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  • Longhi, Pietro
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Theoret Phys, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Nieri, Fabrizio
    DESY Theory, Notkestr 85, D-20607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Pittelli, Antonio
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics.
    Localization of 4d N=1 theories on D-2 x T-22019In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 12, article id 147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider 4d N = 1 gauge theories with R-symmetry on a hemisphere times a torus. We apply localization techniques to evaluate the exact partition function through a cohomological reformulation of the supersymmetry transformations. Our results represent the natural elliptic lifts of the lower dimensional analogs as well as a field theoretic derivation of the conjectured 4d holomorphic blocks, from which partition functions of compact spaces with diverse topology can be recovered through gluing. We also analyze the different boundary conditions which can naturally be imposed on the chiral multiplets, which turn out to be either Dirichlet or Robin-like. We show that different boundary conditions are related to each other by coupling the bulk to 3d N = 1 degrees of freedom on the boundary three-torus, for which we derive explicit 1-loop determinants.

  • Aad, G.
    et al.
    Asimakopoulou, Eleni M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bergeås Kuutmann, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bokan, Petar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellajosyula, Venugopal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Isacson, Max
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mårtensson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Sales De Bruin, Pedro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Searches for lepton-flavour-violating decays of the Higgs boson in root s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector2020In: Physics Letters B, ISSN 0370-2693, E-ISSN 1873-2445, Vol. 800, article id 135069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Letter presents direct searches for lepton flavour violation in Higgs boson decays, H -> e tau and H -> mu tau, performed with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The searches are based on a data sample of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy root s = 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb(-1). No significant excess is observed above the expected background from Standard Model processes. The observed (median expected) 95% confidence-level upper limits on the lepton-flavour-violating branching ratios are 0.47%(0.34(-0.10)(+0.13)%) and 0.28%(0.37(-0.10)(+0.14)%) for H -> e tau and H -> mu tau, respectively. 

  • Analysis of Road Safety Trends 2018: Management by objectives for road safety work towards the 2020 interim targets2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the tenth annual follow-up of the progress towards the Swedish 2020 road safety objectives. It describes and analyses road safety trends in Sweden 2018. As in previous years, results are analysed in terms of the number of fatalities and injured as well as a series of road safety performance indicators. The report was produced by a group of analysts from the Swedish Transport Agency, the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) and the Swedish Transport Administration. The following analysts contributed to the report: Khabat Amin, Karin Bengtsson, Hans-Yngve Berg, Marie Skyving and Ryo Yamazaki (Swedish Transport Agency), Åsa Forsman and Anna Vadeby (VTI), and Rikard Fredriksson, Peter Larsson, Magnus Lindholm, Simon Sternlund and Matteo Rizzi (Swedish Transport Administration). The report will provide the basis for the 2019 results conference to be held in Stockholm on 24 April

  • Berglund, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Lärande simulering eller simulerat lärande?: en studie av fyra elevers lärande av styrteknik med användning av ett datorbaserat inlärningsprogram på gymnasieskolans elprogram2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • Hallenberg, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Manliness, dedication and loyalty: Military Masculinity and Peasant Soldiers in Sixteenth-Century Sweden2019In: Revista de historia Jerónimo Zurita, ISSN 0214-0993, Vol. 94, no Primavera, p. 95-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay analyze military masculinity in Sweden during the Early Vasa period, c. 1560 – 1590. Masculine notions of violence and domination were essential both for the ruling Vasa dynasty and for the soldiers that filled the ranks of the domestic army. The investigation explores royal propaganda, the military experiences of peasant soldiers as well as protests and grievances from those who came back from war. The development will be analysed as a struggle for hegemony, while the military ideals that had traditionally been reserved for noble warriors was successfully appropriated by commoners, now sanctioned by the monarch.

  • Danielsson, Tom
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Siethoff, Lasse Ten
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Aerobic capacity predict skeletal but not cardiac muscle damage after triathlon - the Iron(WO)man study.2020In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the association between aerobic capacity and biomarkers of skeletal- and cardiac muscle damage among amateur triathletes after a full distance Ironman. Men and women (N = 55) were recruited from local sport clubs. One month before an Ironman triathlon, they conducted a 20 m shuttle run test to determine aerobic capacity. Blood samples were taken immediately after finishing the triathlon, and analyzed for cardiac Troponin T (cTnT), Myosin heavy chain-a (MHC-a), N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), Creatin Kinas (CK), and Myoglobin. Regression models examining the association between the biomarkers and aerobic capacity expressed in both relative terms (mLO2*kg-1*min-1) and absolute terms (LO2*min-1) controlled for weight were fitted. A total of 39 subjects (26% females) had complete data and were included in the analysis. No association between aerobic capacity and cardiac muscle damage was observed. For myoglobin, adding aerobic capacity (mLO2*kg-1*min-1) increased the adjusted r2 from 0.026 to 0.210 (F: 8.927, p = 0.005) and for CK the adjusted r2 increased from -0.015 to 0.267 (F: 13.778, p = 0.001). In the models where aerobic capacity was entered in absolute terms the adjusted r2 increased from 0.07 to 0.227 (F: 10.386, p = 0.003) for myoglobin and for CK from -0.029 to 0.281 (F: 15.215, p < 0.001). A negative association between aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle damage was seen but despite the well-known cardio-protective health effect of high aerobic fitness, no such association could be observed in this study.

  • Nordström, Olle
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Georg
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Strandberg, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tunga fordonskombinationers dynamiska stabilitet: del 2 Bilaga1972Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    INNEHÅLLSFÖRTECKNING

    Appendix A   Begreppsförklaringar

    Appendix B   Matematisk modell för studium av tunga fordonskombinationers dynamiska stabilitet

    Appendix C    Variation av till axelavstånden kopplade fordonsparametrar

    Appendix D   Mätning av sidkraftskarakteristik hos däck

    Appendix E    Uppmätning och beräkning av tyngdpunktslägen, masströghetsmoment, vältningsgräns och krängdynamiska konstanter

    Appendix F    Luftkrafter på lastfordon vid stark sidvind

    Appendix G    Litteraturstudie

    Appendix H     Grunddata för simulerade fordonskombinationer

  • Public defence: 2020-02-21 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Berg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Proton transfer across and along biological membranes2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proton-transfer reactions belong to the most prevalent reactions in the biosphere and make life on Earth possible, as they are central to energy conversion. In most known organisms, protons are translocated from one side of a membrane to the other, which generates an electrochemical gradient that drives ATP synthesis. Both the membranes and the proteins that are involved in these processes are vital components of energy-conversion machineries. This thesis presents and discusses proton transfer at surfaces of membranes and proteins, as well as proton translocation across membranes via enzymes.

    In the first work, we developed a single-enzyme approach to study proton translocation by the proton pump cytochrome bo3 (cyt. bo3). The generated proton gradients were stable as long as substrate (electrons, oxygen) was available. Individual cyt. bo3 could generate proton gradients of ∼2 pH units, which correspond to the measured electrochemical gradient in Escherichia coli cells.

    When acidic and basic amino acids are in close proximity to each other on a protein surface, their individual Coulomb cages can merge to form a proton antenna that enables fast proton transfer to specific groups. To investigate how the function of a proton pump is affected by structural changes in a proton antenna, close to a proton uptake pathway, we characterized the function and structure of genetic variants of cytochrome c oxidase (CytcO). When a Glu, located about 10 Å from the first residue of the D-pathway, was replaced by a non-protonatable residue (Ala) the proton pumping efficiency decreased by more than half compared to the wild-type enzyme. The proton-uptake kinetics was also altered in this variant.

    Cardiolipin (CL) is found in membranes where ATP is generated. This phospholipid alters the membrane structure and binds a variety of proteins including all complexes that take part in oxidative phosphorylation. To investigate the role of CL in proton-transfer reactions on the surface of membranes we used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study inner mitochondrial membranes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protonation rate at wild-type membranes was about 50% of that measured with membranes prepared from mitochondria lacking CL. The protonation rate on the surface of small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) decreased by about a factor of three when DOPC-SUVs were supplemented with 20% CL. Furthermore, phosphate buffer titrations with SUVs showed that CL can act as a local proton buffer in a membrane.

    The respiratory supercomplex factor 1 (Rcf1) has been suggested to facilitate direct electron transfer from the bc1 complex to CytcO by bridging the enzymes and binding cytochrome c (cyt. c) to a flexible domain of Rcf1. We investigated biding of cyt. c to Rcf1 reconstituted into different membrane environments. The apparent KD of the binding between cyt. c and DOPC-liposomes was almost five times lower when Rcf1 was present in the vesicles. Moreover, the apparent KD between cyt. c and liposome reconstituted CytcO was about nine times lower for CytcO isolated from a wild-type strain compared to a Rcf1-lacking strain.

  • Public defence: 2020-02-21 13:00 FA32, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Lundkvist, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Constraints and symmetries in theories of interacting spin-2 fields2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hassan-Rosen bimetric theory describes two interacting spin-2 fields, one massless and one massive. In this thesis, a complete canonical analysis of this theory is performed in the metric formulation and all constraints are computed. In particular, a secondary constraint, whose existence was in doubt, is shown to exist and evaluated explicitly, bringing the total number of constraints up to six. This, together with general covariance, is enough to eliminate the Boulware-Deser ghost and ensure that the theory propagates the appropriate seven degrees of freedom. The requirement that the constraints are preserved in time leads to a linear relation between the lapse functions of the two metrics. Knowing the explicit form of the ratio of the lapses is necessary for solving initial value problems. The ratio is computed for the special case where the metrics share the same spherical symmetry.

    Since the bimetric theory is diffeomorphism invariant, it must contain four first class constraints whose Poisson brackets form a certain algebra. In general, it is possible to use this algebra to identify a metric. In this thesis, the four first class constraints of bimetric theory are identified and it is shown that their Poisson brackets indeed forms the algebra required by diffeomorphism invariance. However, the metric identified from the algebra turns out not to be unique, but to depend on a choice of variables. Additionally, it need not coincide with the gravitational metric.

    The candidate nonlinear partially massless bimetric theory is also investigated in this thesis. It is shown that for this theory, the partially massless symmetry cannot be extended beyond cubic order in the action. This result is generalized to the most general two derivative theory of only two interacting spin-2 fields, showing that such a theory cannot possess the partially massless symmetry beyond cubic order.

  • Nilsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Samhälle, mångfald, Identitet (SMI).
    Våra äldre: Om konstruktioner av äldre i offentligheten2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of how ‘older people’ as a linguistic and social category, and ageing as a process, is constructed in three interrelated publics. The aim of the thesis is to study and critically investigate the different ways in which ‘older people’ as a category is understood and represented in relation to ongoing negotiations about the meaning of later life as a stage of life. The increased significance of mediated publics for the formation and maintenance of social and collective identities, as well as their role as spaces for deliberation on the organization of society, is a starting point for the study and has bearing on the choice of data. The study is based on three contrastive sets of empirical material; newspaper articles, texts from a pensioner’s party, and a government report on the future old age policy of Sweden. The studied texts were published during the period 2002 – 2004. The publics have been studied as in a dialogical relation with each other. This strategy highlights the relations between different constructions of the category. The differences between the publics are significant. At the same time the analysis also shows overlaps of arguments and in the way that the category is understood between the publics. The ways that ‘older people’ are constructed in the material is related to different notions about older people and their societal status. But also to ideas about society and the nation as an imagined community. The study shows, among other things, that ‘older people’ is a category that is spoken about, rather than to. ‘Older people’ rarely functions as a subject in the studied material. In relation to this, the category is constructed as an object for the care and responsibility of the national community.

  • Henning, Georg
    et al.
    German Centre of Gerontology, Berlin, Germany..
    Stenling, Andreas
    University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden..
    Bielak, Allison A M
    Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA.
    Bjälkebring, Pär
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gow, Alan J
    Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK.
    Kivi, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Muniz-Terrera, Graciela
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Johansson, Boo
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Towards an active and happy retirement? Changes in leisure activity and depressive symptoms during the retirement transition.2020In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Retirement is a major life transition in the second half of life, and it can be associated with changes in leisure activity engagement. Although theories of retirement adjustment have emphasized the need to find meaningful activities in retirement, little is known about the nature of changes in leisure activity during the retirement transition and their association with mental health.

    Methods: Based on four annual waves of the 'Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden' study, we investigated the longitudinal association of leisure activity engagement and depressive symptoms using bivariate dual change score models. We distinguished intellectual, social, and physical activity engagement.

    Results: We found increases in all three domains of activity engagement after retirement. Although level and change of activity and depressive symptoms were negatively associated, the coupling parameters were not significant, thus the direction of effects remains unclear.

    Conclusion: The results highlight the need to consider the role of lifestyle changes for retirement adjustment and mental health.

  • Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden..
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Exploring the educational landscape of juggling - challenging notions of ability in physical education2020In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on physical education (PE) shows a prevalence of narrow and reductionist views on what counts as ability. These views tend to privilege certain students and marginalize others, and often equate ability with technique-based sport performance. A lot of research is still directed towards the above problem. However, very few have devoted time and energy to actually resolving this problem. If no alternatives to narrow and reductionist views of ability are presented, then research will struggle to make a difference to the practice of PE. Assuming that movement is a key element in PE, the question of what counts as ability in PE is, we argue, a question of what capabilities a learner needs to develop in order to move in different ways. Investigating what movement capability can mean will provide possibilities for discussing and negotiating the meaning of ability in PE when the learning goal is something other than technique-based sport performance. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to further advance the knowledge base of what movement capability can mean within the context of PE. By achieving this aim, we intend to challenge narrow views on ability and thereby provide enhanced possibilities for PE to make a difference for students' abilities through education. Theory and method: The process of coming to know something can be seen as exploring, with all senses, a landscape. Exploration involves recognizing details and nuances of the landscape and their relationships to one another. In this investigation, we examine what there is to know in the landscape of juggling using Ryle's and Polanyi's notions of knowing and learning. In line with a focus on the learners' perspectives, interviews and observations were conducted with students whilst they were coming to know juggling. Ethnographic-type conversations were used to help students describe what they seemed to know or were aiming to know. Students were invited to write diaries with a focus on their experiences during the learning process, which we hoped could extend our insights regarding the experiential aspects in learning. Findings: Findings of the investigation suggest that in the group of students, four significant ways of knowing the landscape of juggling are important: grasping a pattern; grasping a rhythm; preparing for the next throw and catch and navigating one's position and throwing. The research challenges the narrow view on ability as technique-based sport performance by providing examples of what movement capability can mean in terms of knowing a movement landscape alternatively to knowing a specific movement 'in the right way.'

  • Lundgren, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Norell Clarke, Annika
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Karlstads universitet.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola & Linköpings universitet.
    Angelhoff, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet.
    Adolescents’ experiences of staying overnight at family-centered pediatric wards2020In: Sage open nursing, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Sleep is essential for health and recovery. Hospital stays may affect adolescents’ sleep quality negatively as routines in the ward are not adapted for adolescents’ developmental status or sleep habits. The aims with this study were to (a) explore and describe how adolescents experience sleep in the family-centered pediatric ward, (b) explore and describe how adolescents experience the presence or absence of a parent during the hospital stay, and (c) identify circumstances that the adolescents describe as influential of their sleep in the pediatric wards.

    Methods

    This is a qualitative interview study employing thematic analysis with an inductive and exploratory approach. Sixteen adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years participated in the study.

    Results

    Three themes were found: the importance of good sleep, safety as a prerequisite for sleep in hospital, and circumstances influencing adolescents’ sleep in hospital.

    Conclusion

    The adolescents described their sleep at the pediatric ward positively, but mentioned disturbing factors associated with pain, nightly check-ups, noises, and inactivity. Parental presence was perceived as very positive both during the night and the day.

  • Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska institutet.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Self-Reported General Health, Overall and Work-Related Stress, Loneliness, and Sleeping Problems in 335,625 Swedish Adults from 2000 to 2016.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 2, article id E511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of poor health, in particular stress-related mental ill-health, is increasing over time and birth cohorts. As rapid societal changes have occurred in the last decade and still are occurring, there is an interest in investigating the trends in health-related factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate trends in self-reported general health, overall stress, work-related stress, feelings of loneliness, and sleeping problems in 335,625 Swedish adults across categories of gender, geographic regions, length of education, and age from 2000 to 2016. On population level, sleeping problems and poor general health have increased markedly and significantly, while experiences of work stress decreased between 2000 and 2016 (p < 0.05). Overall stress and level of loneliness were unchanged (p > 0.05). The risk of having ≥3 symptoms (any of poor or very poor general health, often or very often perceived overall stress, loneliness, or sleeping problems) has increased significantly from 2000 to 2016 (ß = 1034 (1027-1040)). This increase was significantly higher in young (ß = 1052 (1038-1065)) and individuals with lower education (ß = 1056 (1037-1076)) compared to older and high length of education.

  • Cai, Xing Shi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Probability Theory.
    Holmgren, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Probability Theory.
    Cutting resilient networks - complete binary trees2019In: The Electronic Journal of Combinatorics, ISSN 1097-1440, E-ISSN 1077-8926, Vol. 26, no 4, article id P4.43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In our previous work [2, 3], we introduced the random k-cut number for rooted graphs. In this paper, we show that the distribution of the k-cut number in complete binary trees of size n, after rescaling, is asymptotically a periodic function of lg n - lg lg n. Thus there are different limit distributions for different subsequences, where these limits are similar to weakly 1-stable distributions. This generalizes the result for the case k = 1, i.e., the traditional cutting model, by Janson [12].

  • Ali, Raja Hashim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Ghulam Ishaq Khan Inst Engn Sci & Technol, Fac Comp Sci & Engn, Topi, Pakistan.
    Bogusz, Marcin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Whelan, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Identifying Clusters of High Confidence Homologies in Multiple Sequence Alignments2019In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 36, no 10, p. 2340-2351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is ubiquitous in evolution and bioinformatics. MSAs are usually taken to be a known and fixed quantity on which to perform downstream analysis despite extensive evidence that MSA accuracy and uncertainty affect results. These errors are known to cause a wide range of problems for downstream evolutionary inference, ranging from false inference of positive selection to long branch attraction artifacts. The most popular approach to dealing with this problem is to remove (filter) specific columns in the MSA that are thought to be prone to error. Although popular, this approach has had mixed success and several studies have even suggested that filtering might be detrimental to phylogenetic studies. We present a graph-based clustering method to address MSA uncertainty and error in the software Divvier (available at https://github.com/simonwhelan/Divvier), which uses a probabilistic model to identify clusters of characters that have strong statistical evidence of shared homology. These clusters can then be used to either filter characters from the MSA (partial filtering) or represent each of the clusters in a new column (divvying). We validate Divvier through its performance on real and simulated benchmarks, finding Divvier substantially outperforms existing filtering software by retaining more true pairwise homologies calls and removing more false positive pairwise homologies. We also find that Divvier, in contrast to other filtering tools, can alleviate long branch attraction artifacts induced by MSA and reduces the variation in tree estimates caused by MSA uncertainty.

  • Pohl, Hans
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Karlström, Magnus
    Lindholmen Science Park, Sweden.
    Elektrifierade vägtransporter: publikationsstudie2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Road transport electrification – publication analysis

    This report summarizes the results of a study of scientific publications within vehicle electrification, i.e. battery, hybrid and/or fuel cell electric vehicles including the recharg-ing or refuelling infrastructure. A new method was developed for the study, which extracts Scopus publications relating to vehicle electrification. Three enabling technolo-gies; batteries, fuel cells, and electric machines including power electronics, were studied separately, as such publications only to a small extent are captured when searching for publications mentioning automotive applications.

    Results are given for the top 16 countries in terms of volume within vehicle electrification with special attention given to publications including Swedish (co-)authors. China is the dominating country and is still increasing its share. Sweden has a percentage of the world production between 0.8 – 1.4% and relatively low growth rate. On the other hand, the citation impact is high.

    Among the enabling technologies, batteries show the highest growth rate, in Sweden as well as in the world. China is approaching a 50% share of all battery publications.

    Other entities studied and discussed are institutions and authors and different dimen-sions including how international the research is and the share of academic-corporate co-publications.

  • Smedberg Bondesson, Anna
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för humaniora.
    Jörgensen, Mette
    Danmark.
    Levande undervisningsmaterial: ambassadørmodellen2019In: Nyt nordisk!: initiativer inden for nordisk sprog- og tekstpædagogik / [ed] Gregersen, Frans; Jørgensen, Mette, Köpenhamn: Nordplus - Boarding Danmark , 2019, p. 105-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Nilsen, Lisa
    et al.
    Rossipal, Maria
    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Cultural Heritage: proceedings from the 4th International Conference in Stockholm, Sweden, 21–23 May 20192019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Threats by pests to cultural heritage are now more than ever on the agenda for museums, archives, libraries and historic houses. It is therefore important that professionals within the sector, such as scientists, conservators, curators, archivists, librarians, collection managers and others, meet and discuss methods of dealing with the challenges posed by pests. Following the successful IPM conferences in Piacenza in 2011, Vienna in 2013 and Paris in 2016, the 4th international conferenceon Integrated Pest Management, IPM 2019, Integrated Pest Management for Cultural Heritage, was held in Stockholm 21–23 May 2019. In all, 160 delegates from 23 countries participated.

  • Wang, Jiangrong
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elfström, K. Miriam
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden;Reg Canc Ctr Stockholm Gotland, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andrae, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kleppe, Sara Nordqvist
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ploner, Alexander
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lei, Jiayao
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dillner, Joakim
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Univ Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundström, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sparén, Pär
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cervical cancer case-control audit: Results from routine evaluation of a nationwide cervical screening program2020In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 146, no 5, p. 1230-1240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study used a refined case-control cervical cancer Audit framework to investigate effectiveness of cervical screening, with measures of three screening failures: irregular-participation, cervical cancer developed after cytological abnormalities and after normal screening results. The register-based study included 4,254 cervical cancer cases diagnosed in Sweden during 2002-2011, and 30 population-based controls per case. We used conditional logistic regression models to examine relative risks of cervical cancer in relation to screening participation and screening results in the past two screening rounds from 6 months before cancer diagnosis. We found that women unscreened in past two screening rounds showed four times increased risk of cervical cancer compared to women screened in time (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 3.8-4.5), and women unscreened in the previous round but screened in the most recent round also showed a statistically significantly elevated risk (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.5-1.8). Women having abnormality in previous two rounds exhibited higher risk of cervical cancer compared to women screened with normal results, while having normal results in the subsequent round after the abnormality also yielded an increased risk (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 3.2-5.1). Being screened with only normal results was associated with 89% risk reduction for squamous cell cancer, compared to women unscreened, but only 60% reduction for adenocarcinoma. Our findings emphasize the importance of routine participation in cervical screening and suggest that management of abnormalities, as well as sensitivity of the test, warrants improvement especially for preventing cervical adenocarcinoma. The Audit framework serves as routine evaluation model and the findings benchmark for future evaluation of changes in screening practice.

  • Wrede-Jäntti, Matilda
    Nabo – ungas röster om social inkludering i Finland2020Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nabo är ett projekt som lanserades under det svenska ordförandeskapet i Nordiska ministerrådet 2018. Projektet leds av den svenska Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesfrågor under perioden 2018-2020 och syftar till att synliggöra nordiska ungdomars perspektiv på social inkludering. Unga människors röster hörs i frågor om deras liv. Och baserat på den kunskapen kommer de att ges möjligheten att delta i och påverka politiska beslut. Ungdomarna uppmanas att beskriva sin vardag och hur de upplever sina möjligheter och hinder. Från deras berättelser bygger Nabo ett ramverk av framgångsfaktorer för social inkludering i Norden. Den här rapporten bygger på fokusgruppsintervjuer med unga på olika platser i Finland. Liknande studier genomförs i de andra nordiska länderna, på Färöarna, Grönland och Åland.

  • Tseli, Elena
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Interdisciplinary rehabilitation in patients with chronic pain: prognostic factors and effectiveness2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interdisciplinary multimodal pain rehabilitation (IMPR) is currently considered best practice for combatting chronic pain. However, it is believed that health-related outcomes could be improved with more adequately tailored treatment programs, but consensus of what grounds these adaptations should be based on is yet to be reached. Well-powered evaluations of naturalistic, real-world practices provide an evidence base for the evaluation of important characteristics that may facilitate the informed development of IMPR. The aim of the present work was to meta-synthesize existing evidence and add new data to the body of published evidence on prognostic factors for a positive outcome in patients receiving rehabilitation for chronic pain. An additional aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of different IMPR program durations on health-related quality of life in this major patient group.

    Methods: Published international evidence of prognostic factors for physical functioning after IMPR was evaluated through a systematic review and meta-analyses (Study I), followed by the investigation of the inter-rater reliability of the Quality in Prognostic Studies tool (QUIPS), used in the Risk of Bias assessment (Study II). Prognostic factors (Study III) and effectiveness (Study IV) of Swedish pain specialist IMPR on physical and mental functioning and related measures of disease impact were investigated using large-scale nationwide data obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation.

    Results: Meta analyses showed, with moderate to low levels of evidence, that better physical functioning at follow-up was predicted by high levels of self-reported functioning, low levels of emotional distress and cognitive-behavioral risk factors, and high levels of cognitive- behavioral protective factors. Pain-related factors (intensity and chronicity) were not associated. Weak to moderate inter-rater agreement emerged for QUIPS, and suggestions for improving the inter-rater agreement and functionality were presented. Swedish registry data showed the most important prognostic factors were retaining a connection with work, having high optimistic treatment expectations, sense of control, and less interference from pain. Pain itself was of secondary significance. Also for improvement of physical functioning, better initial mental wellbeing was of importance, while for mental functioning the opposite emerged. Results on within-group effectiveness showed improvements on all outcomes, while no between-group comparison emerged on short (4-9 wks) vs. moderate (10 wks) vs. long (11-18 wks) IMPR program duration.

    In summary, evidence for prognostic factors was identified, providing suggestions for the targeting of modifiable factors in clinics and in future clinical trials. Clearly, the quality assessment of published results needs systematic consensus work between assessors. Work connection, treatment expectations, levels of physical and emotional health, and coping strategies played an important prognostic role but were not consistent for physical and emotional functioning, suggesting a complex prognostic picture for the overall understanding of improvement. Finally, IMPR is effective across a biopsychosocial specter, but treatment duration seems not to play an important role.

  • Ståhlberg, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Gender Gap in Pensions: Experiences from Sweden2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Jönköping University,
    ARC18: Assessment of research and coproduction2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From the Preface:

    In 2018, Jönköping University (JU) decided to initiate an external assessment of research and co-production (Assessment of Research and Coproduction 2018 – ARC18). Co-production is in this context defined as production of research together with stakeholders; a process that generates high quality knowledge, pursues the research frontier and results in innovative and useful activities in, and for, industry and the public sector. For JU, it is the first time an assessment of research and co-production has taken place; the overall aim of ARC18 being to further strengthen Jönköping University’s insights on how to continue to support the positive development of the university. More specifically, ARC18 evaluates the criterion for quality research within JU, and provides a means to strengthen its structure for our scientific activities in offering reliable background material for strategic decisions.

    To ensure different perspectives, disciplines and cross-boundary learning, four research environments at JU were selected: Lifelong Learning, SPARK, IMPROVE and the Centre for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Each research environment worked diligently to scrutinize and address all the questions and areas of evaluation, and the external experts did extensive work in analyzing, interviewing and synthesizing results. The outcomes have been significantly helpful for JU’s continuing work in developing and profiling research at JU. Besides giving examples of strength and high-quality international research, the assessment identified areas with varying potential; highlighting internal functions that could provide additional support and delineating favourable examples of linking research and innovation.

  • Theorell, Töres
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kowalski, Jan
    Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm; Karolinska Institutet .
    Music listening as distraction from everyday worries2019In: Nordic Journal of Arts, Culture and Health, ISSN 2535-7913, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 35-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Anecdote suggests that listening to music can help to distract from worries about ongoing life problems.

    Purpose: In this study we examine the phenomenon and ask, to what extent does music listening alleviate worry, and under what circumstances? Our focus was on the immediate temporary effects.

    Methodology: We performed four pilot experiments with audiences comprised of different ages and backgrounds of musical experience. As part of these experiments, we constructed a visual analogue scale (VAS) to assess “daily worry” together with the three other dimensions of tiredness-arousal, sadness-happy and anxiety-calmness. Participants were asked to listen to live classical music and to fill out the VAS before and after assessments. The experiments enabled us to examine the similarities and differences among audiences of different ages and music experience with regard to the capacity for music to distract them from their worries, what we term ‘worry distraction’.

    Findings: In the different listening situations, the self-rating of daily worries decreases after listening to live, high-quality professional performances of classical music. In our experiments, previous experience of classical music does not have a significant effect on decreased worry while listening. University level education in general, however, is associated with an increased effect. This prompts a discussion regarding the role education plays as a determinant for health – including the relationship between experiences of music in relation to health.

    Originality: It is striking that live classical music could affect daily worries of people across different age groups evaluated with our simple and easily distributed Visual Analogue Scale. This could therefore be recommended for evaluations in other contexts.

  • Public defence: 2020-02-21 13:00
    Weber Falk, Megan
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Development and Evaluation of the Grief and Communication Family Support Intervention for Parentally Bereaved Families in Sweden2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Each year in Sweden, approximately 6,900 children will have a parent diagnosedwith cancer. Of all the children in Sweden born between 1990–1992, 5.6% havea parent with cancer and 1.1% of them have already had a parent die fromcancer. Bereavement support is an important component in palliative care,which aims to alleviate the physical, psychological, and spiritual suffering ofpatients and their family members. Several, but not all families participating inthe studies in this thesis came from a palliative care setting. Earlier research hasshown that parentally bereaved children often experience psychologicalproblems, physical problems, reduced self-esteem, difficulties communicating,school and behavioral problems, and/or complicated grief, with approximately10% of parentally bereaved children experiencing some type of clinicallysignificant psychological difficulty. Moreover, a child’s response to a parent’sdeath is often mediated by how their surviving parent responds to the loss. Still,support for bereaved children and families is limited in Sweden. The overall aimof this research project was to explore and describe psychological health, grief,and family communication among parentally bereaved children and survivingparents and to develop and evaluate a supportive family intervention. Fourstudies were conducted including an interview study exploring familycommunication in parentally bereaved families, a questionnaire study examiningassociations between family communication and psychological health inparentally bereaved children and adolescents, and the adaptation and evaluationof the Grief and Communication Family Support Intervention. Results fromthese four studies indicated that communication may be an important factor foradjustment following the death of a parent. Specifically, communication in someparentally bereaved families may involve conflict, which may in turn affect childand adolescent psychological health. Results from testing the Grief andCommunication Family Support Intervention indicate that it may improvefamily communication and relationships. Testing the Grief and CommunicationFamily Support Intervention with larger, more diverse samples is necessary toconfirm these results. The results imply that helping families find ways to adjustand adapt in healthy ways following the death of a parent, potentially throughthe Grief and Communication Family Support Intervention, is likely to improvepsychological health and communication among bereaved family members.

  • Theorell, Töres
    et al.
    Department of Music, Pedagogy and Society, Royal College of Music.
    Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    Department of Music, Pedagogy and Society, Royal College of Music; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Emotional Effects of Live and Recorded Music in Various Audiences and Listening Situations2019In: Medicines, ISSN 2305-6320, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Johansson, Anna
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Summering av sex års samverkansforskning för främjande av barns och ungas välfärd: Teman och utmaningar2019Report (Other academic)
  • Ingemann, Christine
    et al.
    Lundblad, Arnaruluk
    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken
    Nabo – unges stemmer om social inklusion på Grønland2020Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Nabo er et projekt, der blev lanceret under det svenske formandskab i Nordisk Ministerråd 2018. Projektet ledes af den svenske Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesfrågor i perioden 2018-2020 og sigter mod at skabe nordiske unges perspektiver på det sociale inklusion. Unges stemmer høres i spørgsmål om deres liv. og baseret på denne viden, får de muligheden for at deltage i og påvirke politiske beslutninger.

    Unge mennesker bliver bedt om at beskrive deres hverdag og hvordan de oplever deres muligheder og forhindringer. Fra deres historier bygger Nabo en ramme af succesfaktorer for social integration i de nordiske lande.

    Denne rapport er baseret på fokusgruppeinterviews med unge mennesker forskellige steder i Grønland. Lignende undersøgelser gennemføres i de andre nordiske lande på Færøerne og Åland.

  • Herrström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Library & Higher Education Development. kerstin.herrstrom@hkr.se .
    Larsson, Stina
    Kristianstad University, Library & Higher Education Development.
    Einberg, Eva-Lena
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Marie
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Garmy, Pernilla
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    Assessment of search strategies in literature-review-based candidate theses within a nursing program2020In: Advances in Medical Education and Practice, ISSN 1179-7258, E-ISSN 1179-7258, Vol. 11, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The majority of candidate theses in baccalaureate nursing programs inSweden are written as literature studies. Being able to carry out a systematic and structuredliterature search is an essential part of thesis-related work.Aim: The aim of the current study was to investigate changes in nursing students’ searchstrategies in candidate theses.

    Methods: A retrospective, quantitative study design was obtained. Librarians (n = 2) andteachers (n = 4) randomly examined selected candidate theses (every third thesis, n = 89)from the years 2012, 2014, and 2016.

    Results: The result showed a significant improvement over the years (from 2012 and 2014to 2016) regarding the use of a sufficient number of synonyms, matching search terms to therespective database, use of the Boolean operator OR, and the use of subject headings and freetext searches. Use of the title/abstract search largely disappeared. There was a significantchange in the types of searches being done. The searches have become more structured inlater years as the use of block searches increased significantly; in other words, moresystematic and relevant searches have been done in recent years.

    Conclusion: The result of this study shows that the quality of the students’ search strategiesimproved significantly during the studied years. It is recommended that search documents areused in both formative and summative assessments to evaluate students’ search strategies.Educational development in the form of enhanced collaboration between librarians andteachers in nursing programs is recommended because it might help to develop studentsearch strategies in literature-based candidate theses.

  • Westman, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Sociala medier – yttrandefrihet och ansvar2020In: Ord och rätt: Festskrift till Hans-Gunnar Axberger / [ed] Anna Skarhed, Johan Hirschfeldt, Mikael Ruotsi, Daniel Westman, Stephan Carlsson, Visby: eddy.se , 2020, p. 675-704Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Lunde, Torodd
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Undersökande och verklighetsanknuten undervisning i ett allmänbildningsperspektiv2019In: Kemi för alla: Bidrag från konferensen 1-2 oktober 2018 i Stockholm arrangerad av Kemilärarnas resurscentrum / [ed] Karin Stolpe & Gunnar Höst, Linköping:: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019, p. 59-71Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att det finns stor enighet om att undervisning i de naturvetenskapligaämnena ska vara allmänbildande, finns det inte motsvarandeenighet om vad en sådan undervisning innebär. I denna artikel diskuterarjag några centrala begrepp inom didaktisk forskning för att redaut olika sätt att förstå allmänbildningsbegreppet i de naturvetenskapligaämnena, samt konsekvenser för undervisningen. Jag presenterarett ramverk för vardagsanknuten och undersökande undervisning.Ramverket består av tre delar där första delen är en vardags- ellersamhällsfråga med naturvetenskapligt innehåll, nästa del en undersökandeaktivitet och sista delen en återkoppling till ursprungsfrågan.Detta ramverk diskuteras utifrån olika perspektiv med stöd i de ämnesdidaktiskabegrepp som presenteras. Några skisser till undervisningsuppläggför olika stadier från mellanstadiet till gymnasiet presenteras.

  • Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Potential för utsläppsminskningar från elektrifiering av godstransporter på Europavägar2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We summarize the potential for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases from heavy freight vehicles (over 3.5 ton) if the Swedish E-road network and the national roads with greatest traffic volumes were electrified. We analyze four scenarios. In the main scenario, emissions are reduced by about 52 percent compared to the total emissions in 2017 at 3 326 kton CO2. A simple calculation of the socio-economic profitability of the emissions reduction indicates that at the prevailing carbon tax rate of 1,15 SEK per kg CO2 (ca 0,11 EUR per kg CO2), and given a “low” investment cost of 20 mSEK per km road (1.9 mEUR per km road), it would be profitable to electrify highway E4 in  Stockholm county, and E6 in Skåne county. The marginal cost of electrifying the entire E4 from Stockholm to Skåne, and E6 from Skåne to the border with Norway would be 2,38 SEK per kg CO2 (0,23 EUR per kg CO2). Before decisions about investments are made, a more through cost-benefit analysis should be made, however.

  • Mahida, H. R.
    et al.
    Veer Narmad South Gujarat Univ, Dept Phys, Surat 395007, India.
    Singh, Deobrat
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Sonvane, Yogesh
    SV Natl Inst Technol, Dept Appl Phys, Adv Mat Lab, Surat 395007, India.
    Thakor, P. B.
    Veer Narmad South Gujarat Univ, Dept Phys, Surat 395007, India.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Mat & Engn, Appl Mat Phys, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gupta, Sanjeev K.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Mat & Engn, Appl Mat Phys, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    The influence of edge structure on the optoelectronic properties of Si2BN quantum dot2019In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 126, no 23, article id 233104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent work, we have investigated the electronic and optical properties of pristine and functionalized Si2BN quantum dots (QDs) using first-principles calculations. Due to the edge functionalization, Si2BN QDs have binding energies of -0.96 eV and -2.08 eV per hydrogen atom for the adsorption of single and double hydrogen atoms, respectively. These results reveal the stability and the bonding nature of hydrogen at the edges of Si2BN QD. In particular, the charge transfer between hydrogen and other atoms is explicitly increased. The electronic band structure of pristine Si2BN QD shows a metallic behavior with a finite number of electronic states in the density of states at the Fermi level. The frequency-dependent optical properties, such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, electron energy loss spectra, and reflectivity, are computed for both the parallel and perpendicular components of electric field polarization. The higher absorption was found in the infrared regime. The present study shows that the functionalization of Si2BN QD by two hydrogen atoms is energetically stable. It offers a promising application of Si2BN QD, which can be used in optical nanodevices such as photodetectors and biomedical imagination. (C) 2019 Author(s).

  • Montalbán, José
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Mayor, David
    Gortázar, Lucas
    School choice priorities and school segregation: Evidence from Madrid2020Report (Other academic)
  • Fördjupad utvärderingav miljömålen 2019: Med förslag till regeringen från myndigheter i samverkan2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mer behöver göras för att nå miljömålen

    Den fördjupade utvärderingen av miljömålen visar en positiv utveckling när det gäller bland annat luftkvalitet och försurning. På andra viktiga områden, bland annat ekosystemens återhämtning och bevarandet av biologisk mångfald, går utvecklingen åt fel håll. De styrmedel och åtgärder som behövs för att nå miljömålen kommer inte att finnas på plats till år 2020. Utsläppen av växthsgaser behöver minska i snabbare takt, de ekologiska sambanden i landskapet behöver stärkas, och spridningen av farliga ämnen behöver minska.

    En sammanhållen politik för en hållbar utveckling

    Miljömålen definierar den ekologiska dimensionen av FN:s globala hållbarhetsmål på det nationella planet. Det finns starka kopplingar och synergier mellan ekologisk och social hållbarhet. Regeringens styrning behöver tydligare än idag ta sin utgångspunkt i en sammanhållen politik där ekologisk, social och ekonomisk hållbarhet integreras.

    Sverige kan påverka den globala utvecklingen

    Dagens miljöutmaningar är till stora delar gränsöverskridande och många av Sveriges miljöproblem kan inte lösas inom landet. Viktiga frågor för Sverige är bland annat att stärka EU:s klimatpolitik och öka takten i arbetet för att hejda förlusten av biologisk mångfald. Sverige bör också ta en ledande roll i genomförandet av Baselkonventionen om gränsöverskridande handel med avfall.

    Förbättra styrningen mot miljömålen

    Det finns flera orsaker till att det är svårt att utforma en effektiv miljöpolitik. Dit hör bland annat osäkerheter och risker, målkonflikter och bristande nationell rådighet. För att förbättra styrningen mot miljömålen föreslår Naturvårdsverket bland annat fler tidiga och breda samhällsekonomiska konsekvensanalyser, översyn av subventioner för att minska deras negativa miljöpåverkan, analys av incitament och styrmedel för ett långsiktigt hållbart skogsbruk och en vässad miljöbalk med stärkt tillämpning.

    Prioritera klimat och biologisk mångfald

    Klimatförändringarna och utarmningen av den biologiska mångfalden är två områden där det behövs snabba och kraftfulla insatser för att vända den negativa utvecklingen i miljön. Naturvårdsverket bedömer att det finns flera starka skäl att prioritera dessa områden i miljöpolitiken under de kommande åren.7

    Minska konsumtionens miljöpåverkan

    Sveriges konsumtion av bland annat flygresor, livsmedel, palmolja, elektronik och textilier har stor miljö- och hälsopåverkan, varav en mycket stor del sker i andra länder. Sverige har ett ansvar för de miljöproblem vår konsumtion skapar, oavsett var i världen de uppstår. Att utveckla effektiva styrmedel för att minska konsumtionens miljöpåverkan är en mycket viktig del i arbetet för att nå miljömålen.

    Det offentliga behöver gå före

    Den offentliga sektorn har ett mycket stort ansvar att hantera sin egen miljöpåverkan på ett föredömligt sätt genom att ställa höga miljökrav inom sina verksamheter, i sina investeringar, sina upphandlingar och för sina resor. I flera fall kan detta också innebära att innovativa lösningar får möjlighet att prövas och göras tillgängliga för övriga delar av samhället.

    Ta fram fler etappmål för att visa vägen

    Etappmålen fyller en viktig funktion i miljömålssystemet genom att konkretisera riktningen och takten i arbetet för att nå miljömålen. Naturvårdsverket anser att regeringen bör överväga att bygga ut systemet med etappmål och föreslår nya etappmål för bland annat kommunalt avfall och minskat matavfall. Vi föreslår också områden där vi anser att nya etappmål bör utredas, bland annat hyggesfritt skogsbruk, ökad konnektivitet och minskade utsläpp av förorenade ämnen.

    Förslag från myndigheter i samverkan

    Förutom Naturvårdsverket har 25 nationella myndigheter samt länsstyrelserna ett tydligt utpekat ansvar för att bidra till att miljömålen nås. Vi har bjudit in dessa myndigheter till samverkan för att ta fram förslag till åtgärder och styrmedel. I rapportens andra del presenteras 18 förslag från myndigheter i samverkan. Sam-verkan har skett inom följande teman, som utgår från de globala hållbarhetsmålen:

    1. Hållbara städer och samhällen
    2. Hållbart näringsliv, innovation och infrastruktur
    3. Hållbar konsumtion och produktion
    4. Bekämpa klimatförändringen
    5. Hav och vatten
    6. Ekosystem och biologisk mångfald

     

    Utvärdering av miljömålen

    I rapportens sista del beskrivs förutsättningarna att nå generationsmålet, vart och ett av miljökvalitetsmålen samt etappmålen.

  • Public defence: 2020-02-18 14:00 E2, Stockholm
    Kytömäki, Olli
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Construction and Facilities Management.
    Digitalization and innovation in the real estate and facility management sectors - an ecosystem perspective2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization has become a topic of several presentations and discussions in real estate industry seminars in recent years. Often the speeches are about why the real estate industry needs digitalization, presenting threats and opportunities for the participants of the seminars. Still, real estate industry is conservative by nature and thus far property owners have not needed to innovate in order to stay in business. Therefore, a question arises that how do real estate owners react to the growing expectations about digitalization. On the other hand, relatively little is known about the innovativeness of real estate firms, as innovation research in built environment sector has largely focused on building project management phase organizations and facility management firms. Still, the real estate owners have a central role and a long-term perspective on the innovation in the built environment sector as a whole, as they are clients in all building life-cycle phases.

    Thus, this thesis purpose is to increase understanding of digitalization as a phenomenon in the real estate and facility management sectors: 1) by distinguishing the phenomenon in relation to existing research and 2) by generating new knowledge on digitalization in the field by explorative research.

    In order to distinguish the phenomenon in relation to existing research, the thesis provides a structured literature review that focuses on digitalization in the real estate and facility management sector. The main conclusion is that digitalization is a complex phenomenon, including multiple perspectives and conceptualizations, although, the literature converges on rather distinct topics of digital systems and methods, technology adoption and organization and management. Additionally, the review provides a discussion of opportunities for further research. An argument is made for sociotechnical perspective to provide opportunities for better managerial comprehension on the complex phenomenon.

    In order to generate new knowledge on digitalization in the field, particularly, on the innovativeness of real estate firms, the thesis provides summaries of two papers. The first paper focuses on the innovation processes in the real estate owner organizations and the second paper focuses on the innovation ecosystem that comprises of actors that contribute towards common innovation goals. The papers are based on interviews with the various real estate industry actors and document analysis. The papers converge on results, concluding that the real estate owners have invested in resources and capabilities for innovation, but it is still challenging for them to act on the digital threats and opportunities. Additionally, the second paper develops an operationalizable definition and methodology for research on innovation ecosystems, which has relevance for the more general literature on innovation and strategy.

    Thus, this thesis distinguishes digitalization as a phenomenon in the built environment management sectors and increases understanding on the innovativeness of real estate firms’ and other actors that contribute to the innovativeness of the real estate sector as a whole.

  • Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Meningsfullt bistånd: En kritisk analys av metaforer på Läkare Utan Gränsers webbplats2019In: Sakprosa, ISSN 1502-6000, E-ISSN 1891-5108, Vol. 11, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Critical Analysis of Metaphors on Läkare Utan Gränsers's (Swedish Médecins Sans Frontières') Website

    The Nordic countries have a strong tradition of contributing to international development and humanitarian aid, but lately, aid has been subject to criticism. Research has called for studies that reveal conceptualizations and values tied to aid (Fretheim 2007; Hoeffler & Outram, 2011; Sogge, 2015). My focus is to study how the aid organization Médecins Sans Frontières conceptualize and value aid in their webpage texts. More specifically, I investigate how the organization’s texts make use of metaphors. Like Lakoff & Johnson (1980), I believe that metaphors disclose how one understands the world, and, in accordance with Charteris-Black (2004), that they are important to create convincing texts. Three news pieces from the Médecins Sans Frontières webpage are analyzed, first by using the MIPVU-method, developed by Steen et al. (2010), and then by evaluating the metaphors with the help of research literature (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Lakoff, 1993; Mannsåker, 2017). The findings show that the metaphors in the news pieces express force, ownership and motion, and that they add to the idea that Médecins Sans Frontières accomplish respectable results; therefore, the webpage visitor may make an important contribution which will be for the migrants’ benefit and which in addition will counteract the negative influence of the EU. Through the metaphors, the migrants are depicted as needy, since they do not exert power, do not own much and are not in control. The conclusion is that the organization conveys a complex image where aid is described as meaningful, necessary and political. From a broader perspective, this instance of how linguistic strategies are used may serve as an example for other aid agents in their ambition to influence potential donators as well as decision-makers about the conditions and necessity of aid.

  • Jäder, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Mathematics Education. Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Med uppgift att lära: om matematikuppgifter som en resurs för lärande2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Students' ability to develop their mathematical competency is influenced by the tasks they work with. A routine task is a task that a student can solve by using a familiar method, or by imitating a template. In order to solve a mathematical problem however, the student needs to construct a to her new solution method. To develop their mathematical competency, students need to work with routine tasks as well as mathematical problems. A creative problem-solving skill, as well as a conceptual understanding may be developed through problem solving.

    The thesis consists of five studies, of which the purpose of studies 1-3 was to explore the opportunities to work with mathematical problem solving offered to students in secondary school. Tasks in textbooks from 12 countries were analyzed (study 1), and approximately 10 percent of these were mathematical problems. The students worked (study 2) almost exclusively with tasks categorized by the textbook authors as easy. Among these tasks, the proportion of mathematical problems was 4 percent. Nor among tasks categorized as 'problem solving' or 'exploring', mathematical problems were predominant. The proportions were relatively similar in textbooks from the twelve countries. Students' beliefs that routine work is more secure and something that is reasonable to expect in mathematics (study 3) can have an additional impact on their opportunites to mathematical problem solving. Given the positive effects of problem solving, students' opportunities to work with problem solving seem limited. There is potential in an increased proportion of mathematical problems in textbooks, as well as in a more deliberate task selection from these textbooks.

    The purpose of studies 4 and 5 was to contribute towards a better understanding of mathematical problems and mathematical problem solving. An analytical framework was developed to identify creative, conceptual and other challenges in students' problem solving. Each challenge was characterized to be able to understand and describe these components of problem solving. Students' work with mathematical problems (study 4) and the, by teachers anticipated challenges students face in problem solving (study 5) were studied. Conceptual and creative challenges proved to be the most central to students' problem solving. Through the characteristics of each of the challenges, the relation between task and challenge, and difficulties in identifying, especially the creative challenge, was discussed. 

  • Jäder, Jonas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Mathematics Education. Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Sidenvall, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Mathematical problem solving in textbooks from twelve countries2019In: International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A selection of secondary school mathematics textbooks from twelve countries on five continents was analysed to better understand the support they might be in teaching and learning mathematical problem solving. Over 5700 tasks were compared to the information provided earlier in each textbook to determine whether each task could be solved by mimicking available templates or whether a solution had to be constructed without guidance from the textbook. There were similarities between the twelve textbooks in the sense that most tasks could be solved using a template as guidance. A significantly lower proportion of the tasks required a solution to be constructed. This was especially striking in the initial sets of tasks. Textbook descriptions indicating problem solving did not guarantee that a task solution had to be constructed without the support of an available template.

  • Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan
    et al.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Phys Chem & Pharm, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.
    Kongsted, Jacob
    Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Phys Chem & Pharm, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.
    Wüstner, Daniel
    Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Biochem & Mol Biol, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.
    Computational Modeling Explains the Multi Sterol Ligand Specificity of the N-Terminal Domain of Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 Protein2019In: ACS OMEGA, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 4, no 25, p. 20894-20904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) is a sterol transporter expressed in the apical membrane of enterocytes and hepatocytes. NPC1L1 resembles the lysosomal NPC1 protein including an N-terminal domain (NTD), which binds a variety of sterols. The molecular mechanisms underlying this multiligand specificity of the NTD of NPC1L1 (NPC1L1-NTD) are not known. On the basis of the crystal structure of NPC1L1-NTD, we have investigated the structural details of protein-sterol interactions using molecular mechanics Poisson Boltzmann surface area calculations here. We found a good agreement between experimental and calculated binding affinities with similar ranking of various sterol ligands. We defined hydrogen bonding of sterol ligands via the 3'-beta-hydroxy group inside the binding pose as instrumental in stabilizing the interaction. A leucine residue (LEU213) at the mouth of the binding pocket transiently opens to allow for the access of sterol into the binding pose. Our calculations also predict that NPC1L1-NTD binds polyene sterols, such as dehydroergosterol or cholestatrienol with high affinity, which validates their use in future experiments as close intrinsically fluorescent cholesterol analogs. A free energy decomposition and computational mutation analysis revealed that the binding of various sterols to NPC1L1-NTD depends critically on specific amino acid residues within the binding pocket. Some of these residues were previously detected as being relevant for intestinal cholesterol absorption. We show that clinically known mutations in the NPC1L1-NTD associated with lowered risk of coronary heart disease result in strongly reduced binding energies, providing a molecular explanation for the clinical phenotype.

  • Carlsson, Karin
    et al.
    Executive, Företag, WSP.
    Berglund, Lars
    Executive, Företag, WSP.
    Ericsson, Eva
    Executive, Företag, WSP.
    Kyllingstad, Helena
    Executive, Företag, WSP.
    Pädam, Sirje
    Executive, Företag, WSP.
    Tornberg, Patrik
    Executive, Företag, WSP.
    Styrning av bebyggelseutveckling: Förtätning och utglesning2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A broad range of instruments is available linked to public planning and municipal physical planning which are of importance in the work to facilitate achievement of the environmental quality objectives and the generational goal. In this study, we have reviewed 43 different instruments for managing building development planning linked to increases and decreases in urban density respectively and studied the consequences in relation to land use, resource efficiency, green infrastructure and atmospheric emissions/climate factors. In addition to the above, interviews were conducted with relevant employees within municipal authorities, county administrative boards and industry who are affected by the implementation of these instruments. The aim of these interviews was to obtain a better understanding of how the instruments work in practice and to identify what changes need to be made to the existing set of instruments, both individually and collectively. The results of the review and the interviews were then analysed based on obstacles and opportunities which impact on the opportunities to steer developments in the direction of achievement of the environmental quality objectives.

    It is known that the effectiveness of an instrument is determined by how close the instrument is to the source of the problem and whether it is an absolute or a balancing instrument. To understand how effective and efficient instruments should be formulated, it is necessary to analyse the underlying reasons which govern developments. Many driving forces impact on the preconditions for achieving the environmental quality objectives, and the way in which various stakeholders decide to prioritise the issues will be of importance as regards future developments. To understand why existing instruments are not facilitating the achievement of the environmental quality objectives, it is not sufficient to simply look at instruments which are aimed at achieving the environmental quality objectives. It is equally important to analyse instruments which work counter to the objectives in order to assess what changes to instruments would be appropriate. One example is capital gains taxation, which is currently preventing the effective utilisation of existing housing stock.

    Through the Planning and Building Act and the Environmental Code, combined with other instruments, municipal authorities have at their disposal a varied toolbox, which if used correctly, will enable developments to be managed. The analysis in this report indicates that existing instruments are not exerting sufficient influence on the driving forces behind building development. To better understand how the underlying driving forces impact on the environmental quality objectives in the planning process, municipal authorities need to better describe the external factors and understand their own role in the context. This reasoning suggests that there is no actual need to introduce new instruments, rather that there is a need to strengthen existing instruments. With the support of this report, we present three proposalsfor improvements which can be developed further in the authorities’ work relating to strategies and action plans concerning the environmental objectives. The proposals for improvements are as follows: conduct a review of the follow-up of environmental objectives, improve the available knowledge concerning relationship between the environmental objectives and other sectors aimed at local and regional decision-makers, and improve the guidance for handling conflicts both between environmental objectives and with respect to various social objectives.

  • Public defence: 2020-02-14 10:15 21A342
    Sadek, Mohamed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Karlstad Universtity.
    Very high cycle fatigue of automotive steels: Testing and computation at 20 kHz2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical fatigue failure occurs in components subjected to cyclic loading. A crack initiates at critical regions in the component and propagates during repeated loading. The expected fatigue life depends on the level, type and frequency of the loading. Generally, as implied by the Wohler’s SN curve, higher applied cyclic load leads to lower fatigue lifes and vice versa. When designing mechanical components carrying cyclic loading, engineers take into account the fatigue limit, i.e. the material specific maximum load allowed for the desired fatigue life. In automotive machinery, components are often required to withstand a very high amount of load cycles before failing. Hence, fatigue data for the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime becomes significant.

    In this thesis, an ultrasonic fatigue testing system, with 20 kHz loading frequency, was used to determine the fatigue properties of three high strength low alloyed automotive steels (a ferritic-pearlitic, a martensitic and a carburizing martensitic steel) in the VHCF regime. Theoretical modelling taking into account the influence of the high load frequency was developed and utilized to control the experimental testing. Fatigue strength, crack initiation mechanisms and crack propagation behaviour in the VHCF regime were studied. More specifically, fatigue strength (σN) at 108 cycles, in both uniaxial and bending loading, crack growth rate (da/dN) and threshold behaviour (ΔKth) in the low stress intensity factor regime were determined using specially designed specimens and test rigs.

    The fatigue failure of the automotive steels in the VHCF regime, revealed fracture surfaces with fine granular area (FGA) formation close to the initiation point, with a transition to flat transgranular crack growth inside the fish-eye area. The stress intensity thresholds of FGA and fish-eye transitions are described and related to crack tip plastic zone sizes and steel strength.

    The effect of damping at 20 kHz, on automotive steels, was thoroughly studied by experimental measurements and theoretical investigations. The effect of introducing damping in dynamic analysis of stress and stress intensity computations for fatigue strength and crack growth testing at 20 kHz was clarified. Best practice for theoretical modelling and computation of stress intensities in crack growth testing at 20 kHz, including the effect of damping, along with guidelines for best practice testing procedure are provided.

  • Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The elusive topic: Towards a typology of topic markers (with special reference to cumulation with number in Bolinao and gender in Nalca)2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At least since the 1970s, topic has been widely recognized to reflect an important category in most different approaches to linguistics. However, researchers have never agreed about what exactly a topic is (researchers disagree, for instance, about whether topics express backgrounding or foregrounding) and to what extent topics are elements of syntax or discourse or both. Topics are notoriously difficult to distinguish from a range of related phenomena. Some definitions of topic are suspiciously similar to definitions of definiteness, subject, noun and contrast, so the question arises as to what extent topic is a phenomenon of its own. However, topics are also internally diverse. There is disagreement, for instance, as to whether contrastive and non-contrastive topics should be subsumed under the same notion.

    This talk tries to approach the category type topic bottom-up by considering cross-linguistic functional diversity in marked topics, semasiologically defined as instances of topics with explicit segmental topic markers. The first part of the talk considers the question as to whether topic markers can be defined as a gram type with one or several prototypical functions that can be studied on the basis of material from parallel texts and from descriptive sources. A tentative set of promising candidates for topic markers from 80 languages from all linguistic continents is compiled. It turns out that topic markers are a challenge for the gram approach, because the candidates do not easily cluster to obligatory use in prototypical contexts, but can at the same time exhibit very high text frequency even though they tend to be astonishingly unstable genealogically (one reason why stratified sampling is not particularly useful). In some languages, topic markers are difficult to distinguish from determiners or demonstratives (which, not unexpectedly, are also possible diachronic sources of topic markers).

    In an influential paper, Haiman (1978) has argued that conditionals are topics, but it has never been verified in a large-scale typological study how common topic markers really are in conditional clauses cross-linguistically. It has also been argued that the initial clause in correlative constructions often has topical properties. In the second part of this talk I will consider to what extent the candidates for topic markers identified in the first part of the talk occur in conditional clauses and in initial free relative clauses and what we can conclude from the results about the relationship between topics and complex sentences. One result is that topic markers are usually different from conditional markers even if they occur in conditional constructions (with the notable exception of grammaticalization of topic markers from conditional converbs). While topic markers are usually postposed irrespective of other word order typologies, conditional markers differ from them in that they co-vary with other word order typologies to a much larger extent.

    If topic is a grammatical category type like any other, it can be expected to cumulate with other grammatical categories. The third part of this talk focuses on a few instances of cumulation of topic withgender, number and case. Two languages will be discussed in particular detail. Bolinao (Sambalic, Austronesian; Philippines) has developed a number opposition in topic markers. Nalca (Mek, Trans New Guinea) distinguishes both gender, case and number in topic markers. The two cumulative systems are analyzed both from synchronic and diachronic perspectives in order to explore the language specific ways in which topic markers can be integrated into systems together with other grammatical categories.

  • Siméus, Jenny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för språk (SPR).
    Black Lives, White Quotation Marks: Textual Constructions of Selfhood in South African Multivoiced Life Writing2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on South African multivoiced and collaborative life writing. The analysed primary texts are The Long Journey of Poppie Nongena (1980) by Elsa Joubert, The Calling of Katie Makanya: A Memoir of South Africa (1995) by Margaret McCord, Finding Mr Madini (1999) by Jonathan Morgan and the Great African Spiderwriters, David’s Story (2000) by Zoë Wicomb, and There Was This Goat: Investigating the Truth Commission Testimony of Notrose Nobomvu Konile (2009), co-written by Antjie Krog, Nosisi Mpolweni and Kopano Ratele. All of these primary texts are either collaborative autobiographies about black lives, multivoiced life writing texts about black lives, or a text that problematises this kind of life writing where predominantly disadvantaged, black life writing subjects either have had their lives narrated or have had their narration steered by well educated, advantaged, Westernised and usually white writers.

    The analyses of the primary texts are carried out by problematising them in the light of the South African historical and cultural context within which they were produced. The focus of the analyses is on the effects on and the consequences for textual constructions of selfhood when the writers tell or include the life writing subjects’ lives in the life writing texts. The involvement of the writers in the life writing projects is argued to greatly have impacted the textually represented selves that were created in the resulting multivoiced life writing texts.

    Drawing on theory rooted in postcolonial studies, life writing in general, and self-narration in particular, this thesis concludes that the examined black South African life narratives to various extents are told on white, Western terms and thus inserted in white quotation marks. White quotation marks are defined in this thesis as a certain Western perception of self-narration and selfhood, consisting of components rooted in language, racial tropes, narrative form, and Western autobiographical traditions. Both writers and life writing subjects have been involved in creating or employing these white quotation marks. In some cases this has been an unintentional result and in other cases it has been a conscious effort.

  • Public defence: 2020-02-14 10:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Brocke, Ekaterina
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Method development for co-simulation of electrical-chemical systems in Neuroscience2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiscale modeling and simulation is a powerful approach for studying such phenomena in nature as learning and memory. In computational neuroscience, historically, methods and tools for neuronal modeling and simulations have been developed for studies focused on a single level of the neuronal organization. Once the community realized that the interaction of multiple systems acting at different temporal and spatial scales can lead to emerging properties of the phenomena under study, the interest in and need for models encompassing processes acting at multiple scales of time and space increased. Such models are called multiscale models.

    Multiscale modeling and simulation can be achieved in different ways. One of the possible solutions is to use an already existing foundation of formalisms and methods, and couple existing numerical algorithms and models during a simulation in a co-simulation, i.e. a joint simulation of subsystems. However, there are several obstacles on the way. First, a lack of interoperability of simulation environments makes it non-trivial to couple existing models in a single environment that supports multiscale simulation. Second, there is a decision to make regarding which variables to communicate between subsystems. The communication signal has a significant impact on the behavior of the whole multiscale system. Last but not least, an absence of a theory or general approach for the numerical coupling of existing mathematical formalisms makes the coupling of the numerical solvers a challenging task.

    The main contribution of this thesis is a numerical framework for multiscale co-simulation of electrical and chemical systems in neuroscience. A multiscale model that integrates a subcellular signaling system with the electrical activity of the neuron was developed. The thesis emphasizes the importance of numerically correct and efficient coupling of the systems of interest. Two coupling algorithms, named singlerate and multirate, differ in the rate of communication between the coupling subsystems, were proposed in the thesis. The algorithms, as well as test cases, were implemented in the MATLAB® environment. MATLAB was used to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithms. Both algorithms showed an expected second order accuracy with the simulated electrical-chemical system. The guaranteed accuracy in the singlerate algorithm can be used as a trade-off for efficiency in the multirate algorithm. Thus, both algorithms can find its application in the proposed numerical framework for multiscale co-simulations. The framework exposes a modular organization with natural interfaces and could be used as a basis for the development of a generic tool for multiscale co-simulations.

    The thesis also presents an implementation of a new numerical method in the NEURON simulation environment, with benchmarks. The method can replace the standard discretization schema for the Hodgkin-Huxley type models. It can be beneficial in a co-simulation of large models where the Jacobian evaluation of the whole system becomes a very expensive operation.

    Finally, the thesis describes an extension of the MUlti-SImulation Coordinator tool (MUSIC). MUSIC is a library that is mainly used for co-simulations of spiking neural networks on a cluster. A series of important developments was done in MUSIC as the first step towards multiscale co-simulations. First, a new algorithm and an improvement of the existing parallel communication algorithms were implemented as described in the thesis. Then, a new communication scheduling algorithm was developed and implemented in the MUSIC library and analyzed. The numerical framework presented in the thesis could be implemented with MUSIC to allow efficient co-simulations of electrical-chemical systems.

  • Bäckström, Pontus
    Hur påverkar förändrad elevsammansättning skolors resultat?2015In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 55-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does changed composition of pupils affect school results?In 2012, The Swedish National Agency for Education published a study inwhich they examined how equivalence between Swedish primary schoolshas developed over time. The agency concluded that the equivalence haddeteriorated, mainly because of an increased between-school variancein results. The increased between-school variance was partly shown byexamining the increased gap between schools in which 20 % or more ofthe pupils didn’t meet the demands for passing on to secondary schooland schools where almost every pupil did. The first group has increasedsince year 2000 and consisted in 2011 of 231 schools. In this study theseschools are examined. The hypothesis that a significant change in pupilcomposition over time can explain deteriorated results is tested. The resultsshow that the schools have undergone a significant change in pupilcomposition. Mainly pupils born in Sweden by Swedish parents have leftthe schools. The majority of the schools are public schools. The changein pupil composition is strongly correlated with deteriorated results.

  • Public defence: 2020-02-19 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    von Bahr, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    International organizations and children’s rights: Norm adoption, pressure tactics and state compliance2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the adoption of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), the attention given by international organizations (IOs) to children’s rights has increased. This dissertation seeks to identify what this means for the global promotion of children’s rights, by addressing three interrelated questions: 1. Why do IOs adopt children’s rights norms?, 2. What tactics do IOs use to pressure for children’s rights and why?, and 3. What explains state compliance with children’s rights? These questions are studied across four self-contained essays, combining qualitative and quantitative methods, and with a particular focus on the European Union (EU). The first essay provides a within-case analysis of the mainstreaming of children’s rights across EU external policy sectors. The second essay explores the content and pressure tactics of the EU external strategies for children’s rights. The third essay offers a comparative case study of UNICEF and EU pressure tactics towards the autocratic state Vietnam. The fourth essay examines the impact of international and national factors on state compliance with children’s rights. The main findings of this dissertation are four-fold. First, several global regimes affect which children’s rights norms IOs prioritize. Second, EU external policy has increasingly adopted children’s rights but not mainstreamed the issue. Third, EU institutions provide material support to international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) in exchange for children’s rights policy advice. Fourth, state compliance with the right of the child to physical integrity is influenced by international factors (membership in a regional human rights court, development aid) and national factors (women's political participation, legal and religious contexts) but not regime type. Combined, this dissertation has two important research implications. First, it shows that institutionalist theory explains variations in IO adoption of and pressure tactics for children’s rights. Second, established explanations regarding IO pressure in the area of human rights, and regime effects on state compliance with human rights, do not hold for the case of children’s rights. With regard to policy, the main implication of this dissertation is that more pressure for child empowerment rights is needed at international and national level.

  • Svärd, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna. Linkoping Univ, Dept Rheumatol, Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Roos Ljungberg, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna. Linkoping Univ, Dept Rheumatol, Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Brink, M.
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Rheumatol, Umea, Sweden.
    Martinsson, K.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Rheumatol, Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, C.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Rheumatol, Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Dahlqvist, S. Rantapää
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Rheumatol, Umea, Sweden.
    Kastbom, A.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Rheumatol, Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Secretory antibodies to citrullinated peptides in plasma and saliva from rheumatoid arthritis patients and their unaffected first-degree relatives2020In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 199, no 2, p. 143-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate secretory antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA) in plasma and immunoglobulin (Ig)A ACPA in saliva from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs). Patients with RA (n = 194) and first-degree relatives unaffected by RA (n = 191) were recruited for analysis of secretory antibodies to second-generation cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) in plasma. From a subpopulation (25 RA patients, 21 first-degree relatives and 11 controls), saliva samples were obtained for IgA anti-CCP analysis. The presence of secretory ACPA was compared between subject categories, and related to genetic and environmental risk factors. Secretory ACPA occurred in 37 (19%) plasma samples from patients with RA, but only in two (1%) of FDRs. IgA ACPA in saliva was found in three of 25 (12%) patients with RA, but not in any of the 21 FDRs (< 5%). No significant associations were seen between the presence of secretory ACPA and SE or smoking, either among RA patients or among FDRs. Despite occurring in 19% of RA plasma, secretory ACPA was rare in both saliva and plasma among FDRs, even among those positive for conventional ACPA of non-mucosal origin. Longitudinal studies are warranted to determine whether circulating secretory ACPA occurs before or in parallel with the development of clinical arthritis.

  • Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Gävle.
    Bolin, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Gävle.
    Equal health at work?: Protocol for an observational study of work organisation, workload and musculoskeletal complaints among women and men in grocery retail2020In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 10, no 1, article id e032409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Women generally report more work-related musculoskeletal complaints than men and have higher rates of sickness absence, even within occupations. One likely reason is that work tasks within the occupation are gendered, that is, women and men have different tasks, even when sharing the same job title. Retail is an appealing sector for studying working conditions and work environment in a gender context. The prevalence of work-related complaints is high, physical loads may differ considerably between tasks and the distribution of tasks is likely gendered. The overall aim of this study in retail is to examine factors at the organisational and individual level that may, in a gender perspective, explain working conditions, work tasks, workloads and musculoskeletal health. METHODS AND ANALYSES: Data will be collected in two grocery stores, each with 50-70 workers, at two occasions interspersed by about 1 year. In each of these four waves, data collection will include a web-based questionnaire to all workers addressing, for example, work tasks, psychosocial factors, fatigue and pain; semistructured interviews with managers and approximately 10 workers addressing, for example, competences and decision levels; and technical measurements of postures, movements and heart rate in about 30 workers. The study is novel in combining an organisational gender perspective addressed through qualitative methods with a quantitative analysis of tasks, workload and health. The design allows an examination of both how genders may differ, and why they may differ, as well as analyses of the extent to which gendered working conditions change over time in the two participating stores. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval of the study by the Swedish Ethical Review Authority (reference number 2017/404) has been obtained. This work will be disseminated by publication of peer-reviewed papers in scientific journals, presentations at scientific conferences and in meetings with representatives from Swedish retail, including unions and employers' organisations.