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  • 1.
    A. M. Naiini, Maziar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Horizontal Slot Waveguides for Silicon Photonics Back-End Integration2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the development of integrated silicon photonic devices. These devices are compatible with the present and near future CMOS technology. High-khorizontal grating couplers and waveguides are proposed. This work consists of simulations and device design, as well as the layout for the fabrication process, device fabrication, process development, characterization instrument development and electro-optical characterizations.

    The work demonstrates an alternative solution to costly silicon-on-insulator photonics. The proposed solution uses bulk silicon wafers and thin film deposited waveguides. Back-end deposited horizontal slot grating couplers and waveguides are realized by multi-layers of amorphous silicon and high-k materials.

    The achievements of this work include: A theoretical study of fully etched slot grating couplers with Al2O3, HfO2 and AIN, an optical study of the high-k films with spectroscopic ellipsometry, an experimental demonstration of fully etched SiO2 single slot grating couplers and double slot Al2O3 grating couplers, a practical demonstration of horizontal double slot high-k waveguides, partially etched Al2O3 single slot grating couplers, a study of a scheme for integration of the double slot Al2O3  waveguides with selectively grown germanium PIN photodetectors, realization of test chips for the integrated germanium photodetectors, and study of integration with graphene photodetectors through embedding the graphene into a high-k slot layer.

    From an application point of view, these high-k slot waveguides add more functionality to the current silicon photonics. The presented devices can be used for low cost photonics applications. Also alternative optical materials can be used in the context of this photonics platform.

    With the robust design, the grating couplers result in improved yield and a more cost effective solution is realized for integration of the waveguides with the germanium and graphene photodetectors.

     

     

     

     

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    Thesis
  • 2.
    A. Oliveira, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    S. Salles, Rafael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah K.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Deep Learning for Power Quality with Special Reference to Unsupervised Learning2023In: 27th International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2023), IEEE, 2023, p. 935-939, article id 10417Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    A. Sani, Negar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    M-PSK and M-QAM Modulation/Demodulation of UWB Signal Using Six-Port Correlator2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays high speed and high data rate communication are highly demanded. Consequently, wideband and high frequency transmitter and receivers should be designed. New transmitters and receivers should also have low power consumption, simple design and low manufacturing price in order to fulfill manufacturers’ requests for mass production. Having all above specifications, six-port correlator is a proper choice to be used as modulator and demodulator in transmitters and receivers.

    In this thesis the six-port correlator is introduced, modeled and simulated using Advanced Design System (ADS) software. A simple six-port transmitter/receiver system with a line of sight link is modeled and analyzed in BER, path length and noise terms. The modulation in this system is QAM, frequency is 7.5 GHz and symbol rate is 500 Msymbol/s.

    Furthermore two methods are proposed for high frequency and high symbol rate M-PSK and M-QAM modulation using six-port correlator. The 7.5 GHz modulators are modeled and simulated in ADS. Data streams generated by pseudo random bit generator with 1 GHz bandwidth are applied to modulators. Common source field effect transistors (FETs) with zero bias are used as controllable impedance termination to apply baseband data to modulator. Both modulators show good performance in M-PSK and M-QAM modulation.

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  • 4.
    Aamir, Muhammad Haseeb
    et al.
    Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie, GeoRessources, University of Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Gonçalves, Pedro Pereira
    Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Peñalolén, Santiago, Chile.
    Otsuki, Akira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie, GeoRessources, University of Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Peñalolén, Santiago, Chile; Neutron Beam Technology Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan.
    Complementary results of non-destructive elemental assay and liberation analysis of waste printed circuit boards2024In: Non-Destructive Material Characterization Methods / [ed] Otsuki, Akira; Jose, Seiko; Mohan, Manasa; Thomas, Sabu, Elsevier , 2024, p. 767-782Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Aamir, Syed Ahmed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wikner, J Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 1.2-V pseudo-differential OTA with common-mode feedforward in 65-nm CMOS2010In: Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits, and Systems, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2010, p. 29-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we describe the implementation of a 1. 2-V pseudo-differential operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) with common-mode feedforward (CMFF) and inher­ent common-mode feedback (CMFB) in a 65-nm, digital CMOS process. The OTA architecture provides an inher­ent CMFB when cascaded OTA structures are utilized andthis work has studied a cascaded amplifier consisting of fourstages. Due to the low-gain using core 65-nm circuit de­vices, the overall gain must be distributed on all four stages to acquire a gain of more than 60 dB, while maintaining a-3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz. To achieve high gain, we propose using a modified, positive-feedback, cross-coupled input differential stage. The modified OTA achieves a high output swing of ± 0.85 V due to only two stacked transistors, 88 dB DC gain and a third-order harmonic of -60 dB for 800 mVpp at 30 MHz. Further on, in a capacitive buffer configuration, we achieve a high slew rate of 1240 V/µS, -3-dB bandwidth of 509 MHz, signal-to-noise ratio of 63 dB while consuming 10.4 mW power.

  • 6.
    Aamir, Syed Ahmed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wikner, J Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 500-MHz low-voltage programmable gain amplifier for HD video in 65-nm CMOS2010In: Proceedings of 28th IEEE Norchip Conference., NORCHIP'10, Tampere: www.ieee.org , 2010, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes the implementation of a 1.2-V programmable gain amplifier (PGA) for high-definition (HD) video digitizers in a 65-nm digital CMOS process. The “pseudo” switched-capacitor (SC) PGA architecture buffers the video signal, without switching, during the active video. The SC circuitry is used for setup of DC operating point during horizontal and vertical blanking periods. Additionally, it compensates for the `sync-tip' of analog video signals to an equal blanking level for increased dynamic range to the digitizer following the PGA. The operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) employed as main amplifier in the PGA is a pseudo-differential, positive-feedback input stage architecture with a common-mode feedforward (CMFF) technique. The common-mode feedback (CMFB) is provided once two OTAs are cascaded. Schematic-level simulation results show that the OTA maintains a -3-dB bandwidth of 550 MHz, while keeping the distortion HD3 at -60 dB for a 30-MHz, 850 mVpp high definition video signal. The 88 dB DC gain is distributed among four OTA stages and the overall, combined PGA achieves a signal-to-noise ratio of 63 dB. Due to only two stacked transistors, it achieves high output swing of ±0.85 V, 1240 V/μs slew rate while consuming 10.4 mW power.

  • 7.
    Aasa, Amanda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems.
    Svennblad, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems.
    Design of an Automated Test Setup for Power-Controlled Nerve Stimulator Using NFC for Implantable Sensors2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical stimulation on nerves is a relatively new area of research and has been proved to speed up recoveryfrom nerve damage. In this work, the efficiency and stability of antennas integrated on printed circuit boards provided by the department of electrical engineering are examined. An automated test bench containing a stepmotor with a slider and an Arduino is created. Different setups were used when measuring on the boards, which resulted in that the largest antenna gave the most stable output despite the distance between transmitterand receiver. The conclusion was that the second best antenna and the smallest one would be suitable as well,and the better choice if it is to be implemented under the skin. A physical setup consisting of LEDs, an Arduino, a computer, and a function generator was created to examinethe voltage control functionality, where colored LEDs were lit depending on the voltage level. The functionality was then implemented in a circuit that in the future shall be integrated on the printed circuit board. To control high voltages a limiter circuit was examined and implemented. The circuit was simulated and tested, with a realization that a feature covering voltage enlargement is needed for the future. 

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  • 8. Abasahl, B.
    et al.
    Zand, I.
    Lerma Arce, C.
    Kumar, S.
    Quack, N.
    Jezzini, M. A.
    Hwang, H. Y.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Porcel, M. A. G.
    Bogaerts, W.
    Towards Low-Power Reconfigurable Photonic ICs Based on MEMS Technology2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the progress and industrialization of photonic integrated circuits (PIC) in the past few decades, there is a strong urge towards design and prototyping in a fast, low-cost and reliable manner. In electronics, this demand is met through field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). In the Horizon 2020 MORPHIC (MEMS-based zerO-power Reconfigurable Photonic ICs) project, we are developing a reconfigurable PIC platform to address this demand in the field of photonics and to facilitate the path from idea towards realization for PIC designers and manufacturers.

  • 9.
    Abbaraju, Nanda
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Sending and Receiving Data between Mobile and Data Logger2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Abbas, Khizra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Autonomous Gate Drivers Tailored for Triangular Current Mode-Based Zero-Voltage Switching Two-Level Three-Phase Inverters for Electric Vehicle Drive Systems2024In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 17, no 5, article id 1060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for highly efficient and dynamic electric vehicles (EVs) has increased dramatically. The traction inverter, a pivotal component in an EV powertrain, plays a crucial role. This study is dedicated to designing a traction inverter with focus on achieving high efficiency and elevated power density and mitigating electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues. To realize these objectives, autonomous gate drivers (AGDs) are proposed and designed using LTspice simulation software. The aim is to achieve zero voltage switching (ZVS) at both turn-on and turn-off through the utilization of triangular current mode (TCM) control on the gate driver. The AGDs implement a current modulation scheme by sensing the current and voltage and generating gate-source voltage signals with minimal delays. The implemented current modulation scheme by the AGDs results in an efficiency exceeding 99% for a 10 kW power rating. The sinusoidal output waveforms not only contribute to extending the motor lifespan by mitigating sharp-edge voltages but also bring advantages such as reduced switch stress, decreased EMI, and simplified thermal management.

  • 11.
    Abbas, Khizra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Kostov, Konstantin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Department Smart Hardware, Kista, Sweden.
    Autonomously Modulating Gate Drivers For Triangular-Current Mode (TCM) Zero-Voltage Switching (ZVS) Buck Converter2023In: Proceedings of 22nd International Symposium on Power Electronics, Ee 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a novel approach to designing autonomous gate drivers for soft-switched buck converters. The objective is to reduce switching losses, enhance converter efficiency, and reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI). The uniqueness of this converter is that the pulse-width modulation is performed autonomously on the gate driver. The gate driver makes quick decisions on switching times, capitalizing on the minimal time delay between measurements and switching. In the proposed buck converter configuration, the gate driver senses both the current and voltage across the switches to avoid delay. When a slightly negative voltage is detected across the switch, it rapidly turns on, resulting in a zero-voltage switching (ZVS). With an external snubber capacitor placed across the switches, the turn-off switching losses are zero (ZVS). Hence, both the turn-on and turn-off of the switch are soft. To enable the switch to turn off, a reference value of the switch current needs to be sent out to the gate driver using a galvanically isolated current sensor. Through this approach, the efficiency of the 7 kW buck converter has been calculated to exceed 99% without including the filter losses. Additional benefits include reduced switch stresses, diminished electromagnetic interference (EMI), and simplified thermal management.

  • 12.
    Abbas, Khizra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Kostov, Konstantin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Department Smart Hardware, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comprehensive Insight into the Operational Dynamics of TCM-Based Zero-Voltage Switching (ZVS) Two-Level Three-Phase Inverters for Electric Vehicle (EV) Motor-Drive Applications2024In: 2024 IEEE Texas Power and Energy Conference, TPEC 2024, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a novel triangular-current mode (TCM), zero-voltage switching (ZVS) two-level three-phase inverter, specifically designed to enhance the performance of the electric vehicle (EV) drive system. The primary objective is to enhance the inverter efficiency by minimizing turn-on and turn-off switching losses while mitigating electromagnetic interference (EMI) by generating sinusoidal output waveforms. The distinctive feature of this inverter lies in its gate driver, which executes the current modulation scheme. Achieving ZVS during turn-on involves the gate driver sensing the switch voltage and turning it on at zero voltage, utilizing TCM. For turn-off ZVS, the gate driver monitors the switch current, turning it off when it exceeds a predefined reference value. With a carefully placed snubber capacitor, turn-off ZVS is achieved. The implemented current modulation scheme yields an efficiency exceeding 99% for a 10 kW power rating. The sinusoidal output waveforms not only enhance motor lifespan by safeguarding against sharp-edge voltages but also offer benefits like reduced switch stress and simplified thermal management.

  • 13.
    Abbasi, Mahdi
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Characterization of a 5GHz Modular Radio Frontend for WLAN Based on IEEE 802.11p2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of vehicles has increased significantly in recent years, which causeshigh density in traffic and further problems like accidents and road congestions.A solution regarding to this problem is vehicle-to-vehicle communication, wherevehicles are able to communicate with their neighboring vehicles even in the absenceof a central base station, to provide safer and more efficient roads and toincrease passenger safety.The goal of this thesis is to investigate basic physical layer parameters of ainter-vehicle communication system, like emission power, spectral emission, errorvector magnitude, guard interval, ramp-up/down time, and third order interceptpoint. I also studied the intelligent transportation system’s channel layout inEurope, how the interference of other systems are working in co-channel and adjacentchannels, and some proposals to use the allocated frequency bands. On theother hand, the fundamentals of OFDM transmission and definitions of OFDMkey parameters in IEEE 802.11p are investigated.The focus of this work is on the measurement of transmitter frontend parametersof a new testbed designed and fabricated in order to be used at inter-vehiclecommunication based on IEEE 802.11p.

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  • 14.
    ABBASI, MUHAMMAD MOHSIN
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Solving Sudoku by Sparse Signal Processing2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sudoku is a discrete constraints satisfaction problem which is modeled as an underdetermined linear

    system. This report focuses on applying some new signal processing approaches to solve sudoku and

    comparisons to some of the existing approaches are implemented. As our goal is not meant for

    sudoku only in the long term, we applied approximate solvers using optimization theory methods. A

    Semi Definite Relaxation (SDR) convex optimization approach was developed for solving sudoku. The

    idea of Iterative Adaptive Algorithm for Amplitude and Phase Estimation (IAA-APES) from array

    processing is also being used for sudoku to utilize the sparsity of the sudoku solution as is the case in

    sensing applications. LIKES and SPICE were also tested on sudoku and their results are compared with

    l1-norm minimization, weighted l1-norm, and sinkhorn balancing. SPICE and l1-norm are equivalent

    in terms of accuracy, while SPICE is slower than l1-norm. LIKES and weighted l1-norm are equivalent

    and better than SPICE and l1-norm in accuracy. SDR proved to be best when the sudoku solutions are

    unique; however the computational complexity is worst for SDR. The accuracy for IAA-APES is

    somewhere between SPICE and LIKES and its computation speed is faster than both.

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  • 15.
    Abbasi, Muneeb Mehmood
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jabbar, Mohammad Abdul
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design and Performance Analysis of Low-Noise Amplifier with Band-Pass Filter for 2.4-2.5 GHz2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Low power wireless electronics is becoming more popular due to durability, portability and small dimension. Especially, electronic devices in instruments, scientific and medical (ISM) band is convenient from the spectrum regulations and technology availability point of view. In the communication engineering society, to make a robust transceiver is always a matter of challenges for the better performance.

    However, in this thesis work, a new approach of design and performance analysis of Low-Noise Amplifier with Band-Pass filter is performed at 2.45 GHz under the communication electronics research group of Institute of Science and Technology (ITN). Band-Pass Filtered Low-Noise Amplifier is designed with lumped components and transmission lines. Performances of different designs are compared with respect to noise figure, gain, input and output reflection coefficient. In the design process, a single stage LNA is designed with amplifier, ATF-58143. Maximally flat band-pass (BPF) filters were designed with lumped components and distributed elements. Afterwards, BPF is integrated with the LNA at the front side of LNA to get a compact Band-Pass Filtered Low-Noise Amplifier with good performance.

    Advanced Design System (ADS) tool was used for design and simulation, and each design was tuned to get the optimum value for noise figure, gain and input reflection coefficient. LNA stand-alone gives acceptable value of noise figure and gain but the bandwidth was too wide compared to specification. Band-Pass Filtered Low-Noise Amplifier with lumped components gives also considerable values of noise and gain. But the gain was not so flat and the bandwidth was also wide. Then, Band-Pass Filtered Low-Noise Amplifier was designed with transmission lines where the optimum value of noise figure and gain was found. The gain was almost flat over the whole band, i.e., 2.4-2.5 GHz compared to LNA stand-alone and Band-Pass Filtered Low-Noise Amplifier designed with lumped components. It is observed that deviations of results from schematic to layout level are considerable, i.e., electromagnetic simulation is needed to predict the Band-Pass Filtered Low-Noise Amplifier performance.

    Prototype of LNA, Band-Pass Filtered Low-Noise Amplifier with lumped and transmission lines are made at ITN’s PCB laboratory. Due to unavailability of exact values of Murata components and for some other technical reasons, the measured values of Band-Pass Filtered Low-Noise Amplifier with lumped components and transmission lines are deviated compared to predicted values from simulation.

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  • 16.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Inam, Rafia
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Survey on Testing for Cyber Physical System2015In: Testing Software and Systems: 27th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, ICTSS 2015, Sharjah and Dubai, United Arab Emirates, November 23-25, 2015, Proceedings, 2015, p. 194-207Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) bridge the cyber-world of computing and communications with the physical world and require development of secure and reliable software. It asserts a big challenge not only on testing and verifying the correctness of all physical and cyber components of such big systems, but also on integration of these components. This paper develops a categorization of multiple levels of testing required to test CPS and makes a comparison of these levels with the levels of software testing based on the V-model. It presents a detailed state-of-the-art survey on the testing approaches performed on the CPS. Further, it provides challenges in CPS testing.

  • 17.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fallah, Ali
    Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    GholamHosseini, Hamid
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    A Novel Approach for Removing ECG Interferences from Surface EMG signals Using a Combined ANFIS and Wavelet2016In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 26, p. 52-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the removal of electrocardiogram (ECG) interferences from electromyogram (EMG) signals has been given large consideration. Where the quality of EMG signal is of interest, it is important to remove ECG interferences from EMG signals. In this paper, an efficient method based on a combination of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and wavelet transform is proposed to effectively eliminate ECG interferences from surface EMG signals. The proposed approach is compared with other common methods such as high-pass filter, artificial neural network, adaptive noise canceller, wavelet transform, subtraction method and ANFIS. It is found that the performance of the proposed ANFIS-wavelet method is superior to the other methods with the signal to noise ratio and relative error of 14.97 dB and 0.02 respectively and a significantly higher correlation coefficient (p < 0.05).

  • 18.
    Abboud, Mohamad Moulham
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Simulation of 3ph induction motor in Matlab with Direct and Soft starting methods.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Asynchronous machines are considered nowadays the most commonly used electrical machines, which are mainly used as electrical induction motors. Starting the induction motor is the most important and dangerous step. The theory behind this project is based on representing the real motor by a set of equations and values in Matlab using the subsystem feature, forming a corresponding idealistic motor in a way where all the physical effects are similar. The motor is started under different loads in two methods: Direct and Soft starting. Each method is studied and discussed using supporting simulation of currents, torque, speed, efficiency and power factor curves.

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  • 19.
    Abboud, Mohamad Moulham
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Simulation of 3ph induction motor in Matlab with VVVF starting method2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, three-phase induction motors are widely used on industrial and other types of processes. Therefore, accurate knowledge of an induction motor performance is very essential to have an idea of its operation conditions. This study is a sequel of a previous one, where Direct and Soft starting methods of three-phase motors has been simulated and compared. As in the previous study, the theory behind this one is based on representing the real motor by aset of equations and values in Matlab, forming a corresponding idealistic motor in a way where all the physical effects are similar. The motor is started under three different frequencies in the VVVF method using supporting simulation of the current, torque, speed,efficiency and power factor curves. The results of the three starting methods are then discussed and compared.

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  • 20. Abd Elghany, M. A.
    et al.
    El-Moursy, M. A.
    Korzec, D.
    Ismail, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits. Ohio State University, United States .
    High throughput architecture for OCTAGON network on chip2009In: 2009 16th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems, ICECS 2009, IEEE , 2009, p. 101-104Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High Throughput Octagon architecture to achieve high performance Networks on Chip (NoC) is proposed. The architecture increase. The throughput oy the network by 17% while preservin. The average latency. The area of High Throughput OCTAGON switch is decreased by 18% as compared to OCTAGON switch. The total metal resources required to implement High Throughput OCTAGON design is increased by 8% as compared to the total metal resources required to implement OCTAGON design. The extra power consumption required to achiev. The proposed architecture is 2% oy the total power consumption oy the OCTAGON architecture.

  • 21.
    Abdalmoaty, Mohamed
    KTH, Reglerteknik.
    Learning Stochastic Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Using Non-stationary Linear Predictors2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation problem of stochastic nonlinear parametric models is recognized to be very challenging due to the intractability of the likelihood function. Recently, several methods have been developed to approximate the maximum likelihood estimator and the optimal mean-square error predictor using Monte Carlo methods. Albeit asymptotically optimal, these methods come with several computational challenges and fundamental limitations.

    The contributions of this thesis can be divided into two main parts. In the first part, approximate solutions to the maximum likelihood problem are explored. Both analytical and numerical approaches, based on the expectation-maximization algorithm and the quasi-Newton algorithm, are considered. While analytic approximations are difficult to analyze, asymptotic guarantees can be established for methods based on Monte Carlo approximations. Yet, Monte Carlo methods come with their own computational difficulties; sampling in high-dimensional spaces requires an efficient proposal distribution to reduce the number of required samples to a reasonable value.

    In the second part, relatively simple prediction error method estimators are proposed. They are based on non-stationary one-step ahead predictors which are linear in the observed outputs, but are nonlinear in the (assumed known) input. These predictors rely only on the first two moments of the model and the computation of the likelihood function is not required. Consequently, the resulting estimators are defined via analytically tractable objective functions in several relevant cases. It is shown that, under mild assumptions, the estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal. In cases where the first two moments are analytically intractable due to the complexity of the model, it is possible to resort to vanilla Monte Carlo approximations. Several numerical examples demonstrate a good performance of the suggested estimators in several cases that are usually considered challenging.

  • 22.
    Abdalmoaty, Mohamed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Learning Stochastic Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Using Non-stationary Linear Predictors2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation problem of stochastic nonlinear parametric models is recognized to be very challenging due to the intractability of the likelihood function. Recently, several methods have been developed to approximate the maximum likelihood estimator and the optimal mean-square error predictor using Monte Carlo methods. Albeit asymptotically optimal, these methods come with several computational challenges and fundamental limitations.

    The contributions of this thesis can be divided into two main parts. In the first part, approximate solutions to the maximum likelihood problem are explored. Both analytical and numerical approaches, based on the expectation-maximization algorithm and the quasi-Newton algorithm, are considered. While analytic approximations are difficult to analyze, asymptotic guarantees can be established for methods based on Monte Carlo approximations. Yet, Monte Carlo methods come with their own computational difficulties; sampling in high-dimensional spaces requires an efficient proposal distribution to reduce the number of required samples to a reasonable value.

    In the second part, relatively simple prediction error method estimators are proposed. They are based on non-stationary one-step ahead predictors which are linear in the observed outputs, but are nonlinear in the (assumed known) input. These predictors rely only on the first two moments of the model and the computation of the likelihood function is not required. Consequently, the resulting estimators are defined via analytically tractable objective functions in several relevant cases. It is shown that, under mild assumptions, the estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal. In cases where the first two moments are analytically intractable due to the complexity of the model, it is possible to resort to vanilla Monte Carlo approximations. Several numerical examples demonstrate a good performance of the suggested estimators in several cases that are usually considered challenging.

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  • 23.
    Abdel-Hafiez, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Condensed Matter Physics of Energy Materials. Univ Sharjah, Res Inst Sci & Engn, Ctr Adv Mat Res, Sharjah, U Arab Emirates.;Univ Sharjah, Dept Appl Phys & Astron, Sharjah, U Arab Emirates..
    Shi, Li Fen
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing Natl Lab Condensed Matter Phys, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Phys Sci, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China..
    Cheng, Jinguang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing Natl Lab Condensed Matter Phys, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Phys Sci, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China..
    Gorlova, Irina G.
    RAS, Kotelnikov Inst Radioengn & Elect, Moscow 125009, Russia..
    Zybtsev, Sergey G.
    RAS, Kotelnikov Inst Radioengn & Elect, Moscow 125009, Russia..
    Pokrovskii, Vadim Ya.
    RAS, Kotelnikov Inst Radioengn & Elect, Moscow 125009, Russia..
    Ao, Lingyi
    Nanjing Univ, Coll Engn & Appl Sci, Natl Lab Solid State Microstruct, Nanjing 210000, Peoples R China.;Nanjing Univ, Jiangsu Key Lab Artificial Funct Mat, Nanjing 210000, Peoples R China..
    Huang, Junwei
    Nanjing Univ, Coll Engn & Appl Sci, Natl Lab Solid State Microstruct, Nanjing 210000, Peoples R China.;Nanjing Univ, Jiangsu Key Lab Artificial Funct Mat, Nanjing 210000, Peoples R China..
    Yuan, Hongtao
    Nanjing Univ, Coll Engn & Appl Sci, Natl Lab Solid State Microstruct, Nanjing 210000, Peoples R China.;Nanjing Univ, Jiangsu Key Lab Artificial Funct Mat, Nanjing 210000, Peoples R China..
    Titov, Alexsandr N.
    Russian Acad Sci, MN Miheev Inst Met Phys, Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg 620990, Russia..
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Uppsala Univ, WISE Wallenberg Initiat Mat Sci, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ong, Chin Shen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    From Insulator to Superconductor: A Series of Pressure-Driven Transitions in Quasi-One-Dimensional TiS3 Nanoribbons2024In: Nano Letters, ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 24, no 18, p. 5562-5569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition metal trichalcogenides (TMTCs) offer remarkable opportunities for tuning electronic states through modifications in chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. Despite considerable interest in TMTCs, there remain significant knowledge gaps concerning the evolution of their electronic properties under compression. In this study, we employ experimental and theoretical approaches to comprehensively explore the high-pressure behavior of the electronic properties of TiS3, a quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) semiconductor, across various temperature ranges. Through high-pressure electrical resistance and magnetic measurements at elevated pressures, we uncover a distinctive sequence of phase transitions within TiS3, encompassing a transformation from an insulating state at ambient pressure to the emergence of an incipient superconducting state above 70 GPa. Our findings provide compelling evidence that superconductivity at low temperatures of ∼2.9 K is a fundamental characteristic of TiS3, shedding new light on the intriguing high-pressure electronic properties of TiS3 and underscoring the broader implications of our discoveries for TMTCs in general.

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  • 24. Abdelhakim, A.
    et al.
    Blaabjerg, F.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Single-Stage Boost Modular Multilevel Converter (BMMC) for Energy Storage Interface2020In: 2020 22nd European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE 2020 ECCE Europe, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2020, article id 9215788Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-stage DC-AC power converters are gaining higher attention due to their simpler structure compared to the two-stage equivalent solution. In this paper, a single-stage DC-AC converter solution is proposed for interfacing a low voltage (LV) DC source with a higher voltage AC load or grid, where this converter has a modular structure with multilevel operation. The proposed converter, which is called boost modular multilevel converter (BMMC), comprises the boosting capability within the inversion operation, and it is mainly dedicated for interfacing LV energy storage systems, such as fuel cells and batteries, and it allows the use of LV MOSFETs (« 300 V), in order to utilize their low ON-state resistance, along with LV electrolytic capacitors. This converter is introduced and analysed in this paper, where simulation results using PLECS, considering a 10 kW three-phase BMMC, are presented in order to verify its functionality.

  • 25.
    Abdi Kelishami, Alireza
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Secure Privacy-Friendly Instant Messaging (IM) for Guidepal2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is fascinating, and yet often neglected, that a user’s privacy can be invaded notonly by the absence of security measures and mechanisms, but also by improperor inadequate usage of security services and mechanisms. When designingsecure systems, we must consider what services are needed and what is not.The work in this thesis revolves around privacy-friendly instant messaging (IM)systems. In such a system, an inadequate usage of security measures leads tohaving IM servers being able to intercept or gather users’ private conversations.An improper usage of security measures could bring about non-repudiationwhich is desirable when signing contracts, but unwelcome in IM and privateconversations.We will look into requirements of the desired IM system, study the currentstate-of-the-art solutions, deploy an IM server, and briefly extend an existingmodern privacy-friendly IM protocol and an open source mobile application tomeet our security and privacy requirements. This extended IM application iscalled Guidepal-IM and is available as open source1The thesis work is introduced and carried out at Guidepal, a startup companyin Stockholm. It is therefore supervised partly at Guidepal and partly at KTH.Since Guidepal is also looking into possibilities of integrating an IM featureto its current social media apps, our contribution would also briefly extend tostudying the limitations and recommendations for Guidepal’s social media appto help user privacy preservation.

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  • 26.
    Abdollahi Sani, Negar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Xin
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    INNVENTIA AB, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dyreklev, Peter
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Flexible Lamination-Fabricated Ultra-High Frequency Diodes Based on Self-Supporting Semiconducting Composite Film of Silicon Micro-Particles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, no 28921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low cost and flexible devices such as wearable electronics, e-labels and distributed sensors will make the future "internet of things" viable. To power and communicate with such systems, high frequency rectifiers are crucial components. We present a simple method to manufacture flexible diodes, operating at GHz frequencies, based on self-adhesive composite films of silicon micro-particles (Si-mu Ps) and glycerol dispersed in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC, Si-mu Ps and glycerol are mixed in a water suspension, forming a self-supporting nanocellulose-silicon composite film after drying. This film is cut and laminated between a flexible pre-patterned Al bottom electrode and a conductive Ni-coated carbon tape top contact. A Schottky junction is established between the Al electrode and the Si-mu Ps. The resulting flexible diodes show current levels on the order of mA for an area of 2 mm(2), a current rectification ratio up to 4 x 10(3) between 1 and 2 V bias and a cut-off frequency of 1.8 GHz. Energy harvesting experiments have been demonstrated using resistors as the load at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz. The diode stack can be delaminated away from the Al electrode and then later on be transferred and reconfigured to another substrate. This provides us with reconfigurable GHz-operating diode circuits.

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  • 27.
    Abdul Nazar, Mohamed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Design of a Gysel Combiner at 100 MHz2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis relates to the design and implementation of a Gysel power combiner consisting of two input ports. The design is implemented using discrete (lumped) components over the conventional transmission line architecture and operates at 100 MHz. Because of the high power requirements for the power combiner, special attention is given to the power handling capabilities of the lumped elements and the other components involved. Simulations of an S-parameter of Gysel power combiner are performed using the Advanced Design System (ADS) from Keysight Technologies. The final design of two-way Gysel power combiner using PCB toroidal inductor was implemented, simulated and optimized at centre frequency of 100 MHz. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of Insertion loss, Return loss and Port Isolation.

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    Design of a Gysel Combiner at 100 MHz
  • 28.
    Abdulhadi, Sami
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    ARM i inbyggt system: med prototyp2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems has become more and more common in today's society. The embedded systems are included in almost everything today, from various vehicles to children's toys.

    Today's technology means that yesterday's solutions can be realised on a fraction of the area. More and more become surface mounted with smaller and more complex circuits. This is not always an advantage for the developers when assembling and soldering prototype circuit boards become a more difficult and/or an expensive process.

    The goal is to create an embedded system with an ARM-processor. The system will consist of USB-OTG, ethernet, various memory like FRAM and microSD and a display with touchscreen for user interface. The project includes everything from choice of components to test and verification with program code.

    The time was too short to include all the parts that was planned. The result of the project was a prototype card and two small program sequences, one that blinks the two light diodes on the card and one that writes a picture on the display.

    This embedded system is intended for evaluating ARM-processors by Mikrododakt AB.

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    ARM i inbyggt system - med prototyp
  • 29.
    Abedan Kondori, Farid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    Ostovar, Ahmad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Liu, Li
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    A Direct Method for 3D Hand Pose Recovery2014In: 22nd International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2014, p. 345-350Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach for performing intuitive 3D gesture-based interaction using depth data acquired by Kinect. Unlike current depth-based systems that focus only on classical gesture recognition problem, we also consider 3D gesture pose estimation for creating immersive gestural interaction. In this paper, we formulate gesture-based interaction system as a combination of two separate problems, gesture recognition and gesture pose estimation. We focus on the second problem and propose a direct method for recovering hand motion parameters. Based on the range images, a new version of optical flow constraint equation is derived, which can be utilized to directly estimate 3D hand motion without any need of imposing other constraints. Our experiments illustrate that the proposed approach performs properly in real-time with high accuracy. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the system performance in 3D object manipulation. This application is intended to explore the system capabilities in real-time biomedical applications. Eventually, system usability test is conducted to evaluate the learnability, user experience and interaction quality in 3D interaction in comparison to 2D touch-screen interaction.

  • 30.
    Abedi, Amin
    et al.
    UNIGE, Inst Environm Sci, Geneva, Switzerland.;UNIGE, Comp Sci Dept, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Hesamzadeh, Mohammad Reza
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Romerio, Franco
    UNIGE, Inst Environm Sci, Geneva, Switzerland.;UNIGE, Geneva Sch Econ & Management, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Adaptive robust vulnerability analysis of power systems under uncertainty: A multilevel OPF-based optimization approach2022In: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, ISSN 0142-0615, E-ISSN 1879-3517, Vol. 134, article id 107432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing level of uncertainties in today's power systems, the vulnerability analysis of a power system with uncertain parameters becomes a must. This paper proposes a two-stage adaptive robust optimization (ARO) model for the vulnerability analysis of power systems. The main goal is to immunize the solutions against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertainty. In doing so, the uncertainties are defined by some predetermined intervals defined around the expected values of uncertain parameters. In our model, there are a set of first-stage decisions made before the uncertainty is revealed (attacker decision) and a set of second-stage decisions made after the realization of uncertainties (defender decision). This setup is formulated as a mixedinteger trilevel nonlinear program (MITNLP). Then, we recast the proposed trilevel program to a single-level mixed-integer linear program (MILP), applying the strong duality theorem (SDT) and appropriate linearization approaches. The efficient off-the-shelf solvers can guarantee the global optimum of our final MILP model. We also prove a lemma which makes our model much easier to solve. The results carried out on the IEEE RTS and modified Iran's power system show the performance of our model to assess the power system vulnerability under uncertainty.

  • 31.
    Abedi, Amin
    et al.
    Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Hesamzadeh, Mohammad Reza
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Romerio, Franco
    Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    An ACOPF-based bilevel optimization approach for vulnerability assessment of a power system2021In: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, ISSN 0142-0615, E-ISSN 1879-3517, Vol. 125, article id 106455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effects of reactive power dispatch, losses, and voltage profile on the results of the interdiction model to analyze the vulnerability of the power system. First, an attacker-defender Stackelberg game is introduced. The introduced game is modeled as a bilevel optimization problem where the attacker is modeled in the upper level and the defender is modeled in the lower level. The AC optimal power flow (ACOPF) is proposed as the defender's tool in the lower-level problem to mitigate the attack consequences. Our proposed ACOPF-based mathematical framework is inherently a mixed-integer bilevel nonlinear program (MIBNLP) that is NP-hard and computationally challenging. This paper linearizes and then transforms it into a one-level mixed-integer linear program (MILP) using the duality theory and some proposed linearization techniques. The proposed MILP model can be solved to the global optimum using state-of-the-art solvers such as Cplex. Numerical results on two IEEE systems and Iran's 400-kV transmission network demonstrate the performance of the proposed MILP for vulnerability assessment. We have also compared our MILP model with the DCOPF-based approach proposed in the relevant literature. The comparative results show that the reported damage measured in terms of load shedding for the DCOPF-based approach is always lower than or equal to that for the ACOPF-based approach and these models report a different set of critical lines, especially in more stressed and larger power systems. Also, the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed MILP model for power-system vulnerability analysis are discussed and highlighted. 

  • 32.
    Abedin, Ahmad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems.
    Germanium layer transfer and device fabrication for monolithic 3D integration2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Monolithic three-dimensional (M3D) integration, it has been proposed,can overcome the limitations of further circuits’ performance improvementand functionality expansion. The emergence of the internet of things (IoT) isdriving the semiconductor industry toward the fabrication of higher-performancecircuits with diverse functionality. On the one hand, the scaling of devices isreaching critical dimensions, which makes their further downscaling techno-logically difficult and economically challenging, whereas, on the other hand,the field of electronics is no longer limited only to developing circuits thatare meant for data processing. Sensors, processors, actuators, memories, andeven power storage units need to be efficiently integrated into a single chip tomake IoT work. M3D integration through stacking different layers of deviceson each other can potentially improve circuits’ performance by shorteningthe wiring length and reducing the interconnect delay. Using multiple tiersfor device fabrication makes it possible to integrate different materials withsuperior physical properties. It offers the advantage of fabricating higher-performance devices with multiple functionalities on a single chip. However,high-quality layer transfer and processing temperature budget are the majorchallenges in M3D integration. This thesis involves an in-depth explorationof the application of germanium (Ge) in monolithic 3D integration.Ge has been recognized as one of the most promising materials that canreplace silicon (Si) as the channel material for p-type field-effect transistors(pFETs) because of its high hole mobility. Ge pFETs can be fabricated atsubstantially lower temperatures compared to Si devices which makes theformer a good candidate for M3D integration. However, the fabrication ofhigh-quality Ge-on-insulator (GOI) layers with superior thickness homogene-ity, low residual doping, and a sufficiently good interface with buried oxide(BOX) has been challenging.This thesis used low-temperature wafer bonding and etch-back techniquesto fabricate the GOI substrate for M3D applications. For this purpose, aunique stack of epitaxial layers was designed and fabricated. The layer stackcontains a Ge strain relaxed buffer (SRB) layer, a SiGe layer to be used asan etch stop, and a top Ge layer to be transferred to the handling wafer.The wafers were bonded at room temperature, and the sacrificial wafer wasremoved through multiple etching steps leaving 20 nm Ge on the insulatorwith excellent thickness homogeneity over the wafer. Ge pFET devices werefabricated on the GOI substrates and electrically characterized to evaluatethe layer quality. Finally, the epitaxial growth of the highly doped SiGeand sub-nm Si cap layers have been investigated as alternatives for improvedperformance Ge pFETs.The Ge buffer layer was developed through the two-step deposition tech-nique resulting in defect density of107cm−3and surface roughness of 0.5 nm.The fully strainedSi0.5Ge0.5film with high crystal quality was epitaxiallygrown at temperatures below 450°C. The layer was sandwiched between theGe buffer and the top 20 nm Ge layer to be used as an etch-stop in the etch- back process. A highly selective etching method was developed to remove the3μm Ge buffer and 10nm SiGe film without damaging the 20 nm transferringGe layer.The Ge pFETs were fabricated at temperatures below 600°C so that theycould be compatible with the M3D integration. The back interface of thedevices depleted atVBG= 0V, which confirmed the small density of fixedcharges at the Ge/BOX interface along with a low level of residual doping inthe Ge channel. The Ge pFETs with 70 % yield over the whole wafer showed60 % higher carrier mobility than Si reference devices.Low-temperature epitaxial growth of Si passivation layer on Ge was de-veloped in this thesis. For electrical evaluation of the passivation layer,metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors were fabricated and character-ized. The capacitors showed an interface trap density of3×1011eV−1cm−2,and hysteresis as low as 3 mV at Eox of 4MV/cm corresponding to oxide trapdensity of1.5×1010cm−2. The results indicate that this Si passivation layersubstantially improves the gate dielectric by reducing the subthreshold slopeof Ge devices while increasing their reliability. The in-situ doped SiGe layerwith a dopant concentration of2.5×1019cm−3and resistivity of 3.5 mΩcmwas selectively grown on Ge to improve the junction formation.The methods developed in this thesis are suitable for large-scale M3Dintegration of Ge pFET devices on the Si platform. The unique Ge layertransfer and etch-back techniques resulted in the fabrication of GOI substrateswith high thickness homogeneity, low residual doping, and sufficiently goodGe/BOX interface. The process temperatures for Ge transfer and pFETsfabrication are kept within the range of the M3D budget. Integration of theSi cap for gate dielectric formation and SiGe layers in the source/drain regionmay increase device performance and reliability

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  • 33.
    Abedin, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Zurauskaite, Laura
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Asadollahi, Ali
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems, Integrated devices and circuits. KTH.
    GOI fabrication for Monolithic 3D integrationIn: Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Abewardhana, Ruwan
    et al.
    Univ Colombo, Dept Phys, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Abegunawardana, Sidath
    Univ Colombo, Dept Phys, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Fernando, Mahendra
    Univ Colombo, Dept Phys, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Sonnadara, Upul
    Univ Colombo, Dept Phys, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Lightning Localization Based on VHF Broadband Interferometer Developed in Sri Lanka2018In: 2018 34th international conference on lightning protection (ICLP 2018), New York: IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A basic broadband digital interferometer was developed, which is capable of locating Very High Frequency (VHF) radiation sources in two spatial dimensions and time. Three antennas sensed the time series of broadband electromagnetic (EM) signals and digitized with 4 ns sampling interval for a duration of several milliseconds. A technique based on cross-correlations has been implemented for mapping lightning source locations. A map of the first return stroke (RS) and the preceding stepped leader was mapped successfully, using the system with a time resolution of few milliseconds. The result was compared with the visible events of the ground flash to validate the system.

  • 35.
    Abeywickrama, K. G. Nilanga B.
    et al.
    Chalmers, Div High Voltage Engn, Dept Mfg & Mat Technol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Daszczynski, Tadeusz
    Warsaw Univ Technol, PL-00611 Warsaw, Poland..
    Serdyuk, Yuriy V.
    Chalmers, Div High Voltage Engn, Dept Mfg & Mat Technol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Natl Acad Sci Ukraine, Inst Electrodynam, Kiev, Ukraine.;ABB High Voltage Technol Ltd, R&D HV Lab, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Gubanski, Stanislaw M.
    KTH.
    Determination of complex permeability of silicon steel for use in high-frequency modeling of power transformers2008In: IEEE transactions on magnetics, ISSN 0018-9464, E-ISSN 1941-0069, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 438-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about frequency dependence of complex permeability of silicon steel is a vital input parameter in calculations of transformer winding inductance used for modeling. high-frequency behavior (100 Hz-1 MHz). We present two ways of determining small signal complex permeability spectra in frequency domain and compare and discuss the results. The first method is based on an optimization procedure, in which inductance of a winding is measured and calculated by analytical formulas and finite-element modeling. The second method makes use of a single sheet tester. We show that the magnitude of effective permeability of the silicon steel laminations remains significant up to about 100 kHz. We also report on the effect of magnetic viscosity on complex permeability.

  • 36.
    Abid, Fahim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Intermodulation due to interaction of photovoltaic inverter and electric vehicle at supraharmonic range2016In: 2016 17th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, Piscataway. NJ, 2016, p. 685-690, article id 7783471Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advent of power electronic switching is introducing more and more non-linear loads in the low voltage grid. Besides harmonic current generation in the frequency range below 2 kHz, these non-linear loads are also responsible for current emission in the range of 2 kHz to 150 kHz, commonly known as supraharmonic emission. Supraharmonic currents mainly flow between nearby appliances and heavily influence the overall emission of neighboring devices. This paper presents an analysis of supraharmonic interaction between a photovoltaic inverter and an electric vehicle. It has been noticed that intermodulation distortion arises as a result of interaction between different switching frequencies used by the devices. Later, additional household equipment were added to photovoltaic and electric vehicle to observe their effect on intermodulation distortion. All the measurements were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment imitating a domestic customer.

  • 37.
    Abidin, Aysajan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    Larsson, Jan-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    New Universal Hash Functions2012In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 7242 / [ed] Frederik Armknecht and Stefan Lucks, Springer Berlin Heidelberg , 2012, p. 99-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Universal hash functions are important building blocks for unconditionally secure message authentication codes. In this paper, we present a new construction of a class of Almost Strongly Universal hash functions with much smaller description (or key) length than the Wegman-Carter construction. Unlike some other constructions, our new construction has a very short key length and a security parameter that is independent of the message length, which makes it suitable for authentication in practical applications such as Quantum Cryptography.

  • 38.
    Abolhanna, Hussein
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Jämförelse av toppeffekten mellan nätstationsmätare och Velanders formel2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Elnätet dimensioneras för att klara årets största effekttoppar. Det är viktigt att överväga sammanlagringen mellan flera kunder, eftersom individuella kunders effekttoppar skulle ge felaktiga uppskattningar av nätstationens högsta förbrukning. Idag finns det timinformation om varje nätstations förbrukning, vilket inte fanns tidigare. Tidigare uppskattades storleken på effekttoppar i nätstationen från den årliga förbrukningen för uppkopplade kunder enligt den så kallade Velanders formel. För att utvärdera denna uppskattning av toppeffekten jämfördes nätstationens och underliggande kunders timförbrukning med de effekter som beräknats med denna formel. Resultatet av jämförelsen visade att formeln i vissa stationer överskattade eller underkastade storleken på den förväntade toppeffekten. Det förändrade energi-till-effektförhållandet på grund av laddning av en elbil gör att nya Velanderkonstanter behöver tas fram för hushåll med elbilsladdare. För att kunna göra dettaär det även viktigt att elnätsföretagen får information om montering av laddboxar och dess maximala laddeffekt. Historisk har elnätet ofta överdimensionerats, till stor del på grund av osäkerheten om förväntad förbrukningen och den ofta relativt låga kostnadsökningen medatt välja en grövre kabel i samband med utbyggnad av elnätet. Med elektrifieringen av fordonsflottan och produktionen av el med solceller hos konsumenter ökar belastningen på lågspänningsnäten och inmatning kan förekomma till nätstationer. Genom förbättrad mätning i nätstationer kan skillnaden mellan verkliga toppeffekten och dimensionerad maximal effekt minskas. Detta i sin tur kan minska behovet av nyinvestering i nätet för att klara energiomställningen. 

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  • 39.
    Abrahamson, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Fast calculation of the dimensioning factors of the railway power supply system2007In: Computational Methods and Experimental Measurements XIII, WIT Press, 2007, Vol. 46, p. 85-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of environmental and economical reasons, in Sweden and the rest of Europe, both personal and goods transports on railway are increasing. Therefore great railway infrastructure investments are expected to come. An important part of this infrastructure is the railway power supply system. Exactly how much, when and where the traffic will increase is not known for sure. This means investment planning for an uncertain future. The more uncertain parameters, such as traffic density and weight of trains, and the further future considered, the greater the inevitable amount of cases that have to be considered. When doing simulations concerning a tremendous amount of cases, each part of the simulation model has to be computationally fast - in real life this means approximations. The two most important issues to estimate given a certain power system configuration, when planning for an electric traction system, are the energy consumption of the and and the train delays that a too weak system would cause. In this paper, some modeling suggestions of the energy consumption and the maximal train velocities are presented. Two linear, and one nonlinear model are presented and compared. The comparisons regard both computer speed and representability. The independent variables of these models are a selection of parameters describing the power system, i.e.: power system technology used on each section, and traffic intensity.

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  • 40.
    Abrahamsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Loop impedance measurement tool2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master´s thesis presents a prototype of a hand-held measurement tool used to measure the loop impedance of ground loops using two current probes. This tool allows the user to find bad shield connections in a system without disconnecting the shielded cables. The thesis explains the theory behind the measurement method, hardware requirements and design, how the software works and a demonstration of the implemented graphical user interface. The tool is powered by a two-cell lithium-ion battery and has an integrated battery charger with cell balancing.

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  • 41.
    Abrahamsson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hedlund, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kamf, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    High-Speed Kinetic Energy Buffer: Optimization of Composite Shell and Magnetic Bearings2014In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 3012-3021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and optimization of a high-speed (30 000 r/min) kinetic energy storage system. The purpose of the device is to function as an energy buffer storing up to 867 Wh, primarily for utility vehicles in urban traffic. The rotor comprises a solid composite shell of carbon and glass fibers in an epoxy matrix, constructed in one curing. The shell is optimized using a combined analytical and numerical approach. The radial stress in the shell is kept compressive by integrating the electric machine, thereby avoiding delamination. Radial centering is achieved through eight active electromagnetic actuators. The actuator geometry is optimized using a direct coupling between SolidWorks, Comsol, and Matlab for maximum force over resistive loss for a given current density. The optimization results in a system with 300% higher current stiffness than the reference geometry with constant flux area, at the expense of 33% higher power loss. The actuators are driven by semipassive H bridges and controlled by an FPGA. Current control at 20 kHz with a noise of less than 5 mA (95% CI) is achieved, allowing position control at 4 kHz to be implemented.

  • 42.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    AC cables strengthening low frequency AC railway with purely active power loads2018In: 2018 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM), IEEE, 2018, , p. 5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Converter-fed railway power systems traditionally use high voltage AC overhead transmission lines in the railway grid for increased loadability. An increased resistance to overhead high voltage AC transmission lines, may motivate cables as one alternative for the future. The focus of this paper is to compare a non-strengthened system with two cable solutions for comparing loadability, voltages, and reactive powers for different levels of load scaling. The studies confirmed that the obstacle of reactive power produced in lowly utilized cables is, even if less significant for low frequency AC, still present. A simplified load model is used representing trains with VSC-converters and three-phase motors as purely active loads regardless of motoring or regenerating. A previous study has been done on thyristor-based trains. The voltage levels while regenerating are higher than in the thyristor-train case study. Besides that the loadability for motoring and regenerating is higher with modern VSC-trains.

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  • 43.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Optimal drift och dimensionering avbanmatningssystem: Slutrapport Elektraprojekt2016Report (Other academic)
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  • 44.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Optimal Railroad Power Supply System Operation and Design: Detailed system studies, and aggregated investment models2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway power supply systems (RPSSs) differ mainly from public power systems from that the loads are moving. These moving loads are motoring trains. Trains can also be regenerating when braking and are then power sources. These loads consume comparatively much power, causing substantial voltage drops, not rarely so big that the loads are reduced. By practical reasons most RPSSs are single-phase AC or DC. Three-phase public grid power is either converted into single-phase for feeding the railway or the RPSS is compartmentalized into separate sections fed individually from alternating phase-pairs of the public grid. The latter is done in order not to overload any public grid phase unnecessarily much.

    This thesis summarizes various ways of optimally operating or designing the railway power supply system. The thesis focuses on converter-fed railways for the reasons that they are more controllable, and also has a higher potential for the future. This is also motivated in a literature-reviewing based paper arguing for the converter usage potential. Moreover, converters of some kind have to be used when the RPSS uses DC or different AC frequency than the public grid.

    The optimal operation part of this thesis is mainly about the optimal power flow controls and unit commitments of railway converter stations in HVDC-fed RPSSs. The models are easily generalized to different feeding, and they cope with regenerative braking. This part considers MINLP (mixed integer nonlinear programming) problems, and the main part of the problem is non-convex nonlinear. The concept is presented in one paper. The subject of how to model the problem formulations have been treated fully in one paper.

    The thesis also includes a conference article and a manuscript for an idea including the entire electric train driving strategy in an optimization problem considering power system and mechanical couplings over time. The latter concept is a generalized TPSS (Train Power Systems Simulator), aiming for more detailed studies, whereas TPSS is mainly for dimensioning studies. The above optimal power flow models may be implemented in the entire electric train driving strategy model.

    The optimal design part of this thesis includes two aggregation models for describing reduction in train traffic performance. The first one presented in a journal, and the second one, adapted more useful with different simulation results was presented at a conference. It also includes an early model for optimal railway power converter placements.

    The conclusions to be made are that the potential for energy savings by better operation of the railway power system is great. Another conclusion is that investment planning models for railway power systems have a high development potential. RPSS planning models are computationally more attractive, when aggregating power system and train traffic details.

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  • 45.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Railway Power Supply Models and Methods for Long-term Investment Analysis2008Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project is to suggest an investment planning programwhere the welfare of the society is to be maximized. In order to beable to decide on a wise investment plan, one needs to know theconsequences of different choices of power system configurations.Therefore the impacts of different future traffic demands are ofinterest for a railway power system owner.Since investments are supposed to last a long time, their futureusage has to be considered. Moreover, the lead times of investmentscan be of considerable duration lengths. Because of the uncertaintyof the future, deterministic case studies might not be suitable andthen a large number of outcomes are to be studied, probable outcomesas well as outcomes with a high level of impact.In order to be able to make a valid long-term investment analysis ofthe railway power supply system, one needs to use proper railwaypower supply models and methods. The aim of this thesis is topresent a stable modeling and methodological basis for the cominginvestment planning phase of this PhD research project. The focus isset on studying the consequences of a railway power supply systemwhich is too weak.The thesis contains an overview of models of some electrical andmechanical relations important for electric traction systems. Someof these models are further developed, and some are modified forimproved computational properties. A flexible electric tractionsystem simulator based on the above mentioned models has beendeveloped and the applied methods and resulting abilities arepresented.The main scientific contribution of this thesis is that a fast andapproximative neural network model, which calculates some importantaggregated results of the interaction between the railway powersystem and the train traffic, has been developed. This approximativemodel was developed in order to reduce computation times. Reductionof computation times is very important when a huge number ofoutcomes are studied. A complete simulation of a train power systemin operation takes a long time, often not less than about a tenth ofthe simulated traffic time. The neural network is trained with someselected aggregated results extracted from a wide set of railwayoperation simulation cases. The choices of network inputs andoutputs are motivated in the thesis. The performance of thesimulator as well as the approximator are visualized in casestudies.

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  • 46.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Belea, Radu
    Atkins Sverige AB, Kopparbergsvägen 8, Västerås, 72213, Sweden.
    Klerfors, Bertil
    Chalmers Technical University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Schütte, Thorsten
    STRI AB, Ingenjör Bââths gata 11, Plan E, Västerås, 72212, Sweden.
    Modern methods for balancing of single phase loads when feeding a.c. Electrified railways2017In: Eb - Elektrische Bahnen, ISSN 0013-5437, Vol. 115, no 6-7, p. 378-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional compensation circuits for phase balancing of single phase AC railways for 50 or 60 Hz have high cost for the associated transformers. A new version of the classical Steinmetz scheme, using three single phase transformers connected as a W with the phase angles -60°, 0° and +60°, can reuse the two standard single phase transformers of a V-connected feeding station with a third identical transformer added. Power factor compensation can easily be included. For neutral sections between different feeding systems, a neutral section converter is proposed.

  • 47.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Belea, Radu
    Transilvania University, Kopparbergsvagen 8, Vasteras, Brasov, 72213, Romania.
    Klerfors, Bertil
    Chalmers Technical University, Hockeygatan 5, Vasteras, Gothenburg, 72240, Sweden.
    Schütte, Thorsten
    Kiel and Uppsala Universities, Ingenjor Baaths gata 11, Vasteras, 72212, Sweden.
    Warner, Bruce
    University of Cape Town, ABB Switzerland Ltd, Bruggerstr. 72, Baden, 5400, Switzerland.
    Modern methods for balancing of single phase loads when feeding a.c. Electrified railways2017In: Eb - Elektrische Bahnen, ISSN 0013-5437, Vol. 115, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional compensation circuits for phase balancing of single phase AC railways for 50 or 60 Hz have high cost for the associated transformers. A new version of the classical Steinmetz scheme, using three single phase transformers connected as a W with the phase angles -60°, 0° and +60°, can reuse the two standard single phase transformers of a V-connected feeding station with a third identical transformer added. Power factor compensation can easily be included. For neutral sections between different feeding systems, a neutral section converter is proposed.

  • 48.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Kjellqvist, Tommy
    Elekt Konsult AB, Kraftelektronik, Sweden.
    Östlund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    High-voltage DC-feeder solution for electric railways2012In: IET Power Electronics, ISSN 1755-4535, E-ISSN 1755-4543, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 1776-1784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For AC railway power supply systems with a different frequency than the public grid, high-voltage AC transmission lines are common, connected to the catenary by transformers. This study suggests an alternative design based on an high-voltage DC (HVDC)-feeder, which is connected to the catenary by converters. Such an HVDC line would also be appropriate for DC-fed railways and AC-fed railways working at a public-grid frequency. The converter stations between the public grid and the HVDCfeeder can be sparsely distributed, not denser than on 100 km distances, whereas the converters connecting the HVDC-feeder to the catenary are distributed denser. Their ratings can be lower than present-day substation transformers or converters, since the power flows can be fully controlled. Despite a relatively low-power rating, the proposed converters can be highly efficient because of the use of medium frequency technology. The proposed feeding system results in lower material usage, lower losses and higher controllability compared with the present solutions. Simulations of the proposed solution show clear advantages regarding transmission losses and voltages compared with conventional systems, especially for cases with weak feeding, and when there are substantial amounts of regeneration from the trains.

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  • 49.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Kjellqvist, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Östlund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    HVDC Feeder Solution for Electric Railways2012In: IET Power Electronics, ISSN 1755-4535, E-ISSN 1755-4543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The railway power supply systems in many sparsely populated countries are relatively weak. Weak railway power supply systems causes problems with power quality, voltage drops, and high transmission losses.

    For AC railway power supply systems with a different frequency than the public grid, high-voltage AC (HVAC) transmission lines are common, connected to the catenary by transformers.

    In this paper an alternative design based on an HVDC feeder is suggested. The HVDC feeder is connected to the catenary by converters. Such an HVDC line would also be appropriate for DC-fed railways and AC-fed railways working at public frequency. The converter stations between the public grid and the HVDC feeder can be sparsely distributed, in the range of 100 km or more, whereas the converters connecting the HVDC feeder to the catenary are distributed with a much closer spacing. Their ratings can be lower than substation transformers or electro-mechanical converters, since the power flow can be fully controlled.

    Despite a relatively low power rating, the proposed converters can be highly efficient due to the use of medium frequency technology. The HVDC-based feeding system results in lower material usage, lower losses and higher controllability compared to present solutions.

    Simulations of the proposed solution show clear advantages regarding transmission losses and voltages compared to conventional systems, especially for cases with long distances between feeding points to the catenary, and when there are substantial amounts of regeneration from the trains.

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  • 50.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Laury, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Evaluating a constant-current load model through comparative transient stability case-studies of a synchronous-synchronous rotary frequency converter-fed railway2019In: 2019 Joint Rail Conference, ASME Press, 2019, article id V001T09A003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper continues the pursuit of getting a deeper understanding regarding the transient stability of low-frequency AC railway power systems operated at 16 2/3 Hz synchronously to the public grid. The focus is set on the impact of different load models. A simple constant-current load model is proposed and compared to a previously proposed and studied load model in which the train’s active power is regulated.

    The study and comparison is made on exactly the same cases as and grid as with the already proposed and more advanced load model. The railway grid is equipped with a low-frequency AC high-voltage transmission line which is subjected to a fault. The study is limited to railways being fed by different distributions of RFC (Rotary Frequency Converter) types. Both AT (auto transformer) and BT (booster transformer) catenaries are considered.

    The RFC dynamic models are essentially Anderson-Fouad models of two synchronous machines coupled mechanically by their rotors being connected to the same shaft.

    The differences in load behaviour between the proposed constant-current load model and the previously proposed and studied voltage-dependent active power load model are analyzed and described in the paper.

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