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  • 101.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Are just negotiators needed? On justice as an asset and a constraint in negotiations (keynote)2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 102.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Combining justice with efficiency: The multilateral trade regime and the Warwick Commission Report2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Improving the effectiveness of multilateral trade negotiations: A synopsis2012In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 17, no 1, 1-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue of International Negotiation explores from different perspectives how multilateral trade negotiations, primarily within the World Trade Organization (WTO), can become more effective. The challenges associated with this task have grown, as the parties and issues involved in such talks have increased in number and diversity. The specific topics addressed include the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and domestic-level factors, agenda management, legitimacy and procedural issues, turning points, the challenge posed by the pursuit of bilateral and regional alternatives, and the question of gains to be had from multilateralism. The conclusions drawn from these studies are wide-ranging and relevant for multilateral negotiations generally. They highlight, among other matters, the significance of decision-making procedures used in the negotiation process.

  • 104.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    International Negotiation: Improving the Effectiveness of Multilateral Trade Negotiations2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 105.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Justice and fairness as a constraint on the exercise of non-military power (keynote)2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 106.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Peace vs. Justice - and Beyond2009In: The Sage Handbook of Conflict Resolution, London: Sage Publications , 2009, 580-594 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Using negotiation to promote legitimacy: an assessment of proposals for reforming the WTO2008In: International Affairs, ISSN 0020-5850, E-ISSN 1468-2346, Vol. 84, no 4, 757-+ p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can negotiations be conducted to promote the legitimacy of international institutions such as the World Trade Organization (WTO)? Can negotiation procedures be designed so as to strengthen the WTO as an institution and the agreements it concludes? One reason for which the legitimacy of the organization is being questioned is its decision-making-especially negotiation-procedures. These have contributed significantly to recent setbacks in WTO talks. Yet proposals for procedural reform have not been subject to much discussion or review, in particular with no regard to content which may boost legitimacy. Justice and other values associated with legitimacy have generally not been addressed by trade experts, and conceptual tools for identifying what practical form their inclusion could take are lacking. This article reviews a variety of proposals, formal and informal, for reforming the WTO's negotiation procedures. It develops an approach to procedural justice which is used to identify the justice content in these proposals, based on four main principles. Drawing on this analysis, the article concludes by highlighting promising elements of reform. In so doing, it brings research literature on justice and negotiation to bear on current debates over the legitimacy deficit in international institutions, using the WTO as a significant case. More practically, the article helps to identify what more legitimate negotiation procedures may mean and require, and how their justice content may be assessed and increased.

  • 108.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    Distributive justice and the durability of peace agreements2011In: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 37, no 3, 1137-1168 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the relationship between principles of distributive justice (DJ) and the durability of negotiated agreements. Sixteen peace agreements negotiated during the early 1990s were coded for the centrality of each of four principles of DJ – equality, proportionality, compensation, and need – to the core terms of the agreement. The agreements were also assessed on scales of implementation and durability over a five-year period. Another variable included in the analysis was the difficulty of the conflict environment. These data were used to evaluate three sets of hypotheses: the relationship between DJ and durability, the role of the conflict environment, and types of DJ principles. The results obtained from both statistical and focused-comparison analyses indicate that DJ moderates the relationship between conflict environments and outcomes: when principles of justice are central to an agreement, the negative effects of difficult conflict environments are reduced; when principles are not central, the negative effects of difficulty are heightened. These relationships are accounted for primarily by one of the four DJ principles – equality. Implications of these findings are discussed along with a number of ideas for further research.

  • 109.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    Distributive justice and the durability of peace agreements2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    Equality matters: Negotiating an end to civil wars2012In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766, Vol. 56, no 2, 155-182 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores relationships between procedural justice (PJ) in the negotiation process, distributive justice (DJ) in the terms of negotiated agreements, and their durability in cases of civil war. Adherence to PJ principles was found to correlate strongly with agreements based specifically on the DJ principle of equality. Agreements were also found to be more durable when based on equality, but not when based on other DJ principles. The equality principle accounted for the relationship between PJ and durability irrespective of differences between the parties in power. Further examination suggested that two types of equality in particular-equal treatment and equal shares-were associated with forward-looking agreements and high durability. The findings suggest that durability is served by including equality in the terms of agreements, and that PJ helps (but does not guarantee) achieving such agreements.

  • 111.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    Explaining the Durability of Peace Agreements2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    The Role of Equality in Negotiation and Sustainable Peace2012In: Psychological Components of a Sustainable Peace / [ed] Peter Coleman, Morton Deutsch, New York: Springer, 2012, 131-152 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    The Role of Justice in Negotiation2010In: Handbook of Group Decision and Negotiation / [ed] D. Marc Kilgour and Colin Eden, Springer Publishers , 2010, 109-119 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses the role of justice in negotiation between rival parties and the durability of peace agreements. It draws on research about group negotiation processes and agreements to end civil wars, mostly during the early 1990s. Hypothesized relationships between the presence and importance of distributive justice (DJ) in the agreements, and their durability, were first explored with multiple methods (see also the chapter by Koeszegi and Vetschera, this volume). The difficulty of the conflict environment was shown to have the strongest impact on durability. However, the DJ principle of equality was found to reduce the negative impact of difficult environments. An emphasis on equality was also associated with more forward-looking agreements, which were found to be more durable than those that were backward looking. (See also the chapters by Nurmi, Klamber, Kilgour and Hipel, Turel, and Yuan, this volume for modeling approaches to issues of justice and fairness.) Next, the presence and importance of procedural justice (PJ) were examined in the negotiation processes that led to the signing of the peace agreements. Significantly more durable agreements occurred when a process based on PJ led to agreements that emphasized equality. This focus on process is similar to the analyses conducted by the authors chapters (See also the chapter by Koeszegi and Vetschera, Kersten and Lai, this volume). A close examination of how the equality principle was applied revealed that agreements based on provisions of equal treatment and/or equal shares were particularly durable. The chapter concludes with a discussion of tactics used by third parties to produce durable agreements, and lessons for policy.

  • 114.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hall, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Swanström, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Euroasian Studies.
    International Negotiation: Theories and Practices2009In: Peace, Justice, and Security Studies: A Curriculum Guide / [ed] Timothy A. McElwee, B. Welling Hall, Joseph Liechty, and Julie Garber, Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publisher , 2009, 7, 321-327 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 115.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Martinez, Ariel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Preparing the table for success - or failure?: Agenda management in the WTO2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 116.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Enabling socio-technical transitions – electric vehicles and high voltage electricity grids as focal points of low emission futures2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today humankind is facing numerous sustainability challenges that require us to question CO2 intensive practices like those present in the transport and energy sector. To meet those challenges, many countries have adopted ambitious climate targets. Achieving such targets requires an understanding of the wider socio-technical context of transitions. The aim of this licentiate thesis is therefore to analyse such socio-technical transitions towards low-emission futures enabled by the electrification of passenger cars and high voltage grid development.

    A combination of different transitions theories (for ex. Multi-level perspective and Technological innovation systems) and institutional theory has been used. To reach the aim paper I analyses the climate impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and policy measures to achieve a breakthrough scenario for EVs. The results show that a mixture of short and long term policies are needed that take into account the technology development stage and behavioural aspects of EV adopters. Paper II addresses the need to include the high voltage transmission grid and its planning procedures as a central part of debates on transitions. Therefore the opportunities, challenges and reasons for conflict in the established regime are studied. The results show that in order to achieve a sustainable grid development regime, it is necessary to spend time on achieving legitimacy and social sustainability. The third paper uses semi-structured expert interviews and focuses on innovation dynamics for EV adoption. By focusing on dynamics instead of single policy measures, it is possible to grasp interactions within a niche, but also in between a niche, regime and landscape. The results show that strong initial technology legitimacy was needed to start substantial innovation dynamics. This could be further strengthened with a strong and broad coalition of actors. Both those factors led, if present, to an improved variety and match of policy instruments.

    As such this thesis has shown that transitions are not just about technology or policy instruments as such but about the dynamics and processes needed to enable them. This can be relevant in other transitions that otherwise may underestimate the importance of these components.

  • 117.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nordic power road map 2050: Strategic choices towards carbon neutrality. D4.1.R Institutional grid review.2013Report (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    System innovation dynamics around electric vehicles. The cases of Norway, Denmark and Sweden.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the comparison of electric car innovation patterns in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Doing so, it takes a closer look at what the most essential dynamics in the systems were over time and what enabled those dynamics. The main research aim is to contribute to a wider understanding of why Norway is so much ahead of Sweden and Denmark in electric car adoption. The purpose is also to adopt a perspective that goes beyond a mere focus on economic policy instruments. In order to do so different theory elements are combined in a framework. These elements stem from the transition theory literature field, especially the technological innovation system (TIS) and the multi-level perspective (MLP). This combination allows analysing the development behind a dynamic, not just when it comes to an innovation itself but also with regards to the established regime. The data is gathered through analysis of existing documents and data as well as a series of 27 expert interviews conducted in the three case countries. The findings suggest that there are important differences in transition patterns that can account for the electric vehicle (EV) diffusion situation we can find nowadays in the three Nordic countries. An important stepping stone was the need for a very strong legitimacy of the original EV vision that is also anchored in a coordinated, sector overarching coalition of actors that thinks strategically and long term. Moreover some general beneficial dynamics could be identified across the countries in question. In Norway these beneficial dynamics can be summarised as a systems motor, in Denmark as a failed entrepreneurial motor that shifted towards a constrained municipal motor and in Sweden as a loosely, coordinated and weaker version of a systems motor.

  • 119.
    Albrecht, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nilsson, Måns
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nordic power road map 2050:Strategic choices towards carbon neutrality. D4.2.R Policy and Institutional Review Electric Vehicles (EV).2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines policy drivers of electric vehicles (EVs), and what potential role policy can play in enhancing the innovation and market development of EVs. We start with a policy review of key targets in the Nordic countries and the EU, up to 2030, and discuss to what extent they are consistent with industry, government and expert estimates of how the EV innovation systems can grow. On the basis of this, the second part examines what policy drivers might be needed to enable a breakthrough scenario, using a technological innovation systems (TIS) perspective to describe the needed processes, drivers and developments in policy and technology.

  • 120.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Dedic, Dina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Karpenja, Tatjana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Magnusson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Rosén, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Sundin, Konstantin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Lucisano, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Modorato-Rosta, Caroline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Towards a cellulose-based society: current market and consumer trends2017In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017, Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi , 2017, 1- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that the future of the forest industry will involve the traditional value chains combined with the needs and demands of a bio-based economy. A global consumer survey was undertaken, together with interviews and workshops with various representatives through the bio-economy. Sources also included in-depth literature studies and research reviews. Based on this input, several current trends have been identified that will affect the route towards a cellulose-based society. These trends describe the effects of urbanization, consumer behaviour, new business models, material recycling, open innovation and the necessity for early demonstration of new research. Four different but equally plausible scenarios have been identified describing the society and the role of cellulose in 2030, highlighting the role of the wood-based biorefinery.

  • 121.
    Al-Dahir, Ali
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bisley, Hye-Jeong Kang and Nicholas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    A Holistic Approach to Sustainable Community Development in the Developing World2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is an overall consensus that the poor governance and corruption plaguing many developing nations are main inhibitors to progress. These inhibitors also lead to the overwhelming feelings of desperation, apathy, and determinism. International development assistance programs utilizing capacity building have been created to deal with sustainable development issues in the developing world. Often these programs are fragmented and address results, not the causes, of problems. This study assesses how existing community development approaches could be aided through a strategic sustainable development perspective. A majority of the research involved creation of a holistic innovative community development approach, which encourages transformational change and effective leadership, and comparison of that to an existing community development approach. Strengths and limitations were observed through this comparison and generic recommendations were created to support current approaches. The study found that existing development assistance strategies are effective at building capacity and helping communities, but encompassing a more holistic perspective could align planning and decision-making with socio-ecological sustainability and thereby support mid- and long-term progress.

  • 122.
    Al-Delemi, Rafel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Kommunikation i projekt2010Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Study of communication in the project and identification of conflicts that stand in opposition to the project .. The study consists of various tests, an interview and a Web page. These methods are appropriate for the studied project situation and structure and can test different angles in communication. Focus areas are: - Quality - Structure Based on the above factors, I have with the help of the project owner and the project manager made ​​some assumptions that affect communication in the project and then I have used various methods to test them. The answers that I got out of these reviews gave a picture of the validity and how the following tests were complementary to the previous ones.

  • 123.
    Alenius, Boel
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Miljötillsyn och miljörevision: samarbetspartners för ett resurseffektivare tillsynsarbete2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förhoppningar har sedan flera år tillbaka funnits både från miljöcertifierade företags och certifieringsorganens sida att ett certifierat miljöledningssystem skulle ge skäl till lättnader i den operativa tillsynen. Det finns även en resursbrist hos tillsynsmyndigheterna så att tillsynspersonerna inte har möjlighet att utföra tillsyn i den omfattning man önskar. Det har under senare år vuxit fram frivilliga åtaganden inom miljöarbetet. Miljöledningssystem är ett av dem. För att kontrollera miljöledningssystemens funktion revideras dessa periodiskt återkommande av certifieringsorganen. Revisionerna skulle kunna utgöra ett komplement till tillsynsmyndigheternas tillsyn. Ett resurseffektivare tillsynsarbete skulle kunna nås om det då gick att frigöra resurser hos tillsynsmyndigheterna genom att införa lättnader i tillsynen vid miljöcertifierade företag. Vilket skulle kunna ge tillsynsmyndigheterna en möjlighet att lägga sina resurser där det bäst behövs.

    Syftet med denna studie är att öka kunskaperna om och hur miljörevision och miljötillsyn kan samverka för ett resurseffektivare tillsynsarbete. Detta har undersökts genom kvalitativa halvstrukturerade intervjuer med tillsynspersoner, revisorer och miljöansvariga personer.

    Studien visade på att det finns möjligheter till ett resurseffektivare tillsynsarbete eftersom de teoretiska skillnaderna mellan den operativa tillsynen och underhållsrevisionen är få och små. Denna studie visar även att det finns förutsättningar i praktiken för att den operativa tillsynen och underhållsrevisionen ska kunna samverka till ett resurseffektivare tillsynsarbete samt att det finns skäl till lättnader i tillsynen hos miljöcertifierade företag.

  • 124.
    Alenius, Boel
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Ständig förbättring av miljöarbetet på kontor Fallstudie på BT Products AB2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det centrala i arbetet med miljöledningssystem (MLS) är den ständiga förbättringen av den certifierade organisationens miljöprestanda. Syftet med den här studien är att studera hur man med utgångspunkt i MLS kan förbättra miljöarbetet på den typ av kontorsarbetsplatser som BT Products AB är ett exempel på. Studien visade på att kontorspersonalen fokuserar sitt miljöarbete till källsorteringen, pappersförbrukningen och till en liten del även elförbrukningen. Detaljerade miljömål, utbildning av medarbetare och miljöledarens roll är viktiga faktorer i miljöarbetet. Man kan sen gå vidare i miljöarbetet genom att använda sig av ett möjlighetsbaserat synsätt, goda exempel och återkoppling som verktyg integrerat i MLS för att få en ständig förbättrad miljöprestanda hos företaget.

  • 125.
    Alexandersson, Gabriella
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Treatment of Waste Water from Coke Production Feasibility Study of Huaxi Jiohua Ltd, Wuhai,2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China is the most populous country in the world and has an increasing economy. A growingeconomy enhances the electricity requirement, product demands and so on, which affects both the surrounding environment but also the global environment.Wuhai is an industrial city and the most polluted city in Inner Mongolia, China. Numerous amounts of the industries are lacking in the emission treatment and the PM10 is more then 10 times the allowed amount of European Union.This master thesis is a part of a bigger project, a corporation between IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd and Environmental Protection Bureau in Wuhai.The Coke Company Huaxi Jiohua Ltd. was founded 1992, and has a producing capability of300.000 tons coke per year. The treatment station is a model of an ASP, without a sludge recycling and a sludge thickener instead of sedimentation basin. The treatment efficiency is failing in phenol removal.The aim of this thesis is to perform a feasible study of the wastewater treatment methods foran improvement of the separation of pollutions in coke wastewater and to give a proposal forimprovement of energy efficiency from wastewater treatment.Treatment efficiency of methods such as A2/O, A/O, SBR, and ASP was taken inconsideration.Due to the lack of basic treatment, a first suggestion is to optimize the biological parameters,and introduce sludge recycling to the system together with either a following sedimentationpool or a MBBR as a pre-treatment step.To gain energy from the wastewater treatment station, a replacing of the current aerator system in the aeration unit to fine bubble diffusers and introduce a heat exchanger in the cooling of gas step could be done.

  • 126.
    Alfredsson, Elina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Is, Tina
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Maraoge, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Träqvist, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Förortsbor: en studie av hur individen formas av sin bostadsmiljö2008Student paper second term, 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna antologi har vi haft som syfte att undersöka på vilket sätt boendemiljön har betydelse för människans livsvillkor och identitetsskapande. Genom att undersöka sociala relationer och den fysiska miljön i olika miljonprogramsförorter har vi försökt skapa oss en förståelse för hur människor själva upplever sin boendemiljö. Utifrån de fyra olika infallsvinklarna ungdomars livsvillkor, trygghetsskapande, medias roll och ungdomars identitetsskapande har vi studerat miljonprogramsförorter och har därigenom försökt skapa oss en bred kunskap om livet i förorten. Med hjälp av observationer och intervjuer har vi samlat in datamaterial som vi sedan har analyserat genom den induktiva analysmetoden grundad teori. Dataanalysen har vi därefter kopplat till teorier om identitet, stigma och symbolisk interaktionism och även individuellt valda teorier, vilka längre fram genererat i sammanfattande slutsatser. Studiens övergripande slutsats är att den sociala miljön i ett bostadsområde ofta har en avgörande roll i skapandet av människors identitet och livsvillkor. Då den sociala miljön skapas i sampel mellan individer inverkar människors uppfattning och föreställning om bostadsområdet på de boende och skapar en känsla av tillhörighet eller otillhörighet. Boendet har därigenom en betydande roll för människors livsvillkor och identitetsskapande.

  • 127.
    Algesten, Grete
    et al.
    Dept. och Ecology and Environmental Studies Umeå University.
    Brydsten, Lars
    Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Studies Umeå University.
    Jonsson, Per
    Inst. of Applied Environmental Res. Stockholm University.
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Finnish Environmental Inst..
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Dept. of Environmental Assessment SLU.
    Rahm, Lars
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Räike, Antti
    Finnish environmental Inst..
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Dept. of Ecology and Evolution Uppsala University.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Dept. of Ecology and Evolution Uppsala University.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå Marine Science Center Umeå University.
    Jansson, Mats
    Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Studies Umeå University.
    Organic carbon budget for the Gulf of Bothnia2006In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, Vol. 63, no 3-4, 155-161 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We calculated input of organic carbon to the unproductive, brackish water basin of the Gulf of Bothnia from rivers, point sources and the atmosphere. We also calculated the net exchange of organic carbon between the Gulf of Bothnia and the adjacent marine system, the Baltic Proper. We compared the input with sinks for organic carbon, permanent incorporation in sediments and mineralization and subsequent evasion of CO2 to the atmosphere. The major fluxes were riverine input (1500 Gg C year- 1), exchange with the Baltic Proper (depending on which of several possible DOC concentration differences between the basins that was used in the calculation, the flux varied between an outflow of 466 and an input of 950 Gg C year- 1), sediment burial (1100 Gg C year- 1) and evasion to the atmosphere (3610 Gg C year- 1). The largest single net flux was the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere, mainly caused by bacterial mineralization of organic carbon. Input and output did not match in our budget which we ascribe uncertainties in the calculation of the exchange of organic carbon between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Proper, and the fact that CO2 emission, which in our calculation represented 1 year (2002) may have been overestimated in comparison with long-term means. We conclude that net heterotrophy of the Gulf of Bothnia was due to input of organic carbon from both the catchment and from the Baltic Proper and that the future degree of net heterotrophy will be sensible to both catchment export of organic carbon and to the ongoing eutrophication of the Baltic Proper. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 128.
    Ali, Muhammad Noman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Redzovic, Adis
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Knowledge Management and Sharing Initiatives in Development Sector: Contribution in Effective Risk Management2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis study explores the existing knowledge management and sharing practices in donor organizations, particularly working in the developing countries. The potentional of knowledge management and sharing to facilitate development organizations in carrying out development work has been recognised in the literature. Literature presented mix of critique and appreciation to the existing efforts of donor agencies. Knowledge sharing platforms revolves around the country initiatives and donor agencies like UNDP and World Bank which are proactive in establishing these platforms for partner organizations. This research contributes practical insight to the question of delivery of these platforms, through an empirical investigation based on the development professionals' experiences. As earlier research shows enormous amount of literature on individual, team and organizational level knowledge sharing, this study sets prime focus on community level or external knowledge sharing, an area where there exist a dearth of emperical research or contributing literature on examing the role of sharing initiatives and possible contribution in improving risk management in development projects. Literature shows the potential of knowledge management and sharing practices, as their possible contribution in the global development practices and in bridging gap between North-South stakeholders. However, cultural, technological, organizational and individual level issues escalate with external level of knowledge sharing and thesis rightly, identifies success factors from the literature alongwith their viability from the professionals. It is even more inadequate when it comes to projects of donor organizations in under developed and developing countries. With 80% of documented failure rates of knowledge sharing systems, external knowledge sharing with partner organizations or network organizations is really not adequate and do not have supporting culture. As this whole process of sharing knowledge, heavily relies on the perceived motivation and willingness to share, study has tried to identify the challenges facing wider use of these sharing systems. Study also contributes with suggestions for knowledge management and sharing system developers, policy and decision makers and system users, to improve the overall contribution of knowledge sharing in better risk management. Apart from the cultural barriers, there are technical and policy level issues which need more concerted efforts to improve the use of these sharing systems by various organizations and individuals.

  • 129.
    Alimli, Gulderen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Imran, Naveed
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Ireg, Mohammed
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Nichols, Jennifer
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Engaging Urban Communities of Newcomers to Sweden towards UNFCCC Climate Change Targets through Participation and Diversity2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human-influenced climate change is rapidly accelerating and continues to threaten to human existence. Global migration is leading to increasingly multicultural urban populations. This paper ties these two issues together through the lense of engagement. The thesis argues that a Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) can be used to plan strategies to engage multicultural communities towards second commitment Kyoto targets and be an opportunity for meeting community needs for social sustainability. The research took place in Sweden through interviews and focus groups. Key findings address systematic exclusion and the potential of inquiry to discover barriers and leverage points. The resulting set of guidelines for municipalities utilizes the full spectrum of engagement (inform, consult, involve, collaborate, empower) and the FSSD to enhance existing climate change action plans towards maximum participation for fulfilling Kyoto Protocol mandates.

  • 130.
    Alkan Olsson, Johanna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Setting limits in nature and the politics of chemical compoundsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Critical Load concept, emerged in the late 1980s as a response toan expressed need from especially policy makers to create more exactand scientifically based policy tools for the abatement of transboundary air pollution in Europe (Gehring, 1994; Wettestad, 2000). The concept has mainly been used in international negotiationson emission reductions related to the second-generation protocols, tothe Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP), i.e. the 1994 Oslo protocol and the 1999 Gothenburg protocol.

    To create a policy based on scientific findings of effects in nature was, by policy makers in the CLRT AP regime, seen as an improvement in relation to the uniform emission reductions, used in earlier protocols. Equal percentage cuts were viewed as arbitrary, economically ineffective and unfair. Arbitrary, as there was no solid scientific base to support the cuts. Ineffective, as the cost for reduction was different in different parts of Europe. Unfair as uniform emission reductions had failed to take into account that ecosystem sensibility varies. The introduction of Critical Load in the CLRTAP can hence be described as a change from a focus on equity of reduction, based on equal commitments for different countries to a focus on equity of environmental effects and economical commitments. The solution to these problems was the Critical Load concept which estimates ofnature's limits to different types of pollutants were aimed to serve asthe base for cost-efficiency calculations, creating the desired policy. The shift from equal percentage cuts to emission cuts based on effects led to an increased importance of scientific estimations (Biickstrand, 2001; Cresser, 2000).

    (...)

  • 131.
    Alkan Olsson, Johanna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Critical Load concept: A milestone or milestone for future environmental policymaking?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an analysis of the critique directed towards the Critical Load concept expressed in policy texts produced by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The aim is to trace and discuss the character of this critique. A further aim is to discuss whether it is possible that this critique may gain a foothold in today's environmental policy, and what the result of such a development could be for the future use of the Critical Load as a basis of environmental policy-making. It is shown that the Critical Load concept faces a decreasing legitimacy as a policy tool, giving it an uncertain, but nevertheless possibly viable future. However,depending on how the possibilities of estimating limits in nature areinterpreted and used in practice, the concept may become either amilestone or a millstone.

  • 132.
    Alkan Olsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Critical Load: The politics of chemistryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical Load was introduced as a environmental policy tool in the late 1980s in response to a need for exact and scientifically based measures to abate transboundary air pollution in the Convention onLong-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). The main objective in this study was to analyse the practical operationalisation of these limits. The study proceeded by analysing policy document treating the Critical Load concept produced by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEP A) It is showed that the concept is mainly operationalised through three scientific disciplines, chemistry, ecology and toxicology. Chemistry dominates and two things are forwarded as a reason. First, the political over all aim of Critical Load is based on the ideas that nature is robust within limits a perception, which is closely entangled with an idea that it is possible to calculate these limits. This favours chemical explanations, as chemistry is perceived as more calculable than for example ecology. Secondly, the Critical Load concept was initially used in connection to acidification, which primarily has been perceived a chemical problem. As ecological  explanations in the material not are operationalised into precise limitsthe role of ecology is interpreted as a complement to the precise calculations provided by chemistry, taking into consideration the balance and the complexity of nature. Toxicological explanations on the other hand provide precise measurements and are therefore interpreted as an intermediary between ecology and chemistry. Thethree stories are therefore interpreted as versions on the same story,nature as robust within limits and calculable. The ecological and thetoxicological explanations are also interpreted as answers to a changein the perception of environmental problem to more complex and to achanging focus of polluting compounds in the CLRTAP.

  • 133.
    Alkan Olsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Critical Load graph: A rhetorical tropeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often said that pictures and graphical visualisations have a greatpower to unify and simplify ideas: "a picture says a thousand words" as thesaying goes. The ability of graphs to explore and summarise large sets ofnumbers is also well known (Tufte, 1983: introduction). Although scientistsfrequently have recourse to graphical illustrations when explaining complexproblems, the role of pictures and graphs in forwarding scientific findingshas received relatively little attention in studies of science compared to the attention given to texts. Ronald Giere and Michael Ruse have suggested thatthis lack of interest may be explained by the strong influence of logical empiricism in scientific culture (Giere, 1996; Ruse, 1996). Logical empiricism emerged in the eighteenth century in the transition between an oral-visualculture and a text-based culture, nurturing a suspicion towards pictures andarguing that human thinking relies on words. In this textual culture pictures are reduced to persuasive aids, if considered at all, being thought of as pedagogical tools or simple 'illustrations' used to facilitate the presentation and sharing of scientific findings (Stafford, 1994). Another reason why visual displays in science have been underestimated and neglected compared to scientific texts, may simply be, as suggested by David Lynch, that methods for analysing verbal materials are more advanced than thosefor analysing pictures (Lynch, 1990:151).

    (...)

  • 134. Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Bergström, Sten
    Brandt, Maja
    Gårdhammar, Göran
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundgren, Tom
    Lundman, Lena
    Norberg, Sten
    Persson, S
    Sandén, Per
    Sigas, Elias
    Bersbo - Modellområde för studier av metallers spridning i naturliga vattensystem1985In: Vannet i Norden : med IHP-nytt, ISSN 0348-5684, Vol. 18Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 135. Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Bergström, Sten
    Brandt, Maja
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sandén, Per
    Bersbo - några resultat från hydrokemisk modell-studie av metalltransport från läckande varphögar1986In: Vannet i Norden : med IHP-nytt, ISSN 0348-5684, Vol. 19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 136.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Tema V LIU.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Tema V LIU.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Full scale restoration of a mine waste deposit - A case study of waste management strategy and descion making1991In: Environmental consequences of hazardous waste disposal,1991, Stockholm: SKB , 1991, II: 57- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 137. Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sandén, Per
    Bergström, Sten
    Brandt, Maja
    Environmental impacts of an old mine tailings deposit. Hydrochemical and hydrological background1987In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 18, 279-290 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 138.
    Allard, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Reimerson, Elsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Contrasting nature, contrasting rights - concluding remarks2016In: Indigenous Rights in Modern Landscapes: Nordic Conservation Regimes in Global Context / [ed] Lars Elenius, Christina Allard & Camilla Sandström, London: Routledge, 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 139.
    Alldén, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Post-conflict reconstruction and women’s security: analyzing political outputs in East Timor2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Women’s inclusion in the reconstruction of war-torn societies is important for sustainable peace and functioning democratic states. This paper specifically addresses women’s security situation in East Timor, seven years after the country’s vote for independence. The peace process is generally viewed as a success story but seven years later, women face several obstacles to enhanced political, economic and social status in society. What policy outputs, in particular in the political realm, can be detected, and what, if any, obstacles face women in their struggle for increased security? Are women acknowledged as important actors in the democratization or was the “gender-friendly” peacebuilding process simply a rhetorical instrument that later turned out to ignore women’s situation when policies were to be implemented? The paper highlights several important political aspects crucial for building sustainable peace and for stabilizing democracy, and examines how these issues include or exclude women in East Timor.

  • 140.
    Aller San Millán, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The National Past and Future of European Public Opinion2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What has happened with the perception that Europeans have of their relationship with the European Union through the years? Is it possible to find some analogies between present times and international relations in the XIX century Europe?

    This work tries to study the period comprehended between the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and the period that ended up in World War I in order to search for behavioural and ideological patterns similar to those of the development of the European Union as we have known it.

    The thesis stands for the idea of that finding similarities and interconnections between the past of European nations may be a help to predict the proper way to integrate the different citizenries of current European countries under a common identity of shared values.

  • 141.
    Allgaier, Joachim
    et al.
    Alpen-Adria Universität , Klagenfurt, Austria.
    Svalastog, Anna Lydia
    The communication aspects of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Western Africa – do we need to counter one, two, or many epidemics?2015In: Croatian Medical Journal, ISSN ISSN 1332-8166, Vol. 56, no October, 496-499 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 142.
    Allobergenova, Inobat
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Anaerobic fermentation of organic waste from juice plant in Uzbekistan2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master Thesis work was done at the Master’s Programme in SustainableTechnology at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in study period 2005-2006.The aim of this Thesis work was to analyze if fermentation process is a proper methodfor processing organic waste from juice production process and if so to design a fermentationprocess of organic waste from juice plants in Uzbekistan taking into account the economical,environmental and technical aspects.In this report apple juice producing process and organic waste from juice productionin Uzbekistan were overviewed. Two juice processing plants of Uzbekistan “Bagat-Sharbat”and “Meva” and their generated organic waste were overviewed.Also different treatment methods of organic waste and their advantages anddisadvantages were analyzed and compared with anaerobic fermentation process. The studiedorganic waste management methods are animal feeding, incineration, direct land spreading,land filling, composting and anaerobic fermentation. Anaerobic fermentation of organic wastegenerated from fruit juice production was studied.Suggestions and recommendations were done to implement organic wastemanagement for fruit juice industry in Uzbekistan according to studies and calculations.Advantages and disadvantages of different waste management methods are discussedand compared with anaerobic fermentation. Economical and environmental calculations ofanaerobic fermentation process were done. Different biogas plant types all over the world andtheir construction costs were studied and compared. According to studies and calculationsseveral suggestions and recommendations are made.By studying and comparing different waste treatment methods with anaerobic digestion oforganic waste from juice plants following conclusions are made:

    The benefits of the biogas plant on the fruit juice plant:

    • Solution of the organic waste-disposal problems

    • Reduction of obnoxious smells from the organic wastes

    • Own, stable, self-sufficient energy production (heat, steam and electricity)

    • Cheap energy, which yields financial savings in the longer term.

    • Possibility of selling energy or biogas surplus - a source of extra income forthe plant.

    • Production of high-volume fertiliser that carries a higher content of nitrogen(15% or more) than artificial fertilisers, and that does not burn the crops, asuntreated slurry can do. This reduces the need for expensive artificialfertilisers. By selling this natural fertiliser additional income for the plant canbe obtained.

    Local benefits:

    • Better control of the waste from fruit juice processing organic waste meansless pollution of local environment and water sources.

    • Removal of chemical fertilisers from the fields and recirculation of nutrients.

    • Local power plants contribute to creating permanent local jobs in the area.

    On a global additional, replacing fossil fuels to biogas reduces emissions of CO2. Atthe same time, the emission of methane, a greenhouse gas that is 20 times more aggressivethan CO2 is reduced due to controlled anaerobic digestion.

     

  • 143.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Decline, Crisis and Turnaround in the Swedish School Market:: the case of a school that has come through2013In: Creativity and Innovation in Educational Research, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    he principles of New Public Management (Adcroft & Willis, 2005, Deifenbach, 2008) have inspired educational reforms in Sweden during the last 20 years with the introduction of a large array of reforms: educational standards, national assessments, new grading system, accountability, vouchers, independent schools, school inspectorate (Allodi, in press, NAE, 2013). One of the assumptions is that the schools will perform better if they are exposed to concurrence from other schools, through the parents’ free choice of school. The system requires therefore that inspectorate reports and various measures of school performance are made publicly available. Measures of students’ achievements, grades, qualification rates, are included in the accountability system, while measures of school performance on other shared educational goals, as inclusiveness, fairness and equity, are usually not considered.  It is inevitable that some schools will be identified as low performers, or as performing less well than expected - in models that take account of school composition. The models employed in the Swedish school accountability system, however, do not take account of students with special educational needs and/or disabilities. Schools that recruit large numbers of disadvantaged students or that recruit students with special educational needs from the whole districts to special units, risk getting lower results than expected, may get consequently a bad reputation and eventually smaller numbers of students, which may conduce to economic trouble and budget cuts. Schools like these may be penalized and risk ending up in a situation of demoralization and crisis (Allodi, in press).The school’s organizational climate has been identified as a factor that influences school performance and students’ well being and results (Rutter & Maughan, 2002; Leithwood, 2011). The aim of the intervention program Social climate participation and learning was to sustain changes in the schools’ organizational climate, by mean of activities for the staff as workshops, evaluations and planning, in collaboration with a researcher. The broad theoretical framework of the intervention includes theories of learning environments, universal human needs and values (Allodi, 2007, 2010 a, 2010b, Schwartz, 1995), organizational  learning and change (Mintzberg, 1983, Senge, 1995, Kaplan , 2007). The changes were expected to make the school more equitable and inclusive, increasing the number of students that were qualified to secondary education, and also to raise the average qualification value of the students and their well-being. Pinehill school was one of the two schools that participated in the program. Pinehill school is a junior public high school with about 300 students located in a suburban municipality, in a neighborhood of about 16 thousand inhabitants. The employment rate in the area is about 84 % and 17 % of the population have an immigrant background. Pinehill school has a district commissioned special unit for students with special educational needs. The situation of the school at the beginning and some of the development and changes that occurred and were manifested at Pinehill school during three years are described and analyzed in this paper.

    The study is a case study of a school participating in a program aimed to change the school's organizational climate and performance. The school was recruited through the person in charge for development in the district, who identified it as a school in decline, a school that needed support to start a change. The principals, the teachers, the students and their parents were informed about the program and could avoid participating. The design of the program was approved by the regional ethical committee. The program adopted an approach that combined elements of research diffusion development and evidence-based practices. The key principles were: information on theories and research on social climate and supportive relationships in learning environments, evaluations of students’ experiences, reflection and analysis, flexible adaptations to local issues, long-term, sustainable development. The study has a mixed methods approach (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2010) and analyzes the data collected within the school during a three-year period. The data about the school organization and performance was collected through teacher surveys (organizational climate) student surveys (school climate) participation to meetings and workshops, and includes documents, reports, available official school statistics from the NAE, and the Swedish School Inspectorate.When the program started in Autumn 2009, Pine Hill school was in decline. After a period the crisis accentuated due to internal and external factors. Several developments and changes were introduced in the school organization during the following years. Pine Hill made a turnaround: the school has the best average qualification value among the municipal schools in the district and has consistently reduced the achievement gap between girls and boys. The students have better perceptions of the social climate (creativity, safety, helpfulness, participation and influence). At Pine Hill all the subjects are considered important and the esthetic-practical activities are highly valued. The students' number has increased, which make it possible to recruit new teachers. The mission of inclusive education and participation is important for the staff and they are involved in several new research projects. Besides the special unit for students with special educational needs Pine Hill plans to give place to recently immigrated students, a new commission from the school district. Nevertheless, a recent report of the Inspectorate found reason to yet give criticism to several aspects of the school functioning. The changes and development are analyzed and related to research and theories of organizational change.

  • 144.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Simple-minded accountability measures create failure schools in disadvantaged contexts: a case study of a Swedish junior high school2013In: Policy Futures in Education, ISSN 1478-2103, Vol. 11, no 4, 331-363 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The principles of new public management – market mechanisms, accountability and standards – have been applied in the education system. These methods are supposed to increase efficiency, but there is also a risk of negative consequences from the services provided if the measures of performance target a reduced range of goals, ignore relevant variables or are not valid measures. Indicators used to compare schools’ performance are aggregate measures, such as the percentage of students who have access to secondary education and the average qualification value. This study reports how accountability policy and procedures may affect the functioning of the education system through the case study of a school serving a diverse student population. The school organisation was influenced by measures of performance, external events and contextual and selection variables. The average qualification value measure seems to be a limited measure of performance at the school level, since it largely reflects school composition and school segregation. Even the available performance measures adjusted for background variables do not take account of relevant variables that may influence the school’s need of resources and its results, such as students’ language proficiency and special educational needs. Other performances that are not easily measured – such as the prevention of dropout, improvement of school attendance and provision of an equitable education for all students – are disregarded. Schools serving those students with the most needs risk being penalised by an approximate and restricted range of accountability systems because there is a risk that the schools will appear to be failing when they are working with more complex and advanced tasks than average schools. Based on these inaccurate performance measurements, the school may be targeted with wide-ranging, severe and basically unjust interventions.

  • 145.
    Allouh, Ahmad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Maurer, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Walker, Fiona
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Wilcox Gwynne, Rebecca Heather
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Designing a Socially Sustainable Impact Sourcing Model for Integrating Immigrants in Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research proposes a socially sustainable impact sourcing model (SSISM), pertinent to the field of socially responsible outsourcing and offers recommendations for integrating immigrants in Sweden by using this model. The model brings businesses, communities and people together to create benefits for all stakeholders in a sustainable way.

     

    Sweden has a long history of accepting immigrants, yet, has a comparably low success rate of integrating non-Swedish people into society. If SSISM is applied in Sweden, there is a potential for businesses to save money, for challenges like the integration problem to be mitigated, and for communities to benefit from an increased tax base as well as building stronger, more diverse communities.

     

    The universal model for SSISM was developed through the analysis of existing practices and the use of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD), a sustainability planning tool. The research process included informal interviews with businesses, communities and government agencies, formal interviews with businesses, and a survey with immigrants. The interviews and survey helped maintain relevance to the Swedish context and identified potential obstacles and enablers for implementation. From the results, recommendations on how to best apply the model for integrating immigrants into Sweden were developed in the discussion.

  • 146.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Ahlsén, Elisabeth
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Multimodal Intercultural Interaction and Communication Technology: A conceptual framework for designing and evaluating Multimodal Intercultural Communicators2009In: Multimodal Corpora, Springer , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 147.
    Alm, Håkan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    External relations in the product development process: a study of biotechnology firms in Sweden2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to investigate how and why firms use external relations and collaboration in the innovation process. These issues are discussed at both industry and firm levels. Both transaction cost economics and evolutionary/competence-based theories of the firm have been used and combined in order to understand and explain how and why external relations and collaboration are related to product development processes. These issues are rooted in the broader question concerning what determines the boundaries of firms. The empirical case material focuses on biotechnology-related human health care in Sweden.

    The empirical part of this study starts with a mapping of Swedish-based biotechnology firms involved in R&D. A database (BioSweden) was built in order to identify these firms' patterns of external relations. These patterns and fmdings are then related to a theoretical discussion about whether different types of firms develop different paths and patterns of external relations depending on differences in characteristics in technology and markets.

    These issues have also been investigated at the firm level, using a multiple-case study of 15 biotechnology firms. In this part the firms' origin and development over time are studied in order to shed more light onto how and why product development processes are related to in-house R&D and different types of external relations.

    The findings indicate that choices about governance modes related to product development are influenced by internal capabilities, resources, and competencies as well as technological and markets characteristics. It has also been shown that such choices are strongly influenced by firms' capabilities to interact with other organizations.

  • 148.
    Alm, Maria
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nationell kraft och lokal motkraft: En diskursanalys av konflikten kring SwePol Link2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Facility siting conflicts are increasing in our society. This is a study of a HVDC-link between Blekinge, Sweden and Slupsk, Poland called The SwePol Link. This link has transferred electricity between the two electricity systems since the year 2000 and the decision making process can be described as a struggle between conflicting interests. The aim of this study is to investigate where in the decision making process conflicting interests become visible, and how the actors involved have acted and argued in order to try to influence the process to benefit their respective causes. This aim is further developed through a discourse analysis of the variety of arguments, ideas and conceptions that in different situations of the process construct patterns and statements. The purpose of the discourse analysis is to identify and categorize patterns and statements that are expressed in three chosen practices; the concession practice, the court practice and the practice concerning the debate articles and editorials published in Blekinge Läns Tidning during the period 1996-2000. This practice is referred to as the mass media practice in the study. It is clear that the conflict deepens and that the system-builders and critical actors (including Blekinge Läns Tidning) started to distrust each other and their respective ways of acting during the process. Both supporters and critics used scientific and juridical enrolments in order to try to strengthen their positions in the conflict. Both scientifically and juridically formulated arguments were central patterns in the discourse. This was also the case with technically formulated arguments. These patterns of arguments were mainly expressed through academics, or experts, for or against the system and might thereby be looked upon as rather exclusive ways of arguing in the practices. One exception from this was, for example, when fishers argued against different scientific results on the basis of their experiences. This was, however, not a very successful way of criticizing scientific results. The study shows that there, for example, were conflicts around the meaning of a sustainable energy system, where a central system-builder pattern meets a peripheral systemcritical pattern and both sides held themselves as arguing for a sustainable energy system. Another result of the study is that the discourse varied depending on which practice it was expressed in. It became clear that holistic perspectives regarding a sustainable energy system or the landscape as such became peripheral in all of the “formal” practices, where the decisions regarding the system took place. These types of holistic patterns were mainly articulated in other practices like the mass media.

  • 149.
    Alm, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Att våga försöka är en bra början!2007In: Att forska på tvären- Erfarenheter från 10 år av tvärvetenskap inom forskarskolan Program Energisystem / [ed] Jenny Palm, Magnus Karlsson, Linköping: Program Energisystem , 2007, 25-28 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Alm, Maria
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    Beroende, tillit och entreprenörer i nätverksbygganden - regionala krishanteringsråd i Kalmar och Östergötlands län2007In: XVI Nordiska kommunforskarkonferensen,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

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