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  • 1. Aarts, Fides
    et al.
    Jonsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Uijen, Johan
    Vaandrager, Frits
    Generating models of infinite-state communication protocols using regular inference with abstraction2015In: Formal methods in system design, ISSN 0925-9856, E-ISSN 1572-8102, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 1-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to facilitate model-based verification and validation, effort is underway to develop techniques for generating models of communication system components from observations of their external behavior. Most previous such work has employed regular inference techniques which generate modest-size finite-state models. They typically suppress parameters of messages, although these have a significant impact on control flow in many communication protocols. We present a framework, which adapts regular inference to include data parameters in messages and states for generating components with large or infinite message alphabets. A main idea is to adapt the framework of predicate abstraction, successfully used in formal verification. Since we are in a black-box setting, the abstraction must be supplied externally, using information about how the component manages data parameters. We have implemented our techniques by connecting the LearnLib tool for regular inference with an implementation of session initiation protocol (SIP) in ns-2 and an implementation of transmission control protocol (TCP) in Windows 8, and generated models of SIP and TCP components.

  • 2.
    Abbas, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Variability Aware Requirements Reuse Analysis2020In: roceedings - 2020 ACM/IEEE 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion, ICSE-Companion 2020, Seoul, South Korea: ACM , 2020, p. 190-193, article id 3381399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The goal of a software product line is to aid quick and quality delivery of software products, sharing common features. Effectively achieving the above-mentioned goals requires reuse analysis of the product line features. Existing requirements reuse analysis approaches are not focused on recommending product line features, that can be reused to realize new customer requirements. Hypothesis: Given that the customer requirements are linked to product line features' description satisfying them: then the customer requirements can be clustered based on patterns and similarities, preserving the historic reuse information. New customer requirements can be evaluated against existing customer requirements and reuse of product line features can be recommended. Contributions: We treated the problem of feature reuse analysis as a text classification problem at the requirements-level. We use Natural Language Processing and clustering to recommend reuse of features based on similarities and historic reuse information. The recommendations can be used to realize new customer requirements.

  • 3.
    Abbas, Muhammad
    et al.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ferrari, Alessio
    CNR ISTI, Pisa, Italy.
    Shatnawi, Anas
    Berger Levrault, Montpellier, France.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    On the relationship between similar requirements and similar software: A case study in the railway domainIn: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recommender systems for requirements are typically built on the assumption that similar requirements can be used as proxies to retrieve similar software. When a stakeholder proposes a new requirement, natural language processing (NLP)-based similarity metrics can be exploited to retrieve existing requirements, and in turn, identify previously developed code. Several NLP approaches for similarity computation between requirements are available. However, there is little empirical evidence on their effectiveness for code retrieval. This study compares different NLP approaches, from lexical ones to semantic, deep-learning techniques, and correlates the similarity among requirements with the similarity of their associated software. The evaluation is conducted on real-world requirements from two industrial projects from a railway company. Specifically, the most similar pairs of requirements across two industrial projects are automatically identified using six language models. Then, the trace links between requirements and software are used to identify the software pairs associated with each requirements pair. The software similarity between pairs is then automatically computed with JPLag. Finally, the correlation between requirements similarity and software similarity is evaluated to see which language model shows the highest correlation and is thus more appropriate for code retrieval. In addition, we perform a focus group with members of the company to collect qualitative data. Results show a moderately positive correlation between requirements similarity and software similarity, with the pre-trained deep learning-based BERT language model with preprocessing outperforming the other models. Practitioners confirm that requirements similarity is generally regarded as a proxy for software similarity. However, they also highlight that additional aspect comes into play when deciding software reuse, e.g., domain/project knowledge, information coming from test cases, and trace links. Our work is among the first ones to explore the relationship between requirements and software similarity from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. This can be useful not only in recommender systems but also in other requirements engineering tasks in which similarity computation is relevant, such as tracing and change impact analysis.

  • 4.
    Abbas, Muhammad
    et al.
    Research Institutes of Sweden Västerås, Sweden.
    Inayat, Irum
    National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Jan, Naila
    National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    Research Institutes of Sweden Västerås, Sweden.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    MBRP: Model-based Requirements Prioritization Using PageRank Algorithm2019In: Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference APSEC 2019, 2019, p. 31-38, article id 8945656Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements prioritization plays an important role in driving project success during software development. Literature reveals that existing requirements prioritization approaches ignore vital factors such as interdependency between requirements. Existing requirements prioritization approaches are also generally time-consuming and involve substantial manual effort. Besides, these approaches show substantial limitations in terms of the number of requirements under consideration. There is some evidence suggesting that models could have a useful role in the analysis of requirements interdependency and their visualization, contributing towards the improvement of the overall requirements prioritization process. However, to date, just a handful of studies are focused on model-based strategies for requirements prioritization, considering only conflict-free functional requirements. This paper uses a meta-model-based approach to help the requirements analyst to model the requirements, stakeholders, and inter-dependencies between requirements. The model instance is then processed by our modified PageRank algorithm to prioritize the given requirements. An experiment was conducted, comparing our modified PageRank algorithm’s efficiency and accuracy with five existing requirements prioritization methods. Besides, we also compared our results with a baseline prioritized list of 104 requirements prepared by 28 graduate students. Our results show that our modified PageRank algorithm was able to prioritize the requirements more effectively and efficiently than the other prioritization methods.

  • 5.
    Abbas, Muhammad
    et al.
    RISE SICS, Research Institutes of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Inayat, Irum
    SERL, National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    RISE SICS, Research Institutes of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jan, Naila
    SERL, National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Requirements dependencies-based test case prioritization for extra-functional properties2019In: ICST Workshop on Testing Extra-Functional Properties and Quality Characteristics of Software Systems ITEQS'19, 2019, p. 159-163Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of requirements’ information in testing is a well-recognized practice in the software development life cycle. Literature reveals that existing tests prioritization and selection approaches neglected vital factors affecting tests priorities, like interdependencies between requirement specifications. We believe that models may play a positive role in specifying these inter-dependencies and prioritizing tests based on these inter-dependencies. However, till date, few studies can be found that make use of requirements inter-dependencies for test case prioritization. This paper uses a meta-model to aid modeling requirements, their related tests, and inter-dependencies between them. The instance of this meta-model is then processed by our modified PageRank algorithm to prioritize the requirements. The requirement priorities are then propagated to related test cases in the test model and test cases are selected based on coverage of extra-functional properties. We have demonstrated the applicability of our proposed approach on a small example case.

  • 6.
    Abbas, Muhammad
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jongeling, Robbert
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindskog, Claes
    Bombardier Transportation AB, Sweden.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Product Line Adoption in Industry: An Experience Report from the Railway Domain2020In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2020, Vol. F164267-A, p. 130-141Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The software system controlling a train is typically deployed on various hardware architectures and is required to process various signals across those deployments. Increases of such customization scenarios, as well as the needed adherence of the software to various safety standards in different application domains, has led to the adoption of product line engineering within the railway domain. This paper explores the current state-of-practice of software product line development within a team developing industrial embedded software for a train propulsion control system. Evidence is collected by means of a focus group session with several engineers and through inspection of archival data. We report several benefits and challenges experienced during product line adoption and deployment. Furthermore, we identify and discuss research opportunities, focusing in particular on the areas of product line evolution and test automation.

  • 7.
    Abbas, Muhammad
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Rauf, Abdul
    RISE Research Institute of Sweden.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    RISE Research Institute of Sweden.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Keywords-based test categorization for Extra-Functional Properties2020In: IEEE 13th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2020, IEEE, 2020, p. 153-156, article id 9156019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Categorizing existing test specifications can provide insights on coverage of the test suite to extra-functional properties. Manual approaches for test categorization can be time-consuming and prone to error. In this short paper, we propose a semi-automated approach for semantic keywords-based textual test categorization for extra-functional properties. The approach is the first step towards coverage-based test case selection based on extra-functional properties. We report a preliminary evaluation of industrial data for test categorization for safety aspects. Results show that keyword-based approaches can be used to categorize tests for extra-functional properties and can be improved by considering contextual information of keywords.

  • 8.
    Abbas, Muhammad
    et al.
    RISE, Sweden.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    RISE, Sweden.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Requirements-Driven Reuse Recommendation2021In: Proceedings of the 25th ACM International Systems and Software Product Line Conference - Volume A, Association for Computing Machinery , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This tutorial explores requirements-based reuse recommendation for product line assets in the context of clone-and-own product lines.

  • 9.
    Abbas, Muhammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindskog, Claes
    Bombardier Transportation AB, Sweden.
    Automated Reuse Recommendation of Product Line Assets based on Natural Language Requirements2020In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2020, Vol. 12541, p. 173-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software product lines (SPLs) are based on reuse rationale to aid quick and quality delivery of complex products at scale. Deriving a new product from a product line requires reuse analysis to avoid redundancy and support a high degree of assets reuse. In this paper, we propose and evaluate automated support for recommending SPL assets that can be reused to realize new customer requirements. Using the existing customer requirements as input, the approach applies natural language processing and clustering to generate reuse recommendations for unseen customer requirements in new projects. The approach is evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively in the railway industry. Results show that our approach can recommend reuse with 74% accuracy and 57.4% exact match. The evaluation further indicates that the recommendations are relevant to engineers and can support the product derivation and feasibility analysis phase of the projects. The results encourage further study on automated reuse analysis on other levels of abstractions.

  • 10.
    Abbas, Zainab
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Scalable Streaming Graph and Time Series Analysis Using Partitioning and Machine Learning2021Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have witnessed a massive increase in the amount of data generated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and social media. Processing huge amounts of this data poses non-trivial challenges in terms of the hardware and performance requirements of modern-day applications. The data we are dealing with today is of massive scale, high intensity and comes in various forms. MapReduce was a popular and clever choice of handling big data using a distributed programming model, which made the processing of huge volumes of data possible using clusters of commodity machines. However, MapReduce was not a good fit for performing complex tasks, such as graph processing, iterative programs and machine learning. Modern data processing frameworks, that are being popularly used to process complex data and perform complex analysis tasks, overcome the shortcomings of MapReduce. Some of these popular frameworks include Apache Spark for batch and stream processing, Apache Flink for stream processing and Tensor Flow for machine learning.

    In this thesis, we deal with complex analytics on data modeled as time series, graphs and streams. Time series are commonly used to represent temporal data generated by IoT sensors. Analysing and forecasting time series, i.e. extracting useful characteristics and statistics of data and predicting data, is useful for many fields that include, neuro-physiology, economics, environmental studies, transportation, etc. Another useful data representation we work with, are graphs. Graphs are complex data structures used to represent relational data in the form of vertices and edges. Graphs are present in various application domains, such as recommendation systems, road traffic analytics, web analysis, social media analysis. Due to the increasing size of graph data, a single machine is often not sufficient to process the complete graph. Therefore, the computation, as well as the data, must be distributed. Graph partitioning, the process of dividing graphs into subgraphs, is an essential step in distributed graph processing of large scale graphs because it enables parallel and distributed processing.

    The majority of data generated from IoT and social media originates as a continuous stream, such as series of events from a social media network, time series generated from sensors, financial transactions, etc. The stream processing paradigm refers to the processing of data streaming that is continuous and possibly unbounded. Combining both graphs and streams leads to an interesting and rather challenging domain of streaming graph analytics. Graph streams refer to data that is modelled as a stream of edges or vertices with adjacency lists representing relations between entities of continuously evolving data generated by a single or multiple data sources. Streaming graph analytics is an emerging research field with great potential due to its capabilities of processing large graph streams with limited amounts of memory and low latency. 

    In this dissertation, we present graph partitioning techniques for scalable streaming graph and time series analysis. First, we present and evaluate the use of data partitioning to enable data parallelism in order to address the challenge of scale in large spatial time series forecasting. We propose a graph partitioning technique for large scale spatial time series forecasting of road traffic as a use-case. Our experimental results on traffic density prediction for real-world sensor dataset using Long Short-Term Memory Neural Networks show that the partitioning-based models take 12x lower training time when run in parallel compared to the unpartitioned model of the entire road infrastructure. Furthermore, the partitioning-based models have 2x lower prediction error (RMSE) compared to the entire road model. Second, we showcase the practical usefulness of streaming graph analytics for large spatial time series analysis with the real-world task of traffic jam detection and reduction. We propose to apply streaming graph analytics by performing useful analytics on traffic data stream at scale with high throughput and low latency. Third, we study, evaluate, and compare the existing state-of-the-art streaming graph partitioning algorithms. We propose a uniform analysis framework built using Apache Flink to evaluate and compare partitioning features and characteristics of streaming graph partitioning methods. Finally, we present GCNSplit, a novel ML-driven streaming graph partitioning solution, that uses a small and constant in-memory state (bounded state) to partition (possibly unbounded) graph streams. Our results demonstrate that \ours provides high-throughput partitioning and can leverage data parallelism to sustain input rates of 100K edges/s. GCNSplit exhibits a partitioning quality, in terms of graph cuts and load balance, that matches that of the state-of-the-art HDRF (High Degree Replicated First) algorithm while storing three orders of magnitude smaller partitioning state.

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  • 11.
    Abbasi, Abdul G
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Rydberg, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Altmann, Peter
    Digg Agency for Digital Government, Sweden.
    Towards a verifiable and secure data sharing platform for livestock supply chain2022In: Proceedings of the 2022 IEEE International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, International Conference on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, International Conference on Cloud and Big Data Computing, International Conference on Cyber Science and Technology Congress, DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The digitization of a supply chain involves satisfying several functional and non-functional context specific requirements. The work presented herein builds on efforts to elicit trust and profit requirements from actors in the Swedish livestock supply chain, specifically the beef supply chain. Interviewees identified several benefits related to data sharing and traceability but also emphasized that these benefits could only be realized if concerns around data security and data privacy were adequately addressed. We developed a data sharing platform as a response to these requirements. Requirements around verifiability, traceability, secure data sharing of potentially large data objects, fine grained access control, and the ability to link together data objects was realized using distributed ledger technology and a distributed file system. This paper presents this data sharing platform together with an evaluation of its usefulness in the context of beef supply chain traceability. 

  • 12.
    Abbasi, S.
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Rahmani, A. M.
    National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou, Yunlin, Taiwan.
    Balador, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Research Institute of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sahafi, A.
    Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Internet of Vehicles: Architecture, services, and applications2021In: International Journal of Communication Systems, ISSN 1074-5351, E-ISSN 1099-1131, Vol. 34, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The connection between objects and information exchange has been possible in recent years, with the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) in different industries. We can meet different requirements in each industry utilizing this feature. Intelligent transportation uses the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) as a solution for communication among vehicles. It improves traffic management applications and services to guarantee safety on roads. We categorize services, applications, and architectures and propose a taxonomy for IoV. Then, we study open issues and challenges for future works. We highlighted applications and services due to drivers' requirements and nonfunctional requirements, considering the qualitative characteristic. This paper summarizes the current state of the IoV in architectures, services, and applications. It can be a start view to provide the solutions for challenges in traffic management in cities. The present study is beneficial for smart city developments and management. According to this paper's result, the services and applications evaluate performance with 34% frequency, safety and data accuracy, and security with a 13% frequency in selected papers. These measurements are essential due to the IoV characteristics such as real-time operation, accident avoidance in applications, and complicated user data management. 

  • 13.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bugs and Debugging of Concurrent and Multicore Software2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 14.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Towards Classification of Concurrency Bugs Based on Observable Properties2015In: Proceedings - 1st International Workshop on Complex Faults and Failures in Large Software Systems, COUFLESS 2015, 2015, p. 41-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In software engineering, classification is a way to find an organized structure of knowledge about objects. Classification serves to investigate the relationship between the items to be classified, and can be used to identify the current gaps in the field. In many cases users are able to order and relate objects by fitting them in a category. This paper presents initial work on a taxonomy for classification of errors (bugs) related to concurrent execution of application level software threads. By classifying concurrency bugs based on their corresponding observable properties, this research aims to examine and structure the state of the art in this field, as well as to provide practitioner support for testing and debugging of concurrent software. We also show how the proposed classification, and the different classes of bugs, relates to the state of the art in the field by providing a mapping of the classification to a number of recently published papers in the software engineering field.

  • 15.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    SICS Swedish ICT, Västerås, Sweden.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Model for Systematic Monitoring and Debugging of Starvation Bugs in Multicore Software2016In: 2016 ASE Workshop on Specification, Comprehension, Testing and Debugging of Concurrent Programs SCTDCP2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of multicore hardware, concurrent, parallel and multicore software are becoming increasingly popular. Software companies are spending a huge amount of time and resources to nd and debug the bugs. Among all types of software bugs, concurrency bugs are also important and troublesome. This type of bugs is increasingly becoming an issue particularly due to the growing prevalence of multicore hardware. In this position paper, we propose a model for monitoring and debugging Starvation bugs as a type of concurrency bugs in multicore software. The model is composed into three phases: monitoring, detecting and debugging. The monitoring phase can support detecting phase by storing collected data from the system execution. The detecting phase can support debugging phase by comparing the stored data with starvation bug's properties, and the debugging phase can help in reproducing and removing the Starvation bug from multicore software. Our intention is that our model is the basis for developing tool(s) to enable solving Starvation bugs in software for multicore platforms.

  • 16.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, S.
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Runtime Verification Tool for Detecting Concurrency Bugs in FreeRTOS Embedded Software2018In: Proceedings - 17th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISPDC 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 172-179, article id 8452035Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a runtime verification tool for embedded software executing under the open source real-time operating system FreeRTOS. The tool detects and diagnoses concurrency bugs such as deadlock, starvation, and suspension based-locking. The tool finds concurrency bugs at runtime without debugging and tracing the source code. The tool uses the Tracealyzer tool for logging relevant events. Analysing the logs, our tool can detect the concurrency bugs by applying algorithms for diagnosing each concurrency bug type individually. In this paper, we present the implementation of the tool, as well as its functional architecture, together with illustration of its use. The tool can be used during program testing to gain interesting information about embedded software executions. We present initial results of running the tool on some classical bug examples running on an AVR 32-bit board SAM4S. 

  • 17.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Afza, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    10 Years of research on debugging concurrent and multicore software: a systematic mapping study2017In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 49-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Debugging – the process of identifying, localizing and fixing bugs – is a key activity in software development. Due to issues such as non-determinism and difficulties of reproducing failures, debugging concurrent software is significantly more challenging than debugging sequential software. A number of methods, models and tools for debugging concurrent and multicore software have been proposed, but the body of work partially lacks a common terminology and a more recent view of the problems to solve. This suggests the need for a classification, and an up-to-date comprehensive overview of the area. 

    This paper presents the results of a systematic mapping study in the field of debugging of concurrent and multicore software in the last decade (2005– 2014). The study is guided by two objectives: (1) to summarize the recent publication trends and (2) to clarify current research gaps in the field.

    Through a multi-stage selection process, we identified 145 relevant papers. Based on these, we summarize the publication trend in the field by showing distribution of publications with respect to year , publication venues , representation of academia and industry , and active research institutes . We also identify research gaps in the field based on attributes such as types of concurrency bugs, types of debugging processes , types of research  and research contributions.

    The main observations from the study are that during the years 2005–2014: (1) there is no focal conference or venue to publish papers in this area, hence a large variety of conferences and journal venues (90) are used to publish relevant papers in this area; (2) in terms of publication contribution, academia was more active in this area than industry; (3) most publications in the field address the data race bug; (4) bug identification is the most common stage of debugging addressed by articles in the period; (5) there are six types of research approaches found, with solution proposals being the most common one; and (6) the published papers essentially focus on four different types of contributions, with ”methods” being the type most common one.

    We can further conclude that there is still quite a number of aspects that are not sufficiently covered in the field, most notably including (1) exploring correction  and fixing bugs  in terms of debugging process; (2) order violation, suspension  and starvation  in terms of concurrency bugs; (3) validation and evaluation research  in the matter of research type; (4) metric  in terms of research contribution. It is clear that the concurrent, parallel and multicore software community needs broader studies in debugging.This systematic mapping study can help direct such efforts.

  • 18.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Paul Enoiu, Eduard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Study on Concurrency Bugs in an Open Source Software2016In: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol. 472, 2016, Vol. 472, p. 16-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrent programming puts demands on software debugging and testing, as concurrent software may exhibit problems not present in sequential software, e.g., deadlocks and race conditions. In aiming to increase efficiency and effectiveness of debugging and bug-fixing for concurrent software, a deep understanding of concurrency bugs, their frequency and fixingtimes would be helpful. Similarly, to design effective tools and techniques for testing and debugging concurrent software understanding the differences between non-concurrency and concurrency bugs in real-word software would be useful.

  • 19.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Runtime Verification for Detecting Suspension Bugs in Multicore and Parallel Software2017In: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2017, 2017, p. 77-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multicore hardware development increases the popularity of parallel and multicore software, while testing and debugging the software become more difficult, frustrating and costly. Among all types of software bugs, concurrency bugs are both important and troublesome. This type of bugs is increasingly becoming an issue, particularly due to the growing prevalence of multicore hardware. Suspension-based-locking bug is one type of concurrency bugs. This position paper proposes a model based on runtime verification and reflection technique in the context of multicore and parallel software to monitor and detect suspension-based-locking bugs. The model is not only able to detect faults, but also diagnose and even repair them. The model is composed of four layers: Logging, Monitoring, Suspension Bug Diagnosis and Mitigation. The logging layer will observe the events and save them into a file system. The monitoring layer will detect the presents of bugs in the software. The suspension bug diagnosis will identify Suspension bugs by comparing the captured data with the suspension bug properties. Finally, the mitigation layer will reconfigure the software to mitigate the suspension bugs. A functional architecture of a runtime verification tool is also proposed in this paper. This architecture is based on the proposed model and is comprised of different modules. 

  • 20.
    Abbaspour Gildeh, Saedeh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Faranak
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Deep learning-based motion activity recognition using smartphone sensors2020In: 12th International Conference on e-Health e-Health'20, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Abdallah, Houda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Saleh, Najat
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Cyberattacks through Stegomalware2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stegomalware is a type of malware that utilizes steganography to evade detection. It hides amalicious code inside an innocuous cover medium. The cover medium could be of any type: image, audio, video or even network protocols. Stegomalware has also shown to be a highly effective method to bypass detection. This has led it to increase in popularity among cybercriminals. In this thesis, the aim is to shed light on these cyberattack techniques and show the potential harm that could impact organizations, people, and transmitted data over the network. This is done by exploring the following: state of the art, the use of malware steganography in cyberattacks, most used techniques, and how to defend against them. The prevalent tools used by cybercriminals along with various existing stegomalware prevention and detection techniques have been surveyed and studied. A practical implementation was done with the purpose of observing the technical process that takes place at the point of data hiding. In total two tests were done, with both using the Least Significant Bit (LSB) algorithmto achieve the desired results. 

  • 22.
    Abdeen, Waleed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chen, Xingru
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An approach for performance requirements verification and test environments generation2023In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 117-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based testing (MBT) is a method that supports the design and execution of test cases by models that specify theintended behaviors of a system under test. While systematic literature reviews on MBT in general exist, the state of the arton modeling and testing performance requirements has seen much less attention. Therefore, we conducted a systematic map-ping study on model-based performance testing. Then, we studied natural language software requirements specificationsin order to understand which and how performance requirements are typically specified. Since none of the identified MBTtechniques supported a major benefit of modeling, namely identifying faults in requirements specifications, we developed thePerformance Requirements verificatiOn and Test EnvironmentS generaTion approach (PRO-TEST). Finally, we evaluatedPRO-TEST on 149 requirements specifications. We found and analyzed 57 primary studies from the systematic mappingstudy and extracted 50 performance requirements models. However, those models don’t achieve the goals of MBT, whichare validating requirements, ensuring their testability, and generating the minimum required test cases. We analyzed 77 Soft-ware Requirements Specification (SRS) documents, extracted 149 performance requirements from those SRS, and illustratethat with PRO-TEST we can model performance requirements, find issues in those requirements and detect missing ones.We detected three not-quantifiable requirements, 43 not-quantified requirements, and 180 underspecified parameters in the149 modeled performance requirements. Furthermore, we generated 96 test environments from those models. By modelingperformance requirements with PRO-TEST, we can identify issues in the requirements related to their ambiguity, measur-ability, and completeness. Additionally, it allows to generate parameters for test environments

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    fulltext
  • 23.
    Abdelakram, Hafid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Textile Materials Technology, Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business Swedish School of Textiles, University of Borås, 503 32 Borås, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Emanuel
    Textile Materials Technology, Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business Swedish School of Textiles, University of Borås, 503 32 Borås, Sweden.
    Ramos, Alberto
    Textile Materials Technology, Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business Swedish School of Textiles, University of Borås, 503 32 Borås, Sweden;UDIT—University of Design, Innovation and Technology, 28016 Madrid, Spain.
    Rödby, Kristian
    Textile Materials Technology, Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business Swedish School of Textiles, University of Borås, 503 32 Borås, Sweden.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    Institute for Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, 141 83 Stockholm, Sweden;Department of Medical Care Technology, Karolinska University Hospital, 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden;Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Bamidis, Panagiotis D.
    Lab of Medical Physics and Digital Innovation, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Billis, Antonis
    Lab of Medical Physics and Digital Innovation, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Papachristou, Panagiotis
    Academic Primary Health Care Center, Region Stockholm, 104 31 Stockholm, Sweden;Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, 141 83 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Seoane, Fernando
    Textile Materials Technology, Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business Swedish School of Textiles, University of Borås, 503 32 Borås, Sweden;Institute for Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, 141 83 Stockholm, Sweden;Department of Medical Care Technology, Karolinska University Hospital, 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden;Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sensorized T-Shirt with Intarsia-Knitted Conductive Textile Integrated Interconnections: Performance Assessment of Cardiac Measurements during Daily Living Activities2023In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 23, no 22, p. 9208-9208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of smart wearable solutions for monitoring daily life health status is increasingly popular, with chest straps and wristbands being predominant. This study introduces a novel sensorized T-shirt design with textile electrodes connected via a knitting technique to a Movesense device. We aimed to investigate the impact of stationary and movement actions on electrocardiography (ECG) and heart rate (HR) measurements using our sensorized T-shirt. Various activities of daily living (ADLs), including sitting, standing, walking, and mopping, were evaluated by comparing our T-shirt with a commercial chest strap. Our findings demonstrate measurement equivalence across ADLs, regardless of the sensing approach. By comparing ECG and HR measurements, we gained valuable insights into the influence of physical activity on sensorized T-shirt development for monitoring. Notably, the ECG signals exhibited remarkable similarity between our sensorized T-shirt and the chest strap, with closely aligned HR distributions during both stationary and movement actions. The average mean absolute percentage error was below 3%, affirming the agreement between the two solutions. These findings underscore the robustness and accuracy of our sensorized T-shirt in monitoring ECG and HR during diverse ADLs, emphasizing the significance of considering physical activity in cardiovascular monitoring research and the development of personal health applications.

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    fulltext
  • 24.
    Abdelakram, Hafid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Abdullah, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Edu-Mphy: A Low-Cost Multi-Physiological Recording System for Education and Research in Healthcare and Engineering2023In: Abstracts: Medicinteknikdagarna 2023, 2023, p. 117-117Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Abdelraheem, Mohammed Ahmed
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Lindström, Malin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordahl, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Executing Boolean Queries on an Encrypted Bitmap Index2016In: CCSW 2016: Proceedings of the 2016 ACM on Cloud Computing Security Workshop, 2016, p. 11-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a simple and efficient searchable symmetric encryption scheme based on a Bitmap index that evaluates Boolean queries. Our scheme provides a practical solution in settings where communications and computations are very constrained as it offers a suitable trade-off between privacy and performance.

  • 26.
    Abdelrahman, Ahmed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Detection and Extraction of Sky Regions in Digital Images based on Color Classification2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In many applications of image processing there is a need to extract the solid background which it is usually sky for outdoor images. In our application we present this solution. We developed an automatic algorithm for detection and extraction of sky regions in the color image based on color classification. In which the input image should be in the RGB color space and the blue color is detected and classified. Then the color image is transformed to the binary form and the connected regions are extracted separately. The connected regions are then sorted in a descending order according to the biggest area and the biggest region is identified. Then we merged all objects that have similar sky properties. Experimental results showed that our proposed algorithm can produce good results compared to other existing algorithms.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Sky_Regions_Extraction
  • 27.
    Abdi, Abdurazak
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Omar, Hassan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Undersökning av två faktorer autentiseringsmöjligheter för inloggning till Linux-server samt Microsoft-Azure MFA2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Två-faktorautentisering är en tvåstegsverifieringsprocess som syftar till att ge ytterligare säkerhetsnivå genom att kräva att användaren verifierar sig med hjälp av en sekundär metod,för att säkerställa att personer som försöker få tillgång till ett online-konto är rätt person och utan 2fa kan hackare få tillgång till känslig information eller konto enbart genom att känna till offrets lösenord.I denna studie kommer mest använt 3 olika alternativa två faktor autentiseringsmöjligheter för inloggning till Linux servrar undersökas för att se vilken 2fa som är både användarvänlig och säker att använda. Faktorer som kommer att undersökas är kostnad, plattformskompatibilitet, tillförlitlighet, säkerhetsmässigt och tid samt backupalternativ.undersökningen kommer vara baserat på intervjuer om Högskolan Västs IT avdelnings nya två faktor autentiseringssystem för anställda. Det kommer ställas frågor till systemspecialist som har tagit fram två faktorer autentiseringslösningen och Högskolans anställda som kommer använda azure mfa lösningen. Frågorna kommer vara baserad anställdas behov av två faktor autentiseringssystem och hur de anställda upplever den nya två faktor autentiseringslösningen.Resultaten från de praktiska testerna påvisar att Yubikey var den mest säkra autentiseringsmetoden och duo var den mest användarvänliga metoden. Resultaten som samlats från intervjuerna visade att anledningen till att Högskolan Västs IT-avdelning vill implementera två faktorer autentiseringen var att skydda mot Phishing attacker som kan vara svåra att upptäcka

  • 28.
    Abdi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cognitive and Time Predictable Task Scheduling in Edge-cloud Federation2022In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, Vol. 2022-SeptemberConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a hierarchical model for time predictable task scheduling in edge-cloud computing architecture for industrial cyber-physical systems. Regarding the scheduling problem, we also investigate the common problem-solving approaches and discuss our preliminary plan to realize the proposed architecture. Furthermore, an Integer linear programming (ILP) model is proposed for task scheduling problem in the cloud layer. The model considers timing and security requirements of applications and the objective is to minimize the financial cost of their execution.

  • 29.
    Abdollahporan, Farzad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Vandermaesen, Elvira
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Evaluation of the Impacts of Meraki API on Network Delivery Automation2024Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's ever-automating world, businesses are increasingly focused on optimizing network operations, including configuration, management, and troubleshooting. This study scrutinizes the comparison between manual and automated methodologies within the framework of the cloud-based Cisco Meraki platform. Our objective is to establish decisive criteria for identifying the most advantageous circumstances for automation, particularly in network configuration. To achieve this, we constructed a network consisting of three Meraki devices. Automation of network configuration was facilitated through the development of Python scripts leveraging the Meraki API library in conjunction with configuration files. The configuration files were constructed in various file formats–Excel, CSV, JSON, and YAML– in order to assess their impact on automation effectiveness. Moreover, manual configuration tasks were undertaken by three network technicians with varying levels of Meraki proficiency. A comprehensive series of tests, encompassing both automated and manual methods, was subsequently conducted, focusing on metrics such as execution time and keystroke count. Through meticulous analysis, we provided valuable insights into the effectiveness of automation in network configuration processes. Results demonstrated that the use of JSON files in the automation process yielded the shortest completion time and required the fewest keystrokes compared to other automation methods. Moreover, manual configuration via the Meraki dashboard GUI exhibited comparable efficiency to automation methods in networks with a small number of devices. Nonetheless, owing to the capacity to reuse configuration files with minor adjustments for similar setups, the true advantage of automation over manual configuration becomes apparent as the device count increases.

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    DVA333_FarzadAbdollahporan_ElviraVandermaesen
  • 30. Abdul-Ahad, Amir Stefan
    et al.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mahmoud, Waleed A.
    Robust Distance-Based Watermarking for Digital Video2008In: Proceedings of The Annual SIGRAD Conference, Stockholm, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Abdulla, Parosh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Aronis, Stavros
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
    Jonsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Sagonas, Konstantinos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
    Optimal dynamic partial order reduction2014In: Proc. 41st ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, New York: ACM Press, 2014, p. 373-384Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stateless model checking is a powerful technique for program verification, which however suffers from an exponential growth in the number of explored executions. A successful technique for reducing this number, while still maintaining complete coverage, is Dynamic Partial Order Reduction (DPOR). We present a new DPOR algorithm, which is the first to be provably optimal in that it always explores the minimal number of executions. It is based on a novel class of sets, called source sets, which replace the role of persistent sets in previous algorithms. First, we show how to modify an existing DPOR algorithm to work with source sets, resulting in an efficient and simple to implement algorithm. Second, we extend this algorithm with a novel mechanism, called wakeup trees, that allows to achieve optimality. We have implemented both algorithms in a stateless model checking tool for Erlang programs. Experiments show that source sets significantly increase the performance and that wakeup trees incur only a small overhead in both time and space.

  • 32.
    Abdulla, Parosh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems.
    Jonsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems.
    Ngo, Tuan-Phong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Optimal Stateless Model Checking under the Release-Acquire Semantics2018In: Proceedings of the ACM on Programming Languages, E-ISSN 2475-1421, Vol. 2, no OOPSLA, p. 1-29, article id 135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a framework for the efficient application of stateless model checking (SMC) to concurrent programs running under the Release-Acquire (RA) fragment of the C/C++11 memory model. Our approach is based on exploring the possible program orders, which define the order in which instructions of a thread are executed, and read-from relations, which specify how reads obtain their values from writes. This is in contrast to previous approaches, which also explore the possible coherence orders, i.e., orderings between conflicting writes. Since unexpected test results such as program crashes or assertion violations depend only on the read-from relation, we avoid a potentially significant source of redundancy. Our framework is based on a novel technique for determining whether a particular read-from relation is feasible under the RA semantics. We define an SMC algorithm which is provably optimal in the sense that it explores each program order and read-from relation exactly once. This optimality result is strictly stronger than previous analogous optimality results, which also take coherence order into account. We have implemented our framework in the tool Tracer. Experiments show that Tracer can be significantly faster than state-of-the-art tools that can handle the RA semantics.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 33.
    Abdulla, Parosh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems.
    Jonsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Ngo, Tuan-Phong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems.
    Optimal Stateless Model Checking under the Release-Acquire Semantics2018In: SPLASH OOPSLA 2018, Boston, Nov 4-9, 2018, ACM Digital Library, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a framework for efficient application of stateless model checking (SMC) to concurrent programs running under the Release-Acquire (RA) fragment of the C/C++11 memory model. Our approach is based on exploring the possible program orders, which define the order in which instructions of a thread are executed, and read-from relations, which define how reads obtain their values from writes. This is in contrast to previous approaches, which in addition explore the possible coherence orders, i.e., orderings between conflicting writes. Since unexpected test results such as program crashes or assertion violations depend only on the read-from relation, we avoid a potentially large source of redundancy. Our framework is based on a novel technique for determining whether a particular read-from relation is feasible under the RA semantics. We define an SMC algorithm which is provably optimal in the sense that it explores each program order and read-from relation exactly once. This optimality result is strictly stronger than previous analogous optimality results, which also take coherence order into account. We have implemented our framework in the tool Tracer. Experiments show that Tracer can be significantly faster than state-of-the-art tools that can handle the RA semantics.

  • 34.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Bouajjani, Ahmed
    IRIF Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France.
    Ngo, Tuan Phong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Context-bounded analysis for POWER2017In: Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems: Part II, Springer, 2017, p. 56-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an under-approximate reachability analysis algorithm for programs running under the POWER memory model, in the spirit of the work on context-bounded analysis initiated by Qadeer et al. in 2005 for detecting bugs in concurrent programs (supposed to be running under the classical SC model). To that end, we first introduce a new notion of context-bounding that is suitable for reasoning about computations under POWER, which generalizes the one defined by Atig et al. in 2011 for the TSO memory model. Then, we provide a polynomial size reduction of the context-bounded state reachability problem under POWER to the same problem under SC: Given an input concurrent program P, our method produces a concurrent program P' such that, for a fixed number of context switches, running P' under SC yields the same set of reachable states as running P under POWER. The generated program P' contains the same number of processes as P and operates on the same data domain. By leveraging the standard model checker CBMC, we have implemented a prototype tool and applied it on a set of benchmarks, showing the feasibility of our approach.

  • 35.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems.
    Bouajjani, Ahmed
    Ngo, Tuan Phong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems.
    Replacing store buffers by load buffers in TSO2018In: Verification and Evaluation of Computer and Communication Systems, Springer, 2018, p. 22-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the weak memory model of Total Store Ordering (TSO). In the classical definition of TSO, an unbounded buffer is inserted between each process and the shared memory. The buffers contains pending store operations of the processes. We introduce a new model where we replace the store buffers by load buffers. In contrast to the classical model, the buffers now contain load operations. We show that the models have equivalent behaviors in the sense that the processes reach identical sets of states when the input program is run under the two models.

  • 36.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Bui, Phi Diep
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Counter-Example Guided Program Verification2016In: FM 2016: Formal Methods, Springer, 2016, p. 25-42Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Chen, Yu-Fang
    Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica .
    Holik, Lukas
    Brno University.
    Rezine, Ahmed
    Linköping University.
    Rümmer, Philipp
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    String Constraints for Verification2014In: Computer Aided Verification - 26th International Conference, {CAV} 2014, Held as Part of the Vienna Summer of Logic, {VSL} 2014, Vienna, Austria, July 18-22, 2014. Proceedings, Springer, 2014, p. 150-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a decision procedure for a logic that combines (i) word equations over string variables denoting words of arbitrary lengths, together with (ii) constraints on the length of words, and on (iii) the regular languages to which words belong. Decidability of this general logic is still open. Our procedure is sound for the general logic, and a decision procedure for a particularly rich fragment that restricts the form in which word equations are written. In contrast to many existing procedures, our method does not make assumptions about the maximum length of words. We have developed a prototypical implementation of our decision procedure, and integrated it into a CEGAR-based model checker for the analysis of programs encoded as Horn clauses. Our tool is able to automatically establish the correctness of several programs that are beyond the reach of existing methods.

  • 38.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Hofman, Piotr
    Mayr, Richard
    Kumar, K. Narayan
    Chennai Mathematical Institute, Chennai, India.
    Totzke, Patrick
    Infinite-state energy games2014In: Joint Meeting of the Twenty-Third EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic (CSL) and the Twenty-Ninth Annual ACM/IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (LICS), CSL-LICS '14, Vienna, Austria, July 14 - 18, 2014, New York: ACM Press, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy games are a well-studied class of 2-player turn-based games on a finite graph where transitions are labeled with integer vectors which represent changes in a multidimensional resource (the energy). One player tries to keep the cumulative changes non-negative in every component while the other tries to frustrate this.

    We consider generalized energy games played on infinite game graphs induced by pushdown automata (modelling recursion) or their subclass of one-counter automata.

    Our main result is that energy games are decidable in the case where the game graph is induced by a one-counter automaton and the energy is one-dimensional. On the other hand, every further generalization is undecidable: Energy games on one-counter automata with a 2-dimensional energy are undecidable, and energy games on pushdown automata are undecidable even if the energy is one-dimensional. Furthermore, we show that energy games and simulation games are inter-reducible, and thus we additionally obtain several new (un)decidability results for the problem of checking simulation preorder between pushdown automata and vector addition systems.

  • 39.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Rezine, Othmane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Verification of Directed Acyclic Ad Hoc Networks2013In: Formal Techniques for Distributed Systems: FORTE 2013, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 193-208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Stenman, Jari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Computing optimal reachability costs in priced dense-timed pushdown automata2014In: Language and Automata Theory and Applications: LATA 2014, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, p. 62-75Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Stenman, Jari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Zenoness for Timed Pushdown Automata2014In: Proceedings 15th International Workshop on Verification of Infinite-State Systems, {INFINITY} 2013, Hanoi, Vietnam, 14th October 2013., 2014, p. -47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Timed pushdown automata are pushdown automata extended with a finite set of real-valued clocks. Additionaly, each symbol in the stack is equipped with a value representing its age. The enabledness of a transition may depend on the values of the clocks and the age of the topmost symbol. Therefore, dense-timed pushdown automata subsume both pushdown automata and timed automata. We have previously shown that the reachability problem for this model is decidable. In this paper, we study the zenoness problem and show that it is EXPTIME-complete.

  • 42.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Clemente, Lorenzo
    Mayr, Richard
    Sandberg, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Stochastic Parity Games on Lossy Channel Systems2014In: Logical Methods in Computer Science, E-ISSN 1860-5974, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We give an algorithm for solving stochastic parity games with almost-sure winning conditions on lossy channel systems, under the constraint that both players are restricted to finitememory strategies. First, we describe a general framework, where we consider the class of 21/2-player games with almost-sure parity winning conditions on possibly infinite game graphs, assuming that the game contains a finite attractor. An attractor is a set of states (not necessarily absorbing) that is almost surely re-visited regardless of the players' decisions. We present a scheme that characterizes the set of winning states for each player. Then, we instantiate this scheme to obtain an algorithm for stochastic game lossy channel systems.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Dwarkadas, Sandhya
    University of Rochester, U.S.A..
    Rezine, Ahmed
    Linköping University.
    Shriraman, Arrvindh
    Simon Fraser University, Canada .
    Yunyun, Zhu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Verifying safety and liveness for the FlexTM hybrid transactional memory2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the verification of safety (strict serializability and abort consistency) and liveness obstruction and livelock freedom) for the hybrid transactional memory framework FlexTM. This framework allows for flexible implementations of transactional memories based on an adaptation of the MESI coherence protocol. FlexTM allows for both eager and lazy conflict resolution strategies. Like in the case of Software Transactional Memories, the verification problem is not trivial as the number of concurrent transactions, their size, and the number of accessed shared variables cannot be a priori bounded. This complexity is exacerbated by aspects that are specific to hardware and hybrid transactional memories. Our work takes into account intricate behaviours such as cache line based conflict detection, false sharing, invisible reads or non-transactional instructions. We carry out the first automatic verification of a hybrid transactional memory and establish, by adopting a small model approach, challenging properties such as strict serializability, abort consistency, and obstruction freedom for both an eager and a lazy conflict resolution strategies. We also detect an example that refutes livelock freedom. To achieve this, our prototype tool makes use of the latest antichain based techniques to handle systems with tens of thousands of states.

  • 44.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Haziza, Frédéric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Holík, Lukás
    Block me if you can!: Context-sensitive parameterized verification2014In: Static Analysis: SAS 2014, Springer, 2014, p. 1-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method for automatic verification of systems with a parameterized number of communicating processes, such as mutual exclusion protocols or agreement protocols. To that end, we present a powerful abstraction framework that uses an efficient and precise symbolic encoding of (infinite) sets of configurations. In particular, it generalizes downward-closed sets that have successfully been used in earlier approaches to parameterized verification. We show experimentally the efficiency of the method, on various examples, including a fine-grained model of Szymanski’s mutual exclusion protocol, whose correctness, to the best of our knowledge, has not been proven automatically by any other existing methods.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Haziza, Frédéric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Holík, Lukás
    Brno Univ Technol, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Parameterized verification through view abstraction2016In: International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer, ISSN 1433-2779, E-ISSN 1433-2787, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 495-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a simple and efficient framework for automatic verification of systems with a parametric number of communicating processes. The processes may be organized in various topologies such as words, multisets, rings, or trees. Our method needs to inspect only a small number of processes in order to show correctness of the whole system. It relies on an abstraction function that views the system from the perspective of a fixed number of processes. The abstraction is used during the verification procedure in order to dynamically detect cut-off points beyond which the search of the state space need not continue. We show that the method is complete for a large class of well quasi-ordered systems including Petri nets. Our experimentation on a variety of benchmarks demonstrate that the method is highly efficient and that it works well even for classes of systems with undecidable verification problems. In particular, the method handles the fine-grained and full version of Szymanski's mutual exclusion protocol, whose correctness, to the best of our knowledge, has not been proven automatically by any other existing methods.

  • 46.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Haziza, Frédéric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Holík, Lukáš
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    All for the price of few: (Parameterized verification through view abstraction)2013In: Verification, Model Checking, and Abstract Interpretation, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 476-495Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    vmcai2013
  • 47.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems.
    Liang, Chencheng
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Rümmer, Philipp
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems. Univ Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.
    Boosting Constrained Horn Solving by Unsat Core Learning2024In: Verification, Model Checking, and Abstract Interpretation / [ed] Rayna Dimitrova; Ori Lahav; Sebastian Wolff, Springer Nature, 2024, p. 280-302Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Relational Hyper-Graph Neural Network (R-HyGNN) was introduced in [1] to learn domain-specific knowledge from program verification problems encoded in Constrained Horn Clauses (CHCs). It exhibits high accuracy in predicting the occurrence of CHCs in counterexamples. In this research, we present an R-HyGNN-based framework called MUSHyperNet. The goal is to predict the Minimal Unsatisfiable Subsets (MUSes) (i.e., unsat core) of a set of CHCs to guide an abstract symbolic model checking algorithm. In MUSHyperNet, we can predict the MUSes once and use them in different instances of the abstract symbolic model checking algorithm. We demonstrate the efficacy of MUSHyperNet using two instances of the abstract symbolic modelchecking algorithm: Counter-Example Guided Abstraction Refinement (CEGAR) and symbolic model-checking-based (SymEx) algorithms. Our framework enhances performance on a uniform selection of benchmarks across all categories from CHC-COMP, solving more problems (6.1% increase for SymEx, 4.1% for CEGAR) and reducing average solving time (13.3% for SymEx, 7.1% for CEGAR).

  • 48.
    Abdulla, Parosh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Jonsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Trinh, Cong Quy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Automated Verification of Linearization Policies2016In: Automated Verification of Linearization Policies: 23rd International Symposium, SAS 2016, Edinburgh, UK, September 8-10, 2016, Proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel framework for automated verification of linearizability for concurrent data structures that implement sets, stacks, and queues. The framework requires the user to provide a linearization policy, which describes how linearization point placement in different concurrent threads affect each other; such linearization policies are often provided informally together with descriptions of new algorithms. We present a specification formalism for linearization policies which allows the user to specify, in a simple and concise manner, complex patterns including non-fixed linearization points. To automate verification, we extend thread-modular reasoning to bound the number of considered threads, and use a novel symbolic representation for unbounded heap structures that store data from an unbounded domain. We have implemented our framework in a tool and successfully used it to prove linearizability for a wide range of algorithms, including all implementations of concurrent sets, stacks, and queues based on singly-linked lists that are known to us from the literature.

  • 49.
    Abdullah, Jakaria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Dai, Gaoyang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Mohaqeqi, Morteza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Yi, Wang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Schedulability Analysis and Software Synthesis for Graph-Based Task Models with Resource Sharing2018In: Proc. 24th Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, IEEE Computer Society, 2018, p. 261-270Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Abdullah, Nazri
    et al.
    Universiti Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia, Malaysia .
    Kounelis, Ioannis
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Muftic, Sead
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Security Extensions for Mobile Commerce Objects2014In: SECURWARE 2014, The Eighth International Conference on Emerging Security Information, Systems and Technologies, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic commerce and its variance mobile commerce have tremendously increased their popularity in the last several years. As mobile devices have become the most popular mean to access and use the Internet, mobile commerce and its security are timely and very hot topics. Yet, today there is still no consistent model of various m–commerce applications and transactions, even less clear specification of their security. In order to address and solve those issues, in this paper, we first establish the concept of mobile commerce objects, an equivalent of virtual currencies, used for m–commerce transactions. We describe functionalities and unique characteristics of these objects; we follow with security requirements, and then offer some solutions – security extensions of these objects. All solutions are treated within the complete lifecycle of creation and use of the m–commerce objects.

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