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  • 1.
    Aasheim, Fanny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gestsson, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Det spelar ingen roll hur du gör det - bara du gör det: Hur ett koncept kan utformas för att uppmana till motion utan att bidra till hälsohets2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 2.
    Abbaszadeh, Sepideh
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Espinoza, Daniela
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Instagram: en plattform för att frigöra kvinnors kroppar genom hashtags.: Ett bidrag i diskussionen angående aktivism på Instagram.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The naked body is an entity that has always been present in both the “real” world and the media. The anatomy of our bodies isn’t something we can avoid; today it reflects the reality that has developed partly from media. According to Instagram’s guidelines users are not allowed to publish naked or semi-naked pictures but that does not stop certain users that are critical to how the body norms and censorship are portrait today. In our study, we take part of research regarding gender in multimedia settings and how they have affected our daily lives. As well as studies, which research the usage of hashtags and how to circumvent censorship. The focus for this study is to research what role Instagram and hashtags have in generating a public discussion as well to draw attention to various issues and causes that are based on norm critique. We have conducted two different observations, held interviews with activists and created an online-survey for users to answer what they think about the Instagram community guidelines. The results show that there is an underlying discrimination acceptance within Instagram and their community guidelines. We can also see that women and users who uses hashtags can spread their causes more effectively, although they are simultaneously at risk for being censored depending on the hashtag they use. According to our respondents from our research there is an agreement regarding the need of updating Instagram’s community guidelines, which could help with eliminate the current discrimination against women and their breasts. At the end of this study we are giving a proposal to how Instagram can work with their censoring in a more critical way. This may contribute to an agenda to make social media platforms safer and less discriminating.

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  • 3.
    Abdelaziz, Ahmed
    et al.
    Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Ang, Tanfong
    Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Sookhak, Mehdi
    Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Khan, Suleman
    Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Liew, Cheesun
    Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Akhunzada, Adnan
    Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Survey on network virtualization using openflow: Taxonomy, opportunities, and open issues2016In: KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, ISSN 1976-7277, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 4902-4932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The popularity of network virtualization has recently regained considerable momentum because of the emergence of OpenFlow technology. It is essentially decouples a data plane from a control plane and promotes hardware programmability. Subsequently, OpenFlow facilitates the implementation of network virtualization. This study aims to provide an overview of different approaches to create a virtual network using OpenFlow technology. The paper also presents the OpenFlow components to compare conventional network architecture with OpenFlow network architecture, particularly in terms of the virtualization. A thematic OpenFlow network virtualization taxonomy is devised to categorize network virtualization approaches. Several testbeds that support OpenFlow network virtualization are discussed with case studies to show the capabilities of OpenFlow virtualization. Moreover, the advantages of popular OpenFlow controllers that are designed to enhance network virtualization is compared and analyzed. Finally, we present key research challenges that mainly focus on security, scalability, reliability, isolation, and monitoring in the OpenFlow virtual environment. Numerous potential directions to tackle the problems related to OpenFlow network virtualization are likewise discussed

  • 4.
    Abdelmassih, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Hultman, Axel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Förutspå golfresultat med hjälp av sentimentanalys på Twitter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examine the relationship between the sentiment value of golf players’ tweets and their sports results to evaluate the predictive power of the their twitter accounts. Findings on this topic may be of value to bookmakers, gamblers, coaches and fans of sport. Our study is based on two datasets: PGA­tour golf statistics and 112 101 tweets made by 155 profesional golfers over the course of two seasons. The golf players’ sentiment was quantified using the lexical sentiment analysis method AFINN.

    In contrast to other research with similiar methods, our findings suggest that there is low correlation betweet the datasets and that the methods used in our study have low predictive power. Our recommendation is that future studies use additional prediction variables besides sentiment score to better evaluate the predictive power of golf players’ tweets. 

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  • 5.
    Abdlbari, Abdulbari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Användning av mobilapplikationer i smartphones hos unga vuxna: En fallstudie bland studenter och arbetstagare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nu förtiden har det blivit allt vanligare att människor använder sig av smartphones. I denna uppsats har jag kartlagt smartphone-användares användningsvanor och mönster hos unga vuxna som antingen studerar eller arbetar. För att få fram den information jag behöver har jag valt att använda mig av dagböcker där sex stycken respondenter deltog under en fyra dagars period och även intervjuer där tre av de sex respondenterna var deltagande efter genomförandet av dagböckerna. Mina resultat visar fascinerande nog att smartphones används till största del på platser där användarna är relativt stillasittande som till exempel i hemmet. Dessutom har det visat sig att studenter har en stor användning av applikationer och där med smartphones, ofta i samband med deras studier, speciellt applikationer kopplade till molntjänster.

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    Användning av mobilapplikationer i smartphones hos unga vuxna
  • 6.
    Abdlbari, Abdulbari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Parkeringsapplikationen: Utveckling av en mobilapplikation för iPhone.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes procedures and preparations made for developing a mobile application.Using a questionnaire and usability tests, I have developed a design document for a parkingapplication for the iPhone 4. The purpose of the application is to help drivers find allowedparking spaces thus making roads safer for everyone while the driver avoids parking tickets.

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  • 7.
    Abedin, Md. Zainal
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology Chittagong.
    Chowdhury, Abu Sayeed
    University of Science and Technology Chittagong.
    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
    University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Karim, Razuan
    University of Science and Technology Chittagong.
    An Interoperable IP based WSN for Smart Irrigation Systems2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) have been highly developed which can be used in agriculture to enable optimal irrigation scheduling. Since there is an absence of widely used available methods to support effective agriculture practice in different weather conditions, WSN technology can be used to optimise irrigation in the crop fields. This paper presents architecture of an irrigation system by incorporating interoperable IP based WSN, which uses the protocol stacks and standard of the Internet of Things paradigm. The performance of fundamental issues of this network is emulated in Tmote Sky for 6LoWPAN over IEEE 802.15.4 radio link using the Contiki OS and the Cooja simulator. The simulated results of the performance of the WSN architecture presents the Round Trip Time (RTT) as well as the packet loss of different packet size. In addition, the average power consumption and the radio duty cycle of the sensors are studied. This will facilitate the deployment of a scalable and interoperable multi hop WSN, positioning of border router and to manage power consumption of the sensors.

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  • 8.
    Abedin, Md. Zainal
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology, Chittagong.
    Siddiquee, Kazy Noor E Alam
    University of Science and Technology Chittagong.
    Bhuyan, M. S.
    University of Science & Technology Chittagong.
    Karim, Razuan
    University of Science and Technology Chittagong.
    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
    University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Performance Analysis of Anomaly Based Network Intrusion Detection Systems2018In: Proveedings of the 43nd IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks Workshops (LCN Workshops), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2018, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of the increased popularity and fast expansion of the Internet as well as Internet of things, networks are growing rapidly in every corner of the society. As a result, huge amount of data is travelling across the computer networks that lead to the vulnerability of data integrity, confidentiality and reliability. So, network security is a burning issue to keep the integrity of systems and data. The traditional security guards such as firewalls with access control lists are not anymore enough to secure systems. To address the drawbacks of traditional Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs), artificial intelligence and machine learning based models open up new opportunity to classify abnormal traffic as anomaly with a self-learning capability. Many supervised learning models have been adopted to detect anomaly from networks traffic. In quest to select a good learning model in terms of precision, recall, area under receiver operating curve, accuracy, F-score and model built time, this paper illustrates the performance comparison between Naïve Bayes, Multilayer Perceptron, J48, Naïve Bayes Tree, and Random Forest classification models. These models are trained and tested on three subsets of features derived from the original benchmark network intrusion detection dataset, NSL-KDD. The three subsets are derived by applying different attributes evaluator’s algorithms. The simulation is carried out by using the WEKA data mining tool.

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  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Lagerqvist, Amelie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Att formas och att formge: Normkritisk mönsterformgivning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our society is made up of norms that say how we should look, behave and live our lives. Many of these norms focuses on how you as a man or woman should behave in relation to your gender. Gender norms are reflected in design and what we design in products, furniture and buildings. With a gender specified norm critical approach, we examine how gender norms are reflected in design and how we as designers can design with norm criticism. With pattern design as an exploratory approach, we want to highlight and examine how gender norms affect and is repeated in what we design, just like a pattern is defined by lines and shapes that are repeated or experienced to be repeated.

    During our investigation it appears that patterns can contribute with discussion and stance that will work in multiple forums. We examine how unisex and male and female can be embodied in patterns, and how norm criticism works as an approach in a design process.

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  • 10.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nordenström, Elin
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rooney, Donna
    University of TechnologySydneyAustralia.
    Rystedt, Hans
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Video as a Tool for Researching Simulation Practices2019In: Video as a Tool for Researching Simulation Practices: Materiality, Embodiment, Interaction / [ed] Madeleine Abrandt Dahlgren, Hans Rystedt, Li Felländer-Tsai and Sofia Nyström, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2019, p. 31-55Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides examples of how arrangements for collection and analyses of video data were organized across different sites. The common approach to data collection builds on established methods for recording of audiovisual materials in the social sciences with a focus on interaction and learning. The chapter describes how arrangements for data collection across different sites were organised, and how video analysis can be used as a method for collaborative analysis of practices. One approach is entitled purposeful approach to collaborative data analysis. A second approach draws on video-based studies of situated action, and a third approach of analysis is the use of qualitatively different readings of the same data. One does not replace the other, but rather draws out different features.

  • 11.
    Abu Nijmeh, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Catalan Canales, Diego
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Prokrastinering i form av medieanvändning: En jämförelsestudie kring kön och sysselsättning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Procrastination has long been a problem for many. Whether it is school work, training or something else, most individuals have experienced that they deliberately postpone a task for a later occasion. This phenomenon has in recent time been integrated into our society in a negative way. In our media-centered society we are becoming more connected where nowadays almost all of Sweden's population has access to the internet. Technology has brought many opportunities, but it has also opened up for new ways to procrastinate.

    This study aimed to investigate procrastination in the form of media usage by a large target group. We intended to find out eventual differences in procrastination habits between the sexes, but also between workers and students. Previous research has already shown that procrastination differs with age and occupation. With this in mind we seek to answer the question: Which digital media does people use when they procrastinate and on which technical platforms does this happen? In order to answer this question, we conducted a preliminary study on a smaller group of people to get a better understanding of what matters were relevant in this context. This preliminary study then formed the basis for a survey of 91 participants.

    The results showed clear differences between both men and women and between students and workers. Differences regarding both media usage and procrastination habits were seen where some differences were more notable than others. The result confirms previous studies in several aspects and gives us some insight into how different procrastination habits might look.

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  • 12.
    Acharya, Soam
    et al.
    Cornell University, Ithaca.
    Smith, Brian P
    Cornell University, Ithaca.
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Characterizing user access to videos on the World Wide Web1999In: Multimedia computing and networking 2000 / [ed] Klara Nahrstedt, Bellingham, Wash: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 1999, p. 130-141Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite evidence of rising popularity of video on the web (or VOW), little is known about how users access video. However, such a characterization can greatly benefit the design of multimedia systems such as web video proxies and VOW servers. Hence, this paper presents an analysis of trace data obtained from an ongoing VOW experiment in Lulea University of Technology, Sweden. This experiment is unique as video material is distributed over a high bandwidth network allowing users to make access decisions without the network being a major factor. Our analysis revealed a number of interesting discoveries regarding user VOW access. For example, accesses display high temporal locality: several requests for the same video title often occur within a short time span. Accesses also exhibited spatial locality of reference whereby a small number of machines accounted for a large number of overall requests. Another finding was a browsing pattern where users preview the initial portion of a video to find out if they are interested. If they like it, they continue watching, otherwise they halt it. This pattern suggests that caching the first several minutes of video data should prove effective. Lastly, the analysis shows that, contrary to previous studies, ranking of video titles by popularity did not fit a Zipfian distribution.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 13.
    Ackefjord, Sandra
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Tuvesson, Young-Jae Peder
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Urban Sounds: Interactive feel of urbanization2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To make use of animation and audio as a media to convey a sense of change, was an important aspect when we chose to focus on urbanisation. It is an opportunity that allows the participants to discuss how influenceable we are to the sounds we hear in our surroundings. This bachelor thesis aims to demonstrate and educate about the effects and impact of urbanisation on humans and their well-being. In order to achieve a result, we created an audiovisual interactive installation that will portray the changes that have taken place over a period of 100 years, from the early 1900s into the 2000s. Factors such as urbanization, mental health, audio and images will be treated in-depth in what way they affect human well-being in urban areas. It gave us the knowledge to understand the historical value of the use of sound and images to be able to convey our message, with the cooperation of Blekingearkivet. We chose to start with Nina Hällgrens theories about how we can create auditory sustainable urban environments in order to understand how influenceable we are by noise. Yvonne Eriksson and Anette Göthlund gave us the tools to appreciate the importance of the visual expression. In the survey, we have used methods and techniques specifically suited to support to and complete the design process that has been made.

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    Urban Sounds: Interactive feel of urbanization
  • 14.
    Adalat, Mohsin
    et al.
    COSMOSE Research Group, Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Niazi, Muaz A.
    COSMOSE Research Group, Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Variations in power of opinion leaders in online communication networks2018In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, no 10, article id 180642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online social media has completely transformed how we communicate with each other. While online discussion platforms are available in the form of applications and websites, an emergent outcome of this transformation is the phenomenon of ‘opinion leaders’. A number of previous studies have been presented to identify opinion leaders in online discussion networks. In particular, Feng (2016 Comput. Hum. Behav. 54, 43–53. (doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.052)) has identified five different types of central users besides outlining their communication patterns in an online communication network. However, the presented work focuses on a limited time span. The question remains as to whether similar communication patterns exist that will stand the test of time over longer periods. Here, we present a critical analysis of the Feng framework both for short-term as well as for longer periods. Additionally, for validation, we take another case study presented by Udanor et al. (2016 Program 50, 481–507. (doi:10.1108/PROG-02-2016-0011)) to further understand these dynamics. Results indicate that not all Feng-based central users may be identifiable in the longer term. Conversation starter and influencers were noted as opinion leaders in the network. These users play an important role as information sources in long-term discussions. Whereas network builder and active engager help in connecting otherwise sparse communities. Furthermore, we discuss the changing positions of opinion leaders and their power to keep isolates interested in an online discussion network.

  • 15.
    Adams, Paul C.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013). University of Texas at Austin, USA.
    Geographies of media and communication II: Arcs of communication2018In: Progress in Human Geography, ISSN 0309-1325, E-ISSN 1477-0288, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 590-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the most perceptive contributions to the geographic study of media and communication have been in areas of landscapes studies and geohumanities. To bring landscape and geohumanities insights together more explicitly with communication and media, this progress report draws on George Revill’s concept of an ‘arc of sound’, expanding the concept’s scope to an arc of communication – a dynamic trajectory connecting one vantage point to another through various translations and shifts. It is a mix of integration and translation that forms its own space, place and time, integrating elements of embodied performance, multiple sensory modalities, temporality, absence and excess. Arcs of communication often depend on collaboration and can produce transformations of identity. The concept of the arc of communication enables discovery of numerous threads connecting landscape studies to geohumanities while deepening geographical understandings of media and communication.

  • 16.
    Adamsson, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ho, Emilie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interactive 3D-visualization of a Solar Particle Event for Public Outreach2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the work of our Master´s thesis carried out remotely at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center. In collaboration with the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), Linköping University and Predictive Science Inc. The report presents and evaluates an implementation of an interactive 3D visualization of a Solar Particle Event in OpenSpace, an open source astrovisualization software. Data from a model developed by Predictive Science Inc. was used to implement the visualization. The visualization is done by visualizing fluxes of particles as points and utilizing a volumetric data set by applying 2D textures to geometrical shapes. The goal of these visualizations is to help describe the effect of space weather phenomena to the general public. The research conducted is focused on how to visualize a big Solar Particle Event to emphasize or showcase different aspects, such as the radiation exposure close to Earth. The result of the work is an interactive real-time visualization of a Solar Particle Event designed for public outreach. The project culminated in two live streamed events with AMNH, in collaboration with NASA and Predictive Science Inc. 

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  • 17.
    Adrup, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Skogström, Charlotte
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Effekterna av spelmekanismerna ledartavlor, serier och certifikat på det dagliga stegantalet hos högskolestuderande studenter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gamification is becoming a recognized concept, especially in research areas such as HCI (Human Computer Interaction). This paper discusses and compares three different game mechanics through the daily step count. The game mechanisms included are leaderboards, streaks and badges. The study applies quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate how the above named game mechanisms affect the daily step count of students studying at a university level.

    The study shows that gamification is preferable in terms of awareness and pleasure, but that gamification must not interfere with the basic functions of the original product. On the contrary, gaming mechanisms should be used to support the products existing features, not just to make the product more entertaining and motivating. The general conclusion of the collected quantitative data is that gamification does not influence the daily step count.

    Finally, the article discusses what factors should be implemented to make gamification work in a motivating way. The article also discusses how game developers can use game design to create interesting and engaging applications.

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    Effekterna-av-spelmekanismerna
  • 18.
    Afework, Miriam
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Using Magic Machines to Elaborate Menstrual Self-Tracker­s for Women with Endometriosis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Existing self-tracking tools for women concentrate on one’s general well-being and keeping track of ovulation and periods. With around 10% of women worldwide suffering from endometriosis there is an unmet need to leverage self-tracking for women whose cycles are affected by more variables. The disease is enigmatic with an unknown cause and cure and the ill­ness differs for each individual in symptoms and working treatments. It is therefore critical to understand how women can learn about their bodies and how to treat their condition. In this research I work with two sufferers to identify their secret de­sires through a workshop and a series of interviews. Results suggest that women with endometriosis could benefit from ex­perimenting with different habits and make personalized routines to suit their own needs. Finally I present design implica­tions for an existing menstrual app in the form of an add-on. The steps of the add-on tool included three steps. Firstly, choosing variables of one’s well being to track (mood, energy, pain etc.), choosing activities for one or more cycles (gluten-free diet, exercising etc.), and lastly viewing an analysis of any changes in the body.

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  • 19.
    Agbo, Friday Joseph
    et al.
    School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101, Joensuu, Finland.
    Oyelere, Solomon Sunday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Suhonen, Jarkko
    School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101, Joensuu, Finland.
    Tukiainen, Markku
    School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101, Joensuu, Finland.
    Scientific production and thematic breakthroughs in smart learning environments: a bibliometric analysis2021In: Smart Learning Environments, E-ISSN 2196-7091, Vol. 8, article id 1Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the research landscape of smart learning environments by conducting a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of the field over the years. The study focused on the research trends, scholar’s productivity, and thematic focus of scientific publications in the field of smart learning environments. A total of 1081 data consisting of peer-reviewed articles were retrieved from the Scopus database. A bibliometric approach was applied to analyse the data for a comprehensive overview of the trend, thematic focus, and scientific production in the field of smart learning environments. The result from this bibliometric analysis indicates that the first paper on smart learning environments was published in 2002; implying the beginning of the field. Among other sources, “Computers & Education,” “Smart Learning Environments,” and “Computers in Human Behaviour” are the most relevant outlets publishing articles associated with smart learning environments. The work of Kinshuk et al., published in 2016, stands out as the most cited work among the analysed documents. The United States has the highest number of scientific productions and remained the most relevant country in the smart learning environment field. Besides, the results also showed names of prolific scholars and most relevant institutions in the field. Keywords such as “learning analytics,” “adaptive learning,” “personalized learning,” “blockchain,” and “deep learning” remain the trending keywords. Furthermore, thematic analysis shows that “digital storytelling” and its associated components such as “virtual reality,” “critical thinking,” and “serious games” are the emerging themes of the smart learning environments but need to be further developed to establish more ties with “smart learning”. The study provides useful contribution to the field by clearly presenting a comprehensive overview and research hotspots, thematic focus, and future direction of the field. These findings can guide scholars, especially the young ones in field of smart learning environments in defining their research focus and what aspect of smart leaning can be explored.

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  • 20.
    Agreste, Santa
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Physical Sciences and Earth Sciences, University of Messina.
    De Meo, Pasquale
    of Ancient and Modern Civilizations, University of Messina.
    Fiumara, Giacomo
    Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Physical Sciences and Earth Sciences, University of Messina.
    Piccione, Giuseppe
    Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Physical Sciences and Earth Sciences, University of Messina.
    Piccolo, Sebastiano
    Department of Management Engineering - Engineering Systems Division at the Technical University of Denmark.
    Rosaci, Domenico
    DIIES Department, University of Reggio Calabria Via Graziella.
    Sarné, Giuseppe M. L.
    DICEAM Department, University of Reggio Calabria Via Graziella.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    An empirical comparison of algorithms to find communities in directed graphs and their application in Web Data Analytics2017In: IEEE Transactions on Big Data, E-ISSN 2332-7790, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 289-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting communities in graphs is a fundamental tool to understand the structure of Web-based systems and predict their evolution. Many community detection algorithms are designed to process undirected graphs (i.e., graphs with bidirectional edges) but many graphs on the Web - e.g. microblogging Web sites, trust networks or the Web graph itself - are often directed. Few community detection algorithms deal with directed graphs but we lack their experimental comparison. In this paper we evaluated some community detection algorithms across accuracy and scalability. A first group of algorithms (Label Propagation and Infomap) are explicitly designed to manage directed graphs while a second group (e.g., WalkTrap) simply ignores edge directionality; finally, a third group of algorithms (e.g., Eigenvector) maps input graphs onto undirected ones and extracts communities from the symmetrized version of the input graph. We ran our tests on both artificial and real graphs and, on artificial graphs, WalkTrap achieved the highest accuracy, closely followed by other algorithms; Label Propagation has outstanding performance in scalability on both artificial and real graphs. The Infomap algorithm showcased the best trade-off between accuracy and computational performance and, therefore, it has to be considered as a promising tool for Web Data Analytics purposes.

  • 21.
    Ahammed, Riday
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Osheko, Yannick
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Vad ska vägleda dig i en 3D-labyrint?: En kvalitativ studie av spår, ljud och markeringar som vägledningshjälpmedel2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are different types of wayfinding aids that help the player navigate through a 3D environment. This qualitative study investigates how breadcrumb trails, sounds, and markers as wayfinding aids can support a player in a 3D maze. First, the researchers created a prototype to examine the three wayfinding aids and placed them into three different mazes. Then, the respondents who participated in the study played through those three mazes with and without wayfinding aids to investigate how they supported the respondents during the game session. Next, data were collected using the stimulated recall method and semi-structured interviews. Finally, the collected data were analyzed using the Empirical phenomenological psychology (EPP) method. The results that occurred from the analysis showed the respondent's individual experiences and the four overall themes that emerged from the data. In summary, the results indicated that breadcrumb trails were the most optimal wayfinding aid. However, both sound and markers shared the same characteristics as wayfinding aids. In addition, the respondents developed spatial memory with the help of unique landmarks and used other wayfinding strategies when the wayfinding aids were unavailable.

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  • 22.
    Ahlberg, Grete
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society.
    Personliga amatörfilmer, ett professionellt bildberättande inom reklamfilm?: Analys av personliga amatörfilmer i fyra reklamfilmer2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personliga amatörfilmer och hemmafilmer används allt mer av bland annatvarumärkesjättar i sin marknadsföring. Estetiken i amatörfilmerna går totalt emot detekniska aspekterna i professionell film där bland annat kvaliteten är mycket lägre iamatörfilm. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka dels vad amatörfilmerna har förkommunikativa egenskaper utifrån valda reklamfilmer men också egenskaper imarknadsföringssyfte i stort. Trots att amatörfilmer och hemmafilmer har en estetiksom inte ses som professionell inom bildproduktion, finns det ett innehåll i dessasekvenser som ännu inte har framhävts i övertygande reklamfilm/informationsfilm.Studiens resultat visar exempelvis att bland annat den låga kvaliteten ochperspektivet från den som filmar, visar en djupare och mer verklig inblick i filmenskaraktärer. Amatörfilmerna ger med andra ord en personlig synvinkel påsammanhanget, vilket är ett användbart verktyg för avsändaren att kommunicera påsamma nivå som mottagaren.

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  • 23.
    Ahlenius, Camilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Tengvall, Tove
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Notisers påverkan på mobilanvändning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of portable technology and its integration in our way of living has led to discussions about the negative consequences of technology. Previous research has shown a correlation between major mobile phone usage and a low well-being, and within popular culture new phenomenona regarding technology has arisen, such as digital detox and to downgrade one’s smartphone to a phone with fewer features. Despite this, the trend indicates that smartphone usage is increasing. The smartphone is constantly calling for attention through notifications in form of short texts containing various announcements and information. The purpose of this study is to examine in which way notifications may affect mobile phone usage and if there is a connection between the amount of received notifications and one’s overall mobile phone usage. To investigate this, we implemented structured observations on the users unaffected smartphone usage as well as their usage when notifications were disabled. Surveys were added as a qualitative complement to the observations.

    The result of the study showed that the total amount of unlockings of the screen decreased while the time spent on the smartphone increased, which leads to the conclusion that when the users received fewer notifications the usage sessions became fewer in number but longer in duration. Checking the lock screen, i.e. to wake the smartphone without unlocking it, seemed to have become more frequent. This was due to that the users wanted to ensure they did not miss any important information, and in particular if someone was trying to get in touch with them. An absolute majority experienced the absence of notifications as bothersome, particularly concerning notifications from communication applications. No correlation was found between the users’ attitude to notifications and the way their smartphone usage changed.

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  • 24.
    Ahlgren Andersson, Ellen
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Enecker, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Alice and the Mad Hater: Hur sociala medier påverkar och möjliggör användares motstrategier vid bemötande av kränkande innehåll2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With online communication being increasingly integrated with our everyday lives, internet hate has become a growing problem. This is receiving growing attention in the media and research. In recent years, scientists have begun to shift their focus from the hate itself, to responses to these forms of violation. However, research has been mainly solution orientated and for example focused on legal aspects. Thus, we maintain that the field lacks a media technology based analysis, which this paper intends to contribute to. The aim of this study is to investigate what impact design and functionality in social media has on its users, with relation to user’s counter-strategies on the reception of offensive content. Note that this study is restricted to social media, and not focused on digital media at large. Within the framework of this essay, we have conducted three focus-group interviews and nethnographic studies. The empirical data from our focus groups has determined which social media platforms we examined in the nethnographic study, and subsequently in our analysis. The collected data has been analysed in relation to previous research on social media and internet hate. We have also used theories on resistance, suppression techniques, space of possible actions, norms and the relationship between offline/online and front stage/back stage. The analysis has resulted in five themes that describe the following key findings: 1) social media's positive connotations are problematic in relation to offensive content, but the receivers of internet hate are inventive in working around embedded norms, 2) sometimes no response is the best defence, 3) the culture around the like-function has a significant role in the resistance to internet hate on social media, 4) the shrinking distance between the world online and offline, as well as public and private rooms, affects everyday resistance to violations on social media, and 5) production of positive content and interaction with help of built-in functions are perceived as ways to affect the climate and cooperative resistance. We do not purport to provide technical or design-related proposals for development. However, we believe that our results, among other things, can be used for future development and improvement of social media platforms, and as a basis for further research on resistance to violations on social media.

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  • 25.
    Ahlgren Andersson, Ellen
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Enecker, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Design Thinking och Fyrstegaren: En jämförande studie om två människocentrerade designprocesser2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Design Thinking is a prototype-driven, solution-based and human-centered innovation approach and design process that has been receiving a growing amount of attention in both the industry and research during the last decade. In this paper we intend to evaluate Design Thinking in relation to the in-house design process of the digital transformation agency Mogul AB. Their process, called the Four Step Model, was developed by the design team as a result of years of experience and evaluation of best-practice. The aim of our study is to compare Design Thinking’s initial phases Empathize and Define to the corresponding strategy phase in the Four Step Model. Using this comparison we aim to evaluate in what way Design Thinking could be integrated in the Mogul’s Four Step Model in order to obtain a more human-centered process and result. This study is based on a) research on Design Thinking and human-centered design processes b) interviews with representatives from Mogul's design team, and c) documentation from our own work process, producing a recruitment site for Mogul, where we used Design thinking as our working method. Our study shows that Mogul's design process would benefit from integrating a number of tools and mindsets from Design Thinking. Our key findings suggest that the Four Step Model should be more iterative and include the end user in an extended degree during the whole design process, and especially during the initial stages of the process. The Four Step Model would also benefit from more tangible tools for obtaining a deeper understanding of the end user’s needs. By embracing these mindsets from Design Thinking, the Four Step Model could become more useful, efficient and human-centered.

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  • 26.
    Ahlgren, Lucas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Total cost of ownership of electric cars as a tool for the public2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability and the role of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in the shift to more sustainable transportation are gaining more and more attention in society today. However, only 4.3% of new passenger car registrations in Sweden were BEVs in 2019. High purchase prices are considered a major barrier to BEV purchases. But the purchase price alone does not reflect what the consumer pays for owning a vehicle. Previous research shows that BEVs could be cheaper compared to conventional vehicles such as internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) from a Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) perspective. Lack of knowledge about TCO can lead to uneconomical purchase decisions. Moreover, lower adoption rates of BEVs, although BEVs can be more cost-effective and better for the environment in the long run.

    This paper reports on an exploratory research process including the development and user study of a TCO tool aimed for the public. The purpose is to better understand how a TCO tool influences peoples’ inclination towards purchasing a BEV. Based on an iterative design process, a web application was developed to help car consumers calculate and visualize TCO of new passenger cars. The web application was then used in a user study consisting of think-aloud evaluations and semi-structured interviews with car consumers about the prototype.

    The conclusion point towards an interesting direction for a TCO tool moving forward. This study suggests that a TCO tool can make users aware of the cost benefits of owning a BEV. However, more research is needed to understand if this realisation is enough to have an effect on BEV purchases.

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  • 27.
    Ahlgren, Lucas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Marin Puentes, Angie Melissa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Livsmedelshandel i webbutiker: En tillgänglighetsundersökning med WCAG 2.02018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to evaluate the state of web accessibility in online grocery stores in Sweden. This with the aim of informing the food industry about how accessibility is prioritized today, in order to contribute, to the discussion about this subject becoming more active. The survey included seven Swedish grocery stores on the web: Ica, Coop, Mat.se, Mathem.se, Willys, Hemköp and City Gross. In each web store, accessibility was evaluated on three web pages: the start page, the product page for 1 liter of milk of the brand Arla and the checkout page. The starting point for evaluat-ing accessibility on these web pages was the WCAG 2.0 web standard, which is the recommended standard from the W3C to evaluate accessibility on the web. The study was conducted using an evaluation tool AChecker as well as manual evaluations. The result showed that there is a lot of difference between different web stores regarding accessibility according to WCAG 2.0 acces-sibility standards. Common to all online stores was that none of them met the lowest level of WCAG 2.0, Level A. City Gross broke against the most number of guidelines while Willys broke against the fewest number of guidelines in WCAG 2.0. Which indicates that accessibility is not a priority in these online grocery stores.

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  • 28.
    Ahlin, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Redigeringsprogrammens påverkan på bilden: En jämförelse mellan Avid Media Composer och Adobe Premiere Pro2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen söker att svara på frågeställningen: Uppstår det skillnad i bildkvaliteten på material som komprimerats med redigeringsprogrammet Avid Media Composer till H.264, i jämförelse med material som har komprimerats till H.264 med Adobe Premiere Pro. Baserat på resultat från tidigare jämförelser och personlig erfarenhet är förförståelsen att det kommer finnas en märkbar skillnad men ingen av programmen kommer att överskugga den andra.Metoden som använts är att en undersökning i form av enkät har fyllts i av mediastudenter baserad på deras upplevelser av sex stycken bildexempel från varje redigeringsprogram utifrån fem faktorer som rör bildkvalitet: Kontrast, skärpa, brus, färg och rörelseåtergivning. Djupgående intervjuer har sedan utförts med fem av informanterna. Resultatet på undersökningen visar överlag små skillnader mellan Avid Media Composer och Adobe Premiere Pro. Informanterna upplevde i majoritet att materialet från Avid hade högre bildkvalitet.

  • 29.
    Ahlin, Josefine
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Hur upplever mottagarna audiovisuell information på TikTok?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    TikTok is a social media platform where users produce short videos. Today TikTok is used by over 1 billion people. The application offers various features that promotes interaction and knowledge exchange among its users. Entertainment is strongly associated with TikTok, however since 2020 the use of the platform for youth activism has increased. On TikTok, users can express their social values and cooperate with each other. It is also common to use hashtags as a way of linking videos to a specific topic. The aim of this study is to understand how TikTok users experience audiovisual information regarding the topic of feminism. Videos were selected from the platform by using the search word feminism and the hashtag #feminism. This was followed by a content analysis to determine the videos differences and similarities, which enabled the final selection of five videos to be used in the next step of the study. The five videos were then presented during qualitative interviews where the respondents answered questions and expressed their opinions about for example trustworthiness, features and the information itself. The data was compared and analyzed both from a theoretical point of view and regarding different experiences expressed by the respondents. The respondents in this study showed the most interest in an explanatory video which presented them with new information by using pictures, video and speech. 

    The respondents showed greatest interest in two explanatory videos who presented new information by using pictures, video and speech. Information presented with pictures were considered to facilitate the understanding of the message, make it more interesting and arouse curiosity. Another video appreciated by the respondents used a narrative to convey entertaining education they could relate to. The recipients’ willingness to engage in the videos were linked to their positive experiences of how the information was presented. This study also shows that previous knowledge, information needs, motivation to use TikTok as well as different processing styles affected the respondents’ experiences.

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  • 30.
    Ahlin, Melanie
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Deltagarkulturens värde i det moderna medielandskapet2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study that study the participant culture as well as the community and commitment among the audience at Sveriges Radio Creepypodden. The purpose of the study is to create a deeper understanding of participant culture as a phenomenon and how it creates a space for community by analyzing the listening participation of Sveriges Radios Creepypodden. The aim of the study is to gain a greater understanding of what a mediums historical development can look like and how listeners are allowed to actively participate in the medium.  An interviw with the creator of Creepypodden, Jack Werner and two listeners was conducted. In addition to the interview, an analysis of collected data from four different posts published in ”Creepypodden – Eftersnack” on Facebook has been conducted. 

    The theory chapter process the concept of media convergence which gives the reader an understanding of what media convergence means but also how it works in the media world. Participant culture is discussed as a central aspect in the modern media landscape. The study shows that the work Creepypodden does with participant culture is the foundation to the existence of the podcast and that the community among the listeners is perceived as rewarding.

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  • 31.
    Ahlqvist, Erica
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Implementation And Evaluation of Gamification Elements In An E-learning Platform For Engineering Education2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    E-learning and online courses are widely used today, with different platforms being available for the user. When implementing and evaluating such a platform relevant research is required, therefore a pre-study was conducted. The pre-study showed that the platforms used at Linköpings University have a variety of available platform of which the teachers can use, however, some of there lack the features and it is therefore common for teachers to use more than one platform for a course. The goal of the thesis has been to answer the research question and to do so a platform was implemented, with focus on the gamification elements. The thesis answered the research question through the implementation of the platform and the user test. The user test was held on the target audience. The participants of the user test were faced with a short course on the developed platform. The test results show that the combination of gamification elements used motivated the participants towards the presented course and the assignments within it. During the user test a questionnaire, based on Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, was used. The result from this showed that the platform and its gamification elements increased the enjoyment, interest, perceived competence and effort towards the course.

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  • 32.
    Ahlström, Sofia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Hansson, Sofie
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Teknik och design som motstrategi till sexuella trakasserier online: En kvalitativ studie av erfarenheter och lösningar på sexuella trakasserier online utifrån ett användarperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digital platforms such as social media are big part of people's everyday life and social network. Recent studies shows that the ability to act anonymously on social media has increased harassment behaviors online. For marginalized groups, digital platforms are important for the act of freedom of speech and harassments online can limit these groups in the digital environment. Within the framework of this study we found, that there is a lack of studies that specifically research sexual harassments online and what different factors that may have an impact on the problem. Therefore, the aim for this study was to research what values, attitudes and emotions users of social media services experiences online. We wanted to research, from a user perspective, what existing counter-strategies options are provided on social media against sexual harassments online, and if there are other technical design solutions for social media interfaces. Within the framework of this essay we have conducted a focus group interview and a participatory design workshop. The empirical data that was collected has been analysed with different theories such as power, resistance, empowerment in design, master suppression techniques in social media, feminist HCI and social norms and participatory design. The study also use previous research on harassment on social media to further understand the empirical data for the analysis. In this study there are findings from the focus group that has been placed in three different themes. 1) The importance of social relationships for counter-strategies against sexual harassment online. 2) Social norms and normalization of sexual harassment online. 3) The importance of technical aspects for dealing with sexual harassment online. Our study shows that the counter-strategies options on social media services today are not sufficient enough for these different aspects. The participatory design workshop in this study resulted in eight possible technical design solutions. These solutions can be implications for design on social media interfaces and can work as counter-strategy tools against sexual harassments online. This study only research one focus group, therefore the study can be used as a basis for further research. By including users with participatory design methods, values made from users of social media in relation to sexual harassments online can unfold and hopefully decrease the problem.

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  • 33.
    Ahmad, Iftikhar
    et al.
    Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Noor, Rafidah Md
    Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Ali, Ihsan
    Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Imran, Muhammad
    College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Characterizing the role of vehicular cloud computing in road traffic management2017In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, Vol. 13, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicular cloud computing is envisioned to deliver services that provide traffic safety and efficiency to vehicles. Vehicular cloud computing has great potential to change the contemporary vehicular communication paradigm. Explicitly, the underutilized resources of vehicles can be shared with other vehicles to manage traffic during congestion. These resources include but are not limited to storage, computing power, and Internet connectivity. This study reviews current traffic management systems to analyze the role and significance of vehicular cloud computing in road traffic management. First, an abstraction of the vehicular cloud infrastructure in an urban scenario is presented to explore the vehicular cloud computing process. A taxonomy of vehicular clouds that defines the cloud formation, integration types, and services is presented. A taxonomy of vehicular cloud services is also provided to explore the object types involved and their positions within the vehicular cloud. A comparison of the current state-of-the-art traffic management systems is performed in terms of parameters, such as vehicular ad hoc network infrastructure, Internet dependency, cloud management, scalability, traffic flow control, and emerging services. Potential future challenges and emerging technologies, such as the Internet of vehicles and its incorporation in traffic congestion control, are also discussed. Vehicular cloud computing is envisioned to have a substantial role in the development of smart traffic management solutions and in emerging Internet of vehicles

  • 34.
    Ahmed, Ejaz
    et al.
    The Centre for Mobile Cloud Computing Research, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya.
    Yaqoob, Ibrar
    The Centre for Mobile Cloud Computing Research, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya.
    Hashem, Ibrahim Abaker Targio
    The Centre for Mobile Cloud Computing Research, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya.
    Khan, Imran
    Schneider Electric Industries, Grenoble.
    Ahmed, Abdelmuttlib Ibrahim Abdalla
    The Centre for Mobile Cloud Computing Research, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya.
    Imran, Muhammad
    College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    The role of big data analytics in Internet of Things2017In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 459-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The explosive growth in the number of devices connected to the Internet of Things (IoT) and the exponential increase in data consumption only reflect how the growth of big data perfectly overlaps with that of IoT. The management of big data in a continuously expanding network gives rise to non-trivial concerns regarding data collection efficiency, data processing, analytics, and security. To address these concerns, researchers have examined the challenges associated with the successful deployment of IoT. Despite the large number of studies on big data, analytics, and IoT, the convergence of these areas creates several opportunities for flourishing big data and analytics for IoT systems. In this paper, we explore the recent advances in big data analytics for IoT systems as well as the key requirements for managing big data and for enabling analytics in an IoT environment. We taxonomized the literature based on important parameters. We identify the opportunities resulting from the convergence of big data, analytics, and IoT as well as discuss the role of big data analytics in IoT applications. Finally, several open challenges are presented as future research directions.

  • 35.
    Ahmed, Faisal
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Premier University, Chattogram 4000, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh.
    Islam, Raihan Ul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    An Evolutionary Belief Rule-Based Clinical Decision Support System to Predict COVID-19 Severity under Uncertainty2021In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, no 13, article id 5810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate and rapid identification of the severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients is necessary for reducing the risk of overloading the hospitals, effective hospital resource utilization, and minimizing the mortality rate in the pandemic. A conjunctive belief rule-based clinical decision support system is proposed in this paper to identify critical and non-critical COVID-19 patients in hospitals using only three blood test markers. The experts’ knowledge of COVID-19 is encoded in the form of belief rules in the proposed method. To fine-tune the initial belief rules provided by COVID-19 experts using the real patient’s data, a modified differential evolution algorithm that can solve the constraint optimization problem of the belief rule base is also proposed in this paper. Several experiments are performed using 485 COVID-19 patients’ data to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed system. Experimental result shows that, after optimization, the conjunctive belief rule-based system achieved the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.954, 0.923, and 0.959, respectively, while for disjunctive belief rule base, they are 0.927, 0.769, and 0.948. Moreover, with a 98.85% AUC value, our proposed method shows superior performance than the four traditional machine learning algorithms: LR, SVM, DT, and ANN. All these results validate the effectiveness of our proposed method. The proposed system will help the hospital authorities to identify severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients and adopt optimal treatment plans in pandemic situations.

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  • 36.
    Ahrsjö, Carl
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Real-time event based visualization of multivariate abstract datasets: Implementing and evaluating a dashboard visualization prototype2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As datasets in general grow in size and complexity over time while the human cognitive ability to interpret said datasets essentially stays the same, it becomes important to enable intuitive visualization methods for analysis. Based on previous research in the field of information visualization and visual analytics, a dashboard visualization prototype handling real-time event based traffic was implemented and evaluated. The real-time data is collected by a script and sent to a self-implemented web server that opens up a websocket connection with the dashboard client where the data is then visualized. Said data consisted of transactions and related metadata of an ecommerce retail site applied to a real customer scenario.

    The dashboard was developed using an agile method, continuously involving the thesis supervisor in the design and functionality process. The final design also depended on the results of an interview with a representative from one of the two target groups. The two target groups consisted of 5 novice and 5 expert users to the field of information visualization and visual analytics. The intuitiveness of the dashboard visualization prototype was evaluated by conducting two user studies, one for each target group, where the test subjects were asked to interact with the dashboard visualization, answer some questions and lastly solving a predefined set of tasks. The time spent solving said tasks, the amount of serious misinterpretations and the number of wrong answers was recorded and evaluated.

    The results from the user study showed that the use of colors, icons, level on animation, the choice of visualization method and level of interaction were the most important aspects for carrying out an efficient analytical process according to the test subjects. The test subjects desired to zoom in on each component, to filter the contents of the dashboard and to get additional information about the components on-demand. The most important result produced from developing the dashboard was how to handle the scalability of the application. It is highly important that the websocket connection remain stable when scaling out to handle more concurrent HTTP requests. The research also conclude that the dashboard should handle visualization methods that are intuitive for all users, that the real-time data needs to be put into relation to historical data if one wishes to carry out a valid analytical process and that real-time data can be used to discover trends and patterns in an early-as-possible stage. Lastly, the research provides a set of guidelines for scalability, modularity, intuitiveness and relations between datasets. 

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  • 37.
    Ahrsjö, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Roshult, Tommy
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Vad påverkar medieteknikstudenternas kursval?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With many different elective courses to choose between, a lot of students  experience anxiety over deciding which courses to study next semester. The  choice of a specific course can have a big impact on the students future studies  and/or employment. Therefore the anxiety is justified. At the same time the  number of students applying for a course often vary from year to year. This  creates issues for the responsible teachers because of the ever-changing  resource requirements.

    There are several different theories on decision making, addressing the  different time related states as well as the different habitual styles. With  help of theories on these styles and time states, which were investigated with  two surveys and a focus group, and statistical data mining from a database  consisting of former course decision data we have studied how the students  reason when it comes to selecting courses and which aspects that influence their  choice. This gave us a better insight and understanding of the students’ situation and what the varying of applicants to different courses may depend  on.

    The results of this study show that the students at media technology often  have issues choosing between the elective courses. Many students experience that  the available information on the corresponding course homepages is brief and  therefore they call for a clarification of the course information. Because of  this, the majority of the students in the lower grades often rely on the advice  that the students in the higher grades provide. The database analysis shows that  the grades in the mathematics courses have an effect on which track (and its  corresponding elective courses) a student will choose.

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  • 38.
    Ahsan, Ayesha
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Consumer ratings-reviews and its impact on consumer purchasing behavior2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Storytelling is one of the most creative, powerful and effective tools of modern marketing strategies and communication. Due to the expansion of social media, storytelling has become a popular marketing and sales tool that may affect consumer behavior. This research has been conducted from a storytelling perspective with the purpose of finding the correlation between consumer reviews and consumer purchasing behavior. This study focuses on consumer stories which are reflected in terms of product reviews and ratings. Where the correlation between these reviews and ratings and their effects on overall product sales are investigated. The study answers the question, “If reviews & rating have a correlation with consumer purchasing behavior in digital marketing, and if so then how this correlation could be defined?”

    The data collection and tests have been conducted in a practical environment. The German online stores have been used as the main mode of data collection. Depending on the nature of the data, the quantitative analysis approach has been adopted. By conducting real-time sales data tests, this study fills the gap in previous consumer research studies. The in-depth analysis of results show the correlation between consumer reviews and product sales. The results have revealed that consumer reviews may influence overall product sales and help a consumer in purchasing decision.

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  • 39.
    Aikaterini, Micheli
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Impact of IoT Enabled Service Solutions in the Downstream Automotive Supply Chain2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry has been an integral element of global economy for many decades and has withstood economic downturns by being able to shift their processes along with market needs. With the addition of new innovations in the field of ICT, the automotive industry has addressed the need to restructure to stay afront of customers‘ expectation. Internet of Things and Big Data have advanced to where connected solutions are possible to provide value opportunities in many industries including automotives with the entrance of connected vehicles.

    This thesis aims to investigate the extent that connected services could be applied to the downstream automotive supply chain as a viable long-term business solution. A door-to-door perspective was applied in order to identify the challenges and opportunities towards different stakeholders within this supply chain. Qualitative interviews were conducted with leading OEMs, Logistics Providers, NSC, and car dealers as well as quantitative analysis performed on car buying customers to gauge their opinions of connected vehicles and services.

    There are many opportunities for a viable connected service solution to offer additional value to each stakeholder including efficient supply chain management due to increased visibility, improved lead times, and operational effectiveness. However, with the complexity and variations in the supply chain it cannot be applied rapidly and requires all actors to agree to participation in a network that supports the IT infrastructures and fortifies information flow.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Ajami, Sam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Maupin, Lucas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    The effects of video gaming on university grades2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this 21st century IT-world, the use of video gaming has dramatically grown and taken a firm place in many young peoples’ busy day-to-day schedule. As a result, many are growing worried that video gaming will affect people in a negative way, especially when it comes to students’ academic performance.

     

    This thesis is an investigation of the correlation between games and university grades amongst students.

     

    Our results show that students, who played more, had more problems with their grades than the ones who played less. However, the results also show that gaming itself is not the problem, as the correlation between hours spent gaming and grades, is similar to the correlation between hours spent on other hobbies and grades. In essence, two hours of video gaming affects the grades just as much as two hours of physical exercise.

     

    The conclusion from our research is that it is the time spent on other activities than studying, that affects the grades. Video gaming is however amongst the easiest activities to be engaged in for an extended period of time, and can therefore be indirectly harmful to students’ grades.

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    fulltext
  • 41.
    Akbar, Mariam
    et al.
    COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad.
    Javaid, Nadeem
    COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad.
    Kahn, Ayesha Hussain
    COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad.
    Imran, Muhammad Al
    College of Computer and Information Sciences, Almuzahmiyah, King Saud University.
    Shoaib, Muhammad
    College of Computer and Information Sciences, Almuzahmiyah, King Saud University.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Efficient Data Gathering in 3D Linear Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Using Sink Mobility2016In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 16, no 3, article id 404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the unpleasant and unpredictable underwater environment, designing an energy-efficient routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) demands more accuracy and extra computations. In the proposed scheme, we introduce a mobile sink (MS), i.e., an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and also courier nodes (CNs), to minimize the energy consumption of nodes. MS and CNs stop at specific stops for data gathering; later on, CNs forward the received data to the MS for further transmission. By the mobility of CNs and MS, the overall energy consumption of nodes is minimized. We perform simulations to investigate the performance of the proposed scheme and compare it to preexisting techniques. Simulation results are compared in terms of network lifetime, throughput, path loss, transmission loss and packet drop ratio. The results show that the proposed technique performs better in terms of network lifetime, throughput, path loss and scalability

  • 42.
    Akkaya, Kemal
    et al.
    Southern Illinois University.
    Aust, Stefan
    NEC Communication Systems, Ltd..
    Hollick, Matthias
    TU Darmstadt.
    Itaya, Satoko
    Smart Wireless Laboratory, NICT.
    Kantarci, Burak
    University of Ottawa.
    Pfeiffer, Tom
    TU Berlin.
    Senel, Fatih
    International Antalya University.
    Strayer, Tim
    BBN Technologies.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Message from the demonstrations chair2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is my pleasure to welcome you to the sixth Demonstration Session at the IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN) 2014. We were looking for demonstrations for all topics covered by the main conference as well as all the workshops held in conjunction with the conference. The technical demonstrations were strongly encouraged to show innovative and original research. The main purpose of the demo session is to provide demonstrations that validate important research issues and/or show innovative prototypes.

  • 43.
    Akram Hassan, Kahin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forsell, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    On the Performance of Stereoscopic Versus Monoscopic 3D Parallel Coordinates2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents the results from an evaluation of stereoscopic versus monoscopic 3D parallel coordinates. The objective of the evaluation was to investigate if stereopsis increases user performance. The results show that stereoscopy has no effect at all on user performance compared to monoscopy. This result is important when it comes to the potential use of stereopsis within the information visualization community.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Akram, Waseem
    et al.
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Computer Science Department, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Niazi, Muaz A.
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Computer Science Department, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Iantovics, Laszlo Barna
    Petru Maior University of Tirgu Mures, Informatics Department, Tirgu Mures, Romania.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Towards agent-based model specification of smart grid: a cognitive agent-based computing approach2019In: Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems, ISSN 1334-4684, E-ISSN 1334-4676, Vol. 17, no 3B, p. 546-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A smart grid can be considered as a complex network where each node represents a generation unit or a consumer, whereas links can be used to represent transmission lines. One way to study complex systems is by using the agent-based modeling paradigm. The agent-based modeling is a way of representing a complex system of autonomous agents interacting with each other. Previously, a number of studies have been presented in the smart grid domain making use of the agent-based modeling paradigm. However, to the best of our knowledge, none of these studies have focused on the specification aspect of the model. The model specification is important not only for understanding but also for replication of the model. To fill this gap, this study focuses on specification methods for smart grid modeling. We adopt two specification methods named as Overview, design concept, and details and Descriptive agent-based modeling. By using specification methods, we provide tutorials and guidelines for model developing of smart grid starting from conceptual modeling to validated agent-based model through simulation. The specification study is exemplified through a case study from the smart grid domain. In the case study, we consider a large set of network, in which different consumers and power generation units are connected with each other through different configuration. In such a network, communication takes place between consumers and generating units for energy transmission and data routing. We demonstrate how to effectively model a complex system such as a smart grid using specification methods. We analyze these two specification approaches qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Extensive experiments demonstrate that Descriptive agent-based modeling is a more useful approach as compared with Overview, design concept, and details method for modeling as well as for replication of models for the smart grid.

  • 45.
    Akrawi, Narin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Ciechowicz, Michelle
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Företag på Facebook: En studie om företagskommunikation på Facebook2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper present a study where the case of the study is to examine how a selection of Swedish companies with a similar number of followers on Facebook can achieve an effective communication through a two-way communication with there followers. A survey to see which technical solutions Swedish companies need to achieve an effective communication. The main purpose is to examine how these companies work to achieve an effective two-way communication with their followers on the selected company's Facebook page.

    Furthermore, the effects that caused by the means of communication and the technical solutions and how they are involved in the process. That constitutes of functions that Facebook provides in terms of share, like, comment and tag. The research is based on a content analysis of six Swedish companies' Facebook pages, that are linked to theories that are related to areas of Facebook, communication, interaction and eWOM. Which late in the paper will be compiled into a conclusion.

    The study resulted in various forms of communication and interaction on account of the selected company's activity, purpose and on the company's adaptation after their business.

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  • 46.
    Akter, Mehenika
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Uddin Ahmed, Tawsin
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Mosquito Classification Using Convolutional Neural Network with Data Augmentation2021In: Intelligent Computing and Optimization: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Optimization 2020 (ICO 2020) / [ed] Pandian Vasant, Ivan Zelinka, Gerhard-Wilhelm Weber, Springer Nature, 2021, p. 865-879Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the most number of deaths every year throughout the world. Bangladesh is also a big sufferer of this problem. Dengue, malaria, chikungunya, zika, yellow fever etc. are caused by dangerous mosquito bites. The main three types of mosquitoes which are found in Bangladesh are aedes, anopheles and culex. Their identification is crucial to take the necessary steps to kill them in an area. Hence, a convolutional neural network (CNN) model is developed so that the mosquitoes could be classified from their images. We prepared a local dataset consisting of 442 images, collected from various sources. An accuracy of 70% has been achieved by running the proposed CNN model on the collected dataset. However, after augmentation of this dataset which becomes 3,600 images, the accuracy increases to 93%. We also showed the comparison of some methods with the CNN method which are VGG-16, Random Forest, XGboost and SVM. Our proposed CNN method outperforms these methods in terms of the classification accuracy of the mosquitoes. Thus, this research forms an example of humanitarian technology, where data science can be used to support mosquito classification, enabling the treatment of various mosquito borne diseases.

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  • 47.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Heylen, D.
    Bohus, D.
    Koutsombogera, Maria
    Papageorgiou, H.
    Esposito, A.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    UM3I 2014: International workshop on understanding and modeling multiparty, multimodal interactions2014In: ICMI 2014 - Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Multimodal Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, p. 537-538Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a brief summary of the international workshop on Modeling Multiparty, Multimodal Interactions. The UM3I 2014 workshop is held in conjunction with the ICMI 2014 conference. The workshop will highlight recent developments and adopted methodologies in the analysis and modeling of multiparty and multimodal interactions, the design and implementation principles of related human-machine interfaces, as well as the identification of potential limitations and ways of overcoming them.

  • 48.
    Alakärppä, Ismo
    et al.
    University of Lapland, Rovaniemi.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Hosio, Simo
    University of Oulu.
    Johansson, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ojala, Timo
    University of Oulu.
    NIMO overall architecture and service enablers2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the architecture and service enablers developed in the NIMO project. Furthermore, it identifies future challenges and knowledge gaps in upcoming ICT service development for public sector units empowering citizens with enhanced tools for interaction and participation. We foresee crowdsourced applications where citizens contribute with dynamic, timely and geographically spread gathered information.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 49.
    Alam, Md. Eftekhar
    et al.
    International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Kaiser, M. Shamim
    Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
    University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    An IoT-Belief Rule Base Smart System to Assess Autism2018In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information & Communication Technology (iCEEiCT 2018), IEEE, 2018, p. 671-675Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An Internet-of-Things (IoT)-Belief Rule Base (BRB) based hybrid system is introduced to assess Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This smart system can automatically collect sign and symptom data of various autistic children in realtime and classify the autistic children. The BRB subsystem incorporates knowledge representation parameters such as rule weight, attribute weight and degree of belief. The IoT-BRB system classifies the children having autism based on the sign and symptom collected by the pervasive sensing nodes. The classification results obtained from the proposed IoT-BRB smart system is compared with fuzzy and expert based system. The proposed system outperformed the state-of-the-art fuzzy system and expert system.

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    fulltext
  • 50.
    Alam, Quratulain
    et al.
    Department of Computer Sciences, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar.
    Tabbasum, Saher
    Department of Computer Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad.
    Malik, Saif U.R.
    Department of Computer Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad.
    Alam, Masoom
    Department of Computer Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad.
    Ali, Tamleek
    Department of Computer Sciences, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar.
    Akhunzada, Adnan
    Center for Mobile Cloud Computing Research (C4MCCR), University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur.
    Khan, Samee U.
    Department of electrical and computer engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios V.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Buyya, Rajkumar
    Cloud Computing and Distributed Systems, (CLOUDS) Laboratory, Department of Computing and Information Systems, The University of Melbourne.
    Formal Verification of the xDAuth Protocol2016In: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, ISSN 1556-6013, E-ISSN 1556-6021, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 1956-1969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) offers a flexible paradigm for information flow among collaborating organizations. As information moves out of an organization boundary, various security concerns may arise, such as confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity that needs to be addressed. Moreover, verifying the correctness of the communication protocol is also an important factor. This paper focuses on the formal verification of the xDAuth protocol, which is one of the prominent protocols for identity management in cross domain scenarios. We have modeled the information flow of xDAuth protocol using High Level Petri Nets (HLPN) to understand protocol information flow in a distributed environment. We analyze the rules of information flow using Z language while Z3 SMT solver is used for verification of the model. Our formal analysis and verification results reveal the fact that the protocol fulfills its intended purpose and provides the security for the defined protocol specific properties, e.g. secure secret key authentication, Chinese wall security policy and secrecy specific properties, e.g. confidentiality, integrity, authenticity.

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