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  • 1. Abbasi Hoseini, A.
    et al.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Andersson, H. I.
    Finite-length effects on dynamical behavior of rod-like particles in wall-bounded turbulent flow2015In: International Journal of Multiphase Flow, ISSN 0301-9322, E-ISSN 1879-3533, Vol. 76, p. 13-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combined Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) measurements have been performed in dilute suspensions of rod-like particles in wall turbulence. PIV results for the turbulence field in the water table flow apparatus compared favorably with data from Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of channel flow turbulence and the universality of near-wall turbulence justified comparisons with DNS of fiber-laden channel flow. In order to examine any shape effects on the dynamical behavior of elongated particles in wall-bounded turbulent flow, fibers with three different lengths but the same diameter were used. In the logarithmic part of the wall-layer, the translational fiber velocity was practically unaffected by the fiber length l. In the buffer layer, however, the fiber dynamics turned out to be severely constrained by the distance z to the wall. The short fibers accumulated preferentially in low-speed areas and adhered to the local fluid speed. The longer fibers (l/z > 1) exhibited a bi-modal probability distribution for the fiber velocity, which reflected an almost equal likelihood for a long fiber to reside in an ejection or in a sweep. It was also observed that in the buffer region, high-speed long fibers were almost randomly oriented whereas for all size cases the slowly moving fibers preferentially oriented in the streamwise direction. These phenomena have not been observed in DNS studies of fiber suspension flows and suggested l/z to be an essential parameter in a new generation of wall-collision models to be used in numerical studies.

  • 2.
    Abbasiasl, Taher
    et al.
    Sabanci University.
    Niazi, Soroush
    Sabanci University.
    Sheibani Aghdam, Araz
    Sabanci University.
    Chen, Hongjian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging.
    Cebeci, Fevzi Cakmak
    Sabanci University.
    Ghorbani, Morteza
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging. 1 Sabanci University Nanote.
    Grishenkov, Dmitry
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging.
    Kosar, Ali
    Sabanci University.
    Effect of intensified cavitation using poly (vinyl alcohol) microbubbles on spray atomization characteristics in microscale2020In: AIP Advances, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 10, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, cavitating flows inside a transparent cylindrical nozzle with an inner diameter of 0.9 mm were visualized, and the effect of cavitation on atomization characteristics of emerging sprays was investigated. Different patterns of cavitating flows inside the nozzle were visualized using a high-speed camera. In-house codes were developed to process the captured images to study the droplet size distribution and droplet velocity in different flow regimes. The results show that cavitating flows at the microscale have significant effects on atomization characteristics of the spray. Two working fluids, namely, water and poly(vinyl alcohol) microbubble (PVA MB) suspension, were employed. Accordingly, the injection pressures were detected as 690 kPa, 1035 kPa, and 1725 kPa for cavitation inception, supercavitation, and hydraulic flip flow regimes in the case of water, respectively. The corresponding pressures for the aforementioned patterns for PVA MB suspension were 590 kPa, 760 kPa, and 1070 kPa, respectively. At the microscale, as a result of a higher volume fraction of cavitation bubbles inside the nozzle, there is no large difference between the cavitation numbers corresponding to cavitating and hydraulic flip flows. Although the percentage of droplets with diameters smaller than 200 μm was roughly the same for both cases of water and PVA MB suspension, the Sauter mean diameter was considerably lower in the case of PVA MBs. Moreover, higher droplet velocities were achieved in the case of PVA MBs at lower injection pressures.

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  • 3.
    Abbasiasl, Taher
    et al.
    Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Sutova, Hande
    Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Niazi, Soroush
    Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Celebi, Gizem
    Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Karavelioglu, Zeynep
    Yildiz Tech Univ, Dept Bioengn, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Kirabali, Ufuk
    Yildiz Tech Univ, Dept Mechatron Engn, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Yilmaz, Abdurrahim
    Yildiz Tech Univ, Dept Mechatron Engn, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Uvet, Huseyin
    Yildiz Tech Univ, Dept Mechatron Engn, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Kutlu, Ozlem
    Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Ctr Excellence Funct Surfaces & Interfaces Nanodi, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Ekici, Sinan
    Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Ghorbani, Morteza
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging. Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Ctr Excellence Funct Surfaces & Interfaces Nanodi, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Kosar, Ali
    Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Ctr Excellence Funct Surfaces & Interfaces Nanodi, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    A Flexible Cystoscope Based on Hydrodynamic Cavitation for Tumor Tissue Ablation2022In: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 0018-9294, E-ISSN 1558-2531, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 513-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Hydrodynamic cavitation is characterized by the formation of bubbles inside a flow due to local reduction of pressure below the saturation vapor pressure. The resulting growth and violent collapse of bubbles lead to a huge amount of released energy. This energy can be implemented in different fields such as heat transfer enhancement, wastewater treatment and chemical reactions. In this study, a cystoscope based on small scale hydrodynamic cavitation was designed and fabricated to exploit the destructive energy of cavitation bubbles for treatment of tumor tissues. The developed device is equipped with a control system, which regulates the movement of the cystoscope in different directions. According to our experiments, the fabricated cystoscope was able to locate the target and expose cavitating flow to the target continuously and accurately. The designed cavitation probe embedded into the cystoscope caused a significant damage to prostate cancer and bladder cancer tissues within less than 15 minutes. The results of our experiments showed that the cavitation probe could be easily coupled with endoscopic devices because of its small diameter. We successfully integrated a biomedical camera, a suction tube, tendon cables, and the cavitation probe into a 6.7 mm diameter cystoscope, which could be controlled smoothly and accurately via a control system. The developed device is considered as a mechanical ablation therapy, can be a solid alternative for minimally invasive tissue ablation methods such as radiofrequency (RF) and laser ablation, and could have lower side effects compared to ultrasound therapy and cryoablation.

  • 4. Abdulrazaq, Muhammed
    et al.
    Shahmardi, Armin
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Edoardo Rost, Marco
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Numerical modelling of the extensional dynamics in elastoviscoplastic fluidsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensional dynamics of an elasto-viscoplastic (EVP) fluid is studied by means of numerical simulations closely modelling an experimental configuration.  Specifically, we track the interface between the EVP material and the Newtonian medium using an algebraic volume of fluid method (MTHINC-VOF) and employ a fully Eulerian immersed boundary method (IBM) to model the motion of the piston responsible of the extension of the material.

    We investigate the role of different values of the yield stress, surface tension at the interface between the EVP material and the surrounding fluid, polymer viscosity ratio, and extension rates on the necking thickness of the material, extensional viscosity, and yielding of the material. 

     The results of the simulations reveal that when the yield stress of the EVP material is much larger than the viscous stresses, the material undergoes an elastic deformation, regardless of the selected values of extension rate, interfacial forces, and viscosity ratio. Moreover, increasing the ratio of the polymeric viscosity to the total viscosity of the system accelerates the EVP rupture due to the high stress concentration in the central part of the material sample. Specific and novel to our study, we show that interfacial forces cannot be ignored when the surface tension coefficient is such that a Capillary number based on the extensional rate is order 1. For large values of the surface tension coefficient, the EVP material fails sooner, with a clear deviation from the exponential reduction in the neck thickness.

  • 5.
    Abdulrazaq, Muhammed
    et al.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Appl Phys, Fluids & Flows Grp, POB 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Shahmardi, Armin
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Rosti, Marco Edoardo
    Grad Univ, Okinawa Inst Sci & Technol, Complex Fluids & Flows Unit, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna Son, Okinawa 9040495, Japan..
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Numerical modelling of the extensional dynamics in elastoviscoplastic fluids2023In: Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0377-0257, E-ISSN 1873-2631, Vol. 318, article id 105060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensional dynamics of an elasto-viscoplastic (EVP) fluid is studied by means of numerical simulations modelling an experimental configuration. Specifically, we track the interface between the EVP material and the Newtonian medium using an algebraic volume of fluid method (MTHINC-VOF) and employ a fully Eulerian immersed boundary method (IBM) to model the motion of the piston responsible for the extension of the material. We investigate the role of different values of the yield stress, surface tension at the interface between the EVP material and the surrounding fluid, polymer viscosity ratio, and extension rates on the necking thickness of the material, extensional viscosity, and yielding of the material for two sets of parameter with low and high elasticity. The results of the simulations reveal that when the yield stress of the EVP material is much larger than the viscous stresses, the material undergoes an elastic deformation, regardless of the selected values of the extension rate, interfacial forces, and viscosity ratio. Moreover, by increasing the ratio of the polymeric viscosity to the total viscosity of the system, the EVP material produces stronger strain hardening and reaches the minimum resolvable width sooner. Specific and novel to our study, we show that interfacial forces cannot be ignored when the surface tension coefficient is such that a Capillary number based on the extensional rate is of order 1. For large values of the surface tension coefficient, the EVP material fails sooner, with a clear deviation from the exponential reduction in the neck thickness. Moreover, our results suggest that the role of the yield stress value on the dynamics of the material is more pronounced at lower elasticity.

  • 6.
    Abegunawardana, Sidath
    et al.
    Univ Colombo, Dept Phys, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Bodhika, J A P
    Univ Ruhuna, Dept Phys, Matara, Sri Lanka.
    Abewardhana, Ruwan
    Univ Colombo, Dept Phys, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Fernando, Mahendra
    Univ Colombo, Dept Phys, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Sound Source Localization of Lightning Discharges2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lightning channel can be retraced by thunder signature recorded with an array of microphones. Four microphones were arranged to capture thunder sound, and acoustic cross-correlation of captured pressure signals estimated the time lag of each pair of microphones. A wave segment with 0.25 s or 0.5 s of duration was compared with the acoustic signal recorded by other microphones to estimate time lapse. The direction of channel propagation has been estimated by the time difference of arrival of each pair of microphones. Thunder source locations estimated by this method can be extended to investigate the channel propagation inside clouds.

  • 7.
    Abegunawardana, Sidath
    et al.
    Univ Colombo, Dept Phys, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Bodhika, J A P
    Univ Ruhuna, Dept Phys, Matara, Sri Lanka.
    Nanayakkara, Sankha
    Univ Colombo, Dept Phys, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Sonnadara, Upul
    Univ Colombo, Dept Phys, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Fernando, Mahendra
    Univ Colombo, Dept Phys, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Audible Frequency Analysis of Ground Flashes2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thunder signatures categorized into three types based on peak pressure and variation in fundamental frequency, have been studied by using acoustic spectrum of thunder. S-transformation has been used to estimate the dominant frequency variation around the peak pressure. The mean fundamental frequencies of type 3 ground and cloud flashes are 160 Hz and 98 Hz respectively. The mean frequencies of type 2 ground and cloud flashes are 108 Hz and 82 Hz respectively.

  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Eric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Samuel, Palm
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Optimering av täthetsprovning av ventiler2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nordhydraulic is a company in Kramfors that manufactures hydraulic valves. Hydraulic valves are used in a variety of areas to control hydraulic machines. For hydraulic valves to function properly, they must be tight. At Nordhydraulic, a leak tester called Nolek S9 N is used to determine if valves are tight. The leak tester fills the valves with a predetermined pressure and then measures the flow of air into the valve required to maintain the pressure.

    Today, this method has major problems with false negative results in the assembly line, which means that tight valves may give a result that indicates leakage and thus can lead to a bottleneck in the assembly. This is because there are many spaces in the valve that are difficult to reach by the air. The purpose of this work was to develop a better program for the Nolek S9 N to be used in the leak test to reduce assembly stops. The development of this program is done by making measurements with different time settings as well as connection methods to find the most important parameters of the program. Then, measurements are made on valves assembly errors and casting errors to see what flow the leakage has at these errors.

    The work resulted in three different programs for the RS210 valve, which in tests in the assembly achieved approved results faster than the previous program and with fewer false negative results. The conclusion is that the developed program could provide an improvement of the leak test and that the current limit for approved leakage can be increased to 50 mm^3/s  without missing the assembly errors that may occur.

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    Optimering av täthetsprovning av ventiler
  • 9. Abreu, L. I.
    et al.
    Cavalieri, A. V. G.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Wavepackets in turbulent flow over a NACA 4412 airfoil2018In: 31st Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, ICAS 2018, International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulent flow over a NACA 4412 airfoil with an angle of attack AoA = 5◦ was analysed using an incompressible direct numerical simulation (DNS) at chord Reynolds number of Rec = 4 · 105. Snapshots of the flow field were analysed using the method of Spectral Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (SPOD) in frequency domain, in order to extract the dominant coherent structures of the flow. Focus is given to two-dimensional disturbances, known to be most relevant for aeroacoustics. The leading SPOD modes show coherent structures forming a wavepacket, with significant amplitudes in the trailing-edge boundary layer and in the wake. To model coherent structures in the turbulent boundary layer, the optimal harmonic forcing and the associated linear response of the flow were obtained using the singular value decomposition of the linear resolvent operator. The resolvent analysis shows that the leading SPOD modes can be associated to most amplified, linearised flow responses. Furthermore, coherent structures in the wake are modelled as the Kelvin-Helmholtz mode from linear stability theory (LST). 

  • 10. Abreu, Leandra, I
    et al.
    Cavalieri, Andre V. G.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Resolvent modelling of near-wall coherent structures in turbulent channel flow2020In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 85, article id 108662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulent channel flow was analysed using direct numerical simulations at friction Reynolds numbers Re-tau = 180 and 550. The databases were studied using spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) to identify dominant near-wall coherent structures, most of which turn out to be streaks and streamwise vortices. Resolvent analysis was used as a theoretical approach to model such structures, as it allows the identification of the optimal forcing and most amplified flow response; the latter may be related to the observed relevant structures obtained by SPOD, especially if the gain between forcing and response is much larger than what is found for suboptimal forcings or if the non-linear forcing is white noise. Results from SPOD and resolvent analysis were compared for several combinations of frequencies and wavenumbers. For both Reynolds numbers, the best agreement between SPOD and resolvent modes was observed for the cases where the lift-up mechanism from resolvent analysis is present, which are also the cases where the optimal resolvent gain is dominant. These results confirm the outcomes in our previous studies (Abreu et al., 2019; Abreu et al., 2020), where we used a DNS database of a pipe flow for the same Reynolds numbers.

  • 11.
    Abreu, Leandra, I
    et al.
    Sao Paulo State Univ UNESP, Campus Sao Joao Boa Vista, BR-13876750 Sao Joao Da Boa Vista, SP, Brazil.;Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Div Engn Aeronaut, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Tanarro, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Cavalieri, Andre V. G.
    Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Div Engn Aeronaut, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Spanwise-coherent hydrodynamic waves around flat plates and airfoils2021In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 927, article id A1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate spanwise-coherent structures in the turbulent flow around airfoils, motivated by their connection with trailing-edge noise. We analyse well-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) of the flow around NACA 0012 and NACA 4412 airfoils, both at a Reynolds number of 400 000 based on the chord length. Spectral proper orthogonal decomposition performed on the data reveals that the most energetic coherent structures are hydrodynamic waves, extending over the turbulent boundary layers around the airfoils with significant amplitudes near the trailing edge. Resolvent analysis was used to model such structures, using the mean field as a base flow. We then focus on evaluating the dependence of such structures on the domain size, to ensure that they are not an artefact of periodic boundary conditions in small computational boxes. To this end, we performed incompressible LES of a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer, for three different spanwise sizes, with the momentum-thickness Reynolds number matching those near the airfoils trailing edge. The same coherent hydrodynamic waves were observed for the three domains. Such waves are accurately modelled as the most amplified flow response from resolvent analysis. The signature of such wide structures is seen in non-premultiplied spanwise wavenumber spectra, which collapse for the three computational domains. These results suggest that the spanwise-elongated structures are not domain-size dependent for the studied simulations, indicating thus the presence of very wide structures in wall-bounded turbulent flows.

  • 12.
    Abreu, Leandra I.
    et al.
    Divisão de Engenharia Aeronáutica, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, 12228-900, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil.
    Tanarro, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Cavalieri, André V.G.
    Divisão de Engenharia Aeronáutica, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, 12228-900, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Wavepackets in turbulent flows around airfoilsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by the recent analysis by Sano et al. 2019, Phys. Rev. Fluids, vol. 4, p. 094602, of spanwise-coherent structures in the turbulent flow around airfoils and their connection to trailing-edge noise, we carry out a thorough characterisation of such structures in three simulation databases. We analyse two different numerical simulations of incompressible flow in turbulent regime, both at chord Reynolds number of 400,000: a large-eddy simulation for a NACA 0012 profile at zero angle of attack, and a direct numerical simulation for a NACA 4412 airfoil with an angle of attack of 5 degrees. Snapshots of the flow field were analysed using Spectral Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (SPOD), in order to extract the dominant coherent structures of the flow. Focus is given to  the aforementioned spanwise-coherent fluctuations, which two-dimensional disturbances in the computational domain due to the use of periodic boundary conditions. The leading SPOD modes show that the most energetic coherent structures are wavepackets, extending over the whole turbulent boundary layers around the airfoils with significant amplitudes near the trailing-edge. Higher amplitudes are observed in the region of  stronger adverse pressure gradient at the suction side of the NACA 4412 airfoil. To understand how such structures in the turbulent field can be modelled, the linear response of the flow using the singular value decomposition of the linearised resolvent operator was performed, using the mean field as a base flow and considering a locally parallel approximation. Such analysis shows that the leading SPOD modes can be associated to optimal, linearised flow responses, particularly for stations far from the trailing edge; the latter introduces a discontinuity in boundary conditions, and the locally parallel approximation becomes questionable. We then focus on evaluating the dependence of such wavepackets on the domain size, to ensure that these structures are not an artifact of the use of periodic boundary conditions in small computational boxes. To do so, we performed an incompressible LES of a zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer (ZPGTBL), for three different spanwise sizes: Lz=32 δ*, Lz=64 δ* and Lz=128 δ*, where δ* is a reference displacement thickness in a region of developed turbulent flow, with Reynolds number matching the values in the airfoil simulations. The signature of such wavepackets is seen in non-premultiplied spanwise wavenumber spectra, which reaches, for the three domain sizes, a plateau for spanwise wavelengths going to infinity (or wavenumbers going to zero); this plateau is representative of the spanwise-coherent structures seen in the airfoil simulations. Similar SPOD and resolvent analyses were carried out for the zero spanwise wavenumber of the ZPGTBL, and the same coherent wavepackets were observed for the three domains, with very similar amplitudes. Such wavepackets were also accurately modelled using the optimal resolvent response. These results confirm that the spanwise-elongated structures are not domain-size dependent for the studied simulations, and are thus a feature of turbulent boundary layers.

  • 13.
    Achieng, Pauline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Mathematics Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Nairobi, Kenya.
    Berntsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kozlov, Vladimir
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Mathematics Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reconstruction of the Radiation Condition and Solution for the Helmholtz Equation in a Semi-infinite Strip from Cauchy Data on an Interior Segment2023In: Computational Methods in Applied Mathematics, ISSN 1609-4840, E-ISSN 1609-9389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider an inverse problem for the Helmholtz equation of reconstructing a solution from measurements taken on a segment inside a semi-infinite strip. Homogeneous Neumann conditions are prescribed on both side boundaries of the strip and an unknown Dirichlet condition on the remaining part of the boundary. Additional complexity is that the radiation condition at infinity is unknown. Our aim is to find the unknown function in the Dirichlet boundary condition and the radiation condition. Such problems appear in acoustics to determine acoustical sources and surface vibrations from acoustic field measurements. The problem is split into two sub-problems, a well-posed and an ill-posed problem. We analyse the theoretical properties of both problems; in particular, we show that the radiation condition is described by a stable non-linear problem. The second problem is ill-posed, and we use the Landweber iteration method together with the discrepancy principle to regularize it. Numerical tests show that the approach works well.

  • 14.
    Adolfsson, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Expanding operation ranges using active flow control in Francis turbines2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains an investigation of fluid injection techniques used in the purpose of reducing deleterious flow effects occurring in the draft tube of Francis turbines when operating outside nominal load. There is a focus on implement ability at Jämtkrafts hydroelectric power plants and two power plants were investigated, located in series with each other named Lövhöjden and Ålviken. The only profitable scenario found with some degree of certainty was an increase in the operating range upwards to allow overload operation.

    Findings show that both air and water can be introduced in various locations to improve hydraulic efficiency around the turbine parts as well as reduce pressure pulsations in harmful operating regions. Investments in such systems have proven useful and profitable at several facilities with poorly adapted operating conditions. But due to losses in efficiency when operating injection systems, it turns out unprofitable in situations where it does not improve the operating range in a way that is resulting in increased annual or peak production.

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    Lastområdesutvidgning med aktiv flödeskontroll i Francisturbiner
  • 15.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Ewald summation for the rotlet singularity of Stokes flow2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ewald summation is an efficient method for computing the periodic sums that appear when considering the Green's functions of Stokes flow together with periodic boundary conditions. We show how Ewald summation, and accompanying truncation error estimates, can be easily derived for the rotlet, by considering it as a superposition of electrostatic force calculations.

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  • 16.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH, Sweden.
    Lindbo, Dag
    KTH, Sweden.
    Tornberg, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Sweden.
    An explicit Eulerian method for multiphase flow with contact line dynamics and insoluble surfactant2014In: Computers & Fluids, ISSN 0045-7930, E-ISSN 1879-0747, Vol. 101, p. 50-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow behavior of many multiphase flow applications is greatly influenced by wetting properties and the presence of surfactants. We present a numerical method for two-phase flow with insoluble surfactants and contact line dynamics in two dimensions. The method is based on decomposing the interface between two fluids into segments, which are explicitly represented on a local Eulerian grid. It provides a natural framework for treating the surfactant concentration equation, which is solved locally on each segment. An accurate numerical method for the coupled interface/surfactant system is given. The system is coupled to the Navier-Stokes equations through the immersed boundary method, and we discuss the issue of force regularization in wetting problems, when the interface touches the boundary of the domain. We use the method to illustrate how the presence of surfactants influences the behavior of free and wetting drops.

  • 17.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lindbo, Dag
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Tornberg, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    An explicit Eulerian method for multiphase flow with contact line dynamics and insoluble surfactant2014In: Computers & Fluids, ISSN 0045-7930, E-ISSN 1879-0747, Vol. 101, p. 50-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow behavior of many multiphase flow applications is greatly influenced by wetting properties and the presence of surfactants. We present a numerical method for two-phase flow with insoluble surfactants and contact line dynamics in two dimensions. The method is based on decomposing the interface between two fluids into segments, which are explicitly represented on a local Eulerian grid. It provides a natural framework for treating the surfactant concentration equation, which is solved locally on each segment. An accurate numerical method for the coupled interface/surfactant system is given. The system is coupled to the Navier-Stokes equations through the immersed boundary method, and we discuss the issue of force regularization in wetting problems, when the interface touches the boundary of the domain. We use the method to illustrate how the presence of surfactants influences the behavior of free and wetting drops.

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    fulltext
  • 18.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH, Sweden.
    Tornberg, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Sweden.
    Fast Ewald summation for Stokesian particle suspensions2014In: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, ISSN 0271-2091, E-ISSN 1097-0363, Vol. 76, no 10, p. 669-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a numerical method for suspensions of spheroids of arbitrary aspect ratio, which sediment under gravity. The method is based on a periodized boundary integral formulation using the Stokes double layer potential. The resulting discrete system is solved iteratively using generalized minimal residual accelerated by the spectral Ewald method, which reduces the computational complexity to O(N log N), where N is the number of points used to discretize the particle surfaces. We develop predictive error estimates, which can be used to optimize the choice of parameters in the Ewald summation. Numerical tests show that the method is well conditioned and provides good accuracy when validated against reference solutions. 

  • 19.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Tornberg, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Fast Ewald summation for Stokesian particle suspensions2014In: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, ISSN 0271-2091, E-ISSN 1097-0363, Vol. 76, no 10, p. 669-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a numerical method for suspensions of spheroids of arbitrary aspect ratio, which sediment under gravity. The method is based on a periodized boundary integral formulation using the Stokes double layer potential. The resulting discrete system is solved iteratively using generalized minimal residual accelerated by the spectral Ewald method, which reduces the computational complexity to O(N log N), where N is the number of points used to discretize the particle surfaces. We develop predictive error estimates, which can be used to optimize the choice of parameters in the Ewald summation. Numerical tests show that the method is well conditioned and provides good accuracy when validated against reference solutions. 

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    postprint
  • 20.
    Afzal, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saine, Kari
    Wärtsilä Finland OyResearch and Development, WSSCVaasaFinland.
    Paro, Claus
    Wärtsilä Finland OyResearch and Development, WSSCVaasaFinland.
    Dascotte, Eddy
    Dynamic Design Solutions (DDS) NVLeuvenBelgium.
    Experimental evaluation of the inertia properties of large diesel engines2021In: Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, Springer , 2021, p. 205-213Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inertia properties of several medium speed large diesel engines are evaluated using the Inertia Restrain Method (IRM). This method requires measuring frequency response functions (FRFs) at several well-chosen locations and under dynamic loading in different directions that stimulate rigid body movements. The mass line values of the measured FRFs are then evaluated and, together with the sensor locations, are used by IRM to determine center of gravity, mass and mass moments of inertia. The aim of the study is to investigate the accuracy and robustness of the IRM for extracting the inertia properties of complex structures. Therefore, several line- and V-engines were measured. The experimental results are compared with finite element models and result obtained from weighing tests. Different types of excitation source such as hammer and shaker are used to excite the structure. The result obtained from two excitation sources are compared and discussed. The effect of measurement point locations and driving point accelerometers on the FRFs and inertia properties are investigated. The extracted inertia properties in all cases are considered sufficiently accurate. This indicates that the IRM is a robust tool for identifying the inertia properties of large and complex structures and can be employed at an industrial level. 

  • 21. Agarwal, A.
    et al.
    Dowling, A. P.
    Shin, H. -C
    Graham, W.
    Sefi, Sandy
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    A ray tracing approach to calculate acoustic shielding by the silent aircraft airframe2006In: Collection of Technical Papers - 12th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, 2006, p. 2799-2818Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Silent Aircraft is in the form of a flying wing with a large wing planform and a propulsion system that is embedded in the rear of the airframe with intakes on the upper surface of the wing. Thus a large part of the forward-propagating noise from the intake ducts is expected to be shielded from observers on the ground by the wing. Acoustic shielding effects can be calculated by solving an external acoustic scattering problem for a moving aircraft. In this paper, acoustic shielding effects of the Silent Aircraft airframe are quantified by a ray-tracing method. The dominant frequencies from the noise spectrum of the engines are sufficiently high for ray theory to yield accurate results. It is shown that for low-Mach number homentropic flows, a condition satisfied approximately by the Silent Aircraft during take-off and approach, the acoustic rays propagate in straight lines. Thus, from Fermat's principle it is clear that classical Geometrical Optics and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction solutions are applicable to this moving-body problem as well. The total amount of acoustic shielding at an observer located in the shadow region is calculated by adding the contributions from all the diffracted rays (edge-diffracted and creeping rays) and then subtracting the result from the incident field without the airframe. Experiments on a model-scale geometry have been conducted in an anechoic chamber to test the applicability of the ray-tracing technique. The three-dimensional ray-tracing solver is validated by comparing the numerical solution with analytical high-frequency asymptotic solutions for canonical shapes.

  • 22. Agarwal, Akshat
    et al.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Zaki, Tamer A.
    Linear and nonlinear evolution of a localized disturbance in polymeric channel flow2014In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 760, p. 278-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of an initially localized disturbance in polymeric channel flow is investigated, with the FENE-P model used to characterize the viscoelastic behaviour of the flow. In the linear growth regime, the flow response is stabilized by viscoelasticity, and the maximum attainable disturbance energy amplification is reduced with increasing polymer concentration. The reduction in the energy growth rate is attributed to the polymer work, which plays a dual role. First, a spanwise polymer-work term develops, and is explained by the tilting action of the wall-normal voracity on the mean streamwise conformation tensor. This resistive term weakens the spanwise velocity perturbation thus reducing the energy of the localized disturbance. The second action of the polymer is analogous, with a wall-normal polymer work term that weakens the vertical velocity perturbation. Its indirect effect on energy growth is substantial since it reduces the production of Reynolds shear stress and in turn of the streamwise velocity perturbation, or streaks. During the early stages of nonlinear growth, the dominant effect of the polymer is to suppress the large-scale streaky structures which are strongly amplified in Newtonian flows. As a result, the process of transition to turbulence is prolonged and, after transition, a drag-reduced turbulent state is attained.

  • 23.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångstrom, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Demonstration of Air-Fuel Ratio Role in One-Stage Turbocompound Diesel Engines2013In: SAE Technical Papers, 2013, Vol. 11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large portion of fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of internal combustion engines. Turbocompound can, however, recover part of this wasted heat. The energy recovery depends on the turbine efficiency and mass flow as well as the exhaust gas state and properties such as pressure, temperature and specific heat capacity.

    The main parameter influencing the turbocompound energy recovery is the exhaust gas pressure which leads to higher pumping loss of the engine and consequently lower engine crankshaft power. Each air-fuel equivalence ratio (λ) gives different engine power, exhaust gas temperature and pressure. Decreasing λ toward 1 in a Diesel engine results in higher exhaust gas temperatures of the engine.  λ can be varied by changing the intake air pressure or the amount of injected fuel which changes the available energy into the turbine. Thus, there is a compromise between gross engine power, created pumping power, recovered turbocompound power and consumed compressor power.

    In this study, the effects of different λ values and exhaust back-pressure have been investigated on the efficiency of a heavy-duty Diesel engine equipped with a single-stage electric turbocompounding. A one-dimensional gas dynamics model of a turbocharged engine was utilized that was validated against measurements at different load points. Two configurations of turbocompound engine were made. In one configuration an electric turbocharger was used and the amount of fuel was varied with constant intake air pressure. In another configuration the turbocharger turbine and compressor were disconnected to be able to control the turbine speed and the compressor speed independently; then the compressor pressure ratio was varied with constant engine fuelling and the exhaust back-pressure was optimized for each compressor pressure ratio.

    At each constant turbine efficiency there is a linear relation between the optimum exhaust back-pressure and ideally expanded cylinder pressure until bottom dead center with closed exhaust valves. There is an optimum λ for the turbocharged engine with regard to the fuel consumption. In the turbocompound engine, this will be moved to a richer λ that gives the best total specific fuel consumption; however, the results of this study indicates that turbocompound engine efficiency is relatively insensitive to the air-fuel ratio.

  • 24.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Improving Turbocharged Engine Simulation by Including Heat Transfer in the Turbocharger2012In: 2012 SAE International, SAE international , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engine simulation based on one-dimensional gas dynamics is well suited for integration of all aspects arising in engine and power-train developments. Commonly used turbocharger performance maps in engine simulation are measured in non-pulsating flow and without taking into account the heat transfer. Since on-engine turbochargers are exposed to pulsating flow and varying heat transfer situations, the maps in the engine simulation, i.e. GT-POWER, have to be shifted and corrected which are usually done by mass and efficiency multipliers for both turbine and compressor. The multipliers change the maps and are often different for every load point. Particularly, the efficiency multiplier is different for every heat transfer situation on the turbocharger. The aim of this paper is to include the heat transfer of the turbocharger in the engine simulation and consequently to reduce the use of efficiency multiplier for both the turbine and compressor. A set of experiment has been designed and performed on a water-oil-cooled turbocharger, which was installed on a 2 liter GDI engine with variable valve timing, for different load points of the engine and different conditions of heat transfer in the turbocharger. The experiments were the base to simulate heat transfer on the turbocharger, by adding a heat sink before the turbine and a heat source after the compressor. The efficiency multiplier of the turbine cannot compensate for all heat transfer in the turbine, so it is needed to put out heat from the turbine in addition to the using of efficiency multiplier. Results of this study show that including heat transfer of turbocharger in engine simulation enables to decrease the use of turbine efficiency multiplier and eliminate the use of compressor efficiency multiplier to correctly calculate the measured gas temperatures after turbine and compressor.

  • 25.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Temperature Estimation of Turbocharger Working Fluids and Walls under Different Engine Loads and Heat Transfer Conditions2013In: SAE Technical Papers, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbocharger performance maps, which are used in engine simulations, are usually measured on a gas-stand where the temperatures distributions on the turbocharger walls are entirely different from that under real engine operation. This should be taken into account in the simulation of a turbocharged engine. Dissimilar wall temperatures of turbochargers give different air temperature after the compressor and different exhaust gas temperature after the turbine at a same load point. The efficiencies are consequently affected. This can lead to deviations between the simulated and measured outlet temperatures of the turbocharger turbine and compressor. This deviation is larger during a transient load step because the temperatures of turbocharger walls change slowly due to the thermal inertia. Therefore, it is important to predict the temperatures of turbocharger walls and the outlet temperatures of the turbocharger working fluids in a turbocharged engine simulation.

    In the work described in this paper, a water-oil-cooled turbocharger was extensively instrumented with several thermocouples on reachable walls. The turbocharger was installed on a 2-liter gasoline engine that was run under different loads and different heat transfer conditions on the turbocharger by using insulators, an extra cooling fan, radiation shields and water-cooling settings. The turbine inlet temperature varied between 550 and 850 °C at different engine loads.

    The results of this study show that the temperatures of turbocharger walls are predictable from the experiment. They are dependent on the load point and the heat transfer condition of the turbocharger. The heat transfer condition of an on-engine turbocharger could be defined by the turbine inlet temperature, ambient temperature, oil heat flux, water heat flux and the velocity of the air around the turbocharger. Thus, defining the heat transfer condition and rotational speed of the turbocharger provides temperatures predictions of the turbocharger walls and the working fluids. This prediction enables increased precision in engine simulation for future work in transient operation.

  • 26.
    Agnihotri, Sagar Narhari
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Liu, Zhenhua
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Barbe, Laurent
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Fornell, Anna
    Tenje, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Droplet Acoustofluidics and Pico-injection for Long-term Cell Culture2022Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 27.
    Agrawal, Vishal
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Kulachenko, Artem
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Solid Mechanics.
    Scapin, Nicolo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Tammisola, Outi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    An efficient isogeometric/finite-difference immersed boundary method for the fluid–structure interactions of slender flexible structures2024In: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, ISSN 0045-7825, E-ISSN 1879-2138, Vol. 418, article id 116495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution, we present a robust and efficient computational framework capable of accurately capturing the dynamic motion and large deformation/deflection responses of highly-flexible rods interacting with an incompressible viscous flow. Within the partitioned approach, we adopt separate field solvers to compute the dynamics of the immersed structures and the evolution of the flow field over time, considering finite Reynolds numbers. We employ a geometrically exact, nonlinear Cosserat rod formulation in the context of the isogeometric analysis (IGA) technique to model the elastic responses of each rod in three dimensions (3D). The Navier–Stokes equations are resolved using a pressure projection method on a standard staggered Cartesian grid. The direct-forcing immersed boundary method is utilized for coupling the IGA-based structural solver with the finite-difference fluid solver. In order to fully exploit the accuracy of the IGA technique for FSI simulations, the proposed framework introduces a new procedure that decouples the resolution of the structural domain from the fluid grid. Uniformly distributed Lagrangian markers with density relative to the Eulerian grid are generated to communicate between Lagrangian and Eulerian grids consistently with IGA. We successfully validate the proposed computational framework against two- and three-dimensional FSI benchmarks involving flexible filaments undergoing large deflections/motions in an incompressible flow. We show that six times coarser structural mesh than the flow Eulerian grid delivers accurate results for classic benchmarks, leading to a major gain in computational efficiency. The simultaneous spatial and temporal convergence studies demonstrate the consistent performance of the proposed framework, showing that it conserves the order of the convergence, which is the same as that of the fluid solver.

  • 28.
    Ahl, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Analysis of how different mesh functions influence the result in CFD-simulation of a marine propeller:  2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 29.
    Ahlberg, Charlotte
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    An experimental study of fiber suspensions between counter-rotating discs2009Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The behavior of fibers suspended in a flow between two counter-rotating discs has been studied experimentally. This is inspired by the refining process in the papermaking process where cellulose fibers are ground between discs in order to change performance in the papermaking process and/or qualities of the final paper product.

    To study the fiber behavior in a counter-rotating flow, an experimental set-up with two glass discs was built. A CCD-camera was used to capture images of the fibers in the flow. Image analysis based on the concept of steerable filters extracted the position and orientation of the fibers in the plane of the discs. Experiments were performed for gaps of 0.1-0.9 fiber lengths, and for equal absolute values of the angular velocities for the upper and lower disc. The aspect ratios of the fibers were 7, 14 and 28.

    Depending on the angular velocity of the discs and the gap between them, the fibers were found to organize themselves in fiber trains. A fiber train is a set of fibers positioned one after another in the tangential direction with a close to constant fiber-to-fiber distance. In the fiber trains, each individual fiber is aligned in the radial direction (i.e. normal to the main direction of the train).

    The experiments show that the number of fibers in a train increases as the gap between the discs decreases. Also, the distance between the fibers in a train decreases as the length of the train increases, and the results for short trains are in accordance with previous numerical results in two dimensions.Furthermore, the results of different aspect ratios imply that there are three-dimensional fiber end-effects that are important for the forming of fiber trains.

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  • 30.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ahlgren, Kristoffer
    University of Kalmar, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Gasens inverkan på oljan i ett hydrauliksystem2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I detta arbete har vi med en litteraturstudie försökt påvisa vad en inblandad gas i oljan i ett hydrauliksystem har för betydelse för funktionen. Vi har använt information i traditionell facklitteratur samt i tidskrifter och vetenskapliga rapporter och upptäckt att problemen som uppkommer av inblandade gaser inte är väl kända. Dagens lösningar på problemen är nästan alltid kostsamma och handlar om att behandla symptomen. Vi har tittat på de olika fysikaliska data som gasen inverkar på i oljan, utifrån detta har vi analyserat vilka effekter detta har för ett hydrauliksystems funktion. Vi kommer att diskutera grundproblemet till kavitation och vanliga problem som ett hydrauliksystem ofta har. Vi har lyckats presentera resultat på att inblandad gas i oljan har en mycket stor inverkan på ett hydrauliksystem. Vi har kommit fram till att mycket av dagens problem med hydrauliksystem helt skulle kunna byggas bort om man tog större hänsyn till oljans förmåga att lösa in luft.

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  • 31.
    Ahlman, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    A study of turbulence and scalar mixing in a wall-jet using direct numerical simulation2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulation is used to study the dynamics and mixing in a turbulent plane wall-jet. The investigation is undertaken in order to extend the knowledge base of the influence of the wall on turbulent dynamics and mixing. The mixing statistics produced can also be used to evaluate and develop models for mixing and combustion. In order to perform the simulations, a numerical code was developed. The code employs compact finite difference schemes, of high order, for spatial integration, and a low-storage Runge-Kutta method for the temporal integration. In the simulations performed the inlet based Reynolds and Mach numbers of the wall jet were Re = 2000 and M=0.5, respectively. Above the jet a constant coflow of 10% of the inlet jet velocity was applied. A passive scalar was added at the inlet of the jet, in a non-premixed manner, enabling an investigation of the wall-jet mixing as well as the dynamics. The mean development and the respective self-similarity of the inner and outer shear layers were studied. Comparisons of properties in the shear layers of different character were performed by applying inner and outer scaling. The characteristics of the wall-jet was compared to what has been observed in other canonical shear flows. In the inner part of the jet, 0 ≤ y+ ≤ 13, the wall-jet was found to closely resemble a zero pressure gradient boundary layer. The outer layer was found to resemble a free plane jet. The downstream growth rate of the scalar was approximately equal to that of the streamwise velocity, in terms of the growth rate of the half-width. The scalar fluxes in the streamwise and wall-normal direction were found to be of comparable magnitude.

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  • 32.
    Ahlman, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Numerical studies of turbulent wall-jets for mixing and combustion applications2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulation is used to study turbulent plane wall-jets. The investigation is aimed at studying dynamics, mixing and reactions in wall bounded flows. The produced mixing statistics can be used to evaluate and develop models for mixing and combustion. An aim has also been to develop a simulation method that can be extended to simulate realistic combustion including significant heat release. The numerical code used in the simulations employs a high order compact finite difference scheme for spatial integration, and a low-storage Runge-Kutta method for the temporal integration. In the simulations the inlet based Reynolds and Mach numbers of the wall-jet are Re = 2000 and M=0.5 respectively, and above the jet a constant coflow of 10% of the inlet jet velocity is applied. The development of an isothermal wall-jet including passive scalar mixing is studied and the characteristics of the wall-jet are compared to observations of other canonical shear flows. In the near-wall region the jet resembles a zero pressure gradient boundary layer, while in the outer layer it resembles a plane jet. The scalar fluxes in the streamwise and wall-normal direction are of comparable magnitude. In order to study effects of density differences, two non-isothermal wall-jets are simulated and compared to the isothermal jet results. In the non-isothermal cases the jet is either warm and propagating in a cold surrounding or vice versa. The turbulence structures and the range of scales are affected by the density variation. The warm jet contains the largest range of scales and the cold the smallest. The differences can be explained by the varying friction Reynolds number. Conventional wall scaling fails due to the varying density. An improved collapse in the inner layer can be achieved by applying a semi-local scaling. The turbulent Schmidt and Prandtl number vary significantly only in the near-wall layer and in a small region below the jet center. A wall-jet including a single reaction between a fuel and an oxidizer is also simulated. The reactants are injected separately at the inlet and the reaction time scale is of the same order as the convection time scale and independent of the temperature. The reaction occurs in thin reaction zones convoluted by high intensity velocity fluctuations.

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  • 33.
    Ahlman, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Johansson, Arne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Direct numerical simulation of a plane turbulent wall-jet including scalar mixing2007In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 065102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulation is used to study a turbulent plane wall-jet including the mixing of a passive scalar. The Reynolds and Mach numbers at the inlet are Re=2000 and M=0.5, respectively, and a constant coflow of 10% of the inlet jet velocity is used. The passive scalar is added at the inlet enabling an investigation of the wall-jet mixing. The self-similarity of the inner and outer shear layers is studied by applying inner and outer scaling. The characteristics of the wall-jet are compared to what is reported for other canonical shear flows. In the inner part, the wall-jet is found to closely resemble a zero pressure gradient boundary layer, and the outer layer is found to resemble a free plane jet. The downstream growth rate of the scalar is approximately equal to that of the streamwise velocity in terms of the growth rate of the half-widths. The scalar fluxes in the streamwise and wall-normal direction are found to be of comparable magnitude. The scalar mixing situation is further studied by evaluating the scalar dissipation rate and the mechanical to mixing time scale ratio.

  • 34. Ahmed, Z.
    et al.
    Izbassarov, Daulet
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Costa, Pedro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Muradoglu, M.
    Tammisola, Outi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Turbulent bubbly channel flows: Effects of soluble surfactant and viscoelasticity2020In: Computers & Fluids, ISSN 0045-7930, E-ISSN 1879-0747, Vol. 212, article id 104717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interface-resolved direct numerical simulations are performed to examine the combined effects of soluble surfactant and viscoelasticity on the structure of a bubbly turbulent channel flow. The incompressible flow equations are solved fully coupled with the FENE-P viscoelastic model and the equations governing interfacial and bulk surfactant concentrations. The latter coupling is achieved through a non-linear equation of state which relates the surface tension to the surfactant concentration at the interface. The two-fluid Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a front-tracking method, augmented with a very efficient FFT-based pressure projection method that allows for massively parallel simulations of turbulent flows. It is found that, for the surfactant-free case, bubbles move toward the wall due to inertial lift force, resulting in formation of wall layers and a significant decrease in the flow rate. Conversely, a high-enough concentration of surfactant changes the direction of lateral migration of bubbles, i.e., the contaminated bubbles move toward the core region and spread out across the channel. When viscoelasticity is considered, viscoelastic stresses counteract the Marangoni stresses, promoting formation of bubbly wall-layers and consequently strong decrease in the flow rate. The formation of bubble wall-layers for combined case depends on the interplay of the inertial and elastic, and Marangoni forces. 

  • 35.
    Ahn, Myeonghwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Karnam, A.
    Gutmark, E. J.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Flow and Near-field Pressure Fluctuations of Twin Square Jets2021In: AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum, 2021, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aim to investigate the aerodynamic and acoustics characteristics of a twin square jet using an implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES). A screeching cold jet condition, a nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) of 3.0, is considered to simulate a coupled twin-jet. A second-order central scheme with a modified version of Jameson’s artificial dissipation is adopted to damp numerical oscillations and to mimic the effect of small-scale turbulence without an explicit subgrid-scale (SGS) model. Numerical results show that the overall trends of time-averaged streamwise velocity profiles are similar to the experimental data, with the largest differences observed at locations associated with the presence of the shock-cell structures. A detailed investigation of the flow fluctuations in jet shear layers is performed. The amplitude of the velocity fluctuations is highly dependent on the location of the shear layers with respect to the twin-jet configuration (upper, lateral, or inner). The coupling mode of twin jets associated with the screech tone is determined as a symmetrical flapping mode be a two-points spacetime cross-correlation analysis. The overall trends of near-field pressure fluctuation spectra by LES agree well with the experimental results in both upstream and downstream regions. Near-field pressure fluctuation spectra by ILES agree well with the experimentally obtained spectra at different locations in the nozzle exit plane as well as at several downstream locations in the near-field acoustic region. The highest screech tone is observed at the inter-nozzle region where superposition of in-phase waves and standing waves are found. Fourier phase and amplitude fields at the fundamental frequency also confirm the symmetrical flapping mode of the twin jets by showing in-phase relations of hydrodynamic/acoustic waves and noise directivities. 

  • 36.
    Ahn, Myeonghwan
    et al.
    Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, South Korea.
    Lee, Duck-Joo
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    A numerical study on near-field pressure fluctuations of symmetrical and anti-symmetrical flapping modes of twin-jet using a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme2021In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, p. 107147-107147, article id 107147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Screeching supersonic jets appears at off-design operating conditions and is perceived as an intense tonal noise. In a twin nozzle configuration, mutual interactions between the two jet plumes may occur with various coupling modes developing depending on the operating conditions and lateral distance between the jets. The investigation of the detailed flow behaviors and near-field pressure fluctuations with relevance to the twin jets system, the analysis of the developed instabilities, will enhance understanding of fundamental features associated with jets located close to each other.

    In the present study, the single jet is considered first to assess the large eddy simulation (LES) approach used and the near-field pressure fluctuation predictions. Based on the validated solver, twin jets are simulated. Two different twin-nozzle configurations having different separation distance or nozzle-to-nozzle centerline spacing are scrutinized for the same Mach number of 1.358. Notably, the twin jets are screeching by the coupling mode for both set-ups; however, the case of closer inter-nozzle distance presents a symmetrical dominant flapping mode, while the other case shows an anti-symmetrical flapping mode. The strength of the pressure fluctuation at the fundamental frequency changes depending on the location of the observer point (upstream or downstream) and the reference plane (twin-jet and normal to the twin-jet plane). The screech tones of the two cases, observable in the upstream region, are significantly different in the normal to the twin-jet plane direction because of the phase difference of fluctuating pressure. However, the first harmonic component remains strong, regardless of the flapping mode. It is also observed that, at the fundamental frequency, the amplitude of the pressure fluctuation at downstream locations is found to be strong in the normal to the twin-jet plane when the symmetrical flapping mode occurs. This feature is also observed in the twin-jet plane in the case of the opposite mode. By analyzing the developed vertical structures and performing correlation analyses of pressure fluctuations along jet shear layers, the periodicity of the flow in the downstream region with relevance to the fundamental frequency is revealed.

  • 37.
    Ahn, MyeongHwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Effects of Temperature on the Characteristics of Twin Square Jets by Large Eddy Simulations2022In: AIAA Science and Technology Forum and Exposition, AIAA SciTech Forum 2022, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) , 2022, article id AIAA 2022-0681Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate the effects of temperature on the aerodynamic and aeroacoustics characteristics of twin square jets. Implicit Large Eddy Simulations (ILES) are performed for twin jets with a fixed nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) of 3.0 and temperature ratios (TR) of 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 7.0. A second-order central scheme is used to resolve acoustic waves, and an artificial dissipation model is applied to capture shock waves and to suppress non-physical oscillations. In addition, the variation of a specific heat ratio as function of temperature is considered under the chemical equilibrium assumption. The numerical results show that the length of potential core is reduced with the increase of temperature due to the enhanced mixing in jet shear layers which can be estimated by turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Meanwhile, the fluctuations of the transverse velocity show different trends between the cases within the corresponding potential core length, which can be associated with the screeching phenomena of the twin-jet. As temperature increases, the convection Mach number in the jet shear layers is also increased so that the Mach wave is generated for TR of 2.0, 4.0, and 7.0. However, a crackle noise is only observed for TR of 4.0 and 7.0, whose generation is identified by the skewness and kurtosis factors. Relatively low temperature jets (TR of 1.0 and 2.0) are screeching so that peaks are observed in the spectra obtained upstream. On the other hand, broadband component is gradually increased when the jets are heated, and the largest increase is observed at the location exposed to the Mach wave radiation.

  • 38.
    Ahn, MyeongHwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Karnam, Aatresh
    University of Cincinnati.
    Gutmark, Ephraim
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Large-eddy simulations of flow and aeroacoustics of twin square jets including turbulence tripping2023In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 35, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate the flow and aeroacoustics of twin square (i.e., aspect ratio of 1.0) jets by implicit large-eddy simulations (LESs) under a nozzle pressure ratio of 3.0 and a temperature ratio of 1.0 conditions. A second-order central scheme coupled with a modified Jameson's artificial dissipation is used to resolve acoustics as well as to capture discontinuous solutions, e.g., shock waves. The flow boundary layer inside of the nozzle is tripped, using a small step in the convergent section of the nozzle. The time-averaged axial velocity and turbulent kinetic energy of LES with boundary layer tripping approaches better to particle image velocimetry experimental data than the LES without turbulence tripping case. A two-point space–time cross-correlation analysis suggests that the twin jets are screeching and are coupled to each other in a symmetrical flapping mode. Intense pressure fluctuations and standing waves are observed between the jets. Spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) confirms the determined mode and the relevant wave propagation. The upstream propagating mode associated with the shock-cell structures is confined inside jets. Far-field noise obtained by solving Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is in good agreement with the measured acoustic data. The symmetrical flapping mode of twin jets yields different levels of the screech tone depending on observation planes. The tonalities—the fundamental tone, second and third harmonics—appear clearly in the far-field, showing different contributions at angles corresponding to the directivities revealed by SPOD.

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  • 39.
    Aihara, Aya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Aeroacoustic Prediction for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic prediction of vertical axis wind turbines, using computational fluid dynamics simulations. Noise pollution from wind turbines is one of the disadvantages of wind energy, calling for strategies to reduce noise levels. Yet for vertical axis wind turbines in particular, there is insufficient knowledge of how to identify sound sources and mitigate the sound level. The aim of this study is to predict aerodynamic noise, using large eddy simulation and acoustic analogy, so as to better understand the mechanism of sound generation for vertical axis wind turbines. First, the prediction method is validated for a static single blade in stall. This model is able to capture the dominant frequency, but it does not well reproduce the broadband characteristics. Next, the aerodynamic behavior of the 12 kW H-rotor vertical axis wind turbine is studied, whereby the focus is on the importance of properly modeling the strut influence for an accurate prediction of the blade forces. To achieve this, the flow field is solved for three different tip speed ratios. The results show that the struts significantly affect on the force distribution along the blade. The reduction of the blade force is observed to occur not only at the attachment points of the struts, but also over a large area of the blade section in the downwind side where the blade interacts with the wake created in the upwind. Finally, the noise radiated from the vertical axis wind turbine operating at high tip speed ratio is predicted. Measurements are conducted to validate the prediction, with the experimental data representing the broadband noise characteristics dominant at around 800 Hz. The prediction reproduces the sound pressure level observed at a radial distance of 1.4 rotor diameter, with a few decibels difference. However, these discrepancies become more pronounced at double distance, which can be considered to arise due to the effect of the ground reflection being ignored. The simulation furthermore indicates, that the main sound sources are emitted when the blade rotates in the downwind. It is suggested that future work should properly consider the atmospheric turbulence for more accurate predictions.

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  • 40.
    Aihara, Aya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    LES prediction for acoustic noise of airfoil at high angle of attack2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Aihara, Aya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Numerical prediction of noise generated from airfoil in stall using LES and acoustic analogy2021In: Noise & Vibration Worldwide, ISSN 0957-4565, E-ISSN 2048-4062, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 295-305Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the aerodynamic noise prediction of a NACA 0012 airfoil in stall region using Large Eddy Simulation and the acoustic analogy. While most numerical studies focus on noise for an airfoil at a low angle of attack, prediction of stalled noise has been made less sufficiently. In this study, the noise of a stalled airfoil is calculated using the spanwise correction where the total noise is estimated from the sound source of the simulated span section based on the coherence of turbulent flow structure. It is studied for the airfoil at the chord-based Reynolds number of 4.8 × 105 and the Mach number of 0.2 with the angle of attack of 15.6° where the airfoil is expected to be under stall condition. An incompressible flow is resolved to simulate the sound source region, and Curle’s acoustic analogy is used to solve the sound propagation. The predicted spectrum of the sound pressure level observed at 1.2 m from the trailing edge of the airfoil is validated by comparing measurement data, and the results show that the simulation is able to capture the dominant frequency of the tonal peak. However, while the measured spectrum is more broadband, the predicted spectrum has the tonal character around the primary frequency. This difference can be considered to arise due to insufficient mesh resolution.

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  • 42.
    Aihara, Aya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Karl, Bolin
    The Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Engineering Mechanics, KTH, Sweden.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Aeroacoustic noise prediction of a vertical axis wind turbine using Large Eddy Simulation2021In: International Journal of Aeroacoustics, ISSN 1475-472X, E-ISSN 2048-4003, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 959-978Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the numerical prediction for the aerodynamic noise of the vertical axis wind turbine using large eddy simulation and the acoustic analogy. Low noise designs are required especially in residential areas, and sound level generated by the wind turbine is therefore important to estimate. In this paper, the incompressible flow field around the 12 kW straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine with the rotor diameter of 6.5 m is solved, and the sound propagation is calculated based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy. The sound pressure for the turbine operating at high tip speed ratio is predicted, and it is validated by comparing with measurement. The measured spectra of the sound pressure observed at several azimuth angles show the broadband characteristics, and the prediction is able to reproduce the shape of these spectra. While previous works studying small-scaled vertical axis wind turbines found that the thickness noise is the dominant sound source, the loading noise can be considered to be a main contribution to the total sound for this turbine. The simulation also indicates that the received noise level is higher when the blade moves in the downwind than in the upwind side.

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  • 43.
    Aihara, Aya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity. Uppsala Univ, Dept Elect Engn, Div Elect, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Mendoza, Victor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity. Hexicon, Slupskjulsvagen 30, S-11149 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    A numerical study of strut and tower influence on the performance of vertical axis wind turbines using computational fluid dynamics simulation2022In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 897-913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the influence of the strut and the tower on the aerodynamic force of the blade for the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). It has been known that struts degrade the performance of VAWTs due to the inherent drag losses. In this study, three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations have been conducted to investigate the effect of the strut and the tower on the flow pattern around the rotor region, the blade force distribution, and the rotor performance. A comparison has been made for three different cases where only the blade; both the blade and the strut; and all of the blade, the strut, and the tower are considered. A 12-kW three-bladed H-rotor VAWT has been studied for tip speed ratio of 4.16. This ratio is relatively high for this turbine, so the influence of the strut is expected to be crucial. The numerical model has been validated first for a single pitching blade and full VAWTs. The simulations show distinguished differences in the force distribution along the blade between two cases with and without struts. Since the wake from the struts interacts with the blades, the tangential force is reduced especially in the downwind side when the struts are considered. The calculated power coefficient is decreased by 43 %, which shows the importance of modeling the strut effect properly for accurate prediction of the turbine performance. The simulations also indicate that including the tower does not yield significant difference in the force distribution and the rotor power.

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  • 44.
    Aihara, Aya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Mendoza, Victor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    A numerical study of strut influence on blade forces of vertical axis wind turbine using computational fluid dynamics simulationIn: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Aihara, Aya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Mendoza, Victor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity. Hexicon AB, Ostra Jarnvagsgatan 27, S-11120 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Comparison of Three-Dimensional Numerical Methods for Modeling of Strut Effect on the Performance of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine2022In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, no 7, article id 2361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares three different numerical models to evaluate their accuracy for predicting the performance of an H-rotor vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) considering the influence of struts. The strut of VAWTs is one factor that makes the flow feature around the turbine more complex and thus influences the rotor performance. The focus of this study is placed on analyzing how accurately three different numerical approaches are able to reproduce the force distribution and the resulting power, taking the strut effect into account. For the 12 kW straight-bladed VAWT, the blade force is simulated at three tip speed ratios by the full computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, the actuator line model (ALM), and the vortex model. The results show that all the models do not indicate a significant influence of the struts in the total force over one revolution at low tip speed ratio. However, at middle and high tip speed ratio, the RANS model reproduces the significant decrease of the total tangential force that is caused due to the strut. Additionally, the RANS and vortex models present a clear influence of the struts in the force distribution along the blade at all three tip speed ratios investigated. The prediction by the ALM does not show such distinctive features of the strut impact. The RANS model is superior to the other two models for predicting the power coefficient considering the strut effect, especially at high tip speed ratio.

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  • 46. Aihara, Aya
    et al.
    Mendoza, Victor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Comparison of three-dimensional numerical methods for modeling of strut effect on aerodynamic forces of a vertical axis wind turbineIn: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Aihara, Aya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Uzunoğlu, Bahri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Florida State Univ, Dept Math, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
    Vortex induced vibration energy extraction modeling via forced versus free vibration2017In: Proceedings Of Oceans 2017 - Aberdeen, IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vortex induced vibrations (VIV) for energy extraction have been revisited in last years by both marine power and wind power communities. Even though vortex induced vibrations have been focus of research for many years, energy extraction from vortex induced vibrations is relevantly new field which needs more detailed investigation and modeling. To this end, there has been recent experimental and modeling parametric studies where VIV was modeled by solution of one-degree-of-freedom ordinary differential equation spring system where engineering modeling of vortex induced vibration for energy extraction has been investigated based on a spring system with the forces defined from forced oscillation experiments where full coupling of free oscillations were not taken into account. Herein a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of a circular cylinder will be studied to compare forced and free vibrations in the context of vortex-induced energy extraction. The model is essentially solved by partial differential isothermal incompressible Navier-Stokes equations to model fully mathematical model of the fluid-structure interaction of vortex induced vibration. The comparison between forced and free oscillation response studies of this paper will serve to improve the scientific knowledge where vortex induced vibration modeling are comparatively more limited. The preliminary results are presented herein for forced and free oscillations for the Reynolds number regimes Re = 100 and Re = 3800 in two dimensions for combinations of amplitudes and frequency of oscillations in the context of energy extraction modeling.

  • 48.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jonsson, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Drag Area, Frontal Area and Drag Coefficient in Cross-Country Skiing Techniques2018In: Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018 / [ed] Hugo Espinosa, David Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, David Thiel, MDPI, 2018, Vol. 2, article id 313Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the air drag, frontal area and coefficient of drag of cross-country skiing classical and free style techniques. One highly skilled cross-country skier performed skiing-like classical and free style techniques on a force plate in a wind tunnel. The skier was also photographed from the front in order to analyze the projected frontal area, which was determined from digital images using Matlab. From the results of the air drag and the frontal area measurements, the drag coefficient was also calculated. The results can be used by researchers to calculate the theoretical effect of air drag on cross-country skiing performance.

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  • 49.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering. SportsTech Research Centre, Mid Sweden University.
    Michel, Frank
    Vaude Sports GmbH & Co., I-Team, Tettnang, Germany.
    Klauer, Robert
    Vaude Sports GmbH & Co., I-Team, Tettnang, Germany.
    Kopyug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering. Mid Sweden University, Dept of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering. SportsTech Research Centre, Mid Sweden University.
    Samuelsson, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ahnesjö, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Litzenberger, Stefan
    Competence Center Sports Engineering, Biomechanics & Ergonomics, University of Applied Sciences Technikum, Wien, Austria.
    A Study of Skin-Close Heat and Moisture with Different Types of Backpacks in Cycling2020In: The 13th Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association / [ed] Motomu Nakashima, Takeo Maruyama and Yusuke Miyazaki, MDPI, 2020, Vol. 49, article id 86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to evaluate effects of backpacks with different design intended for use during cycling on skin-close temperature and relative humidity, oxygen uptake, heart rate and aerodynamic drag. Seven subjects took part in the study cycling on a mountain bike mounted on a “smart trainer” placed on a force plate in a wind tunnel. Three series of experiments were carried out: without backpack, with conventional backpack and with a backpack having innovative rear panel design. As hypothesized, the results showed that an innovatively designed backpack with the ducts deflecting part of the airflow towards some areas of the user’s back provided lower temperature and relative humidity for the microclimate compared to a conventional backpack without airflow channels. Further, reference tests without any backpack resulted in the lowest temperature and humidity. However, no differences were found between the three tests for oxygen uptake, heart rate and aerodynamic drag.

  • 50.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tuplin, Simon
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Render, Peter
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Design and development of a climatic wind tunnel for physiological sports experimentation2019In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 233, no 1, p. 86-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to develop a wind tunnel that enables the study of human performance during various types ofsports and physical activities by examining the influence of aerodynamic drag, precipitation, frictional forces and gravitationalforces on uphill and downhill travel on a moving substrate. An overall design for a wind tunnel and working section containinga large treadmill was drafted, followed by computational fluid dynamics simulations of flow conditions to assess thedesign’s feasibility and select from different geometries prior to its construction. The flow conditions in the completed windtunnel were validated using different flows, speeds and treadmill inclinations. Pilot experiments were carried out using across-country skier to investigate the effect of aerodynamic drag on oxygen uptake during double poling and the maximalachieved speed when rolling on a declined treadmill. The purpose was to validate the usefulness of the tunnel. The resultsshowed that flow conditions are acceptable for experiments even in worst-case scenarios with maximal inclined and declinedtreadmill. Results also showed that aerodynamic drag has a significant impact on the skier’s energy expenditure.

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