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  • 1.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kreshchenko, Anastasia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fernandez Sala, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petkova, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of monoamine manipulations on the personality and gene expression of three-spined sticklebacks2019Data set
    Abstract [en]

    Among-individual behavioral differences (i.e. animal personality) are commonly observed across taxa, although the underlying, causal mechanisms of such differences are poorly understood. Animal personality has been implicated in correlations with physiological functions as well as affecting fitness-related traits. Variation in many aspects of monoamine systems, such as metabolite levels and gene polymorphisms, has been linked to behavioral variation. Therefore, here we investigated the potential role of monoamines in explaining individual variation in personality, using two common pharmaceuticals that respectively alter the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain: fluoxetine and ropinirole. We exposed three- spined sticklebacks, a species that shows animal personality, to either chemical alone or to a combination of the two chemicals, for 18 days. During the experiment, fish were assayed at four time points for the following personality traits: exploration, boldness, aggression and sociability. To quantify brain gene expression on short- and longer-term scales, fish were sampled at two time points. Our results show that monoamine manipulations influence fish behavior. Specifically, fish exposed to either fluoxetine or ropinirole were significantly bolder, and fish exposed to the two chemicals together tended to be bolder than control fish. Our monoamine manipulations did not alter the gene expression of monoamine or stress-associated neurotransmitter genes, but control, untreated fish showed covariation between gene expression and behavior. Specifically, exploration and boldness were predicted by genes in the dopaminergic, serotonergic and stress pathways, and sociability was predicted by genes in the dopaminergic and stress pathways. These results add further support to the links between monoaminergic systems and personality, and show that exposure to monoamines can causally alter animal personality.

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  • 2.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    The logic of fashion cycles2012In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 3, p. e32541-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cultural traits exhibit volatile dynamics, commonly dubbed fashions or fads. Here we show that realistic fashion-like dynamics emerge spontaneously if individuals can copy others' preferences for cultural traits as well as traits themselves. We demonstrate this dynamics in simple mathematical models of the diffusion, and subsequent abandonment, of a single cultural trait which individuals may or may not prefer. We then simulate the coevolution between many cultural traits and the associated preferences, reproducing power-law frequency distributions of cultural traits (most traits are adopted by few individuals for a short time, and very few by many for a long time), as well as correlations between the rate of increase and the rate of decrease of traits (traits that increase rapidly in popularity are also abandoned quickly and vice versa). We also establish that alternative theories, that fashions result from individuals signaling their social status, or from individuals randomly copying each other, do not satisfactorily reproduce these empirical observations.

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  • 3.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Katajamaa, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Is evolution of domestication driven by tameness? A selective review with focus on chickens2018In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 205, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication of animals offers unique possibilities to study evolutionary changes caused by similar selection pressures across a range of species. Animals from separate genera tend to develop a suite of phenotypic alterations referred to as "the domesticated phenotype". This involves changes in appearance, including loss of pigmentation, and alterations in body size and proportions. Furthermore, effects on reproduction and behaviour are typical. It is hypothesized that this recurring phenotype may be secondary effects of the increased tameness that is an inevitable first step in the domestication of any species. We first provide a general overview of observations and experiments from different species and then review in more detail a project attempting to recreate the initial domestication of chickens. Starting from an outbred population of Red Junglefowl, ancestors of all modem chickens, divergent lines were selected based on scores in a standardized fear-of-human test applied to all birds at 12 weeks of age. Up to the eighth selected generation, observations have been made on correlated effects of this selection on various phenotypes. The fear score had a significant heritability and was genetically correlated to several other behavioural traits. Furthermore, low-fear birds were larger at hatch, grew faster, laid larger eggs, had a modified metabolism and increased feed efficiency, had modified social behaviour and reduced brain size. Selection affected gene expression and DNA-methylation in the brains, but the genetic and epigenetic effects were not specifically associated with stress pathways. Further research should be focused on unraveling the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the correlated side-effects of reduced fear of humans.

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  • 4.
    Ahlen, Ingemar
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, skoglig resurshållning.
    Skydd av biotoper för bevarande av vitryggig hackspett i nedre Dalälven1976Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den vitryggiga hackspetten Dendrocopos leucotos, som ursprungligen förekommit över nästan hela landet, har under de senaste hundra åren blivit allt sällsyntare och finns nu, förutom i några spridda förekomster av enstaka par eller ensamma fåglar, i landet endast kvar med en fast population i nedre Dalälvsområdet mellan Avesta och Älvkarleby.

    De hotade hackspettarterna har sedan 1974 varit föremål för ekologisk forskning och inventeringsarbete. I bilagda ”information om projekt hackspettars ekologi” 1976-01-18 redovisas projektets syfte och kortfattad redogörelse för arbetet under 1975 ges. Hänvisning kan också göras till tidskriften Vår Fågelvärlds första nummer 1976 där resultat av 1973 års riksinventering av gråspett och vitryggig hackspett redovisas.

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  • 5.
    Ahlrot, Ulrica
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Welfare in zoo kept felids: A study of resource usage2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a large number of felid species being endangered they are subjects of conservation projects both in situ and ex situ. Keeping felids in zoos are problematic with stereotypic behaviours such as pacing and reproduction difficulties often occurring. The aim of this study was to review research and zoo husbandry knowledge about which resources are most important for the welfare of zoo kept felids, and in addition perform behavioural observations in seven felid species in four Swedish zoos to try to find an order of priority of resources. Observations were performed during opening hours in 36 sessions per species and zoo. The results showed that studies of felid resource usage are missing. Zoo husbandry practice is probably based mainly on traditions and anecdotal knowledge. The observations showed that except for minor differences felids behave similarly regardless of species but the use of resources varies. Small felid species seems to be hiding rather than pacing as a way of coping. Elevated resources and areas as well as numerous hiding places are important to felids but many factors might affect the choice of resting places. Therefore it is important to provide the felids with multiple choices. It is also important to evaluate both species and individuals when designing enclosures and providing resources. More multi-institutional studies with large number of individuals of all zoo kept felid species are needed to gather knowledge about felids needs and preferences of resources.

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  • 6.
    Almberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Variation in proactive - reactive personality types in the red junglefowl2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown in many species that individuals exhibit consistent differences in behaviour over time and/or across situations. These differences in behaviour are called personality. One way to categorise personality types typically used for rodents, is along a proactive-reactive gradient, which describes how individuals cope with stressful challenges. Proactive individuals pay less attention to their environment, form routines easily and take longer to adapt when routines are broken compared to reactive individuals. Avian species have to date rarely been described along this gradient, thus the generality of this description across species is unclear. The present study has investigated variation in proactivity-reactivity in red junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus). To observe the chicks’ coping styles, a proactive-reactive test was conducted where the chicks were trained to form a routine, which was then broken. Their behavioural response to this was recorded and used as a measure for proactivity-reactivity. The behavioural response was then linked to individual behavioural variation in additional personality assays. Individuals that were more vigilant in the proactive-reactive test often uttered stress calls and took longer to complete the test. In contrast, individuals that walked more and did not utter stress calls had a shorter time to complete the test. These findings can be used to describe proactive red junglefowl chicks; those that are more stressed when routines are broken, compared to calmer reactive individuals. I found no difference in routine formation between proactive and reactive red junglefowl chicks, suggesting that what describes proactive and reactive individuals may vary across species.

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  • 7.
    Almbro, Maria
    et al.
    Centre for Evolutionary Biology, University of Western Australia.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Season, sex and flight muscle investment affect take-off performance in the hibernating small tortoiseshell butterfly Agalis urticae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)2011In: The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, ISSN 0022-4324, Vol. 44, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flight ability is generally expected to increase with relative flight muscle mass. Changes in weight can therefore be expected to influence the capacity to rapidly take-off, which can determine mating success and predator avoidance. This study examined the influence of relative flight muscle mass, sex, and season on free take-off flight ability in a butterfly model (Aglais urticae) that undergoes adult winter hibernation. Mass change and take-off flight ability (velocity and take-off angle), was predicted to fluctuate with season (before, during and after hibernation) and sex (due to reproductive investment). Our results indeed showed changes in take-off ability in relation to both parameters. Females maintained velocity across seasons but reduced take-off angles during and after hibernation. Male flight speed increased during and after hibernation, whereas take-off angles were significantly reduced during hibernation. Finally, we showed that investment in relative flight muscle mass increased velocity in female, but not in male butterflies.

  • 8.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

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    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation
  • 9.
    Andersson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. IFM.
    Dogs´understanding of human pointing gestures2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the ability for animals to understand human communication signals and the communication between animals and humans, scientists often investigate the understanding of human gestural cues. Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) which have a long history of co-evolution with humans have been shown to make good use of human gestural cues. In the present study I investigated whether dogs in general understand a human pointing gesture and if there are differences between sex, age or breeds. In total 46 dogs of different breeds participated in the study. The study was carried out in a dog center in Linköping, Hundens och djurens beteendecenter. To test if dogs understand human pointing gestures, a two-way object choice test were used, where an experimenter pointed at a baited bowl at a distance of three meter from the dog. The results showed that dogs in general can understand human pointing gestures. However, no significant differences were found for sex, age or breeds. As a conclusion, I found that dogs in general can understand human pointing gestures, but sex, age or breed did not affect the ability.

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  • 10.
    Andersson, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Social environment influences impulsivity in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) chicks2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cognition (i.e. how individuals perceive, process and react to environmental cues) is fundamental to all animals’ life. Despite this, what explains variation in cognitive abilities is still mainly unclear. Environment is assumed to influences cognitive variation, but the mechanisms for this are still unknown. According to the social intelligence hypothesis, living in a group with a rich social environment, generate challenges that can enhance cognitive abilities. Impulsivity (to not be able to inhibit impulses), one aspect of cognition, may be influenced by the social environment, however this has not yet been experimentally tested. Impulsivity can complicate life, both for humans and animals. In humans, high levels of impulsivity and lack of self-control are associated with addictions and psychiatric disorders, thus is considered to be maladaptive. In animals, impulsivity correlates with stereotypies. To improve our understanding of impulsivity, I experimentally investigated how early social environment affects individual variation in impulsivity. To test this, red junglefowl chicks were used because their group living nature, and our accumulated knowledge on their cognition and behaviour. To manipulate the social environment, chicks either grew up in larger groups (with 17 individuals) or smaller groups (with 7 individuals). During the chicks’ first five weeks of life, three aspects of impulsivity were tested; impulsive action, persistence (in a detour reaching test) and routine formation (in a reversal learning test). Chicks that grew up in larger groups tended to perform less impulsive actions, while social environment did not explain variation in persistence. Chicks from larger groups had less strong routine formation compared to chicks raised in smaller groups. This partially supports the social intelligence hypothesis, and suggest that early social life can affect cognitive traits and explain individual variation in such.

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    Social environment influences impulsivity in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) chicks
  • 11.
    Aplin, L. M.
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Univ Calif Davis, Dept Anthropol, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Firth, J. A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Farine, D. R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Univ Calif Davis, Dept Anthropol, Davis, CA 95616 USA.;Smithsonian Trop Res Inst, Ancon, Italy..
    Voelkl, B.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Crates, R. A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Culina, A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Garroway, C. J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Hinde, C. A.
    Wageningen Univ, Dept Anim Sci, Behav Ecol Grp, NL-6700 AP Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Kidd, L. R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Psorakis, I.
    Univ Oxford, Math Inst, Oxford, England..
    Milligan, N. D.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Radersma, R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Evolutionary Ecol Unit, Lund, Sweden..
    Verhelst, B. L.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Sheldon, B. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Consistent individual differences in the social phenotypes of wild great tits, Parus major2015In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 108, p. 117-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite growing interest in animal social networks, surprisingly little is known about whether individuals are consistent in their social network characteristics. Networks are rarely repeatedly sampled; yet an assumption of individual consistency in social behaviour is often made when drawing conclusions about the consequences of social processes and structure. A characterization of such social phenotypes is therefore vital to understanding the significance of social network structure for individual fitness outcomes, and for understanding the evolution and ecology of individual variation in social behaviour more broadly. Here, we measured foraging associations over three winters in a large PIT-tagged population of great tits, and used a range of social network metrics to quantify individual variation in social behaviour. We then examined repeatability in social behaviour over both short (week to week) and long (year to year) timescales, and investigated variation in repeatability across age and sex classes. Social behaviours were significantly repeatable across all timescales, with the highest repeatability observed in group size choice and unweighted degree, a measure of gregariousness. By conducting randomizations to control for the spatial and temporal distribution of individuals, we further show that differences in social phenotypes were not solely explained by within-population variation in local densities, but also reflected fine-scale variation in social decision making. Our results provide rare evidence of stable social phenotypes in a wild population of animals. Such stable social phenotypes can be targets of selection and may have important fitness consequences, both for individuals and for their social-foraging associates.

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  • 12.
    Aronsson, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Colour patterns in warning displays2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In aposematism a prey species use bright colours, often combined with a black contrasting pattern, to signal unprofitability as prey to potential predators. Although there are several different hypotheses about the presence of these internally contrasting patterns, there is little experimental evidence of any beneficial effects. In this thesis I have used bird predators and artificial prey signals to investigate if the contrasting internal patterns in warning displays may have evolved to increase signal efficacy, especially regarding the speed of avoidance learning. In paper I the relative importance of colour and pattern in avoidance learning was studied. The conclusion was that birds primarily attend to colour, not pattern, when learning the discrimination, which was further supported by the results in paper II-IV, all suggesting a secondary role of patterns. In paper II I show that predators may to some degree use patterns for discrimination, if they convey important information about prey quality. The predators showed a hierarchical way of learning warning colour components, where colour is learned to a higher degree than pattern. In paper III I investigate if internal contrasting patterns promote avoidance learning by increasing conspicuousness as prey-to-background contrast does. The study did not support this idea, as the presence of internal black patterns did not improve avoidance learning on a colour matching background. In paper IV, however, I show that the presence of many internal colour boundaries resulted in faster avoidance learning on a multi-coloured background, and predator generalization favoured more internal boundaries, while there was no effect of pattern regularity. From these studies I conclude that internal pattern contrasts may function to increase the efficacy of the warning colour, its salience, and as a means for aposematic prey to be discriminated from harmful mimics. However, the major finding is the importance of colour over pattern.

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  • 13.
    Aronsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Colour and pattern similarity in mimicry - evidence for a hierarchical discriminative learning of warning colour pattern components.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Aronsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Evidence of signaling benefits to contrasting internal color boundaries in warning coloration2013In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 349-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the common existence of regular patterning in aposematic prey animals makes them stand out from the background, improving detection and recognition. Another suggestion is that internal patterns could have a similar positive effect on predator aversion learning as prey-to-background contrast. We used wild caught blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and artificial prey signals to investigate if internal color boundaries, pattern regularity and pattern symmetry affect learning. Birds in different treatments were trained, on a complex background, to discriminate between artificial prey with different nonrewarding color stimuli with a black pattern and rewarding stimuli without a black pattern, followed by a generalization test. This study provides evidence of learning benefits to internally contrasting patterns as the striped prey stimuli were learned faster than the unstriped. Also, we found no beneficial effects of pattern regularity and symmetry. The birds generalized more between prey with different black patterns than to the profitable prey, suggesting that color is of foremost importance. The generalization test also showed a greater avoidance of striped than that of unstriped prey, suggesting some attention on patterns. Thus, internal patterning may affect signal salience and in some circumstances benefit prey due to both a faster avoidance learning and generalization behavior.

  • 15.
    Aronsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Why do aposematic prey often have contrasting internal patterns: Evidence of benefits through predator avoidance learning and generalization.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Arvidsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pagmar, David
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uddén, Julia
    Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    When did you stop speaking to yourself?: Age-related differences in adolescents' world knowledge-based audience design2022In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 9, no 11, article id 220305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to adapt utterances to the world knowledge of one’s addressee is undeniably ubiquitous in human social cognition, but its development and association with other cognitive mechanisms during adolescence have not been studied. In an online production task, we measured the ability of children entering adolescence (ages 11–12, M = 11.8, N=29, 17 girls) and adolescents (ages 15–16, M = 15.9, N=29, 17 girls) to tailor referential expressions in accordance with the inferred world knowledge of their addressee—an ability we refer to as world knowledge-based audience design (AD). A post-test survey showed that both age groups held similar assumptions about the addressees’ knowledge of referents, but the younger age group did not consistently adapt their utterances in accordance with these assumptions during online production, resulting in a significantly improved AD behaviour across age groups. We also investigated the reliance of AD on executive functions (EF). Executive functioning (as reflected by performance on the Wisconsin card sorting task) increased significantly with age, but did not explain the age-related increase in AD performance. We thus provide evidence in support of an adolescent development of world knowledge-based AD over and above development of EF.

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  • 17.
    Axelsson, Emma L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. School of Psychology, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, 2308, Australia.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Humans' Pupillary Contagion Extends to Cats and Dogs2021In: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 16, no 1-2, p. 153-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When viewing pupil sizes change, our own pupil sizes change, a phenomenon known as pupillary contagion. This involuntary response is reliable between humans, but can be affected by familiarity and empathy. We investigated whether the pupillary contagion response occurs for humans viewing familiar species - cats and dogs - and whether it is modulated by preferences for particular species. Pupil sizes were measured while viewing cat, dog, and human images with small, medium, and large pupils. Trait empathy, cat and dog affiliation and experience were subsequently measured. There was an image pupil size effect, but this did not vary by species. There was greater pupil size change to cats and dogs than to humans, but this might have been due to the varying size and appearance of the cats and dogs. Greater dog affiliation was also associated with smaller overall pupil size change to dogs and larger change to humans, but this did not interact with image pupil size. Dog affiliation might be associated with less arousal to dog images. In sum, pupillary contagion responses indicate a spontaneous transfer of information about internal states and the findings suggest that humans are sensitive to this across species, regardless of individual preference.

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  • 18.
    Axling, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Intraspecific divergence and phenotypic plasticity in behavioural profiles of teleost fish2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioural differences between and within individuals can greatly affect the outcome of behavioural studies. In addition, behavioural interactions between individuals can compromise the health and welfare of captive fish. In paper I, I investigate the relationship between locomotory activity, boldness and aggressive behaviour in ~2000 hatchery-reared Baltic salmon parr (Salmo salar L), with the aim to predict aggression level from activity and boldness displayed in the open field test. We found that activity and boldness were positively correlated while they were not correlated with aggression level measured in the mirror stimulation test. Surprisingly, medium and low aggressive fish were the most active, while highly aggressive fish showed only average activity. We conclude that the open field test, although efficient, does not accurately predict aggressive behaviour. However, the mirror stimulation test can be used for high-throughput aggression profiling of juvenile salmon. In paper II, I tested a subset of the salmon parr for a second time, to quantify behavioural consistency between trials and to investigate if phenotypic plasticity was related to aggression level. Our results show that activity was the most stable behavioural variable between trials. Even though aggression was not consistent between tests, we found that the fish displaying a low level of aggression in the first test were less consistent in their behaviour than highly aggressive fish. In paper III, we compared the behavioural development of zebrafish larvae of two strains, the AB strain and 5th generation offspring of wild-caught zebrafish from India. Individual larvae were screened for activity and boldness at the age of 5-, 7-, 12- and 30-days post fertilization using an open field test with alternating light and dark cycles. Furthermore, we analysed mRNA expression of genes encoding serotonin, dopamine, galanin and opioid receptor subunits, as well the peptide neurotransmitter spexin in whole brain samples from juveniles, with the aim to investigate potential neuroendocrine mechanisms of divergent behavioural profiles. Our results show that larvae from the wild strain had higher activity and greater variance in their behaviour than AB larvae, under both light and dark conditions. Wild larvae also had significantly higher expression of dopamine receptor subunit drd2b at 30 days post fertilization, a difference that could be related to difference in activity. In conclusion, the results presented in this thesis contribute to our understanding of animal behavioural profiles, at both an intraspecific and intraindividual level. 

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  • 19.
    Axling, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Vossen, Laura
    Division of Anatomy and Physiology, Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Peterson, Erik
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agriculture.
    Winberg, Svante
    Locomotory activity is more consistent over trials than thigmotaxis and aggressive behaviour in sea-ranched Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L.)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current study we examined the behavioural consistency over time of activity, boldness and aggressive behaviour in Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L) parr. We performed a combined open field and mirror stimulation test on two test occasions, recording three behavioural variables: duration moving in the whole arena (activity), duration in centre zone (boldness) and distance between nose and mirror (aggression) during the mirror stimulation test. Of these behavioural variables activity proved the most consistent between trials. Moreover, the fish that displayed least aggressive behaviour in the first trial had the largest variance in their behavioural variables compared to highly aggressive fish, which showed more consistent levels of the behavioural variables. Overall, aggression level in the first test was a strong predictor of the other behavioural variables, in addition to significant effects of water temperature and body weight. In conclusion, our results show that juvenile Baltic salmon classified according to aggression level during the first test also differ in other aspects of their behavioural profile, and highly aggressive salmon are less phenotypically plastic compared to low aggressive fish. 

  • 20.
    Babaoglu, Irem
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Long-Term Behavioral Effects of Exposure to Imprinting Stimuli in Chicks(Gallus gallus domesticus)2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Filial imprinting is a type of early developmental learning in which certain species buildstrong and mostly irreversible connections to objects or individuals. These connections couldbe shaped by the contribution of several stimuli including the fragments of auditory and visual components. This study aims to describe the duration of the imprinting process as well asestimate long-term behavioural changes in chicks. In this experiment, a total of 78 chicks were used out of which 39 were exposed to imprinting stimuli and the rest served as control.We applied three different tests and replicated them after the imprinting procedure. These tests are Imprinting Preference Test, Social Preference Test and Social isolation Test. Imprinted chicks had a constantly shorter latency to approach the imprinting stimuli for boththose two experiments with or without novel objects, whereas no preferences spent time inimprinting stimuli. However, introducing a novel object affected imprinting preferences more in terms of spending a longer time around the hen zone. During social isolation, the control group showed a relatively higher rate of distress calls even though our results don’t bear on the significant effect of filial imprinting on changes in distress calling. Overall, this study suggests the presence of long-lasting filial imprinting that is more triggered by external situations.

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  • 21. Barber, I.
    et al.
    Svensson, P. A.
    Effects of experimental Schistocephalus solidus infections on growth, morphology and sexual development of female three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus2003In: Parasitology, ISSN 0031-1820, E-ISSN 1469-8161, Vol. 126, p. 359-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of naturally infected hosts in studies attempting to identify parasite-induced changes in host biology is problematical because it does not eliminate the possibility that infection may be a consequence, rather than a cause, of host trait variation. In addition, uncontrolled concomitant infections may confound results. In this study we experimentally infected individual laboratory-bred female three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus L. with the pseudophyllidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus [Muller], and compared the morphology and growth patterns of infected females with sham-exposed controls over a 16-week period. Fish were fed a ration of 8% body weight per day. Non-invasive image analysis techniques allowed the growth of individual plerocercoids to be tracked in vivo throughout the course of infection, and patterns of host and parasite growth were determined. Females that developed infections diverged morphometrically from unexposed control females and exposed-uninfected females at 6 weeks post-infection, with the width of the body at the pectoral fins giving the earliest indication of infection success. When including the plerocercoid, infected females gained weight more quickly than controls, but when plerocercoid weight was removed this trend was reversed. There was no effect of infection on the increase in fish length. Plerocercoids grew at different rates in individual hosts, and exhibited measurable sustained weight increases of up to 10% per day. Final estimates of plerocercoid weight from morphometric analysis prior to autopsy were accurate to within +/-17% of actual plerocercoid weight. At autopsy, infected female sticklebacks had significantly lower perivisceral fat reserves but had developed significantly larger ovaries than controls. The results are discussed in relation to previous studies examining natural infections, and the value of utilizing experimental infections to examine ecological aspects of host-parasite interactions is discussed.

  • 22. Barber, I.
    et al.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Synchrony between parasite development and host behaviour change2003In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 63 Supp A, p. 246-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Barber, I.
    et al.
    Walker, P.
    Svensson, P. A.
    Behavioural responses to simulated avian predation in female three spined sticklebacks the effect of experimental Schistocephalus solidus infections2004In: Behaviour, ISSN 0005-7959, E-ISSN 1568-539X, Vol. 141, p. 1425-1440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plerocercoid larvae of Schistocephalus solidus are common parasites of three-spined sticklebacks that require the ingestion of stickleback hosts by birds to complete their life cycle. Amongst wild-caught sticklebacks, infection is associated with a reduction in antipredator behaviour; however, to date no study has examined the escape responses of experimentally infected sticklebacks, and thus assigning causality remains difficult. Here, we compare aspects of the antipredator behaviour of five experimentally infected female sticklebacks with shamexposed controls over a 16 post-exposure week period. During weeks 1-7 post-exposure, the escape responses of infected fish did not differ significantly from those of sham-exposed fish. However, over weeks 9-15, when infected fish had developed plerocercoids of >50 mg—the size at which they become infective to birds —a lower proportion of infected fish performed directional responses and reached cover within 2 s of the strike. Infected fish also performed a lower frequency of ‘staggered dashes’, and a higher frequency of ‘slow swims’, than shamexposed fish over weeks 9-15. Amongst sham-exposed fish, re-emergence from cover was uncommon throughout the study, but infected fish regularly left cover during weeks 9-15. Our results support those of previous studies examining behavioural change in naturally infected fish and, although other explanations remain possible, our finding that behaviour change in experimentally-infected fish is limited to hosts harbouring single infective parasites provides further evidence that the behaviour changes may be parasite adaptations.

  • 24.
    Barkerud, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Welfare Evaluation of Stunning Practices for Farmed Fish in the European Union2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal method for stunning animals before slaughter should result in instantaneous and irreversible insensibility. Today, there are various stunning and slaughter practices used around the world for farmed fish. With aquaculture being a growing food sector, the welfare of the animals used has become increasingly important in the consciousness of consumers, researchers and regulatory bodies. With growing research into the subject matter, an overview to summarize and examine how these practices impact on the welfare of the fish, and how well they conform to animal welfare legislation, is warranted to minimize the suffering of farmed fish. Stunning practices used in aquaculture include methods such as electrical and percussive stunning, carbon dioxide and asphyxiation. Each with its own level of effectiveness in terms of how fast the method results in loss of consciousness, whether or not the effect is reversible and how the welfare of the fish is affected as determined by behavioural and physiological stress responses. It was concluded that there is no unambiguous answer as to which stunning method is optimal in regard to animal welfare in modern day aquaculture. The optimal method for a given facility is influenced by factors like practicalities relating to each individual method as well as legislation on EU and national level. Suggestions were made for future research. 

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    Welfare Evaluation of Stunning Practices for Farmed Fish in the European Union
  • 25. Behrens, Jane W.
    et al.
    von Friesen, Lisa W.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Ericsson, Philip
    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel
    Persson, Anders
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    van Deurs, Mikael
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Personality- and size-related metabolic performance in invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus)2020In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 215, article id 112777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differences between individuals in behavioral type (i.e. animal personality) are ecologically and evolutionarily important because they can have significant effects on fitness components such as growth and predation risk. In the present study we are used the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) from an established population in controlled experiments to examine the relationships among personality, metabolic performance, and growth rate (inferred as size-at-age). Boldness was measured as the time to return to normal behavior after a simulated predator attack, where fish with shorter freezing times were categorized as "bold" and fish with longer times were categorized as "shy." We show that bold fish have significantly higher standard metabolic rate (SMR) than their shy conspecifics, whereas there was no difference between personality types in their maximum metabolic rate (MMR) or aerobic scope (AS). Bold fish furthermore had a smaller size-at-age as compared to shy fish. Together this provides evidence of a metabolic underpinning of personality where the high-SMR bold fish require more resources to sustain basic life functions than their low-SMR shy conspecifics, indicating that bold round goby from established populations with high densities (and high competition for food) pay a price of reduced growth rate.

  • 26.
    Beltéky, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Beatrix
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gene expression of behaviorally relevant genes in the cerebral hemisphere changes after selection for tameness in Red Junglefowl.2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e0177004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of domestication in animals has led to alterations in behavior, physiology and phenotypic traits, changes that may be driven by correlations with reduced fear of humans. We used Red Junglefowl, ancestors of all domesticated chickens selected for either high or low fear of humans for five generations to study the effects of selection on gene transcription in the cerebral hemisphere, which is heavily involved in behaviour control. A total of 24 individuals from the parental generation as well as from the fifth selected generation were used. Twenty-two genes were significantly differentially expressed at p < 0.05 after false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Those genes that were upregulated in the low fearful animals were found to be involved in neural functions. Gene ontology and pathway analysis revealed enrichment for terms associated with behavioural processes. We conclude that five generations of divergent selection for high or low tameness has significantly changed gene expression patterns in the cerebral hemisphere in the Red Junglefowl population used here, which could underlie a range of changes in the domestic phenotype.

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  • 27.
    Bergvall, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The domestication effects on social support in chickens (Gallus gallus)2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When animals are stressed they use a trait called social support to alleviate their stress responses. With domestication many traits from the ancestor red junglefowl have changed in the domesticated breed white leghorn. White leghorns are bred to be able to live in large groups where it becomes hard to recognize every chicken. They are therefore not as dependent of familiar stimuli birds for social support as red junglefowl. Our hypotheses were that red jungle males would be more interested in unfamiliar stimuli birds than white leghorn male before stress due to their territoriality. We tested total 56 chickens in an open field test. The test arena was divided in three zones and the time the focal birds spent in each zone was recorded. The focal bird was recorded in 300 seconds before being stressed by being suspended in a net and then recorded again in 300 seconds. The results showed that social support and social behaviour differs between females and males for both breeds. No significant differences were found between the breeds. There was a tendency for significant of breed (P=0.08) effects in the central zone unstressed. The two interactions before stressed between breed and sex, central zone (P<0.01) and unfamiliar zone (P<0.01) had significant effects. We observed fights between white leghorn males and familiar stimuli. Waltzing did also occur in red jungle males in front of unfamiliar. In conclusion, numeric differences can be seen but not large enough to be significant and our hypotheses are not confirmed.

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  • 28.
    Bergvall, Ulrika Alm
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Plant secondary compounds and the frequency of food types affect food choice by mammalian herbivores2005In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 86, no 9, p. 2450-2460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated food choice in individual fallow deer (Dama dama) encountering different relative frequencies of food types in the form of bowls containing pellets with either high or low concentrations of hydrolyzable tannin. We performed two similar experiments, one with large and one with small differences in tannic acid concentration. With small differences in tannic acid concentration, the ratio of the consumption per low- and high-tannin bowl was independent of frequency of occurrence, but with large differences in tannic acid concentration, we found frequency-dependent food choice. The deer ate proportionally less from high-tannin bowls if these occurred at low relative frequency. Variation between frequency treatments in the average order of encounter of bowl types might have produced this effect, because we found that the deer left a high-tannin bowl more quickly if they had switched to it from a low-tannin bowl. We argue that the perceived contrast between the tastes of different food types can play a role for food choice by mammalian herbivores.

  • 29.
    Berio, Fidji
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Morerod, Camille
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Qi, Xuewei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Di Santo, Valentina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ontogenetic Plasticity in Shoaling Behavior in a Forage Fish under Warming2023In: Integrative and Comparative Biology, ISSN 1540-7063, E-ISSN 1557-7023, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 730-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shoaling behavior is known to increase survival rates during attacks from predators, minimize foraging time, favor mating, and potentially increase locomotor efficiency. The onset of shoaling typically occurs during the larval phase, but it is unclear how it may improve across ontogenetic stages in forage fishes. Warming is known to increase metabolic rates during locomotion in solitary fish, and shoaling species may adjust their collective behavior to offset the elevated costs of swimming at higher temperatures. In this study, we quantified the effects of warming on shoaling performance across the ontogeny of a small forage fish, zebrafish (Danio rerio) at different speeds. Shoals of larval, juvenile, and adult zebrafish were acclimated at two temperatures (28°C and 32°C), and metabolic rates were quantified prior to and following nonexhaustive exercise at high speed. Shoals of five individuals were filmed in a flow tank to analyze the kinematics of collective movement. We found that zebrafish improve shoaling swimming performance from larvae to juveniles to adults. In particular, shoals become more cohesive, and both tail beat frequency (TBF) and head-to-tail amplitude decrease with ontogeny. Early life stages have higher thermal sensitivity in metabolic rates and TBF especially at high speeds, when compared to adults. Our study shows that shoaling behavior and thermal sensitivity improve as zebrafish shift from larval to juvenile to adult stages. 

  • 30.
    Bessa Ferreira, Vitor Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Tours, France.
    Dutour, Mylene
    Univ Western Australia, Australia.
    Oscarsson, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gjöen, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of domestication on responses of chickens and red junglefowl to conspecific calls: A pilot study2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 12, article id e0279553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beyond physical and zootechnical characteristics, the process of animal domestication has also altered how domesticated individuals, compared to their wild counterparts, perceive, process, and interact with their environment. Little is known, however, on whether and how domestication altered the perception of conspecific calls on both domesticated and wild breeds. In the present work, we compared the vigilance behavior of domestic and captiveborn wild fowl following the playback of chicken alarm calls and contentment calls (control). The playback tests were performed on four different breeds/lines. We first compared the behavioral reaction of domesticated White Leghorn (WL, a breed selected for egg production) and Red Junglefowl (RJF) hens (ancestor of domestic chickens). We also compared the behavior of Red Junglefowl hens selected for high or low fear of humans (RJF HF and RJF LF, respectively), a proxy to investigate early effects of domestication. Contrary to our expectations, no breed/line reacted accordingly to the calls, as the increase in vigilance behavior after the playback calls was similar for both alarm and contentment calls. Although no call discrimination differences were found, breeds did differ on how they reacted/habituated to the calls. Overall, WL were more vigilant than RJF, and birds from the RJF LF line decreased their vigilance over testing days, while this was not the case for the RJF HF line. These results suggest that birds under commercial-like conditions are unable to discriminate between alarm and contentment calls. Interestingly, domestication and selection for low fear of humans may have altered how birds react to vocal stimuli. It is important to consider that farmed animals may interpret and be affected by the vocalizations of their conspecifics in unexpected ways, which warrants further investigation.

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  • 31.
    Bjällerhag, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Behaviours and experiences as indicators for the result in a behavioural test for dogs2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2005 Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) started a breeding program of military working dogs. The dogs leave SAF’s kennel at an age of 8 weeks and live with puppy raisers. To evaluate the suitability of dogs for military work the dogs conduct a behavioural test at an age of 15-18 months. An “Index value” is extracted from this behavioural test. The puppy raisers answered a modified version of Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) when the dogs were approximately 12 months old. Answered questionnaires and results from the behavioural test were obtained for 59 dogs. Dogs that had passed the behavioural test had tendency for higher scores for “Trainability” (p = 0.078) and “If lived with other animals” (p = 0.066). Failing dogs had significantly higher score for “Stranger Directed Fear” (p = 0.006), ”Non-Social Fear” (p = 0.005), “Dog Directed Fear” (p = 0.021), “Hours of daily activation” (p = 0.001), “Mounting objects” (p = 0.012), and a tendency for higher risk of “Urinating when home alone” (p = 0.058). In a regressions between the “Index value” and the values of the questions from C-BARQ, the “Index value” was negatively correlated to “Stranger Directed Fear” (p = 0.002), “Non-social Fear” (p = 0.003), and “Dog Directed Fear” (p = 0.006). The “Index value” was positively correlated to “Trainability” (p = 0.013), “Hours left home alone” (p=0.043), “Hyperactive” (p = 0.018), “Chases shadows/light spots” (p = 0.043), and a positive tendency for “Chewing on inappropriate objects” (p = 0.075). From a PCA at the categories in C-BARQ, 3 components were extracted. All three components had a correlation to the “Index value”. The results show that the use of C-BARQ can indicate whether the dog will pass the behavioural test or not.

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  • 32.
    Björklund Aksoy, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Do potentially seal-safe pingers deter harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the vicinity of gillnets and thereby reduce bycatch?2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Incidental bycatch in gillnets is a substantial threat to small cetaceans. Using Acoustic Deterrent Devices, “pingers”, have successfully reduced bycatch of harbour porpoises in gillnets. However, seals can use pingers as “dinner-bells” to easier find gillnets in order to raid and destroy them, further aggravating the existing conflicts between seals and coastal fisheries. Therefore, in the present study, the efficiency of two alleged “seal-safe” pingers, an experimental Banana pinger “SSB” and a Future Oceans F70 pinger “FO”, in deterring harbour porpoises from the vicinity of gillnets and thereby reducing bycatch in commercial gillnet fisheries, was tested. This was done by deploying click detectors, “C-PODs”, recording Detection Positive Minutes per hour, at each end of gillnets, provided with the two pinger types or no pingers at all. Bycatch instances were recorded into logbooks by participating fishermen and verified using video footage from on-board video cameras. Results showed that video monitoring was a reliable method for verifying the number of bycatches of porpoises and seals, but not seabirds, recorded in the fishermen’s logbooks. The experimental SSB pingers and the FO pingers significantly reduced porpoise presence, measured as Detection Positive Minutes per hour in the vicinity of the nets, compared to gillnets without pingers. However, the sample size was too small to yield a significant result regarding the bycatch reducing efficiency and dinner bell effect of the experimental pingers. Nevertheless, bycatch trends suggest that pingers did in fact reduce porpoise bycatch. Although both successful, FO pingers were slightly more efficient in deterring porpoises than SSB pingers. The SSB pinger sounds had bigger directionality variations than the FO pinger, which may have affected its deterrent effects. Therefore, additional trials are needed to further investigate this aspect.

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  • 33.
    Björklund Aksoy, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. 2015.
    Effects of serotonin on personality in field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus)2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Animal personality can be defined as a set of physiological and behavioral characteristics that differ between individuals, but are consistent over time and across situations. The evolution of individual differences in behavior that are consistent over time and situations is still not clear. Our understanding of why animals have personality can be improved by investigating the underlying physiological mechanisms of animal behavior. Serotonin is a key monoamine that serves as a physiological modulator of animal behavior. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are a group of chemicals that increase levels of serotonin in the brain. Fluoxetine is one such chemical and is used to treat depression in humans. In the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus), increased levels of serotonin have been linked to higher activity and boldness, which are both personality traits. In the current study, the effects of induced serotonin on activity, exploration, boldness and aggression was investigated. My results show that injecting fluoxetine causes substantial changes in behavioral traits used to describe personality in field crickets. This result is opposite to previous studies, as serotonin induced individuals were less active, less explorative, and won less fights, compared to control individuals. This could be due to serotonin existing naturally within the circulatory system of the field cricket, whereas fluoxetine is a manufactured chemical intended for human receptors, or that fluoxetine has a similar effect in modulating personality in field crickets as in humans. Since fluoxetine acts similarly in field crickets as in humans, an increased understanding of the effects of induced serotonin on different behaviors in field crickets could be beneficial for treating psychological illnesses.

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  • 34.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Can the song of male birds attract other males? An experiment with the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca1982In: Bird Behavior, ISSN 0156-1383, Vol. 4, p. 42-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Male contests in the Scarlet rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus) in relation to asymmetries in resource holding power and pairing status1989In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 25, p. 137-140Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Mate choice is not important for female reproductive success in the common rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus)1990In: The AUK: A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, ISSN 0004-8038, E-ISSN 1938-4254, Vol. 107, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Microgeographic variation in the song of the Scarlet rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus1989In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 20, p. 255-264Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Möller, Anders Pape
    Sundberg, Jan
    Westman, Björn
    Female great tits, Parus major, avoid extra-pair copulation attempts1992In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 43, p. 691-693Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Westman, Björn
    Extra-pair copulations in the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca. A removal experiment1983In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 13, p. 271-275Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Westman, Björn
    Allander, Klas
    Song in the Swedish great tit - intrasexual or intersexual communication?1989In: Behaviour, ISSN 0005-7959, E-ISSN 1568-539X, Vol. 111, p. 257-269Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Bliard, Louis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Zurich Univ, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Wheatcroft, David
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool Ethol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The role of introductory alarm calls for song discrimination in Ficedula flycatchers2021In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 177, p. 241-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assortative mating depends on species distinctiveness in mating traits and preferences, which can be challenging to maintain when traits and/or preferences are learned. This is because learning may cause individuals to copy heterospecific signals. Juvenile songbirds possess innate sensory biases favouring them to learn and to prefer conspecific songs, but the effectiveness of these biases relies on consistent and sufficient differences between the songs produced by different species. However, mating signals, including learned songs, sometimes converge in sympatry, and the species-specific cues that individuals use to shape their preferences are often unknown. In Ficedula flycatchers, a stereotyped and highly species-specific alarm call is often incorporated as the first syllable of their songs. However, where the two species co-occur, pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, learn to incorporate the introductory calls of the closely related collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis, into their songs. In this study, we investigated the role of introductory alarm calls for song discrimination in collared flycatchers, using playback experiments of both manipulated and unmanipulated songs on adults and nestlings within the hybrid zone of Oland, Sweden. We predicted that the introductory alarm call would be sufficient to trigger song responses, such that adults and nestlings would respond similarly to song phrases including the call, whether it is followed by conspecific or heterospecific notes. Our results provide evidence that the introductory alarm call is sufficient to trigger song discrimination in nestlings, but not in adult males, potentially due to their greater experience with songs and, therefore, subtler discrimination. Altogether, this study highlights the often-overlooked importance of calls within or associated with songs.

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  • 42.
    Blixt, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The behavioural response of mice to predator odours2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to detect and react to a predator odour is crucial for prey species. In the present study 10 mice (Mus musculus) were used to test the behavioural response of mice towards two predator odours (3-methyl-1-butanethiol and 3-mercapto-3-methyl-butan-1-ol) and one fruity odour (n-pentyl acetate). All three odours were tested against a near odourless blank stimulus (diethyl phthalate). The animals were individually placed in a test chamber of two equally sized compartments divided by a vertical Plexiglas wall with a semicircular opening. Their proximity to the odours, placed beneath the floor in petri dishes in each compartment, was measured continuously with stop watches. The mice spent less time in proximity to 3-methyl-1-butanethiol and n-pentyl acetate compared to diethyl phthalate (P<0,05). The mice did not prefer any specific compartment in the test with 3-mercapto-3-methyl-butan-1-ol compared to diethyl phthalate (P>0,05). The avoidance of 3-methyl-1-butanethiol and n-pentyl acetate can be explained either by neophobia, or in the case of 3-methyl-1-butanethiol that it contains sulphur. The lack of behavioural response towards 3-mercapto-3-methyl-butan-1-ol may be due to its loss of intensity over time. From this study it is not certain if mice have an innate fear of predator odours.

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  • 43.
    Blom, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE-405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE-405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden The Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Box 460, SE-405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Amorim, M. Clara
    Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal MARE – Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ISPA-Instituto Universitário, Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34, 1149-041, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Svensson, Ola
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE-405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden The Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Box 460, SE-405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Continuous and intermittent noise has a negative impact on reproductive success and early life survival in marine fish2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic underwater noise is a global pollutant of increasing concern and its effect on marine organisms is largely unknown. Importantly, direct assessments of fitness consequences are lacking especially in fish. The effect of noise pattern with continuous or intermittent noise are poorly understood and the few existing studies investigating the effect highlight contradictory responses in fish. Working in aquaria, we experimentally tested the impact of broadband noise exposure (similar frequency range as anthropogenic boat noise; added either continuously or intermittently) on the behaviour and reproductive success, assessed by the number of obtained eggs, of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps), a vocal fish with exclusive paternal care.  The continuous noise treatment had the most detrimental effect by reducing spawning probability and females took longer to spawn under continuous noise. Males exposed to continuous noise got significantly fewer egg clutches (4 compared to 11 and 15 in the intermittent noise and silence treatments).  Clutch area did not differ among treatments but clutches in the intermittent and continuous noise treatment had significantly more eggs per cm2. In addition, eggs in the control tanks hatched earlier than in the intermittent and noisy treatments. Larvae reared in continuous noise treatment were larger and had a smaller yolk-sac at hatching than larvae in the intermittent noise treatment and the control. Taken together, we show that noise, particularly a continuous noise exposure, negatively affects reproductive success and early life survival in fish larvae.

  • 44.
    Blom, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Dekhla, Isabelle
    University of Gothenburg.
    Schöld, Sofie
    University of Gothenburg.
    Andersson, Mathias H.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Svensson, Ola
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching. University of Gothenburg.
    Amorim, M Clara P
    ISPA-Instituto Universitário, Lisboa, Portugal; Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Continuous but not intermittent noise has a negative impact on mating success in a marine fish with paternal care2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 5494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic underwater noise is a global pollutant of increasing concern but its impact on reproduction in fish is largely unknown. Hence, a better understanding of its consequences for this important link to fitness is crucial. Working in aquaria, we experimentally tested the impact of broadband noise exposure (added either continuously or intermittently), compared to a control, on the behaviour and reproductive success of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps), a vocal fish with exclusive paternal care. Compared to the intermittent noise and control treatments, the continuous noise treatment increased latency to female nest inspection and spawning and decreased spawning probability. In contrast, many other female and male pre-spawning behaviours, and female ventilation rate (proxies for stress levels) did not differ among treatments. Therefore, it is likely that female spawning decisions were delayed by a reduced ability to assess male acoustic signals, rather than due to stress per se and that the silent periods in the intermittent noise treatment provided a respite where the females could assess the males. Taken together, we show that noise (of similar frequency range as anthropogenic boat noise) negatively affects reproductive success, particularly under a continuous noise exposure.

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    Continuous but not intermittent noise has a negative impact on mating success in a marine fish with paternal care
  • 45.
    Blom, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Dekhla, Isabelle
    University of Gothenburg.
    Schöld, Sofie
    University of Gothenburg.
    Andersson, Mathias H.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Svensson, Ola
    Södertörns högskola, Matematikens didaktik.
    Amorim, M Clara P
    ISPA-Instituto Universitário, Lisboa, Portugal; Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Continuous but not intermittent noise has a negative impact on mating success in a marine fish with paternal care2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 5494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic underwater noise is a global pollutant of increasing concern but its impact on reproduction in fish is largely unknown. Hence, a better understanding of its consequences for this important link to fitness is crucial. Working in aquaria, we experimentally tested the impact of broadband noise exposure (added either continuously or intermittently), compared to a control, on the behaviour and reproductive success of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps), a vocal fish with exclusive paternal care. Compared to the intermittent noise and control treatments, the continuous noise treatment increased latency to female nest inspection and spawning and decreased spawning probability. In contrast, many other female and male pre-spawning behaviours, and female ventilation rate (proxies for stress levels) did not differ among treatments. Therefore, it is likely that female spawning decisions were delayed by a reduced ability to assess male acoustic signals, rather than due to stress per se and that the silent periods in the intermittent noise treatment provided a respite where the females could assess the males. Taken together, we show that noise (of similar frequency range as anthropogenic boat noise) negatively affects reproductive success, particularly under a continuous noise exposure.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 46.
    Bonnefous, Claire
    et al.
    Univ Tours, France.
    Calandreau, Ludovic
    Univ Tours, France.
    Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth
    Univ Tours, France.
    Bessa Ferreira, Vitor Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Tours, France.
    Barbin, Alexandre
    Univ Tours, France.
    Collin, Anne
    Univ Tours, France.
    Reverchon, Maxime
    SYSAAF, France.
    Germain, Karine
    INRAE, France.
    Ravon, Laure
    INRAE, France.
    Kruger, Nina
    Univ Tours, France.
    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine
    Univ Tours, France.
    Guesdon, Vanessa
    Junia, France.
    Behavioural indicators of range use in four broiler strains2023In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 260, article id 105870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-range systems provide an outdoor range for broilers to give them the possibility to express a higher frequency and a wider range of behaviours, such as exploration, compared with those raised indoors. Greater variability in outdoor range use between individuals of the same flock is often reported. Individual variation in range use may result from differences in early-life behaviour or genetic background. Understanding how earlylife behaviour influences range use may provide opportunities to enhance and predict range use. Previous studies have shown that range use could be influenced by the animals personality traits such as social motivation, boldness and foraging motivation. Therefore, this study investigated personality traits in several broiler strains, namely Hubbard JA757, Hubbard S757N, White Bresse and a dual-purpose strain; we examined the latter as it represents a potential solution to the ban of 1-day-old chick culling. The present study also investigated early-life behaviours, before range access, of range use to identify and assess the stability of these early-life indicators among the four broiler strains. For that purpose, we recorded the behaviour and range use of 100 male chickens per strain, both in the barn and during individual tests, before and after range access. We examined which behaviours were time consistent, whether early-life behaviours were influenced by genetic variation and whether early-life behavioural indicators predicted range use regardless of genetic variation. There was a significant (p &lt; 0.001) difference between strains in several early-life behaviours, including the time spent resting or standing. Range use was time consistent regardless of the strain as our range use indicator followed a high-quality linear regression model (R-2 &gt; 0.7) for 82-99% of the individuals depending on their strain. Besides, time consistency of social motivation and boldness seemed to depend on the strain. Even though foraging showed low (rho = 0.2-0.4) positive correlations with range use in three of the four studied strains, there were no significant and strong correlations in the four studied strains between early-life behavioural indicators and range use. In conclusion, our results show that the link between chick behaviour (before range access) and range use can be modulated by the birds strain. It is crucial to consider all these different factors to better understand how range use varies within and between flocks.

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  • 47. Brand, Jack A.
    et al.
    Yee, Winston K. W.
    Aitkenhead, Ian J.
    Martin, Jake M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Monash University, Australia; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Polverino, Giovanni
    Chown, Steven L.
    Wong, Bob B. M.
    Dowling, Damian K.
    Temperature change exerts sex-specific effects on behavioural variation2023In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 290, no 2002, article id 20230110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature is a key factor mediating organismal fitness and has important consequences for species' ecology. While the mean effects of temperature on behaviour have been well-documented in ectotherms, how temperature alters behavioural variation among and within individuals, and whether this differs between the sexes, remains unclear. Such effects likely have ecological and evolutionary consequences, given that selection acts at the individual level. We investigated the effect of temperature on individual-level behavioural variation and metabolism in adult male and female Drosophila melanogaster (n = 129), by taking repeated measures of locomotor activity and metabolic rate at both a standard temperature (25°C) and a high temperature (28°C). Males were moderately more responsive in their mean activity levels to temperature change when compared to females. However, this was not true for either standard or active metabolic rate, where no sex differences in thermal metabolic plasticity were found. Furthermore, higher temperatures increased both among- and within-individual variation in male, but not female, locomotor activity. Given that behavioural variation can be critical to population persistence, we suggest that future studies test whether sex differences in the amount of behavioural variation expressed in response to temperature change may result in sex-specific vulnerabilities to a warming climate. 

  • 48.
    Brodd, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Behavioural differences between and within retriever breeds2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The retriever breeds have the same origin and have long been used as a gundog for hunting of game, mostly birds. However, recently the retriever breeds have become a popular pet and show dog. This have affected the breeding of the dogs as the same traits are not bred for a gundog and a pet or show dog. Breeds as the Labrador retriever consists of a field- and common-type. The aim of this study is to investigate any differences between and within five of the retriever breeds in behaviours as retrieving, search and game reaction. 64 dogs undergoing the field trial Description of Function- Retriever was video recorded and scores from 430 dogs that have undergone field trials was obtained. Both differences between and within breeds were found when analysing both the videos and scores. In the video analysis, the Flatcoated retriever showed the most retrieving behaviours and was the most passive. The Nova scotia duck tolling retriever was in both the video and score analyses the most active breed. The Labrador retriever scored high in game reaction. The field- and mixed-types had almost always higher scores in behaviours linked to hunting, compared to the common-type. This supports findings that recent selection in breeding have a larger effect on behaviour than the origin uses of the dogs.

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  • 49.
    Brodd, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The help-seeking behaviour of dogs (Canis familiaris)2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During domestication, the dog( Canis familiaris), have become skilful in understanding human communication and also in communicating with humans. The wolf ( Canis lupus), is not as skilled with this interspecific communication. When dogs are faced with an unsolvable problem, they seek help from human by e.g. gazing at them. This behaviour has been studied and both age and breed group differences have been showed. In this study, we presented dogs with a task that consisted of a solvable and unsolvable problem in order to see if they gazed at their owner and/or an unfamiliar person for help. Although we did not find any difference in breed groups regarding gazing at humans, we did find that adult dogs (dogs older than 2 years) gazed more frequently at their owner and for a longer duration than adolescent dogs (6 months to 2 years). This may be because the adult dogs have more experience of this communication with humans, as they have lived longer with them. These findings empathize the bond between a dog and its owner that seems to grow stronger during the dogs’ life.

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    Ex 14/2868 Brodd Louise
  • 50.
    Brolin, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    The Importance of Natural Feeding Behaviour for Horse (Equus caballus) Welfare2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Horses are herbivores and can graze for up to 20 hours per day. It is well known that animals are motivated to perform natural behaviours and horses have, except from a physiological need to graze, a strong motivation to perform their natural feeding behaviour. This review aimed to give insight into how horses are kept, how the way they are kept affects their behaviour and welfare, if there are reasons why some horses cannot be kept on pasture, and if alternative feeding strategies can improve horse welfare by allowing horsesto perform their natural feeding behaviour. Most horses are kept in stables and are put on feeding regimes that do not resemble their natural feeding behaviour. This can lead to development of stereotypies, and when prevented from carrying out their feeding behaviour, oral stereotypies such as crib-biting can result. Horses kept free range display very few, if any, stereotypies and is therefore the best way to keep horses from a welfare approach. However, obesity and grass-related illnesses can restrict horses from being kept on pasture, thus, alternative feeding methods for stabled horses is imperative. Use of edible bedding, presenting several types of forage, providing ad libitumforage, or using slow feeders are alternative methods that could be implemented by horseowners and caretakers to improve horse welfare. Horses can however respond differently to these methods and a method that suits one horse might not be appropriate for another.

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