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  • 1. Abraham, Arpad
    et al.
    Koehne, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Pavoni, Nicola
    On the first-order approach in principal agent models with hidden borrowing and lending2011In: Journal of Economic Theory, ISSN 0022-0531, E-ISSN 1095-7235, Vol. 146, no 4, p. 1331-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide sufficient conditions for the validity of the first-order approach for two-period dynamic moral hazard problems where the agent can save and borrow secretly. The first-order approach is valid if the following conditions hold: (i) the agent has non-increasing absolute risk aversion utility (NIARA), (ii) the output technology has monotone likelihood ratios (MLR), and (iii) the distribution function of output is log-convex in effort (LCDF). Moreover, under these three conditions, the optimal contract is monotone in output. We also investigate a few possibilities of relaxing these requirements.

  • 2. Abraham, Arpad
    et al.
    Koehne, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. CESifo, Germany.
    Pavoni, Nicola
    Optimal income taxation when asset taxation is limited2016In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 136, p. 14-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several frictions restrict the government's ability to tax assets. First, it is very costly to monitor trades on international asset markets. Second, agents can resort to nonobservable low-return assets such as cash, gold or foreign currencies if taxes on observable assets become too high. This paper shows that limitations in asset taxation have important consequences for the taxation of labor income. We study a simple dynamic moral hazard model of social insurance with observable and nonobservable saving decisions. We find that optimal labor income taxes become less progressive when the ability to tax savings is limited.

  • 3. Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    Aghion, Philippe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Bursztyn, Leonardo
    Hemous, David
    The Environment and Directed Technical Change2012In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 131-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces endogenous and directed technical change in a growth model with environmental constraints. The final good is produced from dirty and clean inputs. We show that: (i) when inputs are sufficiently substitutable, sustainable growth can be achieved with temporary taxes/subsidies that redirect innovation toward clean inputs; (ii) optimal policy involves both carbon taxes and research subsidies, avoiding excessive use of carbon taxes; (iii) delay in intervention is costly, as it later necessitates a longer transition phase with slow growth; and (iv) use of an exhaustible resource in dirty input production helps the switch to clean innovation under laissez-faire.

  • 4.
    Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    MIT.
    Aghion, Philippe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Bursztyn, Leonardo
    Harvard.
    Hemous, David
    Harvard.
    The Environment and Directed Technical Change2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces endogenous and directed technical change in a growth model with environmental constraints. A unique final good is produced by combining inputs from two sectors. One of these sectors uses “dirty” machines and thus creates environmental degradation. Research can be directed to improving the technology of machines in either sector. We characterize dynamic tax policies that achieve sustainable growth or maximize intertemporal welfare. We show that: (i) in the case where the inputs are sufficiently substitutable, sustainable long-run growth can be achieved with temporary taxation of dirty innovation and production; (ii) optimal policy involves both “carbon taxes” and research subsidies, so that excessive use of carbon taxes is avoided; (iii) delay in intervention is costly: the sooner and the stronger is the policy response, the shorter is the growth transition phase; (iv) the use of an exhaustible resource in dirty input production helps the switch to clean innovation under laissez-faire when the two inputs are substitutes. Under reasonable parameter values and with sufficient substitutability between inputs, it is optimal to redirect technical change towards clean technologies immediately and optimal environmental regulation need not reduce long-run growth.

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  • 5.
    Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    MIT Department of Economics.
    Aghion, Philippe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Griffith, Rachel
    UCL.
    Zilibotti, Fabrizio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Vertical Integration and Technology: Theory and Evidence2010In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 989-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    Aghion, Philippe
    Lelarge, Claire
    Van Reenen, John
    Zilibotti, Fabrizio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Technology, Information, and the Decentralization of the Firm2007In: Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 122, no 4, p. 1759-1799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the diffusion of new technologies and the decentralization of firms. Centralized control relies on the information of the principal, which we equate with publicly available information. Decentralized control, on the other hand, delegates authority to a manager with superior information. However, the manager can use his informational advantage to make choices that are not in the best interest of the principal. As the available public information about the specific technology increases, the tradeoff shifts in favor of centralization. We show that firms closer to the technological frontier, firms in more heterogeneous environments, and younger firms are more likely to choose decentralization. Using three data sets on French and British firms in the 1990s, we report robust correlations consistent with these predictions.

  • 7.
    Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    Masachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Zilibotti, Fabrizio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Information Accumulation in Development1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a model in which economic relations and intritutions in advanced and less developed countries differ as these societies have access to different amounts of information. The lack of information in less developed economies makes it hard to evaluate the performance of manager, and leads to high "agency costs". Differences in the amount of information have a variety of sources. As well as factors related to the informational infrastructure, we emphasize that societies accumulate information partly because the scarcity of capital restricts the repetition of various activities. Two implications of our model are: (i) as an economy develops and generates more information, it achieves better risk-sharing at a given level of effort, but because agents are exerting more effort and the types of activities are changing, the overall level of risk-sharing may decline; (ii) with development, the share of financial intermediation carried out through market institutions should increase.

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  • 8.
    Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Zilibotti, Fabrizio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Productivity Differences1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many technologies used by the LDCs are developed in the OECD economies, and as such, are designed to make optimal use of the skills of these richer countries' workforces. Due to differences in the supply of skills, some of the tasks performed by skilled workers in the OECD economies will be carried out by unskilled workers in the LDCs. Since the technologies in these tasks are designed to be used by skilled workers, productivity in the LDCs will be low. Even when all countries have equal access to new technologies, this mismatch between skills and technology can lead to sizable differences in total factor productivity and output per worker. Our theory also suggests that productivity differences should be highest in medium-tech sectors, and that the trade regime and the degree of intellectual property right enforcement in the LDCs have an important effect on the direction of technical change and on productivity differences.

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  • 9. Adolfson, Malin
    et al.
    Laseen, Stefan
    Linde, Jesper
    Svensson, Lars E. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden; NBER, United States.
    Monetary policy trade-offs in an estimated open-economy DSGE model2014In: Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, ISSN 0165-1889, E-ISSN 1879-1743, Vol. 42, p. 33-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the trade-offs between stabilizing CPI inflation and alternative measures of the output gap in Ramses, the Riksbank's estimated dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model of a small open economy. Our main finding is that the trade-off between stabilizing CPI inflation and the output gap strongly depends on which concept of potential output in the output gap between output and potential output is used in the loss function. If potential output is defined as a smooth trend this trade-off is much more pronounced compared to the case when potential output is defined as the output level that would prevail if prices and wages were flexible.

  • 10. Adolfson, Malin
    et al.
    Laséen, Stefan
    Lindé, Jesper
    Svensson, Lars E. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Optimal Money Policy in an Operational Medium-Sized DSGE Model2011In: Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, ISSN 0022-2879, E-ISSN 1538-4616, Vol. 43, p. 1287-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show how to construct optimal policy projections in Ramses, the Riksbank's open-economy medium-sized dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model for forecasting and policy analysis. Bayesian estimation of the parameters of the model indicates that they are relatively invariant to alternative policy assumptions and supports our view that the model parameters may be regarded as unaffected by the monetary policy specification. We discuss how monetary policy, and in particular the choice of output gap measure, affects the transmission of shocks. Finally, we use the model to assess the recent Great Recession in the world economy and how its impact on the economic development in Sweden depends on the conduct of monetary policy. This provides an illustration on how Rames incoporates large international spillover effects.

  • 11.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Fiscal Policy when Monetary Policy is Tied to the Mast1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses the time inconsistency problem of both exchange rate and fiscal policy in a small open economy. The equilibrium under discretion is characterised by inflation and a deficit. Commitment of the exchange-rate instrument only, e.g., through membership in a European monetary union with low inflation, contributes to price stability but increases the deficit. Whether the government will prefer this outcome to the discretionary one depends on the structure of the economy: commitment appears more favourable, the more open is the economy. The time-consistency arguments strengthen the case for simultaneous commitment of monetary and fiscal policy for inflation-prone countries joining a monetary union.

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  • 12.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Dillén, Mats
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Macroeconomic Externalities: Are Pigovian Taxes the Answer?1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Basic welfare economics tells us that many types of externalities can be remedied by proper use of corrective taxes and subsidies. This paper shows that this notion also extends to the macroeconomic externalities discussed in recent Keynesian literature on nominal price rigidities. The derived policy rules are lindred in spirit to standard Keynesian policy prescriptions: Progressive income taxes may serve a useful role in combating wasteful economic fluctuations. However, unlike older fix-price models of automatic stabilizers, progressive taxes work in our monopolistic economy because they directly affect the pricing mechanism.

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  • 13.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Lommerud, Kjell Erik
    Department of Economics, University of Bergen.
    Egalitarianism and Growth1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Are competitive wage premia an obstacle to growth? The answer of the architects of the Scandinavian "model" in the 1950s and 60s was in the affirmative: By punishing expansive and growth enhancing sectors of the economy competitive wage premia put an unwarranted drag on the rate of structural change. We formalize this intuition using a two sector endogenous growth model, considering both open and closed economy cases. We also show that egalitarian pay compression, combined with active labor market policies, works exactly in the same way as an industrial policy of subsidizing sunrise industries.

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  • 14.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Lundborg, Per
    Industrial Institute for Economic and Social Research.
    Wage Fairness and International Trade Theory and Policy1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We show how an extended theory of fair wages, in which workers also care about the functional distribution of income, can be incorporated in the two-by-two Heckscher-Ohlin model. An important feature of the model is the existence of involuntary unemployment. Several results stand out. First, there is no longer a simple relation between measures of factor abundance and trade patterns. First, there is no longer a simple relation between measures of factor abundance and trade patterns. Second, factor-price equalization will generally not occur. Third, differences in social norms explain why terms of trade shocks produce nonuniform adjustments in real wages and unemployment across otherwise similar countries. Fourth, losses from trade may occur. Finally, in countries where fairness considerations are important, tariffs may increase overall employment.

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  • 15.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Asset Markets, Tax Arbitrage, and the Redistributive Properties of Progressive Income Taxation1988Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly believed that tax arbitrage is anti-egalitarian. The present paper shows that this is not necessarily true; tax arbitrage might actually reduce inequality as well as increase efficiency. It is also shown that the introduction of tax arbitrage will linearize the tax system. Thus complicated, non-linear tax scedules in the spirit of Mirrlees (1971) cannot be sustained.

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  • 16.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Does Debt Management Matter?1989Report (Other academic)
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  • 17.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    On the Analytics of the Dynamic Laffer Curve2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze government budget balance within a simple model of endogenous growth. For the AK model, simple analytical conditions for a tax cut to be self-financing can be derived. The critical variable is not the tax rate per se, but the "transfer-adjusted tax rate". We discuss some conceptual issues in dynamic revenue analysis, and we explain why previous studies have arrived at seemingly contradictory results. Finally, we perform an empirical study of the transfer-adjusted tax rates of the OECD countries to see which country has the highest potential for fiscal improvements; it turns out that only a few countries have any potential for such "dynamic scoring".

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  • 18.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Tax Arbitrage and Labor Supply1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how tax avoidance in the form of trade in well-functioning asset markets affects the basic labor supply model. We show that tax arbitrage has potentially dramatic implications for positive, normative and econometric analysis of how taxes affect work incentives.

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  • 19.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Sacklén, Hans
    Trade Union Institute for Economic Research.
    Labor Supply Prediction when Tax Avoidance Matters1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how tax avoidance in the form of trade in well-functioning asset markets affects the emipircal study of labor supply. We discuss the implications for tax policy analysis, and we show that a failure to account for avoidance responses may lead to huge errors when predicting how tax reform affects labor supply, tax revenue, and the welfare cost of taxation. in conclusion we argue that our model may explain a number of otherwise hard to understand dimensions of tax payer response.

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  • 20. Aggeborn, Linuz
    et al.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Håfström Dehdari, Sirus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Granting Immigrants the Right to Vote in National Elections: Empirical Evidence from Swedish Administrative Data2024In: British Journal of Political Science, ISSN 0007-1234, E-ISSN 1469-2112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with rising levels of cross-border migration, many countries have extended local voting rights to non-citizen residents. However, empirical evidence indicates that voter turnout among non-naturalized immigrants is lower when compared to citizens. This raises the question of how to explain this difference. A common answer is that the low turnout rates of non-citizen residents are primarily due to the socio-economic composition of this group and the challenges involved in adapting to a new political system. An alternative but less discussed possibility is that the low turnout concerns the nature of the elections. Hence, we examine whether the turnout of non-citizens is hampered because they are only allowed to partake in local elections. Based on a regression discontinuity design (RDD) using Swedish administrative data, we find that turnout could increase by 10-20 percentage points if the voting rights of non-citizens were extended to the national level.

  • 21.
    Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Algan, Yann
    Sciences Po.
    Cahuc, Pierre
    Ecole Polytechnique.
    Civil Society and the State: The Interplay between Cooperation and Minimum Wage Regulation2011In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 3-42Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Algan, Yann
    Department of Economics, Sciences Po.
    Cahuc, Pierre
    Ecole Polytechnique.
    Schleifer, Andrei
    Harvard Economics Department.
    Regulation and Distrust2010In: Quarterly Journal of Economics, ISSN 0033-5533, E-ISSN 1531-4650, Vol. 125, no 3, p. 1015-1049Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Bergeaud, Antonin
    Boppart, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Bunel, Simon
    Firm Dynamics and Growth Measurement in France2018In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 933-956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we use the same methodology as Aghion et al. (2017a) to compute missing growth estimates from creative destruction in France. We find that from 2004 to 2015, about 0.5 percentage point of real output growth per year is missed by the statistical office, which is about the same as what was found in the United States. We look at how missing growth varies across French sectors and regions, and we look at the underlying establishment and firm dynamics. In particular we show that the similar missing growth estimates between France and the United States hide noticeable differences in plant dynamics between the two countries.

  • 24. Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Bergeaud, Antonin
    Boppart, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Klenow, Peter J.
    Li, Huiyu
    A Theory of Falling Growth and Rising Rents2023In: The Review of Economic Studies, ISSN 0034-6527, E-ISSN 1467-937X, Vol. 90, no 6, p. 2675-2702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth has fallen in the U.S. amid a rise in firm concentration. Market share has shifted to low labour share firms, while within-firm labour shares have actually risen. We propose a theory linking these trends in which the driving force is falling overhead costs of spanning multiple products or a rising efficiency advantage of large firms. In response, the most efficient firms (with higher markups) spread into new product lines, thereby increasing concentration and generating a temporary burst of growth. Eventually, due to greater competition from efficient firms, within-firm markups and incentives to innovate fall. Thus our simple model can generate qualitative patterns in line with the observed trends. 

  • 25. Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Bergeaud, Antonin
    Boppart, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Klenow, Peter J.
    Li, Huiyu
    Missing Growth from Creative Destruction2019In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 109, no 8, p. 2795-2822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For exiting products, statistical agencies often impute inflation from surviving products. This understates growth if creatively-destroyed products improve more than surviving ones. If so, then the market share of surviving products should systematically shrink. Using entering and exiting establishments to proxy for creative destruction, we estimate missing growth in US Census data on non farm businesses from 1983 to 2013. We find missing growth (i) equaled about one-half a percentage point per year; (ii) arose mostly from hotels and restaurants rather than manufacturing; and (iii) did not accelerate much after 2005, and therefore does not explain the sharp slowdown in growth since then.

  • 26.
    Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Dewatripont, Mathias
    ECARES, Free U Brussels.
    Kolev, Julian
    Harvard University.
    Murray, Fiona
    MIT.
    Stern, Scott
    Northwestern University.
    The Public and Private Sectors in the Process of Innovation: Theory and Evidence from the Mouse Genetics Revolution2010In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 153-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Holden, Richard
    University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
    Incomplete Contracts and the Theory of the Firm: What Have We Learned over the Past 25 Years?2011In: Journal of Economic Perspectives, ISSN 0895-3309, E-ISSN 1944-7965, Vol. 25, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Jaravel, Xavier
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. CIFAR, Canada.
    Rouzet, Dorothée
    Education and Military Rivalry2019In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 376-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What makes countries engage in reforms of mass education? Motivated by historical evidence on the relation between military threats and expansions of primary education, we assemble a panel dataset from the last 150 years in European countries and from the postwar period in a large set of countries. We uncover three stylized facts: (i) investments in education are associated with military threats, (ii) democratic institutions are negatively correlated with education investments, and (iii) education investments respond more strongly to military threats in democracies. These patterns continue to hold when we exploit rivalries in a country's neighborhood as an alternative source of variation. We develop a theoretical model that rationalizes the three empirical findings. The model has an additional prediction about investments in physical infrastructures, which finds support in the data.

  • 29. Ahlquist, John S.
    et al.
    Downey, Mitch
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    The Effects of Import Competition on Unionization2023In: American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, ISSN 1945-7731, E-ISSN 1945-774X, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 359-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study direct and indirect effects of Chinese import competition on union membership in the United States, 1990–2014. Import competition in manufacturing induced a modest decline in unionization within manufacturing industries. The magnitude is small because unionized manufacturers competed in higher-quality product segments. Manufacturers in right-to-work states experienced more direct competition with low-quality Chinese imports. Outside of manufacturing, however, import competition causes an important increase in union membership, as less educated women shift away from retail and toward jobs in health care and education where unions are stronger. We calculate that Chinese imports prevented 26 percent of the union density decline that would have otherwise occurred.

  • 30. Alder, Simon
    et al.
    Boppart, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. University of St. Gallen, Switzerland; CEPR, England.
    Müller, Andreas
    A Theory of Structural Change That Can Fit the Data2022In: American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, ISSN 1945-7707, E-ISSN 1945-7715, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 160-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study structural change in the historical consumption expenditure of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia over more than a century. We characterize the most general class of preferences in a time-additive setting that admits aggregation of the saving decision and allows us to identify preference parameters from aggregate data. We parameterize and estimate such intertemporally aggregable (IA) preferences and discuss their properties in a dynamic general equilibrium framework with sustained growth. Our preference class is considerably more flexible than the Gorman form or PIGL, giving rise to a good fit of the non-monotonic pattern of structural change.

  • 31. Allakulov, Umrbek
    et al.
    Cocciolo, Serena
    Das, Binayak
    Habib, Md Ahasan
    Rambjer, Lovisa
    Tompsett, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Transparency, governance, and water and sanitation: Experimental evidence from schools in rural Bangladesh2023In: Journal of Development Economics, ISSN 0304-3878, E-ISSN 1872-6089, Vol. 163, article id 103082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can transparency interventions improve WASH service provision? We use a randomized experiment to evaluate the impacts of a transparency intervention, a deliberative multi-stakeholder workshop initiated with a community scorecard exercise, in schools in rural Bangladesh. To measure impacts, we combine survey data, direct observations, and administrative data. The intervention leads to moderate but consistent improvements in knowledge of WASH standards and practices, and institutions for WASH service management, but does not improve school WASH service provision or change WASH facility use patterns. Drawing on rich descriptive data, we suggest several reasons why the intervention we evaluate did not improve WASH service outcomes and propose ways to improve the design of future interventions.

  • 32. Almas, Ingvild
    et al.
    Bold, Tessa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    von Carnap, Tillmann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Ghisolfi, Selene
    Sandefur, Justin
    The macroeconomics of pandemics around the world: Lives versus livelihoods revisited2023In: Journal of Development Economics, ISSN 0304-3878, E-ISSN 1872-6089, Vol. 163, article id 103099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic led governments around the world to impose unprecedented restrictions on economic activity. Were these restrictions equally justified in poorer countries with fewer demographic risk factors and less ability to weather economic shocks? We develop and estimate a fully specified model of the macroeconomy with epidemiological dynamics, incorporating subsistence constraints in consumption and allowing preferences over lives versus livelihoodsto vary with income. Poorer countries' demography pushes them unambiguously toward laxer policies. But because both infected and susceptible agents near the subsistence constraint will remain economically active in the face of infection risk and even to some extent under government containment policies, optimal policy in poorer countries pushes in the opposite direction. Moreover, for reasonable income -elasticities of the value of a statistical life, the model can fully rationalize equally strict or stricter policies in poorer countries.

  • 33.
    Almas, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Cappelen, Alexander W.
    Salvanes, Kjell G.
    Sørensen, Erik Ø.
    Tungodden, Bertil
    Willingness to Compete: Family Matters2016In: Management science, ISSN 0025-1909, E-ISSN 1526-5501, Vol. 62, no 8, p. 2149-2162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the role of family background in explaining differences in the willingness to compete in a cognitive task. By combining data from a lab experiment conducted with a fairly representative sample of adolescents in Norway and high-quality register data on family background, we show that family background is fundamental in two important ways. First, boys from low socioeconomic status families are less willing to compete than boys from better-off families, even when controlling for confidence, performance, risk preferences, time preferences, social preferences, and psychological traits. Second, family background is crucial for understanding the large gender difference in the willingness to compete. Girls are much less willing to compete than boys among children from better-off families, whereas we do not find any gender difference in willingness to compete among children from low socioeconomic status families. Our data suggest that the main explanation of the role of family background is that the father's socioeconomic status is strongly associated with boys' willingness to compete. We do not find any association between the willingness to compete for boys or girls and the mother's socioeconomic status or other family characteristic that may potentially shape competition preferences, including parental equality and sibling rivalry.

  • 34.
    Almgren, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Essays on Home Production, Mobility, and Monetary Policy2023Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Allocation of Expenditures and Time over Time

    In the year 2018, the average high skilled single male worked more than 35 hours per week in the market and allocated more than 70 percent of expenditures to services. In the same year, the average low skilled female worked 22 hours per week in the market and allocated around 65 percent of expenditures to services. What might explain these differences at that point in time, and how they have developed over time? In this paper, I compile and analyze data related to time-use and the allocation of expenditures. The dataset that I compile is customized to fit the needs of my companion paper, Home Production, Expenditures, and Time Use, in which I propose and test a theory that includes home production.

    Home Production, Expenditures, and Time Use

    I propose a unified analysis of expenditures and time use, via a model in which households can produce services at home. I show that the model, which uses stable homothetic preferences and standard functional forms for home production, can match data for the U.S. about expenditures and time-use, both in the cross-section and the developments over time. For women, changes in social norms were important. Absent changes in social norms, the developments would have been vastly different, both in terms of how they allocated their time and in terms of how expenditures were allocated.

    It Runs in the Family: Occupational Choice and the Allocation of Talent

    Children frequently grow up to work in the same jobs as their parents. Using unique data on worker skills and personality traits, and administrative data on the labor market outcomes of Swedish men, we study how skills and parental background influence occupational choice, intergenerational mobility, and the allocation of talent in the economy. First, we document that sons are disproportionately more likely to follow into the same occupation as their fathers, across all skills and earnings levels. Second, we estimate a general equilibrium Roy model with costly occupational choice and heterogeneous entry barriers depending on parental background. We find that these entry barriers lead to misallocation: Equalizing entry costs across workers leads occupational following to fall by half. This leads to increased intergenerational mobility, with the largest income gains among sons of fathers in the bottom income decile. Third, exploiting structural change in employment in fathers' occupations, difference-in-differences estimates imply that occupational following leads to reduced earnings, concentrated among sons of low-income fathers and those whose skills are misaligned with those of incumbents in their father’s occupation.  Our findings suggest that equalizing career opportunities bring equity gains.

    Monetary Policy and Liquidity Constraints: Evidence from the Euro Area

    We quantify the relationship between the response of output to monetary policy shocks and the share of liquidity constrained households. We do so in the context of the euro area, using a Local Projections Instrumental Variables estimation. We construct an instrument for changes in interest rates from changes in overnight indexed swap rates in a narrow time window around ECB announcements. Monetary policy shocks have heterogeneous effects on output across countries. Using micro data, we show that the elasticity of output to monetary policy shocks is larger in countries that have a larger fraction of households that are liquidity constrained.

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  • 35.
    Almgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Gallegos, José-Elías
    Kramer, John
    Lima, Ricardo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Monetary Policy and Liquidity Constraints: Evidence from the Euro Area2022In: American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, ISSN 1945-7707, E-ISSN 1945-7715, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 309-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We quantify the relationship between the response of output to monetary policy shocks and the share of liquidity-constrained households. We do so in the context of the euro area, using a Local Projections Instrumental Variables estimation. We construct an instrument for changes in interest rates from changes in overnight indexed swap rates in a narrow time window around ECB announcements. Monetary policy shocks have heterogeneous effects on output across countries. Using micro data, we show that the elasticity of output to monetary policy shocks is larger in countries that have a larger fraction of households that are liquidity constrained.

  • 36. Almond, Douglas
    et al.
    Currie, Janet
    Simeonova, Emilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Public vs. private provision of charity care?: Evidence from the expiration of Hill-Burton requirements in Florida2011In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 189-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the consequences of the expiration of charity care requirements imposed on private hospitals by the Hill-Burton Act. We examine delivery care and the health of newborns using the universe of Florida births from 1989 to 2003 combined with hospital data from the American Hospital Association. We find that charity care requirements were binding on hospitals, but that private hospitals under obligation cream skimmed the least risky maternity patients. Conditional on patient characteristics, they provided less intensive maternity services but without compromising patient health. When obligations expired, private hospitals quickly reduced their charity caseloads, shifting maternity patients to public hospitals. The results in this paper suggest, perhaps surprisingly, that requiring private providers to serve the underinsured can be effective.

  • 37.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Attanasio, Orazio
    Jalan, Jyotsna
    Oteiza, Francisco
    Vigneri, Marcella
    Using data differently and using different data2018In: Journal of Development Effectiveness, ISSN 1943-9342, E-ISSN 1943-9407, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 462-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of adequate measures is often an impediment to robust policy evaluation. We discuss three approaches to measurement and data usage that have the potential to improve the way we conduct impact evaluations. First, the creation of new measures, when no adequate ones are available. Second, the use of multiple measures when a single one is not appropriate. And third, the use of machine learning algorithms to evaluate and understand programme impacts. We motivate the relevance of each of the categories by providing examples where they have proved useful in the past. We discuss the challenges and risks involved in each strategy and conclude with an outline of promising directions for future work.

  • 38.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Auglaend Johnsen, Ashild
    The cost of a growth miracle - reassessing price and poverty trends in China2018In: Review of economic dynamics, ISSN 1094-2025, E-ISSN 1096-6099, Vol. 30, p. 239-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China's economic development in recent decades has been tremendous, but also subject to debate. This paper uses Engel curves to identify price levels and real incomes that are comparable across both time and space. Based on these, new poverty trends are presented. We find that the urban and coastal areas that have experienced the fastest economic development have also seen smaller price increases than the poorer rural and inland areas. Our measures reveal that China has experienced substantial poverty reduction in a time with high economic growth, but compared to both the World Bank measures and those based on official CPI adjustments, our measures suggest a more moderate poverty reduction. Our findings imply that poverty was reduced by 40 and not 66 percent using the $1 dollar a day measure.

  • 39.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Norwegian School of Economics.
    Cappelen, Alexander
    Haaland, Inger
    Tungodden, Bertil
    Rettferdig ulikhet2015In: Magma - Tidsskrift for økonomi og ledelse, ISSN 1500-0788, E-ISSN 1500-6069, Vol. 6, p. 38-43Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. NHH Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Cappelen, Alexander W.
    Salvanes, Kjell G.
    Sorensen, Erik O.
    Tungodden, Bertil
    What Explains the Gender Gap in College Track Dropout? Experimental and Administrative Evidence2016In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 106, no 5, p. 296-302Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Cappelen, Alexander W.
    Salvanes, Kjell G.
    Sørensen, Erik Ø.
    Tungodden, Bertil
    Fairness and family background2017In: Politics, Philosophy and Economics, ISSN 1470-594X, E-ISSN 1741-3060, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 117-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fairness preferences fundamentally affect individual behavior and play an important role in shaping social and political institutions. However, people differ both with respect to what they view as fair and with respect to how much weight they attach to fairness considerations. In this article, we study the role of family background in explaining these heterogeneities in fairness preferences. In particular, we examine how socioeconomic background relates to fairness views and to how people make trade-offs between fairness and self-interest. To study this, we conducted an economic experiment with a representative sample of 14- to 15-year-old and matched the experimental data to administrative data on parental income and education. The participants made two distributive choices in the experiment. The first choice was to distribute money between themselves and another participant in a situation where there was no difference in merit. The second choice was to distribute money between two other participants with unequal merits. Our main finding is that there is a systematic difference in fairness view between children from low-socioceconomic status (SES) families and the rest of the participants; more than 50 percent of the participants from low-SES families are egalitarians, whereas only about 20 percent in the rest of the sample hold this fairness view. In contrast, we find no significant difference in the weight attached to fairness between children from different socioeconomic groups.

  • 42.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Cappelen, Alexander W.
    Sørensen, Erik Ø.
    Tungodden, Bertil
    Global evidence on the selfish rich inequality hypothesis2022In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 119, no 3, article id e2109690119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a study of whether people believe that the rich are richer than the poor because they have been more selfish in life, using data from more than 26,000 individuals in 60 countries. The findings show a strong belief in the selfish rich inequality hypothesis at the global level; in the majority of countries, the mode is to strongly agree with it. However, we also identify important between- and within-country variation. We find that the belief in selfish rich inequality is much stronger in countries with extensive corruption and weak institutions and less strong among people who are higher in the income distribution in their society. Finally, we show that the belief in selfish rich inequality is predictive of people’s policy views on inequality and redistribution: It is significantly positively associated with agreeing that inequality in their country is unfair, and it is significantly positively associated with agreeing that the government should aim to reduce inequality. These relationships are highly significant both across and within countries and robust to including country-level or individual-level controls and using Lasso-selected regressors. Thus, the data provide compelling evidence of people believing that the rich are richer because they have been more selfish in life and perceiving selfish behavior as creating unfair inequality and justifying equalizing policies.

  • 43.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Cappelen, Alexander W.
    Tungodden, Bertil
    Cutthroat Capitalism versus Cuddly Socialism: Are Americans More Meritocratic and Efficiency-Seeking than Scandinavians?2020In: Journal of Political Economy, ISSN 0022-3808, E-ISSN 1537-534X, Vol. 128, no 5, p. 1753-1788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are striking differences in inequality and redistribution between the United States and Scandinavia. To study whether there are corresponding differences in social preferences, we conducted a large-scale international social preference experiment where Americans and Norwegians make distributive choices in identical environments. Combining the infrastructure of an international online labor market and that of a leading international data collection agency, we show that Americans and Norwegians differ significantly in fairness views, but not in the importance assigned to efficiency. We also provide causal evidence suggesting that fairness considerations are more fundamental for inequality acceptance than efficiency considerations.

  • 44.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Freddi, Eleonora
    Thøgersen, Øystein
    Saving and Bequest in China: An Analysis of Intergenerational Exchange2020In: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 87, no 345, p. 249-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particularly high saving rates among the elderly in both rural and urban China call for an investigation of the involved bequest motive. Utilizing unique survey data from a diverse group of Chinese households, we document that the magnitude of the bequest from parent to child is associated with the level of personal assistance from child to parent. Moreover, we find indicative evidence that both bequest and assistance are increasing in the parent's income and decreasing in the child's income. Comparing with the predictions from a stylized intergenerational model, these findings are consistent with an exchange-based bequest motive. Our findings have potential implications for how public policies and transfer schemes should be designed in order to contribute to the Chinese government objective of increased private consumption. Our results are conditional on the inclusion of housing wealth as part of the bequest, which indicates that transfer of housing is key to understanding the intergenerational assistance and bequest motives, and subsequently the high saving levels among the elderly in China.

  • 45.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. NHH, Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Grewal, Mandeep
    Hvide, Marielle
    Ugurlu, Serhat
    The PPP approach revisited: A study of RMB valuation against the USD2017In: Journal of International Money and Finance, ISSN 0261-5606, E-ISSN 1873-0639, Vol. 77, p. 18-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the alleged undervaluation of the Chinese renminbi against the US dollar through an application of the relative PPP hypothesis, the PPP approach. The PPP approach measures the relative misalignment of a currency by estimating the relationship between log price levels and log per capita real incomes from a cross section of countries. We estimate this relationship by using ICP 2011 and incorporating model selection tests. Our results confirm that price level-real income relationship is best approximated by a quadratic functional form. We show that, using this functional form, the PPP approach does not reveal any evidence of renminbi undervaluation as of 2011, and this result is robust to various sensitivity tests.

  • 46.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Kjelsrud, Anders
    Rags and Riches: Relative Prices, Non-Homothetic Preferences, and Inequality in India2017In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 97, p. 102-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that consumption patterns change with income. Relative price changes would therefore affect rich and poor consumers differently. Yet, the standard price indices are not income-specific, and hence, they cannot account for such differences. In this paper, we study consumption inequality in India, while fully allowing for non-homotheticity. We show that the relative price changes during most of the period from 1993 to 2012 were pro-poor, in the sense that they favored the poor relative to the rich. As a result, we also find that conventional measures significantly overstate the rise in real consumption inequality during this period. The main lesson from our study is the importance of accounting for non-homotheticity when measuring inequality. The price index literature has, as of yet, paid relatively little attention to this. In our application, however, it turns out that the allowance for nonhomotheticity is quantitatively much more important than much discussed adjustments, such as those for substitution in consumption.

  • 47.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Kjelsrud, Anders
    Somanathan, Rohini
    A Behavior-Based Approach to the Estimation of Poverty in India2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 182-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of poverty in India are crucial inputs for the understanding of world poverty, yet there is much disagreement about the numbers and the legitimacy of methods used to derive them. In this paper, we propose and justify an alternative approach to identify the poor, which uses the proportion of income spent on food. Our estimates have weaker data requirements than official methods, and they compare favorably with several validation tests. Most notably, households around our state poverty lines obtain their calories from similar sources, whereas this is not true of official poverty lines. We also find that rates of self-reported hunger are higher in states that we classify as poor.

  • 48.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    Moen, Espen R.
    Røed, Knut
    The Economics of Hypergamy2023In: The Journal of human resources, ISSN 0022-166X, E-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 260-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partner selection is a vital feature of human behavior with important consequences for individuals, families, and society. We use the term hypergamy to describe a phenomenon whereby there is a tendency for husbands to be of higher rank within the male earnings capacity distribution than their wives are within the female distribution. Such patterns are difficult to verify empirically because earnings are both a cause and an effect of the mating process. Using parental earnings rank as a predetermined measure of earnings capacity to solve the simultaneity problem, we show that hypergamy is an important feature of today’s mating patterns in one of the most gender-equal societies in the world, namely Norway. Through its influence on household specialization, we argue that hypergamy may explain parts of the remaining gender wage gap.

  • 49.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Oppedal Berge, Lars Ivar
    Bjorvatn, Kjetil
    Someville, Vincent
    Tungodden, Bertil
    Adverse Selection into Competition: Evidence from a Large-Scale Field Experiment in Tanzania2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An influential literature has shown that women are less willing to compete than men, and the gender gap in competition may contribute to explaining gender differences in educational choices and labor market outcomes. This study reports from a large-scale randomized controlled trial of a women empowerment program in Tanzania targeting young women at the end of secondary school. Combining the randomized controlled trial, a lab-in-the-field experiment and survey data, we provide evidence suggesting that the program caused adverse selection into competition: low performing women competed more, while there was no effect on the high performers. We provide a theoretical framework to illustrate an adverse selection mechanism that may contribute to explain why the program only affected the willingness to compete among low performers. Our results emphasize the importance of understanding sorting mechanisms and heterogeneous treatment effects in the design of policies and programs.

  • 50.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Ringdal, Charlotte
    Chr. Michelsen Institute CMI, Norway.
    Hoem Sjursen, Ingrid
    Chr. Michelsen Institute CMI, Norway.
    Understanding Inequality within Households2022In: Handbook of Labor, Human Resources and Population Economics / [ed] Klaus F. Zimmermann, Springer International Publishing , 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To describe and understand the economic inequality in a given society, it is necessary to understand intra-household inequality. This chapter gives an overview of within-household distributions in different settings, both between the adults and also between adults and children. It documents that there are substantial inequalities within households in some contexts and that these often, but not always, disfavor women and children.

    The chapter also discusses the importance of intra-household allocations for poverty and inequality measurement. Methods that assign each household member a per-adult share of household consumption lead to underestimation of inequalities and misclassification of poverty. In comparison, structural models seem to do better in predicting individual poverty when disaggregated data on allocation within households are not available.

    Main determinants of power in household decision-making are also discussed, and relatedly, so are two important policy questions: Are targeted transfers to women good for female empowerment? And, are targeted transfers to mothers good for child outcomes? The empirical evidence is clearly pointing to targeting being beneficial for female empowerment, but the evidence is less clear when it comes to child outcomes.

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