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  • 1.
    Abbasy, Leila
    et al.
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Mohammadzadeh, Arezoo
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Development of a reliable bioanalytical method based on prostate specific antigen trapping on the cavity of molecular imprinted polymer towards sensing of PSA using binding affinity of PSA-MIP receptor: A novel biosensor2020In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 188, article id 113447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, electrically-conducting poly [Toluidine Blue (PTB)] was applied as artificial receptor. It was organized by molecular imprinting approaches and via electrochemical technique for the sensitive monitoring of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The protein-imprinted PTB was electropolymerized in a pre-formed glutaraldehyde-cysteamine (GA-Cys A) matrix on the surface of gold electrode, which significantly boosted the stability against degradation of the Molecular Imprinted Polymer (MIP) on the surface of pre-modified gold electrode. Moreover, the MIP bio-receptor ability towards protein recognition was explored by some electrochemical techniques. The binding affinity of MIP system was considerably upper than that of non-imprinted polymer (NIP) system, indicating the success of the method in generating imprinted materials that was specifically use to PSA protein. The incubation of the MIP modified electrode in various concentration of PSA (from 1-60 μg/L) resulted in the increase of the Fe (CN)63-/4- redox peak current. The bio-device also showed linear response from 1-60 μg/L and LLOQ of 1 μg/L by using DPV technique, leading to PSA monitoring in clinical samples. The proposed MIP-based biosensor was satisfactorily applied to the determination of PSA in human plasma samples. Therefore, the developed bio-device provides a new approach for sensitive, simple, rapid, and cost-effective monitoring of 1 μg/L of PSA. Notably, this approach could appear as an appropriate candidate for point-of-care (POC) use in clinical and biomedical analyses.

  • 2.
    Abdel Rehim, Abbi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Abdel Rehim, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Screening and determination of drugs in human saliva utilizing microextraction by packed sorbent and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry2013In: BMC Biomedical chromotography, ISSN 0269-3879, E-ISSN 1099-0801, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 1188-1191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a new method for collecting and handling saliva samples using an automated analytical microsyringe and microextraction by packed syringe (MEPS). The screening and determination of lidocaine in human saliva samples utilizing MEPS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were carried out. An exact volume of saliva could be collected. The MEPS C-8-cartridge could be used for 50 extractions before it was discarded. The extraction recovery was about 60%. The pharmacokinetic curve of lidocaine in saliva using MEPS-LC-MS/MS is reported.

  • 3. Abdel-Rehim, Abbi
    et al.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Advantages of Saliva Sampling in Bioanalysis Using Microextraction by Packed Sorbent and Dried Saliva Spot with LC-MS-MS2014In: LC GC Europe, ISSN 1471-6577, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 529-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saliva offers a fast and non-invasive sampling matrix for determining drug concentration levels, making it a suitable alternative to plasma and blood. During the analysis of biological samples attention is focused on sample pre-treatment. In addition, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) is often the method of choice in bioanalysis because of the good selectivity and good sensitivity of the technique. In this article, two sample handling and sample preparation methods for saliva samples are presented and discussed. The first method is microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS), and the second method is dried saliva spot (DSS). Both methods were applied for determining the presence of lidocaine in saliva.

  • 4. Abdel-Rehim, Abbi
    et al.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Dried saliva spot as a sampling technique for saliva samples2014In: BMC Biomedical chromotography, ISSN 0269-3879, E-ISSN 1099-0801, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 875-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time, dried saliva spot (DSS) was used as a sampling technique for saliva samples. In the DSS technique 50 L of saliva was collected on filter paper and the saliva was then extracted with an organic solvent. The local anesthetic lidocaine was used as a model compound, which was determined in the DSS using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results obtained for the determination of lidocaine in saliva using DSS were compared with those from a previous study using a microextraction by packed sorbent syringe as the sampling method for saliva. This study shows that DSS can be used for the analysis of saliva samples. The method is promising and very easy in terms of sampling and extraction procedures. The results from this study are in good agreement with those from our previous work on the determination of lidocaine in saliva. DSS can open a new dimension in the saliva handling process in terms of sampling, storing and transport.

  • 5.
    Abdel-Rehim, Abbi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Evaluation of microextraction by packed sorbent and micro-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as a green approach in bioanalysis2013In: BMC Biomedical chromotography, ISSN 0269-3879, E-ISSN 1099-0801, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 1225-1233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the use of micro-liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was investigated in routine bioanalysis application for separation and quantification of pro-drug AZD6319 (developed for aldezheimer treatment). Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) was used as sample clean-up method. The focus of this study was put on the evaluation of the usability of smaller column diameters such as 1.0 and 0.3mm instead of 2.1mm in bioanalysis application to reduce solvent consumption and sample volumes. Solvent consumption was reduced by 80% when a 1.0mm column was used compared with 2.1mm column. Robustness of the micro-columns in terms of accuracy and precision was investigated. The application of LC-MS/MS for the quantitative analysis of AZD6319 in plasma samples showed good selectivity, accuracy and precision. The coefficients of determination (R-2) were >0.998 for all runs using plasma samples on the studied micro-columns. The inter-day accuracy values for quality control samples ranged from 99 to 103% and from 96 to 105% for 0.3x50mm and 1.0x50mm columns, respectively. The inter-day precision values ranged from 4.0 to 9.0% and from 4.0 to 8.0% for 0.3x50 and 1.0x50mm columns, respectively. In addition the sensitivity was increased by three times using a 1.0mm column compared with 2.1mm. Furthermore, robustness of the micro-columns from different manufacturers was investigated.

  • 6.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet.
    Pedersen-Bjergaard, S.
    Abdel-Rehim, A.
    Lucena, R.
    Moein, M. M.
    Cárdenas, S.
    Miró, M.
    Microextraction approaches for bioanalytical applications: An overview2020In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1616, article id 460790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological samples are usually complex matrices due to the presence of proteins, salts and a variety of organic compounds with chemical properties similar to those of the target analytes. Therefore, sample preparation is often mandatory in order to isolate the analytes from troublesome matrices before instrumental analysis. Because the number of samples in drug development, doping analysis, forensic science, toxicological analysis, and preclinical and clinical assays is steadily increasing, novel high throughput sample preparation approaches are calling for. The key factors in this development are the miniaturization and the automation of the sample preparation approaches so as to cope with most of the twelve principles of green chemistry. In this review, recent trends in sample preparation and novel strategies will be discussed in detail with particular focus on sorptive and liquid-phase microextraction in bioanalysis. The actual applicability of selective sorbents is also considered. Additionally, the role of 3D printing in microextraction for bioanalytical methods will be pinpointed.

  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science.
    Lundqvist, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Quantum Chemistry.
    Wolpher, Henriette
    Johansson, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Rasmussen, Torben
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
    Becker, Hans-Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science.
    Norrby, Per-Ola
    Åkermark, Björn
    Persson, Petter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Quantum Chemistry.
    Steric influence on the excited-state lifetimes of ruthenium complexes with bipyridyl-alkanylene-pyridyl ligands.2008In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 3540-3548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural effect on the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited-state lifetime has been investigated in bis-tridentate Ru(II)-polypyridyl complexes based on the terpyridine-like ligands [6-(2,2'-bipyridyl)](2-pyridyl)methane (1) and 2-[6-(2,2'-bipyridyl)]-2-(2-pyridyl)propane (2). A homoleptic ([Ru(2)(2)](2+)) and a heteroleptic complex ([Ru(ttpy)(2)](2+)) based on the new ligand 2 have been prepared and their photophysical and structural properties studied experimentally and theoretically and compared to the results for the previously reported [Ru(1)(2)](2+). The excited-state lifetime of the homoleptic Ru-II complex with the isopropylene-bridged ligand 2 was found to be 50 times shorter than that of the corresponding homoleptic Ru-II complex of ligand 1, containing a methylene bridge. A comparison of the ground-state geometries of the two homoleptic complexes shows that steric interactions involving the isopropylene bridges make the coordination to the central Ru-II ion less octahedral in [Ru(2)(2)](2+) than in [Ru(1)(2))(2+). Calculations indicate that the structural differences in these complexes influence their ligand field splittings as well as the relative stabilities of the triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((MLCT)-M-3) and metal-centered ((MC)-M-3) excited states. The large difference in measured excited-state lifetimes for the two homoleptic Ru-II complexes is attributed to a strong influence of steric interactions on the ligand field strength, which in turn affects the activation barriers for thermal conversion from (MLCT)-M-3 states to short-lived (MC)-M-3 states.

  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Victor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Development of a fluorometric method for the quantification of sulfite and thiol-containing compounds in beer2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfite is the most important antioxidant in beer. Quantification of sulfite is crucial due to restrictions as an additive and for investigative purposes of sulfite and thiol-containing proteins role as redox mediators. A method based on fluorometric determination of sulfite and thiol-containing compounds in beer was developed. The analytes were derivatized with ThioGlo®  1 and subsequently separated on a C18 column with wide pore size, featuring a high-performance liquid chromatography system equipped with fluorescence detector. Two peaks corresponding to sulfite derivatives were observed. The two derivatives were assessed with exact mass spectrometry and both provided identical mass spectra. To compensate for adverse matrix effects in samples a matrix-matched calibration curve is proposed. Sulfite diminished in an inverse exponential manner upon hydrogen peroxide addition in beer. The amount of thiol groups decreased when beer was subjected to oxidative stress, thus confirming its antioxidative role in beer.

  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Victor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hoff, Signe
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Nikoline J.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lund, Marianne N.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andersen, Mogens L.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Determination of Sulfite in Beer Based on Fluorescent Derivatives and Liquid Chromatographic Separation2012In: Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, ISSN 0361-0470, E-ISSN 1943-7854, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 296-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed for quantification of sulfite in beer based on derivatization with the maleimide-derived probe ThioGlo I followed by separation of fluorescent adducts by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Sulfite gave two ThioGlo 1 derivatives and it was shown by mass spectrometry that both had identical mass spectra. Matrix effects were observed when constructing sulfite standard curves in different beers and, therefore, use of a matrix-matched calibration curve is proposed. ThioGlo I was found to generate fluorescent adducts with both bound and free sulfite, providing a quantification of the total sulfite content in beer. The limit of quantification of sulfite was 0.6 mg/L and the method can be used for quantification of sulfite in highly colored beers.

  • 10.
    Abujrais, Sandy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Uppsala Univ, ME CFS Collaborat Res Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ubhayasekera, S.J. Kumari A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Uppsala Univ, ME CFS Collaborat Res Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Uppsala Univ, ME CFS Collaborat Res Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Analysis of tryptophan metabolites and related compounds in human and murine tissue: development and validation of a quantitative and semi-quantitative method using high resolution mass spectrometry2024In: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 1074-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the metabolic differences between human and murine plasma in addition to differences between murine subcutaneous and visceral white adipose tissue. A quantitative and semi-quantitative targeted method was developed and validated for this purpose. The quantitative method includes tryptophan and its metabolites in addition to tyrosine, phenylalanine, taurine, B vitamins, neopterin, cystathionine and hypoxanthine. While the semi-quantitative method includes; 3-indoleacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, acetylcholine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, citrulline and methionine. Sample preparation was based on protein precipitation, while quantification was conducted using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization in the parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) mode. The low limit of quantification for all metabolites ranged from 1 to 200 ng mL-1. Matrix effects and recoveries for stable isotope labelled internal standards were evaluated, with most having a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 15%. Results showed that a majority of the analytes passed both the intra- and interday precision and accuracy criteria. The comparative analysis of human and murine plasma metabolites reveals species-specific variations within the tryptophan metabolic pathway. Notably, murine plasma generally exhibits elevated concentrations of most compounds in this pathway, with the exceptions of kynurenine and quinolinic acid. Moreover, the investigation uncovers noteworthy metabolic disparities between murine visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissues, with the subcutaneous tissue demonstrating significantly higher concentrations of tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and serotonin. The findings also show that even a semi-quantitative method can provide comparable results to quantitative methods from other studies and be effective for assessing metabolites in a complex sample. Overall, this study provides a robust platform to compare human and murine metabolism, providing a valuable insight to future investigations. A validated HRMS method for measuring tryptophan metabolites and related compounds has been developed, with simple sample preparation, successfully applied in human and murine plasma, as well as murine white adipose tissue.

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  • 11. Abuzooda, Thana
    et al.
    Amini, Ahmad
    Swedish Drug Agency,751 03 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Graphite-based microextraction by packed sorbent for online extraction of β-blockers from human plasma samples2015In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 992, p. 86-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work a new graphitic material (Carbon-XCOS) was used as a sorbent for microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS). The β-blockers metoprolol and acebutolol in plasma samples were extracted and detected online using Carbon-MEPS syringe and liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Factors affecting the MEPS performance such as conditioning, washing and elution solutions were investigated. The validation of the bioanalytical method was performed using human plasma. The standard curve ranged from 10 to 2000nM and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was set to 10nM. The method validation showed good accuracy and precision for the quality control (QC) samples at three concentration levels (30, 800 and 1600nM). The accuracy values of the QC samples were in the range of 86-108% (n=18). The precision values of intra- and inter-day for QC samples ranged from 4.4% to 14.4% (RSD) for the both studied analytes. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) values were ≥0.999 (n=3).

  • 12.
    Adeniyi, Omotayo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Osmanaj, Blerina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Department of Chemistry, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo.
    Manavalan, Gopinathan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo-Turku, Finland.
    Berisha, Avni
    Department of Chemistry, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo.
    Tesfalidet, Solomon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Reagentless impedimetric immunosensor for monitoring of methotrexate in human blood serum using multiwalled carbon nanotube@polypyrrole/polytyramine film electrode2024In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 268, no Part 1, article id 125316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring effective monitoring of methotrexate (MTX) levels in the bloodstream of cancer patients undergoing high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy is crucial to prevent potentially harmful side effects. However, the absence of portable analytical devices suitable for point-of-care bedside monitoring has presented a significant obstacle to achieving real-time MTX monitoring. In this study, we developed an impedimetric immunosensor that doesn't require reagents for measuring MTX levels in undiluted human blood serum. This reagentless approach simplifies the assay process, enabling rapid and straightforward MTX quantification. The immunosensor transducer was fabricated by electrodepositing conductive network of porous multiwalled carbon nanotube@polypyrrole/polytyramine on screen-printed gold microchip electrode (SP–Au/MWCNT70@PPy-PTA). Polyclonal anti-MTX antibodies were immobilized on the film, acting as the immunorecognition element. Non-specific binding was prevented by blocking the transducer interface with denatured bovine serum albumin (dBSA) fibrils, resulting in SP-Au/MWCNT70@PPy-PTA/anti-MTXAb|dBSA film electrode. When MTX binds to the SP-Au/MWCNT70@PPy-PTA/anti-MTXAb|dBSA interface, the film conductance and electron transfer resistance changes. This conductivity attenuation allows for electrochemical impedimetric signal transduction without a redox-probe solution. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results showed increased charge transfer resistance and phase angle as MTX concentrations increased. The SP-Au/MWCNT70@PPy-PTA/anti-MTXAb|dBSA demonstrated high sensitivity, with a linear response from 0.02 to 20.0 μM and a detection limit of 1.93 nM. The detection limit was 50 times lower than the intended safe level of MTX in human serum. The immunosensor exhibited minimal cross-reactivity with endogenous MTX analogs and serum proteins. The SP-Au/MWCNT70@PPy-PTA/anti-MTXAb|dBSA immunosensor presents a simple and rapid method for therapeutic drug monitoring compared to traditional immunoassay systems.

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  • 13.
    Adeniyi, Omotayo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Osmanaj, Blerina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Department of Chemistry, University of Prishtina, 10000 Prishtina, Kosovo.
    Manavalan, Gopinathan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Samikannu, Ajaikumar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo-Turku, 20500, Finland.
    Avni, Berisah
    Department of Chemistry, University of Prishtina, 10000 Prishtina, Kosovo.
    Boily, Jean-Francois
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tesfalidet, Solomon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Engineering of layered iron vanadate nanostructure for electrocatalysis: simultaneous detection of methotrexate and folinic acid in blood serum2023In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, article id 142538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, nanostructure kazakhstanite-like iron vanadate (FexV3xOy.H2O) was synthesized and calcined at different temperatures (100-800 °C) in a nitrogen atmosphere. The material was used to modify screen-printed carbon electrodes to achieve an electrocatalytic effect on the surface. The relationship between calcination conditions and the catalytic performance of the electrode towards the oxidation of chemotherapeutic drugs, including methotrexate (MTX) and folinic acid (FA), was studied. Various spectroscopic, microscopic, and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the synthesized materials. The results show that calcination induces changes in the electronic structure, nanostructure morphology, electroactive surface area, and electrocatalytic performance of the material. Screen-printed carbon electrode modified with FexV3xOy calcinated at 450 °C (SPC/FexV3xOy-450) was used to develop a voltammetric sensor for the determination of MTX and FA in blood serum. The response of the SPC/FexV3xOy-450 towards the electrooxidation of MTX and FA was the highest in comparison to the bare SPC and SPC/FexV3xOy calcined at other temperatures. The SPC/FexV3xOy-450 exhibited a linear relationship over a wide concentration range: 0.005-200 µM for MTX and 0.05-200 µM for FA. The detection limit was 2.85 nM for MTX and 7.79 nM for FA. Compared to conventional methods, the SPC/FexV3xOy-450 sensor had a short response time (5 min) for simultaneous detection of MTX and FA without signal interferences from coexisting electroactive compounds. The accurate and precise determination of MTX in the presence of FA confirmed the potential clinical applications of SPC/FexV3xOy-450 for therapeutic drug monitoring during chemotherapy.

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  • 14. Adler, Belinda
    et al.
    Boström, Tove
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Ekström, Simon
    Hober, Sophia
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Laurell, Thomas
    Miniaturized and Automated High-Throughput Verification of Proteins in the ISET Platform with MALDI MS2012In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 84, no 20, p. 8663-8669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major bottleneck in high-throughput protein production is the validation step, which is why parallel and automated sample processing methods are highly desirable. Also, a miniaturized sample preparation format is preferred, as the reduction of reagent volumes significantly decreases the analysis cost per sample. We have developed an automated and miniaturized protein sequence verification protocol for recombinant proteins utilizing peptide mass fingerprinting and MS/MS analysis. The integrated selective enrichment target (ISET) platform, previously developed in our group, with its dual functionality, being both a sample preparation platform and a MALDI target plate, is employed. All steps including immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography of protein on cobalt-loaded beads, tryptic digestion, and MALDI MS analysis are performed in an array format, without any sample transfers, on the same ISET chip. The automated configuration reduced the sample preparation time significantly. Starting with crude lysate, a full plate of 48 purified, digested samples prepared for MALDI-MS can be generated in 4 h, with only 30 min of operator involvement. This paper demonstrates the utility of the method by parallel analysis of 45 His-tagged human recombinant proteins.

  • 15.
    Aerts, Jordan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry applied to structural proteomics and small molecule analysis2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometric (CE–MS) detection offers a separation method without equal in terms of flexibility, utility, and cost efficiency. Here we demonstrate precisely this through the application of several laboratory-built CE–MS instruments for the separation of brain metabolites in non-primates, enantioselective separations of synthetic anesthetic metabolites in fractionated pony urine, application in structural proteomics workflows, and identification of exogenous alkaloid biotransformationproducts in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

    We outline a method for quickly and affordably etching austenitic steel tubing, which is widely used in electrospray sources for CE–MS. The stainless steel tapered tip emitters provide robust electrospray with low sheath liquid flow rates and can be easily fabricated in-house, offering flexibility and cost-efficiency when commercial options areunavailable. We contribute a CE–MS method for enantiomer separation, specifically targeting 6-hydroxynorketamine (HNK). By introducing chiral selectors into the separation capillary, the method enables efficient enantiomer separation and offers a newtool to assist with research on HNK as a cure for depression.

    We explore the feasibility of cold CE–MS in hydrogen deuterium exchange workflows. The utilization of a lab-designed Peltier-cooled CE device achieves deuterium back exchange rates on par with commercial liquid chromatography-based platforms, offering new possibilities for studying protein structures and interactions.

    We also demonstrate the wide ranging versatility of CE–MS with contributions to the identification of specific tobacco related metabolites in CSF samples during the development of a high throughput mass spectrometry diagnostic tool for Parkinson’sDisease.

    This thesis showcases the versatility and value of CE–MS in various applications, a true blessing for analytical chemistry.

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  • 16.
    Aerts, Jordan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Andrén, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Jansson, Erik T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Electrochemically Etched Tapered-Tip Stainless-Steel Electrospray-Ionization Emitters for Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry2023In: Journal of Proteome Research, ISSN 1535-3893, E-ISSN 1535-3907, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 1377-1380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used household consumables to facilitate electrochemical etching of stainless-steel hypodermic tubing to produce tapered-tip emitters suitable for electrospray ionization for use in mass spectrometry. The process involves the use of 1% oxalic acid and a 5 W USB power adapter, commonly known as a phone charger. Further, our method avoids the otherwise commonly used strong acids that entail chemical hazards: concentrated HNO3 for etching stainless steel, or concentrated HF for etching fused silica. Hence, we here provide a convenient and self-inhibiting procedure with minimal chemical hazards to manufacture tapered-tip stainless-steel emitters. We show its performance in metabolomic analysis with CE-MS of a tissue homogenate where the metabolites acetylcarnitine, arginine, carnitine, creatine, homocarnosine, and valerylcarnitine were identified, all with basepeak separated electropherograms, within <6 min of separation. The mass spectrometry data are freely available through the MetaboLight public data repository via access number MTBLS7230.

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  • 17.
    Aerts, Jordan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala751 24, Sweden.
    Andrén, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, MMS, Medical Mass Spectrometry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala751 24, Sweden;Science for Life Laboratory, Spatial Mass Spectrometry, Uppsala University, Uppsala751 24, Sweden.
    Jansson, Erik T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala751 24, Sweden.
    Zero-Degree Celsius Capillary Electrophoresis Electrospray Ionization for Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry2023In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, ISSN 0003-2700, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 1149-1158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, fast liquid chromatographic separations at low temperatures are exclusively used for the separation of peptides generated in hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX) workflows. However, it has been suggested that capillary electrophoresis may be a better option for use with HDX. We performed in solution HDX on peptides and bovine hemoglobin (Hb) followed by quenching, pepsin digestion, and cold capillary electrophoretic separation coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) detection for benchmarking a laboratory-built HDX–MS platform. We found that capillaries with a neutral coating to eliminate electroosmotic flow and adsorptive processes provided fast separations with upper limit peak capacities surpassing 170. In contrast, uncoated capillaries achieved 30% higher deuterium retention for an angiotensin II peptide standard owing to faster separations but with only half the peak capacity of coated capillaries. Data obtained using two different separation conditions on peptic digests of Hb showed strong agreement of the relative deuterium uptake between methods. Processed data for denatured versus native Hb after deuterium labeling for the longest timepoint in this study (50,000 s) also showed agreement with subunit interaction sites determined by crystallographic methods. All proteomic data are available under DOI: 10.6019/PXD034245.

  • 18.
    Aerts, Jordan T.
    et al.
    Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, ‡Department of Pharmacology, §Department of Molecularand Integrative Physiology, ∥Department of Chemistry, and ⊥Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana−Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.
    Louis, Kathleen R.
    Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, ‡Department of Pharmacology, §Department of Molecularand Integrative Physiology, ∥Department of Chemistry, and ⊥Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana−Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.
    Crandall, Shane R.
    Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, ‡Department of Pharmacology, §Department of Molecularand Integrative Physiology, ∥Department of Chemistry, and ⊥Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana−Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.
    Govindaiah, Gubbi
    Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, ‡Department of Pharmacology, §Department of Molecularand Integrative Physiology, ∥Department of Chemistry, and ⊥Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana−Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.
    Cox, Charles L.
    Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, ‡Department of Pharmacology, §Department of Molecularand Integrative Physiology, ∥Department of Chemistry, and ⊥Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana−Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.
    Sweedler, Jonathan V.
    Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, ‡Department of Pharmacology, §Department of Molecularand Integrative Physiology, ∥Department of Chemistry, and ⊥Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana−Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.
    Patch Clamp Electrophysiology and Capillary Electrophoresis–Mass Spectrometry Metabolomics for Single Cell Characterization2014In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 86, no 6, p. 3203-3208Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Afzali, Maryam
    et al.
    Cardiff Univ, Wales.
    Pieciak, Tomasz
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Poland; Univ Valladolid, Spain.
    Newman, Sharlene
    Indiana Univ, IN 47405 USA; Indiana Univ, IN 47405 USA.
    Garyfallidis, Eleftherios
    Indiana Univ, IN 47405 USA; Indiana Univ, IN 47408 USA.
    Özarslan, Evren
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Cheng, Hu
    Indiana Univ, IN 47405 USA; Indiana Univ, IN 47405 USA.
    Jones, Derek K.
    Cardiff Univ, Wales.
    The sensitivity of diffusion MRI to microstructural properties and experimental factors2021In: Journal of Neuroscience Methods, ISSN 0165-0270, E-ISSN 1872-678X, Vol. 347, article id 108951Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion MRI is a non-invasive technique to study brain microstructure. Differences in the microstructural properties of tissue, including size and anisotropy, can be represented in the signal if the appropriate method of acquisition is used. However, to depict the underlying properties, special care must be taken when designing the acquisition protocol as any changes in the procedure might impact on quantitative measurements. This work reviews state-of-the-art methods for studying brain microstructure using diffusion MRI and their sensitivity to microstructural differences and various experimental factors. Microstructural properties of the tissue at a micrometer scale can be linked to the diffusion signal at a millimeter-scale using modeling. In this paper, we first give an introduction to diffusion MRI and different encoding schemes. Then, signal representation-based methods and multi-compartment models are explained briefly. The sensitivity of the diffusion MRI signal to the microstructural components and the effects of curvedness of axonal trajectories on the diffusion signal are reviewed. Factors that impact on the quality (accuracy and precision) of derived metrics are then reviewed, including the impact of random noise, and variations in the acquisition parameters (i.e., number of sampled signals, b-value and number of acquisition shells). Finally, yet importantly, typical approaches to deal with experimental factors are depicted, including unbiased measures and harmonization. We conclude the review with some future directions and recommendations on this topic.

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  • 20.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Dougherty, Mark
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westin, Jerker
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Verification of a Method for Measuring Parkinson’s Disease Related Temporal Irregularity in Spiral Drawings2017In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 10, article id 2341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder caused by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain. There is a need for frequent symptom assessment, since the treatment needs to be individualized as the disease progresses. The aim of this paper was to verify and further investigate the clinimetric properties of an entropy-based method for measuring PD-related upper limb temporal irregularities during spiral drawing tasks. More specifically, properties of a temporal irregularity score (TIS) for patients at different stages of PD, and medication time points were investigated. Nineteen PD patients and 22 healthy controls performed repeated spiral drawing tasks on a smartphone. Patients performed the tests before a single levodopa dose and at specific time intervals after the dose was given. Three movement disorder specialists rated videos of the patients based on the unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) and the Dyskinesia scale. Differences in mean TIS between the groups of patients and healthy subjects were assessed. Test-retest reliability of the TIS was measured. The ability of TIS to detect changes from baseline (before medication) to later time points was investigated. Correlations between TIS and clinical rating scores were assessed. The mean TIS was significantly different between healthy subjects and patients in advanced groups (p-value = 0.02). Test-retest reliability of TIS was good with Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of 0.81. When assessing changes in relation to treatment, TIS contained some information to capture changes from Off to On and wearing off effects. However, the correlations between TIS and clinical scores (UPDRS and Dyskinesia) were weak. TIS was able to differentiate spiral drawings drawn by patients in an advanced stage from those drawn by healthy subjects, and TIS had good test-retest reliability. TIS was somewhat responsive to single-dose levodopa treatment. Since TIS is an upper limb high-frequency-based measure, it cannot be detected during clinical assessment.

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  • 21.
    Aghoutane, Youssra
    et al.
    Biotechnology Agroalimentary and Biomedical Analysis Group, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismaïl University, B.P. 11201, Zitoune, Meknes, Morocco; Sensor Electronic & Instrumentation Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismaïl University, B.P. 11201, Zitoune, Meknes, Morocco.
    Diouf, Alassane
    Biotechnology Agroalimentary and Biomedical Analysis Group, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismaïl University, B.P. 11201, Zitoune, Meknes, Morocco; Sensor Electronic & Instrumentation Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismaïl University, B.P. 11201, Zitoune, Meknes, Morocco.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Solid State Physics.
    Bouchikhi, Benachir
    Sensor Electronic & Instrumentation Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismaïl University, B.P. 11201, Zitoune, Meknes, Morocco.
    El Bari, Nezha el bari
    Biotechnology Agroalimentary and Biomedical Analysis Group, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismaïl University, B.P. 11201, Zitoune, Meknes, Morocco.
    Development of a molecularly imprinted polymer electrochemical sensor and its application for sensitive detection and determination of malathion in olive fruits and oils2020In: Bioelectrochemistry, ISSN 1567-5394, E-ISSN 1878-562X, Vol. 132, article id 107404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malathion (MAL) is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor, 15 which can pose serious health and environmental problems. In this study, a sensitive and 16 selective molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) based on screen-printed gold electrodes (Au-17 SPE) for MAL detection in olive oils and fruits, was devised. The MIP sensor was prepared 18 using acrylamide as the functional monomer and MAL as the template. Subsequently, the 19 morphology of the electrode surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 20 atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrochemical characterization of the developed MIP 21 sensor was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), 22 and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The operational repeatability 23 and stability of the sensor were studied. It was found to have a dynamic concentration range 24 of (0.1 pg mL-1-1000 pg mL-1) and a low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 pg mL-1. 25 Furthermore, the sensor was employed to determine MAL content in olive oil with a recovery 26 rate of 87.9% and a relative standard deviation of 8%. It was successfully applied for MAL 27 determination in real samples and promise to open new opportunities for the detection of OP 28 pesticides residues in various food products, as well as in environmental applications.

  • 22. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    De Brabandere, Heidi
    Reitzel, Kasper
    Rydin, Emil
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Waldeback, Monica
    Sediment phosphorus extractants for phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis: A quantitative evaluation2007In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 892-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of pre-extractant, extractant, and post-extractant on total extracted amounts of P and organic P compound groups measured with 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (P-31-NMR) in lacustrine sediment was examined. The main extractants investigated were sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hydroxide ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaOH-EDTA) with bicarbonate buffered dithionite (BD) or EDTA as pre-extractants. Post extractions were conducted using either NaOH or NaOH-EDTA, depending on the main extractant. Results showed that the most efficient combination of extractants for total P yield was NaOH with EDTA as pre-extractant, yielding almost 50% more than the second best procedure. The P compound groups varying the most between the different extraction procedures were polyphosphates and pyrophosphates. NaOH with BD as pre-extractant was the most efficient combination for these compound groups.

  • 23.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry. Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry I. Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Reitzel, Kasper
    Danielsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry. Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry I. Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry. Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry I. Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry. Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry I. Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Biogenic phosphorus in oligotropic mountain lake sediments: Differences in composition measured with NMR spectroscopy2006In: Water Research, no 40, p. 3705-3712Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry I.
    Waldebäck, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Markides, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Sediment Depth Attenuation of Biogenic Phosphorus Compounds Measured by 31P NMR2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 867-872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being a major cause of eutrophication and subsequent loss of water quality, the turnover of phosphorus (P) in lake sediments is in need of deeper understanding. A major part of the flux of P to eutrophic lake sediments is organically bound or of biogenic origin. This P is incorporated in a poorly described mixture of autochthonous and allochthonous sediment and forms the primary storage of P available for recycling to the water column, thus regulating lake trophic status. To identify and quantify biogenic sediment P and assess its lability, we analyzed sediment cores from Lake Erken, Sweden, using traditional P fractionation, and in parallel, NaOH extracts were analyzed using 31P NMR. The surface sediments contain orthophosphates (ortho-P) and pyrophosphates (pyro-P), as well as phosphate mono- and diesters. The first group of compounds to disappear with increased sediment depth is pyrophosphate, followed by a steady decline of the different ester compounds. Estimated half-life times of these compound groups are about 10 yr for pyrophosphate and 2 decades for mono- and diesters. Probably, these compounds will be mineralized to ortho-P and is thus potentially available for recycling to the water column, supporting further growth of phytoplankton. In conclusion, 31P NMR is a useful tool to asses the bioavailability of certain P compound groups, and the combination with traditional fractionation techniques makes quantification possible.

  • 25.
    Ahlgren, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Fondell, Amelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Gedda, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Swedish Radiat Safety Author, Res Unit, Solna Strandvag 96, SE-17116 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Edwards, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    EGF-targeting lipodisks for specific delivery of poorly water-soluble anticancer agents to tumour cells2017In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 7, no 36, p. 22178-22186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns regarding poor aqueous solubility, high toxicity and lack of specificity impede the translation of many hydrophobic anticancer agents into safe and effective anticancer drugs. The application of colloidal drug delivery systems, and in particular the use of lipid-based nanocarriers, has been identified as a promising means to overcome these issues. PEG-stabilized lipid nanodisks (lipodisks) have lately emerged as a novel type of biocompatible, nontoxic and adaptable drug nanocarrier. In this study we have explored the potential of lipodisks as a platform for formulation and tumour targeted delivery of hydrophobic anticancer agents. Using curcumin as a model compound, we show that lipodisks can be loaded with substantial amounts of hydrophobic drugs (curcumin/lipid molar ratio 0.15). We demonstrate moreover that by deliberate choice of preparation protocols the lipodisks can be provided with relevant amounts of targeting proteins, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF). Data from in vitro cell studies verify that such EGF-decorated curcumin-loaded lipodisks are capable of EGF-receptor specific targeting of human A-431 tumour cells, and strongly suggest that the interaction between the lipodisks and the tumour cells results in receptor-mediated internalization of the disks and their cargo.

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  • 26.
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Imaging shows insulin-producing cells in diabetes2013In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 44, p. III-IIIArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Ahlinder, Jon
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, FOI, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordgaard, Anders
    Swedish National Forensic Centre (NFC), Linköping, Sweden.
    Wiklund Lindström, Susanne
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, FOI, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chemometrics comes to court: evidence evaluation of chem–bio threat agent attacks2015In: Journal of Chemometrics, ISSN 0886-9383, E-ISSN 1099-128X, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 267-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forensic statistics is a well-established scientific field whose purpose is to statistically analyze evidence in order to support legal decisions. It traditionally relies on methods that assume small numbers of independent variables and multiple samples. Unfortunately, such methods are less applicable when dealing with highly correlated multivariate data sets such as those generated by emerging high throughput analytical technologies. Chemometrics is a field that has a wealth of methods for the analysis of such complex data sets, so it would be desirable to combine the two fields in order to identify best practices for forensic statistics in the future. This paper provides a brief introduction to forensic statistics and describes how chemometrics could be integrated with its established methods to improve the evaluation of evidence in court.

    The paper describes how statistics and chemometrics can be integrated, by analyzing a previous know forensic data set composed of bacterial communities from fingerprints. The presented strategy can be applied in cases where chemical and biological threat agents have been illegally disposed.

  • 28.
    Ahmed, Hytham
    et al.
    Menoufia Univ, Dept Pharmaceut Anal, Menofia Governorate, Al Minufiyah, Egypt..
    Wahbi, Abdel-Aziz
    Univ Alexandria, Dept Pharmaceut Analyt Chem, Alexandria 21521, Egypt..
    Elmongy, Hatem
    Univ Alexandria, Dept Pharmaceut Analyt Chem, Alexandria 21521, Egypt..
    Amini, Ahmad
    Swedish Drug Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Koyi, Hirsh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg. Cty Council Gävleborg, Med Gävle Hosp, Dept Resp Med, Gävle, Sweden.
    Brandén, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg. Cty Council Gävleborg, Med Gävle Hosp, Dept Resp Med, Gävle, Sweden.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Karolinska Inst, SE-17176 Solna, Sweden..
    Determination and Pharmacokinetics of Omeprazole Enantiomers in Human Plasma and Oral Fluid Utilizing Microextraction by Packed Sorbent and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry2021In: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 1687-8760, E-ISSN 1687-8779, Vol. 2021, article id 8845139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the determination of omeprazole (OME) enantiomers in oral fluid and plasma samples was carried out utilizing microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A chiral column with cellulose-SB phase was used for the first time for enantiomeric separation of OME with an isocratic elution system using 0.2% ammonium hydroxide in hexane-ethanol mixture (70 : 30, v/v) as the mobile phase. OME enantiomers were determined utilizing a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in positive ion mode (ESI+) monitoring mass transitions: m/z 346.3 -> 198.0 for OME and m/z 369.98 -> 252.0 for internal standard. The limits of detection and quantification of the present method for both enantiomers were 0.1 and 0.4 ng/mL, respectively. The method validation provided good accuracy and precision. The matrix effect factor was less than 5%, and no interfering peaks were observed. The interday precision values ranged from 2.2 to 7.5 (%RSD), and the accuracy of determinations varied from -9.9% to 8.3%. In addition, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of omeprazole enantiomers in healthy subjects after a single oral dose was investigated. (S)-Enantiomers showed higher levels than (R)-enantiomers throughout 24 h. It was found that the mean maximum concentrations of (R)- and (S)-omeprazole in plasma samples were about two times higher than in oral fluid.

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  • 29.
    Ahmed Khand, Aftab
    et al.
    Tsinghua Univ Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Ahmed Lakho, Saeed
    Univ Karachi, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ahmed, Mansoor
    Univ Karachi, Pakistan.
    Aftab, Umair
    MUET, Pakistan.
    Abro, Muhammad Ishaq
    MUET, Pakistan.
    Juno, Awais Ahmed
    Ziauddin Univ, Pakistan.
    Nafady, Ayman
    King Saud Univ, Saudi Arabia.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Univ Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Synthesis of Sheet Like Nanostructures of NiO Using Potassium Dichromate as Surface Modifying Agent for the Sensitive and Selective Determination of Amlodipine Besylate (ADB) Drug2021In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 1121-1128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The monitoring of hypertension drugs is very critical and important to sustain a healthy life. In this study, we have synthesized nickel oxide (NiO) nanostructures using potassium dichromate as surface modifying agent by hydrothermal method. These NiO nanostructures were found highly active for the oxidation of ADB besylate (ADB). The unit cell structure and morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The SEM study has confirmed the nano sheet like morphology and XRD analysis has described the cubic unit arrays of NiO. After the physical characterization, NiO nanostructures were used to modify the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by drop casting method. Then cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to characterize the electrochemical activity of NiO nanostructures in the0.1 M phosphate buffer solution of pH 10.0 and a well resolved oxidation peak was identified at 0.70 V. The linear range for the NiO nanostructures was observed from 20-90 nM with a regression coefficient of 0.99 using CV. The calculated limit of detection (LOD) was 2.125 nM and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 4.08 nM. Further to validate the CV calibration plot, an amperometry experiment was performed on the NiO nanostructures and sensors exhibited a linear range of 10 nM to 115 nM with LOD of 1.15 nM. The proposed approach was successfully used for the determination of ADB from commercial tablets and it reveals that the sensor could be capitalized to monitor ADB concentrations from pharmaceutical products. The use of potassium dichromate as a surface modifying agent for the metal oxide nanostructures may be of great interest to manipulate their crystal and surface properties for the extended range of biomedical and energy related applications.

  • 30.
    Ahmed, Trifa M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergvall, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Emissions of particulate associated oxygenated and native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from vehicles powered by ethanol/gasoline fuel blendsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Ahmed, Trifa M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Lim, Hwanmi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergvall, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Automated clean-up, separation and detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter extracts from urban dust and diesel standard reference materials using a 2D-LC/2D-GC system2013In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 405, no 25, p. 8215-8222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multidimensional, on-line coupled liquid chromatographic/gas chromatographic system was developed for the quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system (2D-liquid chromatography (LC)), with three columns having different selectivities, was connected on-line to a two-dimensional gas chromatographic system (2D-gas chromatography (GC)). Samples were cleaned up by combining normal elution and column back-flush of the LC columns to selectively remove matrix constituents and isolate well-defined, PAH enriched fractions. Using this system, the sequential removal of polar, mono/diaromatic, olefinic and alkane compounds from crude extracts was achieved. The LC/GC coupling was performed using a fused silica transfer line into a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) GC injector. Using the PTV in the solvent vent mode, excess solvent was removed and the enriched PAH sample extract was injected into the GC. The 2D-GC setup consisted of two capillary columns with different stationary phase selectivities. Heart-cutting of selected PAH compounds in the first GC column (first dimension) and transfer of these to the second GC column (second dimension) increased the baseline resolutions of closely eluting PAHs. The on-line system was validated using the standard reference materials SRM 1649a (urban dust) and SRM 1975 (diesel particulate extract). The PAH concentrations measured were comparable to the certified values and the fully automated LC/GC system performed the clean-up, separation and detection of PAHs in 16 extracts in less than 24 h. The multidimensional, on-line 2D-LC/2D-GC system eliminated manual handling of the sample extracts and minimised the risk of sample loss and contamination, while increasing accuracy and precision.

  • 32. Akter, Farhima
    et al.
    Mie, Masayasu
    Grimm, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Nygren, Per-Åke
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Kobatake, Eiry
    Detection of Antigens Using a Protein-DNA Chimera Developed by Enzymatic Covalent Bonding with phiX Gene A2012In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 84, no 11, p. 5040-5046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical reactions used to make antibody DNA conjugates in many immunoassays diminish antigen-binding activity and yield heterogeneous products. Here, we address these issues by developing an antibody-based rolling circle amplification (RCA) strategy using a fusion of phi X174 gene A* protein and Z(mab2s) (A*-Zmab). The phi X174 gene A* protein is an enzyme that can covalently link with DNA, while the Z(mab2s) protein moiety can bind to specific species of antibodies. The DNA in an A*-Zmab conjugate was attached to the A* protein at a site chosen to not interfere with protein function, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gel mobility shift analysis. The novel A*-Zmab-DNA conjugate retained its binding capabilities to a specific class of murine immunoglobulin gamma 1 (IgG1) but not to rabbit IgG. This indicates the generality of the A*-Zmab-based immuno-RCA assay that can be used in-sandwich ELISA format. Moreover, the enzymatic covalent method dramatically increased the yields of A*-Zmab-DNA conjugates up to 80% after a 15 min reaction. Finally, sensitive detection of human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was achieved by immuno-RCA using our fusion protein in sandwich ELISA format. This new approach of the use of site-specific enzymatic DNA conjugation to proteins should be applicable to fabrication of novel immunoassays for biosensing.

  • 33.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    New Concepts for Dielectrophoretic Separations and Dielectric Measurements of Bioparticles2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents two new concepts for separation of micro particles using dielectrophoresis, demonstrated by calculated examples, as well as a new method for obtaining dielectric data on living cells. The thesis is based on four papers.

    Paper I describes how the trapping efficiency of micro particles may be significantly increased when superpositioned electric fields are employed in a high conductivity medium. Avoiding low conductivity media is important when working with living cells. Calculations were performed to predict trajectories of Escherichia coli bacteria in the system with superpositioned electric fields, and a model was developed which employed two arrays of interdigitated electrodes in a micro channel.

    Paper II proposes a new concept for separation of micro particles, based on repetitive dielectrophoretic trapping and release in a flow system. Calculations show that the resolution increases as a direct function of the number of trap and release steps, and that a difference in size will have a larger influence on the separation than a difference in dielectrophoretic properties. Polystyrene beads in deionized water were used as a model, and calculations were performed to predict the particle behavior and the separation efficiency. It should be possible to separate particles with a size difference of 0.2 % by performing 200 trap-and-release steps. The enhanced separation power of multi step dielectrophoresis could have significant applications, not only for fractionation of particles with small differences in size, but also for measuring changes in surface conductivity.

    Paper III presents a new calculation method for predicting dielectrophoretic motion of micro particles. The method is based on a soft sphere method often used in molecular dynamics. Results from the calculations are in good agreement with theoretical predictions as well as initial experimental results, showing that the method provides good efficiency and accuracy.

    Paper IV describes a new method for measurements of conductivity of living bacteria. To obtain reliable conductivity values, it is important to handle the cells as gently as possible during the measurement process. A standard conductivity meter was used in combination with cross-flow filtration. In this way, repeated centrifugation and resuspension is avoided which otherwise may cause damage to the bacteria. The conductivity of Bacillus subtilis was determined to be 7000 μS/cm by means of the cross-flow filtration method, and the values differ from earlier published values by almost an order of a magnitude.

    In addition to the work presented in the papers, some experimental dielectrophoresis work in chip-based systems was performed. The behavior of Escherichia coli and polystyrene beads at different voltages and frequencies were studied. Separation of beads with different sizes was achieved on an array of interdigitated electrodes. Using electrodes with a pointed shape, alignment in different directions, pearl-chain formation, rotation, and other dielectrophoretic motion of E. coli were observed.

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  • 34.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    New Tools for Trapping and Separation in Gas Chromatography and Dielectrophoresis: Improved Performance by Aid of Computer Simulation2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer simulations can be useful aids for both developing new analytical methods and enhancing the performance of existing techniques. This thesis is based on studies in which computer simulations were key elements in the development of several new tools for use in gas chromatography and dielectrophoresis. In gas chromatography, gaseous analytes are separated by exploiting differences in their partitioning between different phases, and after their partitioning parameters have been determined the separations can be computationally predicted, and optimized, for a wide range of operating conditions. Similarly, in dielectrophoresis, particles with differing polarizability or size can be separated, and since particle trajectories within a separation device can be predicted using computations, the suitability of new designs, applications of forces and combinations of operational parameters can be assessed without necessarily making or empirically testing all of the variants.

    Using two existing numerical methods combined with semi-empirical determinations of retention behavior, temperature-programmed gas chromatograms were predicted with less than one percent deviations from experimental data, and a new method for improving the capacity of a gas-trapping device was predicted and experimentally verified. In addition, two new concepts with potential capacity to enhance dielectrophoretic separations were developed and tested in simulations. The first provides a promising way to improve the trapping of bacteria in media with elevated conductivity by using super-positioned electric fields, and the second a way to increase selectivity in the separation of bio-particles by using multiple dielectrophoretic cycles. The studies also introduced a more accurate method for determining the conductivity of suspensions of bacteria, and a new computational method for determining the dielectrophoretic behavior of particles in concentrated suspensions.

    The scientific studies are summarized and discussed in the main text of this thesis, and presented in detail in seven appended papers.

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  • 35.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Thewalim, Yasar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Colmsjö, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Prediction of retention times and peak widths in temperature-programmed gas chromatography using the finite element method2009In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, no 1, p. 134-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimization of separations in gas chromatography is often a time-consuming task. However, computer simulations of chromatographic experiments may greatly reduce the time required. In this study, the finite element method was used to predict the retention times and peak widths of three analytes eluting from each of four columns during chromatographic separations with two temperature programs. The data acquired were displayed in predicted chromatograms that were then compared to experimentally acquired chromatograms. The differences between the predicted and measured retention times were typically less than 0.1%, although the experimental peak widths were typically 10% larger than expected from the idealized calculations. Input data for the retention and peak dispersion calculations were obtained from isothermal experiments, and converted to thermodynamic parameters.

  • 36.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Thewalim, Yasar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Colmsjö, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Prediction of retention times of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n -alkanes in temperature-programmed gas chromatography2007In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 389, no 3, p. 941-950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed an iterative procedure for predicting the retention times of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes during separations by temperature-programmed gas chromatography. The procedure is based on estimates of two thermodynamic properties for each analyte (the differences in enthalpy and entropy associated with movements between the stationary and mobile phases) derived from data acquired experimentally in separations under isothermal conditions at temperatures spanning the range covered by the temperature programs in ten-degree increments. The columns used for this purpose were capillary columns containing polydimethylsiloxane-based stationary phases with three degrees of phenyl substitution (0%, 5%, and 50%). Predicted values were mostly within 1% of experimentally determined values, implying that the method is stable and precise.

  • 37.
    Aleksejeva, Olga
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Nilsson, Nicklas
    Obducat Technol AB, S-22363 Lund, Sweden..
    Genevskiy, Vladislav
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Thulin, Kristian
    Obducat Technol AB, S-22363 Lund, Sweden..
    Shleev, Sergey
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Photobioanodes Based on Nanoimprinted Electrodes and Immobilized Chloroplasts2022In: ChemElectroChem, E-ISSN 2196-0216, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 37-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the global energy demand continues to increase, the interest in photosynthetic energy conversion is growing accordingly. Chloroplasts, photosynthetic organelles present in plants and algae, are attractive candidates for construction of bio solar cells; however, they have been less studied because of their complex membrane system, which restricts electrochemical communication with an electrode surface. Nevertheless, in this work photobioanodes based on planar and nanoimprinted gold substrates modified with chloroplasts were designed and evaluated. Apparently, nanoimprint lithography contributed to higher photocurrent densities, not only owing to the enlarged real surface area, but also due to boosting electrochemical communication between the photosynthetic organelles and the electrode. Combining chloroplast-modified nanoimprinted gold electrodes with a capacitive part made of a planar gold substrate, coated with a conductive polymer, resulted in a dual-feature photobioanode providing a lower open-circuit potential, i. e., -0.11 V vs. Ag|AgCl|KClsat, and an enhanced capacitance of ca. 37 F m(-2) upon illumination of 400 W m(-2).

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  • 38.
    Aleksejeva, Olga
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Sokolov, A. V.
    Russia Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Marquez, I.
    University of Seville, Spain.
    Gustafsson, Anna
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Bushnev, S.
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Eriksson, Håkan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Ljunggren, Lennart
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Shleev, Sergey
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Autotolerant ceruloplasmin based biocathodes for implanted biological power sources2021In: Bioelectrochemistry, ISSN 1567-5394, E-ISSN 1878-562X, Vol. 140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance autotolerant bioelectrodes should be ideally suited to design implantable bioelectronic devices. Because of its high redox potential and ability to reduce oxygen directly to water, human ceruloplasmin, HCp, the only blue multicopper oxidase present in human plasma, appears to be the ultimate biocatalyst for oxygen biosensors and also biocathodes in biological power sources. In comparison to fungal and plant blue multicopper oxidases, e.g. Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase and Rhus vernicifera laccase, respectively, the inflammatory response to HCp in human blood is significantly reduced. Partial purification of HCp allowed to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme and its biocatalytic activity. Therefore, electrochemical studies were carried out with the partially purified enzyme immobilised on nanostructured graphite electrodes at physiological pH and temperature. Amperometric investigations revealed low reductive current densities, i.e. about 1.65 µA cm−2 in oxygenated electrolyte and in the absence of any mediator, demonstrating nevertheless direct electron transfer based O2 bioelectroreduction by HCp for the first time. The reductive current density obtained in the mediated system was about 12 µA cm−2. Even though the inflammatory response of HCp is diminished in human blood, inadequate bioelectrocatalytic performance hinders its use as a cathodic bioelement in a biofuel cell.

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  • 39.
    Ali, Sajid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Koehler, Jonas K.
    Univ Freiburg, Inst Pharmaceut Sci, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany..
    Silva, Luís
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Gedda, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Massing, Ulrich
    Univ Freiburg, Inst Pharmaceut Sci, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany.;Andreas Hettich GmbH & Co KG, D-78532 Tuttlingen, Germany..
    Edwards, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Dual centrifugation as a novel and efficient method for the preparation of lipodisks2024In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 653, article id 123894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-stabilized lipodisks have emerged as innovatiive, promising nanocarriers for several classes of drugs. Prior research underscores the important role of lipid composition and preparation method in determining the lipodisk size, uniformity, and drug loading capacity. In this study, we investigate dual centrifugation (DC) as a novel technique for the production of PEG-stabilized lipodisks. Moreover, we explore the potential use of DC for the encapsulation of two model drugs, curcumin and doxorubicin, within the disks. Our results show that by a considerate choice of experimental conditions, DC can be used as a fast and straightforward means to produce small and homogenous lipodisks with a hydrodynamic diameter of 20-30 nm. Noteworthy, the technique works well for the production of both cholesterol-free and cholesterol-containing disks and does not require pre-mixing of the lipids in organic solvent. Furthermore, our investigations confirm the efficacy of DC in formulating curcumin and doxorubicin within these lipodisks. For doxorubicin, careful control and optimization of the experimental conditions resulted in formulations displaying an encouraging encapsulation efficiency of 84 % and a favourable drug-to-lipid ratio of 0.13 in the disks.

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  • 40.
    Ali Soomro, Razium
    et al.
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Hallam, Keith Richard
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Syed
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Juddin, Siraj
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Jawaid, Sana
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Glutaric Acid Assisted Fabrication of CuO Nanostructures and their Application in Development of Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Sensor System for Carbamates2016In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 1634-1640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes the fabrication of unique arrow head shaped CuO nanostructures using simple hydrothermal treatment method. The highly attractive features were obtained by the application of glutaric acid utilised simultaneous as template and functionalising agent. The functionalised nanostructures were known to possess excellent potential towards the electro-catalytic oxidation of carbofuran pesticide. The generated intense electrochemical signal with lower potential value enabled sensitive and selective determination of carbofuran up to 1 x 10(-3) mu M with wide sensing window in range of 0.01 to 0.16 mu M. The feasibility of the developed sensor system for the practical application was also studied by testing its potential in real sample extracts of various vegetables. The excellent recoveries demonstrated the analytical robustness of the developed sensor system. The sensor system utilises a new and simple approach towards sensitive determination of toxic pesticides reflecting its wide spectrum application in various fields.

  • 41.
    Ali Soomro, Razium
    et al.
    University of Bristol, England; University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Dr MA Kazi Institute Chemistry University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tufail Hussain Sirajuddin; Sherazi, Syed
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Ishaq Abro, Muhammad
    Mehran University of Engn and Technology, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Practice of diclofenac sodium for the hydrothermal growth of NiO nanostructures and their application for enzyme free glucose biosensor2016In: Microsystem Technologies: Micro- and Nanosystems Information Storage and Processing Systems, ISSN 0946-7076, E-ISSN 1432-1858, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 2549-2557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study diclofenac sodium (DFS), an analgesic drug has been employed as an effective template for the synthesis of NiO nanostructures. The NiO nanostructures were synthesised using low temperature hydrothermal growth method, both in the presence and absence of the DFS drug. The synthesised nanostructures were studied for their structural, compositional and electrochemical properties using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry. The synthesised nanostructures were then utilised for the modification of glassy carbon electrode which were then utilised for the electro-catalytic enzyme free glucose sensing in alkaline media. The competitive experiments suggested that although, both nanostructures possess excellent capability of glucose sensing, the NiO nanoflakes modified electrode was found to be twice as much as sensitive (2584 A mu A mM(-1) cm(-2)) as nanoflowers based electrode (1154 A mu A mM(-1) cm(-2)). The NiO nanoflakes based sensor further demonstrated excellent anti-interference potential in the presence of common interferents like uric acid, ascorbic acid and dopamine. In addition, the successful application NiO nanoflakes based sensor to determine real blood glucose concentration further suggest its feasibility for real sample analysis.

  • 42.
    Ali Soomro, Razium
    et al.
    University of Bristol, England; University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Nafady, Ayman
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia; Sohag University, Egypt.
    Hallam, Keith Richard
    University of Bristol, England.
    Jawaid, Sana
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Al Enizi, Abdullah
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
    Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Syed
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Sirajuddin,
    Univ Sindh, Natl Ctr Excellence Analyt Chem, Jamshoro 76080, Pakistan.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Univ Sindh, Dr MA Kazi Inst Chem, Jamshoro 76080, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Highly sensitive determination of atropine using cobalt oxide nanostructures: Influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity2016In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 948, p. 30-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes sensitive determination of atropine using glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with Co3O4 nanostructures. The as-synthesised nanostructures were grown using cysteine (CYS), glutathione (GSH) and histidine (HYS) as effective templates under hydrothermal action. The obtained morphologies revealed interesting structural features, including both cavity-based and flower-shaped structures. The as-synthesised morphologies were noted to actively participate in electro-catalysis of atropine (AT) drug where GSH-assisted structures exhibited the best signal response in terms of current density and over-potential value. The study also discusses the influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity of atropine electro-oxidation. The functionalisation was carried with the amino acids originally used as effective templates for the growth of Co3O4 nanostructures. The highest increment was obtained when GSH was used as the surface functionalising agent. The GSH-functionalised Co3O4-modified electrode was utilised for the electro-chemical sensing of AT in a concentration range of 0.01 -0.46 mu M. The developed sensor exhibited excellent working linearity (R-2 = 0.999) and signal sensitivity up to 0.001 mu M of AT. The noted high sensitivity of the sensor is associated with the synergy of superb surface architectures and favourable interaction facilitating the electron transfer kinetics for the electro-catalytic oxidation of AT. Significantly, the developed sensor demonstrated excellent working capability when used for AT detection in human urine samples with strong anti-interference potential against common co-existing species, such as glucose, fructose, cysteine, uric acid, dopamine and ascorbic acid. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Alice, Landmér
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Wet spinning of carbon fiber precursors from cellulose-lignin blends in a cold NaOH(aq) solvent system2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon fiber (CF) is predominantly produced from fossil-based sources and is therefore an area of interest for further development towards a more sustainable society. The purpose of this thesis work was to investigate the possibility of producing precursor fibers (PFs) for CF production from a blend of renewable cellulose andlignin. Cellulose, which is used to some extent for CF production, was chosen, while the possibility of adding lignin was investigated in hope of increasing the gravimetric yield of the CF production. Blends of softwood kraft cellulose pulp (SKP) and softwood kraft lignin (SKL) were dissolved in an alkaline (NaOH) solvent system at different cellulose/lignin ratios. A total of eight dopes were prepared (SKP/SKL ratios of 100/0–60/40 wt./wt.) with total dope concentrations ranging from 4.5 wt.% to 9.2 wt.%. The addition of SKL resulted in dark colored dopes with viscosities of which mainly appeared to depend on the SKP concentration. The dopes were wet spun, resulting in continuously spun PFs. The PFs showed on an increasing pyrolysis yield with increased SKL content but decreasing mechanical properties. However, process optimization was not included in the work, subsequently leading to the assumption that greater values on mechanical properties can be achieved. A pure SKP PF and a SKP-SKL (70/30 wt./wt.) PF were successfully thermally converted into CFs by carbonization at 1000 °C. The PF containing SKL had a total gravimetric yield more than twice as high as the pure SKP PF, 28 wt.% and 12 wt.%, respectively. Thereby, the addition of SKL seems to have a positive impact on the CF yield when utilizing a NaOH(aq) solvent system. This thesis work has become a base for the future work towards the development of CFs from wet spun cellulose-lignin PFs in the NaOH(aq) solvent system.  

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  • 44.
    Allard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Metabolic Studies with Liquid Separation Coupled to Mass Spectrometry2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolism is the sum of all chemical processes with the purpose to maintain life, as well as enable reproduction, in a living organism. Through the study of metabolism, increased understanding of pharmacological mechanisms and diseases can be achieved. This thesis describes several ways of doing so, including targeted analysis of selected metabolites and investigations of systematic metabolic differences between selected groups through pattern recognition.

    A method for exploring metabolic patterns in urine samples after intake of coffee or tea was developed. The methodology was later used with the aim to find biomarkers for prostate cancer and urinary bladder cancer.

    Furthermore, a fully automated quantitative method was developed for concentration measurements of the double prodrug ximelagatran and its metabolites in pig liver. The method was then used to study the roll of active transporters in pig liver cells.

    Moreover, a fundamental study was conducted to investigate how monitoring of small, doubly charged analytes can improve the limit of detection and precision in a quantitative method.

    The techniques used for the experiments were liquid separation coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry. Extra efforts were made to make the separation and the ionization as compatible as possible to each other for increased quality of the collected data.

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  • 45.
    Allard, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Danielsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sjöberg, Per J.R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Comparing capillary electrophoresis: mass spectrometry fingerprints of urine samples obtained after intake of coffee, tea, or water.2008In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 80, no 23, p. 8946-8955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolomic fingerprinting is a growing strategy for characterizing complex biological samples without detailed prior knowledge about the metabolic system. A two-way analysis system with liquid separation and mass spectrometric detection provides detail-rich data suitable for such fingerprints. As a model study, human urine samples, obtained after intake of coffee, tea, or water, were analyzed with capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE−ESI-TOF-MS). In-house-developed software (in Matlab) was utilized to manage and explore the large amount of data acquired (230 CE−MS runs, each with 50−100 million nonzero data points). After baseline and noise reduction, followed by suitable binning in time and m/z, the data sets comprised 9 and 14 million data points in negative and positive ESI mode, respectively. Finally, a signal threshold was applied, further reducing the number to about 100 000 data points per data set. A set of interactive exploratory tools, utilizing principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) results based on a general linear model, facilitated visual interpretation with score plots (for group assessment) and differential fingerprints (for “hot spot” detection). In the model study highly significant differences due to beverage intake were obtained among the 10 first principal components (p < 10−6 for two of the components in both ESI modes). Especially, the contrasts between “coffee” and “tea or water” indicated several “hot spots” with highly elevated intensities (e.g., for uncharged masses 93, 94, 109, 119, 123, 132, 148, 169, 178, 187, 190, and 193) suitable for further analysis, for example, with tandem MS.

  • 46. Allison, Timothy M.
    et al.
    Barran, Perdita
    Benesch, Justin L. P.
    Cianférani, Sarah
    Degiacomi, Matteo T.
    Gabelica, Valérie
    Grandori, Rita
    Marklund, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Menneteau, Thomas
    Migas, Lukasz G.
    Politis, Argyris
    Sharon, Michal
    Sobott, Frank
    Thalassinos, Konstantinos
    Software Requirements for the Analysis and Interpretation of Native Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry Data2020In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 92, no 16, p. 10881-10890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The past few years have seen a dramatic increase in applications of native mass and ion mobility spectrometry, especially for the study of proteins and protein complexes. This increase has been catalyzed by the availability of commercial instrumentation capable of carrying out such analyses. As in most fields, however, the software to process the data generated from new instrumentation lags behind. Recently, a number of research groups have started addressing this by developing software, but further improvements are still required in order to realize the full potential of the data sets generated. In this perspective, we describe practical aspects as well as challenges in processing native mass spectrometry (MS) and ion mobility-MS data sets and provide a brief overview of currently available tools. We then set out our vision of future developments that would bring the community together and lead to the development of a common platform to expedite future computational developments, provide standardized processing approaches, and serve as a location for the deposition of data for this emerging field. This perspective has been written by members of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action on Native MS and Related Methods for Structural Biology (EU COST Action BM1403) as an introduction to the software tools available in this area. It is intended to serve as an overview for newcomers and to stimulate discussions in the community on further developments in this field, rather than being an in-depth review. Our complementary perspective (http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b05791) focuses on computational approaches used in this field.

  • 47. Allison, Timothy M.
    et al.
    Barran, Perdita
    Cianférani, Sarah
    Degiacomi, Matteo T.
    Gabelica, Valérie
    Grandori, Rita
    Marklund, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Menneteau, Thomas
    Migas, Lukasz G.
    Politis, Argyris
    Sharon, Michal
    Sobott, Frank
    Thalassinos, Konstantinos
    Benesch, Justin L. P.
    Computational Strategies and Challenges for Using Native Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry in Biophysics and Structural Biology2020In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 92, no 16, p. 10872-10880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Native mass spectrometry (MS) allows the interrogation of structural aspects of macromolecules in the gas phase, under the premise of having initially maintained their solution-phase noncovalent interactions intact. In the more than 25 years since the first reports, the utility of native MS has become well established in the structural biology community. The experimental and technological advances during this time have been rapid, resulting in dramatic increases in sensitivity, mass range, resolution, and complexity of possible experiments. As experimental methods have improved, there have been accompanying developments in computational approaches for analyzing and exploiting the profusion of MS data in a structural and biophysical context. In this perspective, we consider the computational strategies currently being employed by the community, aspects of best practice, and the challenges that remain to be addressed. Our perspective is based on discussions within the European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action on Native Mass Spectrometry and Related Methods for Structural Biology (EU COST Action BM1403), which involved participants from across Europe and North America. It is intended not as an in-depth review but instead to provide an accessible introduction to and overview of the topic—to inform newcomers to the field and stimulate discussions in the community about addressing existing challenges. Our complementary perspective (http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b05792) focuses on software tools available to help researchers tackle some of the challenges enumerated here.

  • 48.
    Allison, Timothy M.
    et al.
    Biomolecular Interaction Centre, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Degiacomi, Matteo T.
    Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham, UK.
    Marklund, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Jovine, Luca
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Elofsson, Arne
    Science for Life Laboratory and Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Solna, Sweden.
    Benesch, Justin L. P.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Landreh, Michael
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet – Biomedicum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Complementing machine learning‐based structure predictions with native mass spectrometry2022In: Protein Science, ISSN 0961-8368, E-ISSN 1469-896X, Vol. 31, no 6, article id e4333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of machine learning-based structure prediction algorithms such as AlphaFold2 (AF2) and RoseTTa Fold have moved the generation of accurate structural models for the entire cellular protein machinery into the reach of the scientific community. However, structure predictions of protein complexes are based on user-provided input and may require experimental validation. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a versatile, time-effective tool that provides information on post-translational modifications, ligand interactions, conformational changes, and higher-order oligomerization. Using three protein systems, we show that native MS experiments can uncover structural features of ligand interactions, homology models, and point mutations that are undetectable by AF2 alone. We conclude that machine learning can be complemented with MS to yield more accurate structural models on a small and large scale.

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  • 49.
    Alm, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Bro, Rasmus
    Engelsen, Sören B.
    Karlberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Torgrip, Ralf J. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Vibrational overtone combination spectroscopy (VOCSY)—a new way of using IR and NIR data2007In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 388, no 1, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work explores a novel method for rearranging 1st order (one-way) infra-red (IR) and/or near infra-red (NIR) ordinary spectra into a representation suitable for multi-way modelling and analysis. The method is based on the fact that the fundamental IR absorption and the first, second, and consecutive overtones of NIR absorptions represent identical chemical information. It is therefore possible to rearrange these overtone regions of the vectors comprising an IR and NIR spectrum into a matrix where the fundamental, 1st, 2nd, and consecutive overtones of the spectrum are arranged as either rows or columns in a matrix, resulting in a true three-way tensor of data for several samples. This tensorization facilitates explorative analysis and modelling with multi-way methods, for example parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), N-way partial least squares (N-PLS), and Tucker models. The vibrational overtone combination spectroscopy (VOCSY) arrangement is shown to benefit from the “order advantage”, producing more robust, stable, and interpretable models than, for example, the traditional PLS modelling method. The proposed method also opens the field of NIR for true peak decomposition—a feature unique to the method because the latent factors acquired using PARAFAC can represent pure spectral components whereas latent factors in principal component analysis (PCA) and PLS usually do not.

  • 50.
    Alm, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Slagbrand, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Åberg, K. Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Wahlström, Erik
    Gustafsson, Ingela
    Lindberg, Johan
    Automated annotation and quantification of metabolites in (1)H NMR data of biological origin2012In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 403, no 2, p. 443-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1H NMR metabolomic datasets, there are often over a thousand peaks per spectrum, many of which change position drastically between samples. Automatic alignment, annotation, and quantification of all the metabolites of interest in such datasets have not been feasible. In this work we propose a fully automated annotation and quantification procedure which requires annotation of metabolites only in a single spectrum. The reference database built from that single spectrum can be used for any number of 1H NMR datasets with a similar matrix. The procedure is based on the generalized fuzzy Hough transform (GFHT) for alignment and on Principal-components analysis (PCA) for peak selection and quantification. We show that we can establish quantities of 21 metabolites in several 1H NMR datasets and that the procedure is extendable to include any number of metabolites that can be identified in a single spectrum. The procedure speeds up the quantification of previously known metabolites and also returns a table containing the intensities and locations of all the peaks that were found and aligned but not assigned to a known metabolite. This enables both biopattern analysis of known metabolites and data mining for new potential biomarkers among the unknowns.

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