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  • 201.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Western harbor in Malmö2015In: Review 11. Re-inventing planning: examples from the Profession, Rotterdam, Nederländerna: International Society of City and Regional Planners , 2015, Vol. 11, p. 210-227Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For the last 15 years Västra hamnen (Western Harbor) in Malmö, and Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm have been the major flagships of Swedish international eco-city ambitions. These city development projects are presented both as leading examples of the conversion of former industrial harbor areas and of environmental adaptation of densely built urban environments. Western Harbor is a centrally located former shipyard area which, since the end of the 1990s, has developed into a mixed city area for housing, schools, offices, shops and other workplaces as well as for recreational areas with beaches, parks and yacht harbors. Since its first phase, part of a housing expo in 2001, it has attracted international interest for its dense architecture, bold energy goals based on varied local renewable energy production, household waste systems, green and blue structures, and dialogue processes. By 2031, when the area is completed, it is expected to be the home for 25,000 people and 25,000 workplaces. In 2014, there were 7,300 inhabitants and more than 12,000 work places in Western Harbor, already twice of the work force of the former shipyard at its height.

  • 202.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Kalmar högskola.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Accumulated environmental impact: The case of cadmium in Sweden1994In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 145, p. 13-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Tema V LIU.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Flow and distribution of chormium in the swedish environment: A new approach to studying environmental pollution1989In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 18, p. 216-220Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 204.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Tema V LIU.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pattern of lead emissions in Sweden 1880-19801990Report (Other academic)
  • 205.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kevin, Cullinane
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Johansson Nikopolou, Zoi
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Utsläppshandel kan vara en lönsam vägtill lägre utsläpp från sjöfarten2017In: Åtgärder för att minska sjöfartens påverkan på havsmiljön / [ed] Tina Johansen Lilja, Frida Lundberg och Eva-Lotta Sundblad., Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 14-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Handel med utsläppsrätter under ett fastställt ”tak” av totalautsläpp som efterhand sänks, har i en del regioner i världenvisat sig vara en både kostnadseffektiv och framgångsrikstrategi för att minska luftföroreningarna. Frågan är om utsläppshandelskulle kunna vara ett effektivt sätt för att minskasjöfartens utsläpp i Europa eller Östersjöregionen?

  • 206.
    Andersen, Camilla Eline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Mot en mindre profesjonalitet: "Rase", tidlig barndom og Deleuzeoguattariske blivelser2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with professionalism in early childhood education in relation to «race» and whiteness in primarily a Norwegian landscape. The overall aim of the study is to investigate how sociomaterial «race»-events can be understood as constitutive of preschool teachers’ subjectivity. The thesis is a theoretical experimentation with strong ties to a real social landscape. One of the main problems that the study evolves around is how «race» is silenced in the dominant discourse contributing to how preschool teachers can create socially just and indiscriminating pedagogical practices in a current «multicultural society». Hence, there seem to be a lack of tools for preschool teachers to think through how «race» might be part of their pedagogical practice in preschools, and how «race» is an important issue to address when working with how to perform pedagogy ethically and politically. More specifically and in a philosophical-theoretical manner, the study explores «white» preschool teachers’ relation to «race». The philosophical-theoretical-methodological conceptual toolbox for the study is mainly constructed from the philosophical work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari (1977, 1987). E.g. machinic assemblage, stratification, Body without Organs, nomadic subject, affect, individuation, micropolitics, becoming, actual/virtual and event. The methodological approach is highly inspired by decolonizing-, feminist poststructural- and critical methodologies. However, immersed with Deleuze and Guattaris philosophy of desire, what started out as a poststructural autoethnography transformed into a cartography of «my own» racial becomings in/with an early childhood landscape. The study shows how subjectivity, when understood as produced through sociomaterial «race»-events, offers another understanding of doing professionalism. Further, it offers an alternative understanding of how to create more socially just pedagogical practices in early childhood education.

  • 207.
    Andersen, Laerke
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    The synthetic Kingdom2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fashioning the Future Awards has quickly established itself as the leading international student competition for design and innovation in sustainable fashion and attracts entries from all over the world. Founded by the Centre for Sustainable Fashion at London College of Fashion to celebrate and empower the next generation of fashion professionals, the aim of the awards is to employ creativity to challenge the current status quo and to redefine the shape and scope of the fashion industry. Selected finalists – who come from over 30 countries around the world including Brazil, India, Australia and Canada will have their work captured through film, photography, display and interactive media, and showcased in the East Wintergarden at Canary Wharf which will be open to the public from 11th – 13th November 2011. The exhibition will be a multi sensory experience and a beautiful representation of how solutions to some of the world’s toughest environmental imperatives will come from the next generation of designers.

  • 208.
    Andersen, Laerke
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Haim, Dana
    TBBBS2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    londonprintstudio’s forthcoming exhibition strategies of artists and designers who stretch and invisibly mend the codes and clothes we ‘wear’. Clothes entwine references, ironies and identities. Historically garments express a collective state of mind, status, allegiance, expressed disillusionment with authority. In the 1920’s and 1930’s, couturier Schiaparelli clothes that referenced surrealism. londonprintstudio exhibitions explore ideas and boundaries between art, popular culture and social engagement.

  • 209.
    Andersen, Laerke
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Haim, Dana
    TBBBS2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Culture Club by Picnic Magazine, Tel Aviv is a four-day pop-up experience which aims to showcase the dynamic and creative spirit of Israel. The Culture Club is less an exhibit and more an experience. It is a snapshot of cultural life in Israel that reflects its vibrant, creative soul; a celebration of pleasure through the senses that showcases the art of joy in a place typically characterized by politics and religion.

  • 210.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Farrington, David P.
    Risk- och skyddande faktorer för psykosociala problem bland förskolebarn: vad vi vet från forskning och hur det kan användas i praktiken2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 211.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Söderholm Carpelan, Kerstin
    Om insatser som kan användas i ungdomsvård och deras effekter2010In: Ungdomar som begår brott: vilka insatser fungerar? / [ed] Henrik Andershed, Anna-Karin Andershed, Kerstin Söderholm Carpelan, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2010, 1, p. 51-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ongoing activities to summarize effective work with children: the Nordic countries2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 213.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stability and change of psychopathic traits: what do we know?2010In: Handbook of child and adolescent psychopathy / [ed] Randall Salekin, Donald Lynam, New York: Guilford Press, 2010, 1, p. 233-250Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 214.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The importance of using knowledge from research on risk and protective factors in practice with children2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 215.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Externalizing and internalizing problems among Youths and the need to understand the heterogeneity of these problems2012In: For the sake of the children: social paediatrics in action. A festschrift in honour of Staffan Jansson / [ed] Martin McKee, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2012, 1, p. 60-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 216.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Subgroups of children with conduct problems2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 217.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ungdomsbrottslighet: hur vanligt är det och vad beror det på?2010In: Ungdomar som begår brott: vilka insatser fungerar? / [ed] Henrik Andershed, Anna-Karin Andershed, Kerstin Söderholm Carpelan, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2010, 1, p. 25-41Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 218.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Söderholm Carpelan, Kerstin
    Hur fungerar insatser till ungdomar som begår brott och hur kan vi bli bättre i praktik?2010In: Ungdomar som begår brott: vilka insatser fungerar? / [ed] Henrik Andershed, Anna-Karin Andershed, Kerstin Söderholm Carpelan, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2010, 1, p. 150-177Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 219.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Söderholm Carpelan, Kerstin
    Brännström, Lars
    Nyström, Marie
    Bokens bakgrund, syfte, innehåll och målgrupp2010In: Ungdomar som begår brott: vilka insatser fungerar? / [ed] Henrik Andershed, Anna-Karin Andershed, Kerstin Söderholm Carpelan, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2010, 1, p. 13-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 220.
    Anderson, Amanda
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Women's education at The Open University of Tanzania - a road to development?:  2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the importance of higher education for women of Babati, Tanzania. The research has been carried out by focusing three research questions; What does an education at the Open University of Tanzania (OUT) mean for the female students on a personal level? What is the female students’ perception on the importance of women’s higher education for development? How can the female students’ perceptions on the importance of women’s higher education be analyzed within the context of the term women empowerment?

    In order to answer these questions semi-structured interviews were conducted in Babati town, Tanzania in February 2012 with female students and graduates of the Open University of Tanzania. Out of these interviews is concluded that higher education has significant personal effects for the women interviewed such as increased happiness, independence and self-esteem, which in turn have effects on development. Also it can be shown that the definition of the term women empowerment is disputed and thereby insufficient as a mean for development.

  • 221.
    Anderson, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of History. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Backman, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of History. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Far gifter sig : Individ, struktur och föräldradeprivation i Åtvids och Skeda socken 1848-1864 / Från svartvitt allvar till färgglad folklighet1998Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Far gifter sig: Individ, struktur och föräldradeprivation i Åtvids och Skeda socken 1840-1864 Av Anita Andersson

    Den här uppsatsen skall handla om hur människor från brukssocknen Åtvid och jordbrukssocknen Skeda under mitten av 1800-talet hanterade den situation som förlusten av en förälder försatte dem i, och om det fanns något i själva den samhällsstruktur som dessa människor tillhörde som innebar möjligheter eller begränsningar för hur och varför de handlade som de gjorde.

  • 222.
    Anderson, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Marketing.
    Make a customer, not a sale: A study on customer's perception of loyalty programs2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish food retail industry is one with fierce competition, small product differentiation and increasingly disloyal customers. Consequently in order to create and retain loyal customers many of the stores offer some kind of loyalty schemes. The effectiveness of loyalty programs have been questioned, but it is proposed that in order for a loyalty program to be successful it must offer benefits that are perceived as valuable by customers. Thus the purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate how customers value loyalty programs and how this might affect them in a context where many companies reward their loyal customers. Customer perception of loyalty programs are considered to be grounded in multiple factors such as the design of the loyalty program as well as the competition in the industry. The empirical data was collected through semi-structured interviews with twelve respondents that shopped in a suburban area of Stockholm. The process of the study was influenced by the Grounded theory of method and as coding was used as the method of analysis, three themes related to how customers perceive reward components of loyalty program emerged: Offset of what I give and what I gain, Plan to have control of one’s finances and My perception of value is grounded in me.The findings of the study propose that a customer’s perception of reward components are influenced by what they are offered and by the overall design of the loyalty program. The most significant factor is however the customer self and where she is in life. This is displayed as different customers stated to have different reasons to join a loyalty program, mentioned different reward components as the most valuable one, highlighted different disadvantages as well as perceived the same reward components very differently.

  • 223.
    Anderson, Zach
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Bannister, Mark
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Silkey, John
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Sustainable Supply Chains: Moving Chinese Garment Manufacturers Towards Sustainability2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fashion industry is beginning to understand the need to move strategically towards sustainability. Yet there appears at present little coordination between global fashion brands and their supply chains to pursue strategic sustainable development and ensure the long term resilience of their business. We asked: What does a fashion brand need to know about its first tier suppliers in China in order to form a strategy towards sustainability? We utilised a scientific, principle-based definition of sustainability and framework to identify the underlying challenges faced by two Chinese garment factories in moving strategically towards sustainability. The challenges enabled us to inform three strategic guidelines that a fashion brand should consider when working with its supply chain towards sustainability. Research draws on literature, interviews among industry experts, interviews with a major fashion brand, and on-site workshops with two of its first-tier garment factories in China. The results of our research indicate: 1) the specific challenges factories face are commonly associated with internal corporate culture, the fashion brand’s directives, and the regulatory environment in China; 2) the fashion brand should aim to broaden its purchasing priorities, generate increased collaboration with suppliers and build awareness towards empowerment and ownership of sustainability and associated strategies and actions.

  • 224.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Bakom frånvaron av klagandets röst - en betraktelse2015In: Klagandets diskurs: matforskare reflekterar / [ed] Christina Fjellström, Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015, 1, p. 207-212Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 225.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Invandrarkvinnor i Borlänge och Gemensamma Krafters betydelse för kvinnorna2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To end up as an immigrant in an unknown country and to try to participate in the majority society means both psychological and physical difficulties where their whole life is changing. Gemensamma Krafter is a prevention changing work in a housing area in Borlänge. It works among other things as a meeting place for people from different cultures. The aim with this study was to describe and to get increased understanding for the lives of a number of immigrant women who lives in Borlänge/Sweden and which importance “Gemensamma Krafter” has had for them. Eight women from Syria, Iraq, Turkey and Somalia were interviewed and the material was analyzed on the basis of categorisations of expressed meanings. The results show on a complex picture of these women’s lives in Borlänge. Their experience that Sweden is a safe country with a personal freedom without wars and with social rights as equal as other citizens is obvious but their experience of exclusion, discrimination and everyday racism is always present. The community with compatriots becomes important when one does not become accepted and participating in the majority society. It is in this community where the immigrant women strengthens their own identities and mobilizes the force to a future's faith on work, education and participation in the society. Gemensamma Krafter is described by the women as an oasis, a meeting place where they can be confirmed and accepted for the persons they are. Here they meet Swedish women and get an insight in their world. The study gives an increased knowledge and understanding for the lives of the immigrant women and the importance of natural meeting places in the local society.

  • 226.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Sjöberg, Marina
    Att bättre förstå ätstörningar och förmedla en sund kostmedvetenhet inom idrotten: Paradoxen och den svåra balansgången2011In: Dietistaktuellt, ISSN 1102-9285, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 14-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Majoriteten av idrottare drabbas aldrig av ätstörningar trots hård träning, prestationsinriktning och en mer eller mindre noggrann kosthållning och viktreglering . Det finns dock idrottare som under lång tid kämpar med en ätstörningsproblemtik där ett komplicerat förhållande till mat och träning uppstått. Vissa studier talar vidare för att idrotten skulle kunna skydda individen för ätstörningar medan flera studier visar en högre förekomst av ätstör-ningar och stört ätbeteende inom än utanför idrottsvärlden, i synnerhet inom estetiska och viktrelaterade idrotter . Maten och träningen är båda komplexa fenomen och en djupare insikt och öppenhet kring hur man hanterar denna form av ”idrottsskada” är värdefullt såväl inom idrottsvärlden som inom hälso- och sjukvården. Dietisten med fördjupad kunskap inom idrott och ätstörningar förefaller vara en värdefull person i detta arbete.

  • 227.
    Andersson, Anita
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Estetik på klinik: Den estetiska kirurgins legitimerande retorik2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with how esthetic surgery as a phenomenon and as a pursuit has been constructed to attain cultural legitimacy, that is, how esthetic surgery has been presented, advocated, and shaped so as to make it seem a possible, reasonable, acceptable, and meaningful practice in the contemporary culture and in people-s lives. Temporally, the study period ranges from the early 1980s to the early 2000s. During that period, esthetic surgery made its breakthrough in Sweden as a practical pursuit and as a cultural phenomenon. Cultural legitimacy is a pivotal concept in the study. It is used here to denote that a pursuit or a phenomenon - in this case esthetic surgery - has attained a status in the public discourse that makes it seem conceivable and acceptable. In this dissertation, I study how this cultural legitimacy is established through expressions in media. I analyze the work of construction that is leading to esthetic surgery reaching that position from a focus on the rhetoric of legitimization, that is, how esthetic surgery is talked about so that cultural legitimacy can be attained. It is a matter of appealing to the public so that esthetic surgery is accepted as a body modification practice, available and relevant to everyone. The work with the material showed that creating justification, appeal, and credibility plays a prominent role in this construction. The promise inherent in esthetic surgery has to be presented as realistic and realizable, while simultaneously referring to culturally anchored values and defining these as associated with esthetic surgery. In this process justification, appeal and credibility have been linked to such dominating values as freedom, health and naturalness.

  • 228.
    Andersson, Anita
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Sänk tempot! Stress som retorisk figur i svensk reklam2005In: Reklam och hälsa: Levnadsideal, skönhet och hälsa i den svenska reklamens historia / [ed] Roger Qvarsell & Ulrika Torell, Stockholm: Carlsson bokförlag , 2005, 1, p. 176-196Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Författarna, akademiker verksamma vid Linköpings universitet, diskuterar här reklamen och dess koppling till hälsa, från förra sekelskiftet till i dag. Tesen att det reklamen säljer är just skönhet, hälsa och välbefinnande drivs.

  • 229.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Carling, Charlotte
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Aktivitet i trädgård som ett arbetsterapeutiskt redskap – en systematisk litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det går att läsa om rehabilitering i trädgårdsmiljö i dagstidningar, facktidningar och magasin. Arbetsterapeuter använder aktivitet för att utveckla, bibehålla och förbättra funktionsförmåga. Syftet var att beskriva de förändringar i människors vardag som aktivitet i trädgård möjliggör - effekt och upplevelse.

    På ett systematiskt sätt söktes studier i databaserna Amed, Cinahl, OvidMedline och PsycInfo. Tio studier valdes. Analys gjordes i två delar med hjälp av frågeställningar och teorier den ena för att beskriva behandling och effekt och den andra för att beskriva deltagarnas upplevelse av aktivitet i trädgård. Den första analysen presenteras i text och tabellform, den andra genom citat.

    Studierna visar att trädgård erbjuder möjlighet till förändring då deltagarna genom aktivitet får tillfälle att göra och att vara. Glädje och tillfredställelse i aktivitetsutförandet gjorde att många deltagare upplevde aktiviteterna som välgörande och meningsfulla.

  • 230.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture.
    Wilkinson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture.
    Illustrerad samtid: En studie av hur tre filmer skildrar 1960-talets Sverige med särskilt avseende på konsumtion och välfärd2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how the “Swedish model” has influenced the Swedish community during the first half of the twentieth century and how living with this model was like in the 1960s. During the ‘60s the laws and reforms created by the ruling socialistic party, SAP, dominated the Swedish society. Their goal was to build Per Albin Hansson’s vision of a welfare state. From the time of his presentation of the idea in 1928 up to the ‘60s, Sweden’s transformation from an agricultural society to an industrialized one was a fact. In analysing the society of this time we have used various consumer theories as well as focused on Raymond Williams’s interpretation of hegemony. Hegemony is an organic notion that symbolizes the consensus within a society at a given point in time. After having created a picture of the society and made a preparatory analysis we have moved on to our film analysis to study how the actual Swedish society was portrayed in contemporary films. We have studied the films, Do You Believe in Angels?, Swedish Punks and Sten Stensson Returns. In our study of the films we have laid our focus on things like gender, age and product placement. We found that the films paint an accurate picture of the Swedish society. That is to say, as accurate a picture a film can paint without being a documentary. We have come to this conclusion as the surroundings and the norms of the Swedish society of the time are accurately portrayed. We have also come to the conclusion that even though product placement exists in the films, it is mainly used to create an authentic milieu.

  • 231.
    Andersson, Ann-Catrin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Elander, Ingemar
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Staden som livsmiljö: vision och verklighet: slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt fler människor koncentreras till städer och andra urbana samhällen. Stadsmiljön är attraktiv och efterfrågad samtidigt som den innebär sociala, psykiska  och fysiska påfrestningar för invånarna. Förändrade villkor för utvecklingen av städer och regioner har lett till en ökad efterfrågan på mångvetenskaplig kunskap och kompetens. När det FORMAS-finanserade forskningsprogrammet Staden som livsmiljö - vision och verklighet formulerades tod vi fasta på den motsägelsefulla bilden av staden med plats för både visionerna och verkligheten. Den teoretiska ramen kring projekten kombinerar statsvetenskapligt förankrad regimteori med vardagslivsteori som hämtat inspiration från strömningar i kulturgeografi, sociologi och andra discipliner. Detta utgör slutrapporten för projektet.

  • 232.
    Andersson, Ann-Catrin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    The management of radioactive waste: a description of ten countries2002Report (Other academic)
  • 233.
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Managers’ Views and Experiences of a Large-Scale County Council Improvement Program: Limitations and Opportunities2013In: Quality Management in Health Care, ISSN 1063-8628, E-ISSN 1550-5154, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 152-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore and evaluate managers’ views of a large-scale improvement program, including their experiences and opinions about improvement initiatives and drivers for change. The study is based on a survey used in 2 nationwide mappings of improvement initiatives and developmental trends in Swedish health care. The participants were all managers in a county council in Sweden. Data were analyzed descriptively, and statements were ranked in order of preferences. A majority of the respondents stated that they had worked with improvements since the county council improvement program started. The managers sometimes found it difficult to find data and measurements that supported the improvements, yet a majority considered that it was worth the effort and that the improvement work yielded results. The top-ranked driving forces were ideas from personnel and problems in the daily work. Staff satisfaction was ranked highest of the improvement potentials, but issues about patients’ experiences of their care and patient safety came second and third. The managers stated that no or only a few patients had been involved in their improvement initiatives. Large-scale county council improvement initiatives can illuminate quality problems and lead to increased interest in improvement initiatives in the health care sector.

  • 234.
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Quality Improvement in Healthcare: Experiences from a Swedish County Council Initiative2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality improvement (QI) has become an important issue in healthcare settings. A central question for many healthcare systems is how to manage improvement initiatives adequately. All county councils and regions managing healthcare in Sweden have started to work with QI at an organizational system level, to varied extents. The Kalmar county council improvement initiative constitutes the empirical basis of this thesis. The aim of the thesis is to provide knowledge about different aspects of a county-wide improvement initiative, and a broader understanding of factors and strategies that affect participation, management and outcomes. The overall study design is based on a case study.

    The first two studies illuminate the practice-based (micro level), bottom-up perspective. Inductively five different areas (categories) were identified. Factors influencing participation in improvement initiatives provided the basis for the next study. The result showed that different staff categories were attracted by different initiatives. The next two studies illuminate the top-down (macro/meso) management perspective. Managers’ views of how patients can participate were investigated and a content analysis of the written answers was made. Four main areas (categories) were identified. A survey study investigated all of the county council managers’ experiences of the whole improvement initiative. Overall the managers thought that the improvement work was worth the effort. To evaluate the Breakthrough Collaborative program, a survey was developed and tested. This survey was used to investigate process and outcome of the BC program. The majority of the respondents were satisfied with their work, but wanted more time for teams to meet and work. To find out if an improvement program can affect outcome and contribute to sustainable changes, interviews were made with project applicants (n=202). Almost half (48%) of the projects were funded, and of those 51% were sustained. Of the rejected (not funded) projects, 28% were accomplished and sustained anyway. The results in this thesis cannot show that the “golden mean” exists, or that a single best way to manage changes and improvements in a healthcare organization has been found, but the way QI initiatives are organized does affect participation and outcomes. The intention, from the management topdown system level, encouraging staff and units and letting practice-based ideas develop at all system levels, can stimulate and facilitate improvement work.

  • 235.
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik.
    Idvall, Ewa
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för Hälsa och samhälle.
    Perseius, Kent-Inge
    Landstinget i Kalmar län.
    Five Types of Practice-Based Improvement Ideas in Health Care Services: An Empirically Defined Typology2011In: Quality Management in Health Care, ISSN 1063-8628, E-ISSN 1550-5154, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to empirically identify and present different kinds of practice-based improvement ideas developed in health care services. The focus is on individual placement needs, problems/issues, and the ability to organize work on the development, implementation, and institutionalization of ideas for the health care sector. This study is based on a Swedish county council improvement program. Health care departments and primary health care centers in the Kalmar County Council were invited to apply for money to accomplish improvement projects. A qualitative content analysis was done of 183 proposed applications from various health care departments and primary health care centers. The following 5 types of improvement projects were identified: organizational process, evidence and quality, competence development, process technology, and proactive patient work. This illustrates the range of strategies that encourage letting individual units define their own improvement needs. These projects point to the various problems and experiences health care professionals encounter in their day-to-day work. To generalize beyond this improvement program and to validate the typology, we applied it to all articles found when searching for quality improvement projects in the journal Quality Management in Health Care during the last 2 years and found that all of them could be fitted into at least 1 of those 5 categories. This article provides valuable insights into the current state of improvemen work in Swedish health care, and will serve as a foundation for further investigations in this quality improvement program.

  • 236.
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Idvall, Ewa
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för Hälsa och samhälle.
    Perseius, Kent-Inge
    Landstinget i Kalmar län.
    Five Types of Practice-Based ImprovementIdeas in Health Care Services: An EmpiricallyDefined Typology2011In: Quality Management in Health Care, ISSN 1063-8628, E-ISSN 1550-5154, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to empirically identify and present different kinds of practice-based improvement ideas developed in health care services. The focus is on individual placement needs, problems/issues, and the ability to organize work on the development, implementation, and institutionalization of ideas for the health care sector. This study is based on a Swedish county council improvement program. Health care departments and primary health care centers in the Kalmar County Council were invited to apply for money to accomplish improvement projects. A qualitative content analysis was done of 183 proposed applications from various health care departments and primary health care centers. The following 5 types of improvement projects were identified: organizational process, evidence and quality, competence development, process technology, and proactive patient work. This illustrates the range of strategies that encourage letting individual units define their own improvement needs. These projects point to the various problems and experiences health care professionals encounter in their day-to-day work. To generalize beyond this improvement program and to validate the typology, we applied it to all articles found when searching for quality improvement projects in the journal Quality Management in Health Care during the last 2 years and found that all of them could be fitted into at least 1 of those 5 categories. This article provides valuable insights into the current state of improvemen  work in Swedish health care, and will serve as a foundation for further investigations in this quality improvement program.

  • 237.
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Idvall, Ewa
    ) Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University.
    Perseius, Kent-Inge
    Kalmar County Council/Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluating a Breakthrough Series Collaborative in a Swedish healthcare context2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the mid-1990s, increased attention has been placed on quality improvement and patient safety within the healthcare context. This study aims to evaluate the use of the Breakthrough Series Collaborative methodology in a Swedish county council improvement program, comparing measurements at the beginning and after six months. A questionnaire was used, and improvement processes and outcomes were analysed. The results showed an overall large engagement in improvements, although the methodology and the facilitators were seen as only moderately supportive. Nursing educators have highlighted the importance of improvement education amongst healthcare professions, and nurses could play an active role in improving healthcare practices and patient safety.

  • 238.
    Andersson, Annika
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Boundary work and boundary awareness: a case study of an emergency exercise with blue light students2015In: Proceedings of the ISCRAM 2015 Conference - Kristiansand, May 24-27 / [ed] Palen, Büscher, Comes & Huges, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 239.
    Andersson, Björn
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Legitimitet inom ett COIN-perspektiv2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay presentation of a problem proceed from a possible lack of training or knowledge about valid doctrines for Swedish units conducting service abroad. The essay have the goal to give a snapshoot picture of how a Swedish unit interpret the concept of legitimacy and how the unit works with different aspects to support this. Relating material and also the tool for conducting the analysis are gathered from a wide selection of science in counterinsurgency and also American doctrines.

    The paper assumes that the concept of legitimacy is important in theories surrounding counterinsurgency and also for the used American doctrine. The concept of legitimacy has been defined by three issues, Legitimacy for whom, Who will perceive what is legitimate? and Who generates legitimacy for what?

    The result shows that the Swedish unit in the examined example has a width of vision of the concept of legitimacy and linking it to both themselves as the state of the host country and that both the population in both the home and area of operation. The differences of what is in the paper are reported as COIN theory or the American doctrine is small. An important part is that the paper shows that the Swedish's unit primary definition of legitimacy in a COIN perspective, are the strengthening of the country's security organizations legitimacy versus its own population. This would differ from the above reported theory and doctrine.

  • 240.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjärås, Gunilla
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A longitudinal assessment of inter-sectoral participation in a community-based diabetes prevention programme2005In: Social Sciences & Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 2407-2422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the development of inter-sectoral participation in the three intervention municipalities of Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Programme (SDPP) case studies with a longitudinal assessment were conducted using the spidergram method, document analysis and group discussions. At three time points, the members of the local steering committees assessed the extent of participation from narrow to wide inter-sectoral participation in five key areas: planning, resources, leadership, network and implementation. Wide participation of various interest groups was recognised in planning and implementing activities whereas local resources, the representation of the leadership and the extent of the network were perceived as more restricted. Expert involvement varied during the programme period but was not regarded as exerting control over the local programmes. Participation within the local steering committees decreased, with a stronger focus on the project co-ordinator and other local partners in latter years. The extent of partner engagement increased due to focusing on activities approaching multi-sector collaboration and institutionalisation. Overall, communication and shared responsibility appeared critical in influencing both the development and perception of participation. In conclusion, to understand the dynamic process of participation at different times, areas and levels, the development and use of evaluation designs combining different methods and information sources throughout the lifespan of a project are recommended. 

  • 241.
    Andersson, Carina
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Upplevelser av budskap: Fallstudier av hur användare upplever och förstår information i användargränssnitt2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    När användbarheten studeras av den information som presenteras i ett användargränssnitt på en datorskärm kan det framkomma vad som fungerar effektivt och korrekt. I sådana sammanhang förs sällan någon diskussion om hur den information som presenteras kommunicerar med en användare.

    Syftet med detta forskningsprojekt är att på ett generellt plan öka kunskapen om olika analytiska perspektiv för att studera den information som presenteras i ett användargränssnitt på en datorskärm, som ett led till att skapa begriplig information för människor. Mer preciserat är syftet att få en djupare förståelse för hur en informationslämnare kan kommunicera med en informationsanvändare genom den information som presenteras i ett användargränssnitt. Målet med forskningsprojektet är att presentera ett antal relevanta analytiska perspektiv som kan användas för att beskriva hur presenterad information i ett användargränssnitt kan kommunicera med en användare. Forskningsresultatet bidrar med ett ramverk som kan ligga till grund för ett analysstöd. Forskningsresultatet bidrar även med en ansats för framtida forskning inom området.

    Forskningsprojektet bygger på fyra fallstudier. Analysobjekten i fallstudierna utgörs av fyra olika användargränssnitt på datorskärm, vilka används inom olika myndigheter, organisationer och företag. Vartdera användargränssnittet och dess informationsdesign studeras med hänsyn till: informationslämnarnas önskemål och intentioner, informationsanvändarnas upplevelse och förståelse av information och kontexters påverkan.

    De slutsatser som dras är bland annat att informationsdesign i ett användargränssnitt på datorskärm upplevs och förstås av användare i samklang med inre, när och yttre kontext. Dessa kontexter kan studeras utifrån tre olika perspektiv, ett semiotiskt, ett retoriskt och ett narrativt perspektiv. En sådan analys kan framhäva den kommunikation som sker mellan de budskap som informationslämnaren vill berätta, hur den presenterade informationen i användargränssnittet arrangeras och komponeras och hur olika kontexter påverkar användarnas upplevelse och förståelse av den information som presenteras.

  • 242.
    Andersson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Den ekologiska utvecklingen av Motala ström samt dess förutsättningar2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har utveckling av sportfisket i Motala ström, den del som rinner genom Norrköpings centralort, studerats. Det finns i dag hinder för fisken som gör att den inte kommer upp till sina forna lek- och uppväxtplatser. Motala ström avvattnar Vättern vid utloppet i Motala och fortsätter sedan österut mot Bråviken. Strömfårans fall genom Norrköping är betydande och i naturligt tillstånd består av den av strömmande vatten. De nedre delarna av Motala ström och anslutande delar av Bråviken lämnar en särskilt gynnsam miljö för laxartade fiskar.

    Fisket i Motala ström har pågått i flera hundra år men i början av 1900-talet försvann den vilda populationen på grund av föroreningar och en hård reglering av strömmen. I dag finns det två kraftverk som har större kapacitet än någon av de tidigare. Kraftverken producerar varje år 122 GWh eller lika mycket ström som går åt för att förse Norrköping med hushållsel.

    När man talar om tvister mellan olika intressen och när denna konflikt handlar om en naturresurs, kommer man lätt in på etiska och moraliska frågor. Det finns en gren av etiken som hanterar miljöetiska frågor. Denna gren har två olika huvudinriktningar kopplade till hur de ser på förhållandet mellan människan och naturen. Det gäller antropocentrism, som hävdar att bara människor har ett inneboende värde. Medan icke- antropocentrister anser att det finns varelser förutom människan som har ett instrumentellt värde.

    I fallet med Motala ström och dess flöde genom Norrköping är det framförallt tre olika intressen som agerar mot varandra. Jag har koncentrerat mig på att göra intervjuer med representanter från dessa intressegrupper och försöka få en uppfattning om hur de ser på saken. Intervjuerna har varit öppna och de inledande frågor har varit samma för alla informanterna.

    Jag har även tagit del av de vattenhushållningsbestämmelser som gäller för Motala ström och den del som rinner genom Norrköping samt andra dokument för att få en uppfattning om de tvister som finns kring Motala ströms passage genom Norrköping.

    Resultaten från studien visar att vattenkraften i Motala ström kommer att brukas som elproducent under lång tid. Det skulle kosta för mycket pengar att ändra vattenflöden så att en självreproduktion av fisk kan ske, och det har varken kommunen eller kraftbolaget råd med. Det ökade vattenflödena som en planerad självreproduktion skulle innebära, kan även påverka kulturmiljön och de estetiska värdena på ett oönskat sätt.

    I denna studie har jag kommit fram till att det inte går att både ha en vacker och en levande stad. I alla fall inte om man ska följa de lagar som är uppsatta. Det finns vattenflödesbestämmelser och det finns miniminivåer för vattnet. Dessa är reglerade av lagar och de är svåra att ändra på.

  • 243.
    Andersson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Associations between atherosclerotic plaque and self-efficacy, depression and anxiety in an asymptomatic general population aged 602017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are caused by atherosclerosis. Carotid plaques are associated with increased risk of CVD, independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Evidence of early disease is demonstrated before onset and can be assessed with ultrasound. Psychosocial stressors, together with raised lipids and smoking have been identified as the most important risk factors. Cognitive factors such as self-efficacy have been identified as important constructs for health behaviors, and emotional factors do also play a role in this context. Therefore, the present study investigated the association between general self-efficacy, health-specific self-efficacy, anxiety and depression, on the one hand, and atherosclerosis, on the other hand, in a sample of 2291 participants aged 60 year from a general asymptomatic population. Among 2291 participants, 1247 had plaque and 1044 did not have plaque. The results showed that depression (in men only) and anxiety (in participants with university education only) were associated with plaque, and health-specific self-efficacy (in men only) was associated with absence of plaque. However, when statistically controlled for snuff, smoking, harmful alcohol consumption, diabetes, myocardial infarction, hypertension, hypercholesterol and sex or education no group differences were found. Variables share biomedical factors and is therefore possible statistically over-controlled. From an epidemiological perspective, even small changes obtained in a large population have high impact. Therefore, the research question is important and needs to be adressed with interdiciplinary compentence.

  • 244.
    Andersson, Emilia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    GIS as a method for handling environmental data from Antarctica2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Polar Research Secretariat wants to compile all data from the Swedishenvironmental monitoring programme in Antarctica and present it using a Geographical Information System, GIS, in order to get a better follow-up on performed activities. The assignment of this master’s thesis has been to build a database containing geographic information for the areas around the Swedish research stations Wasa and Svea in Dronning Maud Land. The geodatabase will serve as a platform for future GIS-applications used by theSwedish Polar Research Secretariat.The work is divided into three parts, project planning, project development and an analysis. Apart of the project planning consisted of a survey of the environmental monitoring programmeand the existing data. A number of shortcomings in the existing data were discovered duringthe survey, it was therefore decided to amend the environmental monitoring programme andupdate the data handling methods in order to get better-suited data to use in a GIS.The choice of GIS-software fell on ArcGIS ArcView 9.2 from ESRI and data from theAntarctic Digital Database was used as a basemap. Additional data from the Antarctic DigitalDatabase was used in order to build the database. A file geodatabase structure was chosen which consists of a number of feature datasets containing all the geographical information.An analysis and a discussion about the existing monitoring programme have been performed and proposals on how to improve the monitoring programme have been presented.

  • 245.
    Andersson, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Ungas politiska delaktighet som pedagogiskt förhållningssätt2018In: Barn- och ungdomsvetenskap: Grundläggande perspektiv / [ed] Thomas Johansson och Emma Sorbring, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, 1, p. 163-177Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 246. Andersson, Folke
    et al.
    Axelsson, Björn
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Perttu, Kurt
    Ågren, Göran
    Skogen som miljögrundforskning om landekosystem1980In: Forska för livet / [ed] Elow Söderberg, Stockholm: Naturvetenskapliga forskningsrådet (NFR) , 1980, p. 141-179Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 247.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Genrer som stöd vid design av IT-artefakter: Reflektioner på ett designfall2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen ämnar svara på en övergripande frågeställning som lyder: På vilket sätt kan genrer fungera som ett stöd vid design av IT-artefakter? Detta är uppdelat i två syften. Det ena är att utreda om ett medvetet arbete med genrer kan stödja designprocessen vid design av IT-artefakter. För att svara på detta görs en genomgång om vad litteraturen säger om genrer och sedan testas detta på ett designfall som genomförs på en handdatorapplikation, närmare bestämt ett mobilt säljstöd. Det andra syftet är att vid förberedande och genomförande av detta designfall samla ihop och sammanställa designråd lämpade för handdatorer. På samma sätt som en författare av en bok kan dra nytta av genren inom vilken denne skriver borde en designer kunna göra detsamma. Flera möjliga fördelar kan ses med ett explicit genretänkande. Man skulle bland annat kunna förhindra övergeneralisering och dra nytta av förväntningar som finns hos konsumenter av den aktuella genren. Ävenkonsumenten skulle kunna dra nytta av en genreindelning om den designade artefakten förmedlade vilken genre den tillhör. Trots att arbetet med genrer benämns som en metod i uppsatsen så är det osäkert om den kan betraktas som en sådan. Man skulle kunna kalla det för ett genreperspektiv på design och kontextuellt utforskande. Även om inte enbart fördelar kan ses med genrer så verkar det som om genretänkandet förser designern med ett bra sätt att snabbt rama in situationen för vilken denne skall designa. Frågorna i genreanalysen som användes täcker upp mycket av bruket utan att fastna i detaljer.

  • 248.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The international diffusion of new chemical entities: A cross-national study of the determinants of differences in drug lag1990Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The two main objectives of this thesis are to make a general contribution to the understanding of the international diffusion of new chemical entities (NCEs) and to improve the research methods by applying econometric methodology.

    The study is based on a data base including all 553 NCEs introduced in Sweden during the period 1960-1987 and their introductions in France, West Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, the United States and Norway. A complementary data base covering 11 countries for the period 1970-1983 is also examined.

    Large differences are found between the countries regarding the diffusion of NCEs - both in the number of NCEs that are diffused to the countries (level of diffusion) and in the time needed for the NCEs to diffuse (rate of diffusion). There is also a general tendency for an increasing amount of time to be needed for the NCEs to diffuse. Econometric methodology is applied in the search for the determinants of the rate of diffusion. The three earlier models of the rate of diffusion are all rejected and two new models are constructed, one Swedish and one international. In these models the regulation-related variables are found to have the largest influence on the rate of international diffusion of NCEs.

    At the end of the thesis, policy implications of the results and prospects for the future are discussed.

  • 249.
    Andersson, Fräs Annika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Determination of Volatile Sulfur Compounds in Air and other Gas Matrices: Development and Applications of Solid-Phase Microextraction2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) are frequently emitted during bioindustrial activities, such as production of biogas, sewage treatment, landfilling, pulpmilling, and the slaughtering of animals and meat processing. VSCs are reactive and malodorous, and they can also be detrimental to human health, therefore it is of great interest to be able to analyze these compounds.

    However, the standard techniques that are now available for determination of VSCs entail detection limits that in some cases exceed the odor thresholds, and, what is more, they require the use of solvents and toxic reagents. In addition, a single standard method does not exist that can be used to analyze all the VSCs that are most often associated with bioindustrial processes.

    In the present studies, a technique based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was developed for analysis of the VSCs that are commonly found in the bioindustry. The method could even be applied to very complex gas matrices representing point-source emissions of these compounds in amounts below their odor thresholds. Furthermore, the procedure constitutes an improvement compared to the other techniques employed to determine VSCs, because SPME is less time-consuming, it does not require the use of solvents or other chemicals, and it can extract all the compounds simultaneously. The potential of applying SPME for time-weighted average sampling of VSCs was also investigated. These experiments showed that the connnercially available fiber coating with the highest affmity for VSCs (i.e., Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane)could achieve accurate determination of dimethyldisulfide, whereas use of thatcoating to collect the other compounds was highly influenced by externalparameters that are subject to variation. This work also included investigationsof several important aspects of SPME analysis of VSCs, such as the choice offiber coating, artifact formation, and the impact of various parameters on theextraction.

    The current results demonstrate that the SPME methodology that was developed can be used to determine VSCs in different matrices and contexts within the bioindustry. More precisely, the technique was successfully employed for the following purposes: to determine background levels ofVSCs to which workers were exposed; to monitor VSC emissions during the biogas process; to supervise the quality of produced biogas; to investigate the efficiency of processes used for abatement of VSCs; and to ascertain the cause of odor problems.

  • 250.
    Andersson, Fräs Annika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Solid-phase microextraction for determination of background levels and point-source emissions of volatile sulfur compounds in the bioindustryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was conducted to develop a rapid, matrix-independent technique for simultaneous analysis of nine different volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in complex gas matrices.The potential of using solid-phase microextraction (SP:ME) in this context was investigated, and, to achieve the best sensitivity and avoid artifact formation and competitive adsorption, pel'formance ofthe following fiber coatings was tested: Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CARIPDMS),divinylbenzene/ polydimethyl-siloxane (DVBIPDMS), and Carboxen/divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/DVBIPDMS). The optimal injector temperature and desorption time for each fiber were dete1n1ined by experimental design. The samples analyzed were collected in Tedlar bags at a biogas facility and a sewage treatment plant to represent background levels and point-source emissions. The samples were subsequently dried over CaClz and preconcenti·ated bySPME, and the target compounds were analyzed by GC-MS. CARIPDMS induced the lowest level of artifact formation and initially also exhibited the broadest range of linear adsorption kinetics. Anextraction time of 2.5 min gave no matrix effects, despite the complexity of the samples, and the analytes were accurately quantified using extemal calibration curves below odor thresholds.Detection limits ranged from 0.008 (CS2) to 2.5 (H2S) ppbv, and the relative standard deviation was 4-16%.

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