back. If the strain rate-compensated yield stress was used for the master curve parameters, then the model predicted the impact results also for the investigated strain rate-dependent materials.

  • 37.
    Ali, Ahsan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Effect of temperature on early stage adhesion during TiAlN sliding against Inconel 718 and Stainless steel 316L: High temperature tribology2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance materials such as stainless steels and nickel based super alloys are widely used in demanding applications where high mechanical and thermal properties are required. The applications of super alloys are mainly found in jet engines, power plants and gas turbines demanding high fatigue strength, corrosion and oxidation resistance as well as wear resistant properties. In order to use them, they go through various machining processes such as milling, turning, cutting, polishing etc. until the final product is achieved. Modern manufacturing industries employs various machining tools and technologies to improve the machining process of heat resistant super alloys. However, there are still challenges which needs to be addressed. Among them, adhesive wear of the machining tools is one of the main wear mechanism during the tribological interaction of tool and workpiece, preventing them to achieve the desired quality and surface finish of the end product. Moreover, it damages the tool reducing its lifecycle and in return, increasing the production cost. Among the cutting tools tungsten carbide (WC/Co) tools coated with TiAlN coating due to their good high temperature performance are extensively used. Nonetheless, these coatings still face issue like adhesive wear, abrasion, oxidation at higher temperature damaging the tools and subsequent machining. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the initiation mechanism of adhesive wear during the tribological interaction of super alloys and coated cutting tool material.

    In this research work, the tribological response of two coatings deposited by physical vapour deposition (PVD), having the composition Ti60Al40N and Ti40Al60N have been studied against two super alloys material, i.e. Inconel 718 and stainless steel 316L. A high temperature SRV (Schwingung (Oscillating), Reibung (Friction), Verschleiß (Wear)) reciprocation friction and wear test set up was employed to investigate the friction behaviour, wear rate and dominant wear mechanisms. 

    For Ti60Al40N coating, the experimental results revealed that generally, friction increases in case of sliding against Inconel 718 up to 400 °C and drops at 760 °C. A high wear volume at room temperature and a decrease to a minimum at 760 °C has been observed for Inconel 718. On the other side, Stainless steel 316L (SS 316L) faces a continuous rise in friction coefficient with highest value at 760 °C during sliding against Ti60Al40N coating. Wear is highest at 400 °C for SS 316L pin. The worn surfaces shows that both workpiece materials experience increase in material transfer due to adhesive wear with rise in temperature. At 400 °C, adhesion is the primary wear mechanism for both workpiece materials. A further rise in temperature to 760 °C promotes the adhesive wear through oxides formation on both material surfaces. 

    Similarly, Ti40Al60N coating shows the same friction behaviour with change in average steady state friction values for both material of Inconel 718 and SS 316L. Both workpiece materials responds in a similar way to wear volume loss, i.e. lowest at room temperature and highest at 760 °C. For Inconel 718, transfer of coating constituents on to the Inconel 718 pin surface was detected and associated with coating rupture and peeling, exacerbating with rise in temperature. Adhesion, abrasion, and oxidation are primary wear mechanisms at 400 °C and 760 °C. For SS 316L, coating transfer only happen at 400 °C. No damage of coating at 40 °C, a complete damage at 400 °C, and formation of dense porous oxides layers at 760 °C have been noticed. At 400 °C, adhesion, abrasion, and chipping while at 760 °C, adhesion, three body abrasion, ploughing and oxidation are the main wear mechanisms.

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    fulltext
  • 38.
    Ali, Nashit
    et al.
    University Of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology System and Component Design, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dizdar, Senad
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Friction, wear, and airborne particle emissions from rail-wheel contact with laser cladded overlays - A pin-disc tribometer simulation2023In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 518/519, article id 204635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study uses a pin-on-disc tribometer to evaluate friction, wear, and airborne particle emissions for a rail-wheel contact. Test pins from UIC60 900A rail carbon steels were in contact with three types of test discs surfaces: R7 wheel carbon steel, laser cladding overlayed martensitic stainless steel, and laser cladding overlayed Ni-based-8% MnS self-lubricating alloy. Test results show about halving of the coefficient of friction, 0.42 to 0.22, and one ten-power lower specific pin and disc wear of discs with self-lubricating overlay compared to standard railway carbon steel contacts. Using stainless-steel overlayed discs also resulted in one ten-power lower specific disc wear, but pin wear is unchanged. Particle emission for the tests with discs with self-lubricating overlay is constant at almost 200 particles/cm3 while running in the distance is needed for the other tests. Almost all generated airborne wear particles were in the sub-100 nm range. The use of laser-cladded (LC) overlay reduced the number of airborne wear particles in the sub-100 nm range by more than a factor of 10. © 2023 Elsevier B.V.

  • 39.
    Ali, Nashit
    et al.
    Univ Bologna, Dept Ind Engn, Res Lab, Via Umberto Terracini 24, I-40131 Bologna, Italy..
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Engineering Design, System and Component Design.
    Dizdar, Senad
    Halmstad Univ, Box 823, S-30118 Halmstad, Sweden..
    Friction, wear, and airborne particle emissions from rail-wheel contact with laser cladded overlays-A pin-disc tribometer simulation2023In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 518, article id 204635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study uses a pin-on-disc tribometer to evaluate friction, wear, and airborne particle emissions for a rail-wheel contact. Test pins from UIC60 900A rail carbon steels were in contact with three types of test discs surfaces: R7 wheel carbon steel, laser cladding overlayed martensitic stainless steel, and laser cladding overlayed Ni-based-8% MnS self-lubricating alloy. Test results show about halving of the coefficient of friction, 0.42 to 0.22, and one ten-power lower specific pin and disc wear of discs with self-lubricating overlay compared to standard railway carbon steel contacts. Using stainless-steel overlayed discs also resulted in one ten-power lower specific disc wear, but pin wear is unchanged. Particle emission for the tests with discs with self-lubricating overlay is constant at almost 200 particles/cm3 while running in the distance is needed for the other tests. Almost all generated airborne wear particles were in the sub-100 nm range. The use of laser-cladded (LC) overlay reduced the number of airborne wear particles in the sub-100 nm range by more than a factor of 10.

  • 40.
    Al-Kahwati, Kammal
    et al.
    Predge AB, SE-972 36 Luleå, Sweden.
    Saari, Esi
    LKAB Kiruna, SE-981 86, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems. Predge AB, SE-972 36 Luleå, Sweden.
    Atta, Khalid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Condition Monitoring of Rollers in Belt Conveyor Systems2021In: 2021 5th International Conference on Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems (SysTol), IEEE, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictive maintenance strategies for the mining sector are of utmost importance considering the automated behavior of industrial systems and the oftentimes inaccessible environment around belt conveyor systems. In this paper, we present a model combining IoT sensors and dead-reckoning modeling, focused on early theoretical work in the field of modeling the behavior of belt conveyor systems to act as a decision support tool in maintenance strategies, by estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of rotating components in a belt conveyor system. The estimation of RUL is a function of the degradation of the ball bearings in idler rollers due to the forces acting on the rollers during the conveyance of material. The forces occur due to the material loading, the belt weight, roller shell weight, and the idler misalignment load (IML). Furthermore, the dynamics of bulk material during conveyance can be modeled in several ways considering earth pressure theory. A model considering this is derived from the Krausse Hettler method to determine the forces acting on the wing rollers of a thee-roll idler trough set by the notion that the bulk material undergoes active and passive stress states during conveyance. The model is further compared and extended to the works of Sokolovski, to get a bounded delta RUL reduction estimate on the roller bearings in each idler set of a belt conveyor system.

  • 41.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Gong, Guan
    Rise Sicomp AB, Fibervägen 2, SE-941 26 Öjebyn, Sweden.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    Podcomp AB, Skylvägen 1, SE-943 33 Öjebyn, Sweden.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Characterization of Wood and Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) Reinforced Polymer Composites2020In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 9, article id 2089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the utilization of commercial masterbatches of graphene nanoplatelets to improve the properties of neat polymer and wood fiber composites manufactured by conventional processing methods. The effect of aspect ratio of the graphene platelets (represented by the different number of layers in the nanoplatelet) on the properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is discussed. The composites were characterized for their mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, impact) and physical characteristics (morphology, crystallization, and thermal stability). The effect of the addition of nanoplatelets on the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the reinforced polymer with different contents of reinforcement was also investigated. In general, the mechanical performance of the polymer was enhanced at the presence of either of the reinforcements (graphene or wood fiber). The improvement in mechanical properties of the nanocomposite was notable considering that no compatibilizer was used in the manufacturing. The use of a masterbatch can promote utilization of nano-modified polymer composites on an industrial scale without modification of the currently employed processing methods and facilities.

  • 42.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Jantel, Ugo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Tribological Study on Wood and Graphene Reinforced High Density Polyethylene2022In: ECCM 2022 - Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Composite Materials: Composites Meet Sustainability / [ed] Vassilopoulos, Anastasios; Michaud, Véronique, Lausanne: EPFL Lausanne, Composite Construction Laboratory , 2022, Vol. 1, p. 585-592Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wear rate (WR) and coefficient of friction (COF) for high-density polyethylene (HDPE)and its composites of wood flour (WF) and/or graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) are studied. Theinvestigation is performed by pin-on-disc test configuration on samples with different moisturecontents (dry, and samples saturated at RH of 33% and 79% in room temperature). The effect ofthe different scales of reinforcement (GNPs and WF) on these properties is discussed. Themorphological/microstructural changes in the materials induced by the motion in contact and/ormoisture content are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results show thatreinforcing the polymer with WF or GNPs reduces the WR significantly, compared to neat HDPE.The hybrid reinforcements contribute to maximum improvement in wear resistance (>98%) andin the reduction of COF (>11%). The improvement in the tribological behavior of bio-basedmaterials has a significant impact on sustainable development through the improved design,durability, and environmental impact.

  • 43.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Synergistic Effect of Multiscale Reinforcement on Wear of Wood Polymer Composites2022In: PolyTrib 2022, 2022, p. 34-35Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Almeida, Nuno A.F.
    et al.
    Mechanical Engineering Department & TEMA, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago.
    Rodrigues, Joana
    Physics Department & I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago.
    Silva, Patricia
    Mechanical Engineering Department & TEMA, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Soares, Manuel J.
    Physics Department & I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago.
    Monteiro, Teresa
    Physics Department & I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago.
    Lopes-da-Silva, José A.
    Chemistry Department & QOPNA, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago.
    Marques, Paula A.A.P.
    Mechanical Engineering Department & TEMA, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago.
    Pressure dependent luminescence in titanium dioxide particles modified with europium ions2016In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 234, p. 137-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particles of titanium dioxide were prepared in the presence of europium ions (TiO2:Eu) by a solvothermal method and thermal annealed in air at 500 °C. The spectroscopic properties of TiO2:Eu particles were analyzed indicating that the Eu3+ ions are likely distributed at the surface or near the surface of the titanium dioxide particles. The photoluminescence analysis showed that the intraionic emission was strongly sensitive to reduced pressure conditions, as seen by its absence under vacuum conditions. The ion emission was re-established as soon as the atmosphere was restored. Additionally, the ion integrated emission intensity follows a linearly dependence with pressure in the range of 150 to 800 mbar revealing a high sensitivity to small variations in pressure, which is an unprecedented result. This innovation will allow the study of new technologies in the area of low vacuum sensors where TiO2:Eu may act as the active element of an optical sensor for a pressure device.

  • 45.
    Almqvist, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Homogenization of the Reynolds equation governing hydrodynamic flow in a rotating device2011In: Journal of tribology, ISSN 0742-4787, E-ISSN 1528-8897, Vol. 133, no 2, p. 021705-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a method facilitating the analysis of the effects of surface roughness on the lubrication of a rotating device is presented. The analysis utilizes homogenization—a suitable technique for averaging the effects of roughness as modeled by the Reynolds equation. The originality of this work lies in a novel way of deriving the so called local problems, also known as microbearing problems. It is clearly shown how this increases the computational efficiency by eliminating the dependence of the global coordinates on the formulation of these local problems. This does not only speed up the computation, it also means that the derived flow factors or flow tensors require less storage space. To provide for good usability, alongside the flow factors for the averaged Reynolds equation, the correction factors for the averaged friction torque (and force) and the expression for averaged load carrying capacity are presented here.

  • 46.
    Almqvist, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Modelling and simulation elastohydrodynamic lubrication of tilted-pad bearings2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Almqvist, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    On the effects of surface roughness in lubrication2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tribology is a multidisciplinary field defined as the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion, and embraces the study of friction, wear and lubrication. A typical tribological application is the rolling element bearing. Tribological contacts may also be found in other types of bearings, cam-mechanisms, gearboxes and hydraulic systems. Examples of bearings inside the human body are the operation of the human hip joint and the contact between teeth during chewing. To fully understand the operation of this type of application one has to understand the couplings between the lubricant fluid dynamics, the structural dynamics of the bearing material, the thermodynamical aspects and the resulting chemical reactions. This makes modeling tribological applications an extremely delicate task. Because of the multidisciplinary nature, such theoretical models lead to mathematical descriptions generally in the form of non-linear integro-differential systems of equations. Some of these systems of equations are sufficiently well posed to allow numerical solutions to be carried out, resulting in accurate predictions on performance. In this work, the influence on performance of a surface microscopical nature, the surface roughness, in contact interfaces between different types of machine element components is the subject of study. An example is the non-conformal lubricated contact between one of the rollers and the inner ring in a rolling element bearing. The tribological contact controlling the operation of the human hip joint is also very similar to this. Another example of a non-conformal contact occurs when driving on rainy roads, where the hydrodynamic action of the water separates the tire. To enable investigations of these types of problems, different theoretical models were studied; for the selected model, a numerical solution technique was developed within this project. This model is based on the Reynolds equation coupled with the film thickness equation. The numerical solution technique involves a multilevel technique to facilitate the solution process. Results presented in this thesis, utilizing this approach, study elementary surface features such as ridges and indentations passing each other inside the lubricated conjunction. The Reynolds equation is derived under the assumptions of thin fluid film and creeping flow, and considers in its most general form shear thinning of the lubricant. This type of equation describes the hydrodynamic action of the lubricant flow and may be used when the interfaces consist of either conformal or non-conformal conjunctions. Examples of applications having conformal interfaces are thrust- and journal- bearings or the contact between the eye and a (optical) contact lens. In such types of applications the load carried by the interface is distributed over a fairly large area that under certain circumstances helps to prevent mechanical deformation of the contacting surfaces. Such applications are said to operate in the hydrodynamic lubrication (HL) regime. Lubricant compressibility and cavitation are important aspects and have received some attention. However, the main objective when modeling HL has been to investigate and develop methods that enable the influence of surface roughness to be to be studied efficiently. Homogenization is a rigorous mathematical concept that when applied to a certain problem may be regarded as an averaging technique as well as it provides information about the induced effects of local surface roughness. Homogenization inflicts no restrictions on the surface roughness representation other than the representative part of the chosen surface roughness being assumed periodically distributed and of course the assumptions of thin film flow made through the Reynolds equation. The homogenization process leads to a two sets of equations one for the local scale describing surface roughness, scale and one for the global scale describing application geometry. The unequivocally determined coefficients of the global problem, which may be regarded as flow factors, are obtained through the solution of local problems. This makes homogenization an eminent approach to be used investigating the influence of surface roughness on hydrodynamic performance. In the present work, homogenization has been used to derive computationally feasible forms of problems originating from incompressible and compressible Reynolds type equations that describe stationary and unstationary flows in both cartezian and cylindrical co-ordinates. This technique enables simulations of surface roughness induced effects when considering surface roughness descriptions originating from measurements. Moreover, the application of homogenization facilitates the interpretation of results. Numerical investigations following the homogenization process have been carried out to verify the applicability of homogenization in hydrodynamic lubrication. Homogenization has also been shown here to enable efficient analysis of rough hydrodynamically lubricated problems. Also of note, in connection to the scientific contribution within tribology, collaboration with a group in applied mathematics has lead to the development of novel techniques in that area. These ideas have also been successfully applied, with some results presented in this thesis. At start-ups, the contact in a rolling element bearing could be both starved and drained from lubricant. In this case the hydrodynamic action becomes negligible in terms of load carrying capacity. The load is carried exclusively by surface asperities, the tribo film, or both. This is hereby modeled as the unlubricated frictionless contact between rough surfaces, i.e. a contact mechanical approach. A variational principle was used in which the real area of contact and the contact pressure distribution minimize the total complementary potential energy. The material model is linear elastic-perfectly plastic and the energy dissipation due to plastic deformation is accounted for. The numerics of this contact mechanical approach involve the fast Fourier transformation (FFT) technique in order to facilitate the solution process. Investigation results of the contact mechanics of realistic surfaces are presented in this thesis. In this investigation the variation in the real area of contact, the plasticity index and some surface roughness parameters due to applied load were studied.

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  • 48.
    Almqvist, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    On the effects of surface roughness in lubrication2009 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Almqvist, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Preface2021In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 235, no 12, p. 2504-2505Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Almqvist, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Rough surface elastohydrodynamic lubrication and contact mechanics2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of tribology, there are numerous theoretical models that may be described mathematically in the form of integro-differential systems of equations. Some of these systems of equations are sufficiently well posed to allow for numerical solutions to be carried out resulting in accurate predictions. This work has focused on the contact between rough surfaces with or without a separating lubricant film. The objective was to investigate how surface topography influences contact conditions. For this purpose two different numerical methods were developed and used. For the lubricated contact between rough surfaces the Reynolds equation were used as a basis. This equation is derived under the assumptions of thin fluid film and creeping flow. In highly loaded, lubricated, non- conformal contacts of surfaces after running-in, the load concentration no longer results in plastic deformations, however large elastic deformations will be apparent. It is the interaction between the hydrodynamic action of the lubricant and the elastic deformations of the surfaces that, in certain applications, enable the lubricant film to fully separate the surfaces. This is commonly referred to as full film elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication. Typical machine elements that operates in the full film EHD lubrication (FL) regime include rolling element bearings, cams and gears. Unfortunately, a cost effective way of machining engineering surfaces seldom results in a surface topography that influence contact conditions in the same way as a surface after running-in. Such topographies may prevent the lubricant from fully separating the surfaces because of deteriorated hydrodynamic action. In this case the applied load is carried in part by the lubricant and in part by surface asperities and/or surface active lubricant additives. This could also be the case in lubricant starved contacts, which is a common situation in not only grease lubricated contacts but also in many liquid lubricated contacts, such as high speed operating rolling element bearings. The load sharing between the highly compressed lubricant and the surface and/or surface active lubricant additives is the reason why this lubrication regime is most commonly referred to as mixed EHD lubrication (ML). Machine elements that while running operate in the FL regime may experience a transition into the ML regime at stops or due to altered operating conditions. It is not possible to simulate direct contact between the surfaces using a numerical method based on Reynolds equation. A parameter study, of elementary surface features passing each other inside the EHD lubricated conjunction, was performed. The results obtained, even though no direct contact could be simulated, does indicate that a transition from the FL to the ML regime would occur for certain combinations of the varied parameters. At start-ups, the contact in a rolling element bearing could be both starved and drained from lubricant. In this case the hydrodynamic action becomes negligible in terms of load carrying capacity. The load is carried exclusively by surface asperities and/or surface active lubricant additives. This regime is referred to as boundary lubrication (BL). Operation conditions could also make both FL and ML impossible to achieve, for example, in the case in a low rpm operating rolling element bearing. The BL regime is in this work modeled as the unlubricated frictionless contact between rough surfaces, i.e., a dry contact approach. A variational principle was used in which the real area of contact and contact pressure distribution are those which minimize the total complementary energy. A linear elastic-perfectly plastic deformation model in which energy dissipation due to plastic deformation is accounted for was used. The dry contact method was applied to the contact between four different profiles and a plane. The variation in the real area of contact, the plasticity index and some surface roughness parameters due to applied load were investigated. The surface roughness parameters of the profiles differed significantly.

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